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1.
J Environ Manage ; 255: 109914, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32063304

RESUMO

Rapid demographic expansion along with increasing urbanization has aggravated the problem of solid waste management. Therefore, scientists are seeking waste management methods that are eco-friendly, cost effective and produce immediate results. In the developing world, municipal solid waste (MSW) contains mostly organic substances, therefore vermicomposting could be a better and cost-effective option for waste management. In this study, vermicomposting of organic portion of MSW with cow dung (additive) was performed using Eisenia fetida. The results showed significant (p < 0.001) decline in pH (13.17%), TOC (21.70%), C: N (62.53%) and C: P (57.66%) ratios, whilst total N (108.9%), P (84.89%) and K (21.85%) content increased (p < 0.001) in matured vermicompost. Different enzymatic activities declined during termination phase of vermicomposting experiment with maximum decrease of 41.72 (p = 0.002) and 39.56% (p = 0.001) in protease and ß-glucosidase, respectively. FT-IR, TGA, DSC and SEM studies suggested that final vermicompost was more stabilized as compared to initial waste mixture, characterized by reduced levels of aliphatic materials, carbohydrates and increase in aromatic groups possibly due to biosynthesis of humic substances. Both, the conventional (physicochemical and enzyme activity) and advanced techniques depict maturity and stability of the ready vermicompost. However, FT-IR, TGA, DSC and SEM were proved to be more promising, fast and reliable techniques over conventional analyses.


Assuntos
Oligoquetos , Resíduos Sólidos , Animais , Bovinos , Feminino , Substâncias Húmicas , Esterco , Solo , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
2.
Bioresour Technol ; 300: 122656, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31893536

RESUMO

The cleanest form of energy, i.e., biohydrogen, and advanced biofuel, i.e., biobutanol, were produced from the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW). Ethanol as a byproduct of this process was used for the pretreatment of this substrate, and this pretreatment was improved by other process byproducts, i.e., acetic acid and butyric acid. The pretreatment was conducted with 85% ethanol and 0-1% (w/w) acetic/butyric acid at 120 and 160 °C for 30 min. The pretreatment catalyzed by 1% (w/w) acetic acid at 120 °C resulted in a hydrolysate with 49.8 g/L total fermentable sugars, which was fermented to the highest overall yield of acetone, butanol, and ethanol (ABE) and hydrogen. Through this process, 114.1 g butanol, 43.8 g acetone, 15.1 g ethanol, 97.5 L hydrogen were obtained from each kg of OFMSW, producing 270 g ABE and 151 L H2 from each kg of substrate, corresponding to 6000 kJ energy production.


Assuntos
Biocombustíveis , Clostridium acetobutylicum , Acetona , Butanóis , Fermentação , Resíduos Sólidos
3.
Bioresour Technol ; 301: 122723, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31962245

RESUMO

During the municipal solid waste (MSW) composting, antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) could be one of the concerns to hinder the application of MSW composting. However, the understanding of enrichment and dissemination of ARGs during the industrial-scale composting is still not clear. Hence, this study aimed to investigate the ARG distributions at different stages in an industrial-scale MSW composting plant. Seven target ARGs and four target mobile genetic elements (MGEs) and bacterial communities were investigated. The abundances of ARGs and MGEs increased during two aerobic thermophilic stages, but they decreased in most ARGs and MGEs after composting. Network analysis showed that potential host bacteria of ARGs were mainly Firmicutes and Actinobacteria. The reduction of potential host bacteria was important to remove ARGs. MGEs were an important factor hindering ARG removal. Water-extractable S and pH were two main physicochemical factors in the changes of microbial community and the abundance of ARGs.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Antibacterianos , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Genes Bacterianos , Sequências Repetitivas Dispersas , Esterco , Resíduos Sólidos
4.
J Environ Manage ; 257: 109966, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31989958

RESUMO

Many developing countries are transitioning to integrated solid waste management systems that will likely have a recycling component for making them sustainable. There are several approaches to recycling, one being waste separation at the household level. Such an approach relies critically on the willingness of households to engage in source-separation. Many studies on recycling have been based on self-reported information on the willingness of households to participate in recycling programmes, should they be established; only few studies have been able to test what these intentions are by actual measurements of participation. The type of measurement for gauging success should be able to compare achievements against alternative approaches. This study is of particular interest to transitioning countries because it reports on a recycling programme in a small community that, even though voluntary in nature, has so far been sustained for almost three years. Available data on the amount of recycled beverage containers retrieved over a six-month period was analysed to assess the performance of the programme. A survey of households was performed among the community to understand the factors that may be contributing to such longevity. It was found that a major driver is the internal motivation of most of the community households for caring and preserving the environment. This is a necessary but not sufficient requirement, for it is doubtful whether the programme could have been sustained without an effective education programme and a system to make the process of retrieval easy. The education programme importantly linked recycling as a solution to an environmental problem plaguing the community. Moreover, the improvement in the environmental quality once the programme started was positive feedback to their recycling efforts. However, the ease at which recycled items could have been deposited was found to be the most essential factor. Inasmuch as the quantity of retrievals was a measure of the continued interest in recycling, a reliable estimate of the achieved fraction of beverage waste retrieval rates could not have been obtained with the most recent national waste characterization information. The reasons for this are explained.


Assuntos
Eliminação de Resíduos , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , Características da Família , Reciclagem , Resíduos Sólidos , Inquéritos e Questionários
5.
J Environ Manage ; 258: 110019, 2020 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31929060

RESUMO

Only seven regional MSWLF in Serbia are considered sanitary, while about 3500 landfills operate without proper pollution control. This paper presents a unique opportunity to evaluate the impact of a closed landfill, and a new sanitary landfill, which are located next to each other. The following methodologies for the landfill impact assessment were applied, based on data from 2012 to 2017: Landfill water pollution index (LWPI) and Nemerow index (PIGW) for groundwater, and the geo-accumulation (Igeo) and ecological risk (ERi) indices and several PAH ratios for soil. The performance of the leachate control system was evaluated using two adapted pollution indices: LPI and the Nemerow index (PIL). According to the obtained LWPI and PIGW values, the quality of groundwater at the new landfill is improving (LWPI = 1.05-2.62; PIGW = 0.52-1.29), while no significant changes were observed for the old landfill (LWPI = 3.06-5.13; PIGW = 2.03-4.78). High concentrations of ammonia nitrogen (1.01-22.74 mg/l), Fe (0.76-57.11 mg/l), Ni (5.80-230.09 µg/l), Pb (4.2-202.4 µg/l) and ∑PAH16 (150.93-189.55 ng/l) show the strong influence of the landfill on the groundwater quality at the old landfill, indicating the need for additional remediation action. High concentrations of Ni (21.9-133.0 mg/kg) and Cr (8.5-277.0 mg/kg) in the analyzed soil compared to other studies, as well as moderate Igeo values (IgeoNi = 0.36-1.88; IgeoCr = -1.20-1.52), raise concern and suggest the need for further monitoring. The high ERi (158.6-295.0) and Igeo values (0.91-2.30) of Hg show significant potential ecological risk. LPI and PIL values for early methanogenic phase leachate demonstrates the need to improve the leachate treatment system. The monitoring data and applied pollution indices indicate that Cr and As should be added to the EU Watch List of emerging substances, at least regarding EU potential candidate countries.


Assuntos
Eliminação de Resíduos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Monitoramento Ambiental , Sérvia , Resíduos Sólidos , Instalações de Eliminação de Resíduos
6.
Chemosphere ; 242: 125281, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31896191

RESUMO

In this study, the potential of pulverized waste tires (PWTs), either on their own or mixed with soil (well graded sand), to act as adsorptive fill materials was evaluated by conducting laboratory tests for accessing their adsorption and geotechnical properties. PWT (0, 5, 10, 15, 25, and 100 wt%) was mixed with soil to evaluate the removal of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) components and two heavy metal ions (Pb2+ and Cu2+). Adsorption batch tests were performed to determine the equilibrium sorption capacity of each mixture. Subsequently, compaction, direct shear, and consolidation tests were performed to establish their geotechnical properties. The results showed that BTEX had the strongest affinity based on the uptake capacity by the soil-PWT mixtures. The adsorption of BTEX increased for greater PWT content, with pure PWT having the highest adsorption capacity toward BTEX removal: uptake capacities for xylene, ethylbenzene, toluene, and benzene were 526, 377, 207 and 127 µg/g sorbent, respectively. Heavy metal removal was increased by increasing the amount of PWT up to 10 wt%, and then decreased beyond this ratio. Compacted soil-PWT mixtures comprising 5-25 wt% PWT have relatively low dry unit weight, low compressibility, adequate shear capacity for many load-bearing field applications, and satisfactory adsorption of organic/inorganic contaminants, such that they could also be used as adsorptive fill materials.


Assuntos
Derivados de Benzeno/análise , Metais Pesados/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Resíduos Sólidos/análise , Adsorção , Benzeno/análise , Modelos Teóricos , Eliminação de Resíduos , República da Coreia , Solo/química , Tolueno/análise , Xilenos/análise
7.
Bioresour Technol ; 299: 122557, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31918971

RESUMO

This article outlines the prospects and challenges of hydrogen production from biomass and residual wastes, such as municipal solid waste. Recent advances in gasification and pyrolysis followed by reforming are discussed. The review finds that the thermal efficiency of hydrogen from gasification is ~50%. The levelized cost of hydrogen (LCOH) from biomass varies from ~2.3-5.2 USD/kg at feedstock processing scales of 10 MWth to ~2.8-3.4 USD/kg at scales above 250 MWth. Preliminary estimates are that the LCOH from residual wastes could be in the range of ~1.4-4.8 USD/kg, depending upon the waste gate fee and project scale. The main barriers to development of waste to hydrogen projects include: waste pre-treatment, technology maturity, syngas conditioning, the market for clean hydrogen, policies to incentivize pioneer projects and technology competitiveness. The main opportunity is to produce low cost clean hydrogen, which is competitive with alternative production routes.


Assuntos
Hidrogênio , Eliminação de Resíduos , Biomassa , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Resíduos Sólidos , Tecnologia
8.
Bioresour Technol ; 301: 122778, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31983580

RESUMO

With the inevitable rise in human population, resource recovery from waste stream is becoming important for a sustainable economy, conservation of the ecosystem as well as for reducing the dependence on the finite natural resources. In this regard, a bio-based circular economy considers organic wastes and residues as potential resources that can be utilized to supply chemicals, nutrients, and fuels needed by mankind. This review explored the role of aerobic and anaerobic digestion technologies for the advancement of a bio-based circular society. The developed routes within the anaerobic digestion domain, such as the production of biogas and other high-value chemicals (volatile fatty acids) were discussed. The potential to recover important nutrients, such as nitrogen through composting, was also addressed. An emphasis was made on the innovative models for improved economics and process performance, which include co-digestion of various organic solid wastes, recovery of multiple bio-products, and integrated bioprocesses.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Resíduos Sólidos , Anaerobiose , Biocombustíveis , Reatores Biológicos , Ecossistema
9.
Bioresour Technol ; 301: 122721, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31986372

RESUMO

The main aim of this work is focused towards possible reuse of both solid and liquid waste generated from the natural indigo dye production process. The solid waste (C/N:15.01) was utilized to produce stable compost with possible re-use in Indigofera cultivation. Among seven compost combinations (C1-C7) using jeevamrutha (JA) and cow-dung (CD) as inoculum, C4 with 8% JA showed higher biomass degradation (51%) and plant growth potential (GI > 125%). Whereas the undiluted liquid waste was treated using algal consortia, bacteria, and indigenous microbial population, achieved a maximum removal of 90% ammonia, 82% nitrate, and 88% phosphorus for its re-use in the dye production process. Hence, incorporation of suitable waste management strategies in natural indigo dye production could help to achieve a zero waste sustainable process.


Assuntos
Indigofera , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , Animais , Biomassa , Bovinos , Corantes , Feminino , Índigo Carmim , Resíduos Sólidos
10.
Bioresour Technol ; 301: 122808, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31987490

RESUMO

This review reports the use of zeolites in biological processes such as anaerobic digestion, nitrification, denitrification and composting, review that has not been proposed yet. It was found that aerobic processes (activated sludge, nitrification, Anammox) use zeolites as ion-exchanger and biomass carriers in order to improve the seattlebility, the biomass growth on zeolite surface and the phosphorous removal. In the case of anaerobic digestion and composting, zeolites are mainly used with the aim of retaining inhibitors such as ammonia and heavy metals through ion-exchange. The inclusion of zeolite effect on mathematical models applied in biological processes is still an area that should be improved, including also the life cycle analysis of the processes that include zeolites. At the same time, the application of zeolites at industrial or full-scale is still very scarce in anaerobic digestion, being more common in nitrogen removal processes.


Assuntos
Zeolitas , Reatores Biológicos , Desnitrificação , Nitrificação , Nitrogênio , Esgotos , Resíduos Sólidos , Águas Residuárias
11.
J Environ Manage ; 259: 110055, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31929038

RESUMO

Poor solid waste management has increasingly taken a hegemonic position in urban policy discourse in Ghana. Often, the discourse centers on free market principles and inflexible waste management laws that promote privatization and deregulation. Recently however, source separation is dominating discussions on policy alternatives. This study investigates determinants of households' source separation behaviour and solid waste disposal options among residents of Ghana's 'Millennium City'- Accra using logit and multinomial logit regression models respectively. The logit regression estimates show that households' source separation behaviour is determined by gender, income, monetary incentives, attitude, compound house dummy, type of service provider and other household location variables. The multinomial logit estimates reveal that gender, age, age square, income, household size, employment, housing type, and attitude predicted household disposal options. We argue that to win the 'garbage war', source separation should be promoted by the Accra Metropolitan Assembly as this may enhance positive attitudes towards proper waste management.


Assuntos
Eliminação de Resíduos , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , Cidades , Gana , Resíduos Sólidos
12.
Waste Manag Res ; 38(3): 232-244, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31918634

RESUMO

Nowadays, large amount of municipal solid waste is because of electrical scraps (i.e. waste electrical and electronic equipment) that contain large quantities of electrical conductive metals like copper and gold. Recovery of these metals decreases the environmental effects of waste electrical and electronic equipment (also called E-waste) disposal, and as a result, the extracted metals can be used for future industrial purposes. Several studies reported in this review, demonstrated that the biohydrometallurgical processes were successful in efficient extraction of metals from electrical and electronic wastes. The main advantages of biohydrometallurgy are lower operation cost, less energy input, skilled labour, and also less environmental effect in comparison with pyro-metallurgical and hydrometallurgical processes. This study concentrated on fundamentals and technical aspects of biohydrometallurgy. Some points of drawbacks and research directions to develop the process in the future are highlighted in brief.


Assuntos
Resíduo Eletrônico , Reciclagem , Cobre , Metalurgia , Resíduos Sólidos
13.
Waste Manag ; 104: 130-138, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31978831

RESUMO

With the continued growing U.S. population, solid waste generation will increase, which will lead to undesired and significant growth in landfilling. Thermal treatment can turn these high calorific value wastes into fuels that can be used in small-to-large power plants. This article focuses on using blends with 40% plastic and 60% fiber wastes and converting them into densified solid fuel by torrefaction and extrusion. The material was torrefied at 300 °C to obtain torrefied samples with different mass losses, ranging from 0% to a maximum of 51%. The torrefaction results showed a clear synergy between plastics and fibers. The torrefied material was then extruded into 9 mm diameter rods and the products were characterized by molecular functional group analysis, thermomechanical analysis, dynamic mechanical analysis, dynamic rheological measurement, density measurement, flexural testing, water absorption test, size distribution measurement, heat content test, and combustion test. The fiber content in the material decreased as mass loss increased, and the process reduced significantly the variability of the material. The heat content increased as the mass loss increased. The plastic in the feedstock acted as a process enabler as it imparted properties like bindability, water resistance, high heat content, and increased degradation reaction rate.


Assuntos
Temperatura Alta , Resíduos Sólidos , Biomassa , Plásticos , Temperatura Ambiente , Água
14.
Waste Manag ; 104: 183-191, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31981819

RESUMO

CFD modelling and simulation is an effective means of optimizing the design and operation of moving grate waste incinerators. Conventional approach models the grate combustion and the furnace combustion separately by using an in-bed/over-bed coupling procedure. In this paper, a comprehensive two-fluid reacting model that integrates the gas-solid grate incineration and the gas turbulent combustion in one scheme is developed for industrial incinerators. Realistic grate geometry and direct simultaneous coupling of the fuel bed and the freeboard gas phase are realized. According to different treatments of the solid phase, the whole incinerator is divided into three regions, namely the packed bed region, the fall region and the furnace region. The kinetic theory of granular flow (KTGF) is introduced to describe the rheological properties of waste particles, and the Ergun model is used for the gas-solid drag. Thermal conversion of wastes is characterized by the heterogeneous reactions of moisture evaporation, devolatilization, char-O2 combustion and the homogeneous reactions of hydrocarbons combustion. Distributions of temperatures and gas species are predicted and validated by measurements. Particle properties are calculated to reveal the grate incineration characteristics. Effects of waste throughput on the incineration are also investigated. Overall, the present model provides a new methodology of in-bed and over-bed integration for the moving grate incinerator simulation.


Assuntos
Incineração , Resíduos Industriais , Algoritmos , Modelos Teóricos , Resíduos Sólidos , Temperatura Ambiente
15.
Waste Manag ; 104: 220-227, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31982785

RESUMO

The price of recyclable waste has declined, and China is refusing solid waste imports. As a result, recycling companies in South Korea are refusing to collect recyclable waste, which caused a solid waste management crisis in April 2018. Due to this crisis, many people are unable to discard their recyclable waste. This study aims to assess the economic value of a sustainable recycling and waste management policy to solve the waste management crisis. The analysis in this study is divided into two parts: The first part estimates the inconvenience costs to residents using a contingent valuation method, whereas the second part analyzes the preferences for a new policy using a mixed logit model with a choice experiment. The results show that mean willingness to pay (WTP) per household is 41,234 (USD 36.96) KRW/year; the total WTP would be able to increase the total disposal capacity by up to 4.51%. In addition, at an adequate price level for the policy alternative, the policy acceptance rate suggests that the price of biodegradable volume-rate disposal bags should increase by no more than KRW 66 (USD 0.06) per bag. This study provides guidance to policy makers who wish to consider both validity and acceptability.


Assuntos
Eliminação de Resíduos , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , China , Reciclagem , República da Coreia , Resíduos Sólidos
16.
Water Res ; 171: 115443, 2020 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31945640

RESUMO

High-Solids Anaerobic co-Digestion (HS-AcD) of sewage sludge (biosolids) with the organic fraction of municipal solid waste is a promising waste management alternative due to high methane yields, lower reactor volume requirements, lower energy inputs, and less leachate production than liquid anaerobic digestion. This study evaluated the environmental and economic burdens and benefits of HS-AcD of biosolids, Food Waste (FW), and Yard Waste (YW) using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and Life Cycle Cost Analysis (LCCA) methods using Hillsborough County, Florida in the U.S. as a case study. Results for HS-AcD were compared with incineration, composting, and landfilling, with and without landfill gas use. The results showed that HS-AcD of a mixture of biosolids, FW, and YW had the lowest environmental impacts in all categories analyzed (global warming potential, acidification, eutrophication, and ecotoxicity). In terms of economics, HS-AcD had the lowest life cycle cost, with or without considering land acquisition. The results show that HS-AcD is the best choice to manage biosolids and the organic waste in Hillsborough County in terms of both environmental and economic sustainability.


Assuntos
Eliminação de Resíduos , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , Anaerobiose , Florida , Alimentos , Metano , Esgotos , Resíduos Sólidos
17.
Waste Manag ; 104: 60-73, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31962218

RESUMO

Application of municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) products - fly ash (MSW-FA) and bottom ash (MSW-BA), is increasingly popular, mostly due to the need to reintroduce it in the industrial chain, but also because its technical performance is constantly enhanced by a growing research effort. This paper deals with the less popular application of these wastes without the addition of a more competent precursor. Several pastes based on MSW-FA, MSW-BA or MSW-FA+MSW-BA were prepared, using sodium silicate or sodium hydroxide. Their overall performance was then assessed through mechanical (uniaxial compressive strength - UCS and seismic wave velocity), environmental (leaching) and durability tests (freeze-thaw and wetting-drying). Cement stabilised MSW-BA pastes were also tested, for reference. Results showed that a preliminary mechanical activation, achieved by milling, is fundamental; the activation with silicate is more effective than with hydroxide, especially in the case of the MSW-BA pastes, when the UCS values are more than triplicated (3-10 MPa); the MSW-BA is a more competent precursor than the MSW-FA and the durability and leachability of the alkali activated pastes is similar to that obtained with cement. The most performing paste, in terms of UCS, was obtained with BA activated exclusively with sodium silicate, with an activator/precursor weight ratio of 0.5. In general, the low-cost solidification/stabilisation proposed in this study showed competitive with the alternative use of up to 30% cement and should be regarded as a valid alternative for simple storage or low-range applications, in substitution of Portland cement.


Assuntos
Cinza de Carvão , Incineração , Materiais de Construção , Reciclagem , Resíduos Sólidos
18.
Environ Technol ; 41(5): 649-657, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30126332

RESUMO

Landfilling is a popular method to dispose of solid waste around the world, but this practice is associated with inevitable negative consequences such as air and water pollution and potential health hazards. Phytoremediation is an economical and promising technology to address these problems. To select suitable species for restoring landfills in China, the vegetation characteristics and their physiological activities were investigated in two different landfills. The results showed that the vegetation coverage of the two landfills both increased with the closure time. The species diversity decreased with the closure time in the Chongming landfill, whereas it showed the opposite trend in the Jiangcungou landfill. Five dominant species (Conyza canadensis, Setaria viridis, Sesbania cannabina, Suaeda glauca, and Phragmites australis) and four dominant species (Festuca elata Keng, Amaranthus retroflexus, Lolium multiflorum, and Kochia scoparia) were identified in the Chongming landfill and Jiangcungou landfill, respectively, and these dominant species were mainly annual plants. In addition, the net photosynthetic rate of P. australis and K. scoparia was the highest in the Chongming landfill and Jiangcungou landfill, respectively. Their photosynthetic rates were influenced significantly by stomatal conductance. Based on the overall results, among the dominant species identified, P. australis and K. scoparia represent potentially well suited plants to use in the remediation of landfills in China, because of their strong adaptability to landfill environments and natural occurrence in landfills.


Assuntos
Eliminação de Resíduos , Biodegradação Ambiental , China , Resíduos Sólidos , Instalações de Eliminação de Resíduos
19.
Waste Manag ; 102: 587-597, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31778970

RESUMO

Tourism contributes substantially to municipal solid waste generation, yet the waste from tourism systematically remains hidden behind residential waste flows. As a result, municipal fees are set without precise information about waste producers' contributions, causing budget imbalances and cross-subsidies between residential and economic activities. To estimate tourism's contribution to mixed waste generation in an island destination, socio-demographic, economic and disposal-related factors are modelled using municipal panel data from 2004 to 2015 for Tenerife (Spain). In contrast to previous studies, a mixed demand-supply approach is adopted to estimate the contribution of main tourism activities to mixed waste generation, thus, differentiating between tourists and residents' contributions. An auxiliary model is used to isolate employment levels in tourism activities attributable to residents' consumption and to capture tourists' and residents' mobility on the island. Estimates show that main tourism activities generate 0.40 kg of mixed waste per tourist daily, while residential and economic sectors account for 1.19 kg per resident daily. This tourism contribution is significantly lower compared to other studies, as it captures tourism's contribution to mixed waste generation, attributable only to tourists, following a mixed demand-supply approach. These results shift impacts from tourists to main tourism activities, which highlights the choices made by producers rather than the final customers and reinforces the producers extended responsibility principle. The implementation of a Pay-As-You-Throw tariff for mixed waste is discussed as a way of promoting waste prevention and recycling, as well as avoiding cross-subsidies among waste producers and, as a result, imbalances in municipal budgets.


Assuntos
Eliminação de Resíduos , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , Ilhas , Resíduos Sólidos , Espanha
20.
Waste Manag ; 102: 598-612, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31778971

RESUMO

Circular economy principles aim to contribute towards sustainability and resilience through several simultaneous agendas including economic growth, social development and environmental responsibility. Stakeholders from each perspective have their own interests and priorities, which often result in conflict. There are several and varied methodologies which address the decision-making process, however in engineering spheres these techniques are usually limited to optimising resources, time or costs. Decisions that are comprehensive in scope and integrated across all affected systems are required to transition towards a circular economy, effective cross-disciplinary thinking is imperative and cooperation amongst diverse areas is essential. Game theory is a useful technique when analysing the interactions of stakeholders with multiple objectives and perspectives. This paper aims to critically review methodological approaches used in waste management practice and provide a guidance on how game theory differs from, and is complementary to, the primary decision-making tools available where cooperation is a feature too often missing. This review seeks to justify the development of game theory to complement waste management decision-making methods in civil engineering, where resource consumption and waste management is often voluminous. An application of game theory to a waste management example illustrates that this methodological approach is of complementary value. The contribution of this study to circular economy and solid waste agendas is to emphasise the capability of game theory to help facilitate conflict resolution, competition, and stakeholder consensus when capturing multiple (sometimes conflicting) values in line with circular economy principles.


Assuntos
Teoria do Jogo , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , Tomada de Decisões , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Resíduos Sólidos
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