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1.
Se Pu ; 39(9): 930-940, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34486832

RESUMO

Polar pesticides can be primarily classified as fungicides, herbicides, and insecticides; their rich variety and low cost have led to their extensive utilization in agriculture. However, the overuse of polar pesticides can lead to environmental contamination, such as water or soil pollution, which can also increase the risk of pesticide exposure among human life directly, or indirectly through contact with animal and plant-derived food. There are considerable differences in the physical and chemical properties of polar pesticides, as well as their trace amounts in complex food and environmental samples, posing immense challenges to their accurate detection. As a kind of artificially prepared selective adsorbent, molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) possess specific recognition sites complementary to template molecules in terms of the spatial structure, size, and chemical functional groups. With many advantages such as easy preparation, low cost, as well as good chemical and mechanical stability, MIPs have been widely applied in sample pretreatment and the analysis of polar pesticide residues. MIPs are typically used as adsorption materials in solid phase extraction (SPE) methods, including magnetic solid phase extraction (MSPE), dispersed solid phase extraction (DSPE), and stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE). To rapidly detect polar pesticide residues with high sensitivity, MIPs are also used in the preparation of fluorescent sensors and electrochemical sensors. Furthermore, MIPs can be employed as the substrate in surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and as the substrate for the ion source in mass spectrometry for polar pesticide residue analysis. Thus far, various molecularly imprinted materials have been reported for the efficient separation and analysis of polar pesticide residues in various complex matrices. However, there is no review that summarizes the recent advances in MIPs for the determination of polar pesticides. This review introduces imprinting strategies and polymerization methods for MIPs, and briefly summarizes some new molecular imprinting strategies and preparation technologies. The application of MIPs in recent years (particularly the last five years) to the detection of polar pesticide residues including neonicotinoids, organophosphorus, triazines, azoles, and urea is then systematically summarized. Finally, the future development direction and trends for MIPs are proposed considering existing challenges, with the aim of providing reference to guide future research on MIPs in the field of polar pesticide residue detection.


Assuntos
Impressão Molecular , Resíduos de Praguicidas , Praguicidas , Adsorção , Humanos , Polímeros Molecularmente Impressos , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Praguicidas/análise , Extração em Fase Sólida
2.
Se Pu ; 39(9): 958-967, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34486835

RESUMO

Dried fruit foods, including nuts and preserved fruits, are favored by consumers and are rich in protein, lipids, minerals, vitamins, and other nutrients. However, these food products can be contaminated by pesticide residues, heavy metals, mycotoxins, and additives during growth, processing, storage, and transportation. The presence of such pollutants in excess of a certain limit will lead to food safety problems. Therefore, it is of great economic and social significance to strengthen the quality supervision of dried fruit foods. However, these foods have a complex matrix and low concentrations of various harmful substances, which necessitates efficient and appropriate sample preparation methods as well as rapid, accurate detection methods. In the present article, the sample preparation and analytical methods for harmful substances in dried fruit foods since 2010 are reviewed. The sample preparation methods are classified as field-assisted extraction, phase separation, and derivatization and extraction methods. The field-assisted extraction method is based on the action of an external field (synergistic) such as ultrasonic or microwave fields to increase the dissolution rate of hazardous substances in dried fruits and improve the extraction efficiency. Phase separation methods such as solid-phase extraction, dispersive solid-phase extraction and solid-phase microextraction are commonly used as sample preparation methods for dried fruit samples, because of the advantages of low solvent consumption and wide analysis range. Moreover, this paper discusses the progress of various analytical methods for these hazardous substances in dried fruits, including conventional laboratory methods such as chromatography, atomic spectroscopy, inorganic mass spectrometry, and electrochemical analysis, as well as rapid detection techniques suitable for field analysis. Laboratory testing has the advantages of high accuracy, high sensitivity, and low detection limits. However, it has the disadvantages of complicated preparation, long analysis time, and difficult operation. Rapid detection technology speeds up the analytical speed, has operational simplicity, and saves analysis time. The complexity of the food matrix, which easily interferes with the sample matrix, low selectivity, and difficulty in accurate quantification, it is necessary to minimize cases of incorrect or erroneous detection. Therefore, rapid detection of harmful substances in dried fruit foods is possible by optimizing the sample pretreatment methods and detection technologies, and by seeking new (especially, on-site) detection technologies. Prospects on the development of selective and non-destructive sample preparation methods and automated, high-throughput, rapid detection methods in dried fruit food analysis are presented. The development of new, green rapid sample pretreatment methods and technical products that integrate separation, enrichment, and detection as well as the construction of accurate and sensitive rapid detection methods are expected to become the development trend in the analysis of harmful substances in dried fruit foods.


Assuntos
Frutas , Resíduos de Praguicidas , Análise de Alimentos , Frutas/química , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Extração em Fase Sólida , Microextração em Fase Sólida
3.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(9): 613, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468880

RESUMO

A modified, efficient, and sensitive acetate-buffered QuEChERS extraction method was developed for the quantitative study of 16 commonly applied multiclass pesticides on date palm fruit. The date palm fruit samples were rehydrated by adding water during comminution. Samples were extracted with acidified acetonitrile, buffered with acetate salt. To minimize the matrix interferences, clean-up of the rehydrated samples was optimized by comparison with different sorbents (alumina, silica gel, florisil, primary secondary amine (PSA), and chitosan). The method validation parameters were evaluated as per European Union (EU) guidelines (SANTE/12682/2019). For 16 pesticides, % recovery of 69 to 121.8% with an associated precision (RSD ≤ 20%) was achieved at the fortification levels that were 0.5 to 2 times of European Union maximum residue limits (EU-MRLs). The validated method was successfully employed for the analysis of date palm fruit samples (n = 20) collected from various markets. Forty percent (40%) of samples (n = 8) were found to be contaminated with various pesticides. The most frequently detected residues were carbofuran, carbaryl, metalaxyl, tebuconazole, triazophos, and pyriproxyfen. The concentration of all the detected pesticides in real samples was below the EU-MRLs.


Assuntos
Resíduos de Praguicidas , Phoeniceae , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Monitoramento Ambiental , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
4.
Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi ; 62(4): 133-137, 2021.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34470943

RESUMO

A rapid, easy and versatile, simultaneous analytical method by LC-MS/MS based on extraction of QuEChERS method (EN 15662:2008) was developed for the determination of residual pesticides in Edamame (immature soybeans). In this method, it allowed to prepare a test solution only dilution without purification using solid column. As a result, 202 analytes met the management criteria of the guideline for validity assessment (Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare of Japan). Thus, the present method could be useful for a rapid simultaneous determination of residual pesticides in green soybean.


Assuntos
Resíduos de Praguicidas , Praguicidas , Cromatografia Líquida , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Soja , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
5.
Se Pu ; 39(10): 1111-1117, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34505433

RESUMO

Tea is one of the most popular beverages worldwide, and its quality is often affected by the excessive pesticide residues during production. During the detection of pesticide residues in tea by chromatography-mass spectrometry and other methods, a strong matrix effect attributed to tea polyphenols and pigments is observed, which seriously impacts the analysis results. In this study, Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles and boric acid-functionalized metal organic framework (BA-MOF) materials were combined to prepare a highly efficient adsorbent Fe3O4@BA-MOF for capturing tea polyphenols and pigments. An effective analysis method for pesticide residues in tea samples in combination with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was established. The introduction of boronic acid ligands into the metal organic framework, as the recognition site of cis-diols, enhanced the polyphenol capture ability. Adsorption of the pigment in the matrix was achieved through π-π interactions between the MOF ligand and the pigment. This new material has significant advantages such as rapid magnetic separation, large surface area, and abundant functional sites. Fe3O4@BA-MOF was prepared by employing simple conditions and characterized by Fouriertransform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray diffractometry to identify its functional groups and morphology. After investigating the adsorption effect of different doses of Fe3O4@BA-MOF adsorbents (5, 10, 30, 50, and 80 mg) on tea polyphenols, 50 mg of the adsorbent was added to the tea matrix and shaken thoroughly. The tea polyphenol content in the matrix solution was determined using an ultraviolet spectrophotometer. The polyphenols were reduced by 74.58% within 5 min. The effect of solution pH (2.0, 4.0, 6.0, and 7.0) on the adsorption efficiency was investigated, and pH 7.0 was chosen as the optimal condition. By adjusting the pH of the solution, Fe3O4@BA-MOF could be recycled, and it maintained the excellent adsorption performance after four cycles of use. The introduction of Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles led to rapid magnetic response characteristics during sample pretreatment and improved the pretreatment efficiency. In the actual application of tea pesticide detection, after Fe3O4@BA-MOF pretreatment, the average recovery rates of the ten pesticides were in the range of 75.8%-138.6%, and the RSD was in the range of 0.5%-18.7% (n=3). The Fe3O4@BA-MOF nanocomposite prepared by introducing the boric acid ligand into the MOF structure and incorporating Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles could specifically adsorb the tea polyphenol matrix. When applied to the detection of pesticide residues in tea, it purifies the matrix and improves the detection efficiency, thus being suitable for the detection and analysis of pesticides in tea.


Assuntos
Estruturas Metalorgânicas , Resíduos de Praguicidas , Adsorção , Ácidos Bóricos , Fenômenos Magnéticos , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Extração em Fase Sólida , Chá
6.
Talanta ; 235: 122721, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34517589

RESUMO

Current work presents developed and validated miniaturized method for residue analysis of 261 pesticides and their metabolites as well as 6 congeners of non-dioxin like polychlorinated biphenyls (ndl-PCB) in a very low mass beebread sample. Sample preparation is based on modified QuEChERS protocol with all steps miniaturized to enable multiresidue analysis of sample with extremely low weight. Sample of beebread (0.3 g) was extracted with 1 mL of acetonitrile containing 5% formic acid and ammonium formate salt were added, then extract was subjected to clean-up by freezing and two-step dispersive solid phase extraction (dSPE) with a Supel QuE Verde sorbents (Supelclean ENVI-Carb Y; Supelclean PSA; Z-Sep+; magnesium sulfate). After 1st step dSPE a portion of extract was analyzed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for 200 pesticide residues. Remaining extract was subjected to 2nd step dSPE clean-up by another Supel QuE Verde and then after concentration and solvent exchange it was analyzed by gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) for another 61 pesticide and 6 ndl-PCB residues. Method enables determination of residues of 101 insecticides, 72 herbicides, 67 fungicides, 10 acaricides, 6 growth regulators, 5 veterinary drugs and 6 ndl-PCB's. Particular attention was paid to the pesticides being active substances of plant protection products recommended for the protection of winter oilseed rape and apple orchards which during their blooming periods are one of the most attractive sources of food for pollinators and could serve as representatives of other economically important crops. Method was validated according to the Guidance document SANTE/12682/2019 at six concentration levels from 0.001 to 0.5 mg kg-1. The analysis of beebread samples spiked at the level of 0.01 mg kg-1showed mean recovery (trueness) value of about 98% and RSDr (precision) below 20%. The small weight of the sample did not adversely affect the limits of quantification and 75% of analytes could be quantified at least at concentration of 0.005 mg kg-1. Developed mini-method was tested in the analysis of beebread samples, each extracted from individual cell of honeycomb. It is the first time when analyses at single comb cell level were possible.


Assuntos
Resíduos de Praguicidas , Praguicidas , Bifenilos Policlorados , Própole , Cromatografia Líquida , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Praguicidas/análise , Extração em Fase Sólida , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
7.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1180: 338875, 2021 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34538335

RESUMO

A fast and sensitive method was validated for the analysis of pesticide residues in baby food. After an QuEChERS-based extraction, the samples were analysed with a dual-channel liquid chromatography instrument coupled to a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. The method consisted of two independent injections per sample. In the first injection the sample was analysed with a mobile phase optimal for the positive polarity ionisation (water, methanol, formic acid, and ammonium formate), whereas in the second injection the mobile phase was optimised for the negative polarity ionisation (water, acetonitrile, acetic acid). The total number of pesticides was 264, out of which 238 were analysed with the methanol gradient and 26 with the acetonitrile gradient. The dual-channel instrument allowed for sample multiplexing. Thus, sample throughput was equivalent to that of a single-channel system. The limit of quantitation, determined according to the DG SANTE guidance document, was 0.003 mg/kg for 97% of the evaluated compounds. The validation study was followed by a real sample survey. In 42 samples, 16 positives were found.


Assuntos
Resíduos de Praguicidas , Cromatografia Líquida , Alimentos Infantis/análise , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
8.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361564

RESUMO

Unintended pesticide pollution in soil, crops, and adjacent environments has caused several issues for both pesticide users and consumers. For users, pesticides utilized should provide higher yield and lower persistence while considering both the environment and agricultural products. Most people are concerned that agricultural products expose humans to pesticides accumulating in vegetation. Thus, many countries have guidelines for assessing and managing pesticide pollution, for farming in diverse environments, as all life forms in soil are untargeted to these pesticides. The stable isotope approach has been a useful technique to find the source of organic matter in studies relating to aquatic ecology and environmental sciences since the 1980s. In this study, we discuss commonly used analytical methods using liquid and gas chromatography coupled with isotopic ratio mass spectrometry, as well as the advanced compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA). CSIA applications are discussed for tracing organic pollutants and understanding chemical reactions (mechanisms) in natural environments. It shows great applicability for the issues on unintended pesticide pollution in several environments with the progress history of isotope application in agricultural and environmental studies. We also suggest future study directions based on the forensic applications of stable isotope analysis to trace pesticides in the environment and crops.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Toxicologia Forense , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Isótopos/análise
9.
Food Res Int ; 147: 110579, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34399550

RESUMO

Food safety problems caused by pesticide residues in vegetables have become a top issue to raise public concern. In this study, bell peppers were grown in an experimental field and sprayed with two systemic (azoxystrobin and difenoconazole) and one contact (chlorothalonil) fungicides. Ozone (ozonated water and water continuously bubble with ozone) or conventional domestic (washing with distilled water, detergent, acetic acid, sodium bicarbonate, and sodium hypochlorite solutions) procedures were investigated to identify the most effective way to remove fungicide residues in bell peppers. The residues in the fruits and the washing solutions were determined by solid-liquid extraction with a low-temperature partition (SLE/LTP) and liquid-liquid extraction with a low-temperature partition (LLE/LTP), respectively, and analyzed by gas chromatography. Water continuously bubbled with ozone a concentration of 3 mg L-1 was the most efficient treatment with removal of fungicides residues ranging from 67% to 87%. However, similar treatment at a lower concentration (1 mg L-1) did not only efficiently removed fungicide residues (between 53% and 75%) but also preserving the quality of the fruit along a storage time of 13 days. Among the conventional solutions, sodium bicarbonate at 5% showed good efficiency removing between 60% and 81% of the fungicide residues from bell peppers, affecting the color quality of the fruit. Overall, the most affected physicochemical parameters in bell peppers after the treatments were weight loss, color, and vitamin C content.


Assuntos
Capsicum , Fungicidas Industriais , Resíduos de Praguicidas , Cromatografia Gasosa , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Fungicidas Industriais/análise , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise
10.
Analyst ; 146(18): 5592-5600, 2021 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34369487

RESUMO

Determination of pesticide residues in a wide variety of matrices is an ongoing challenge due to low concentration and substantial amounts of interfering endogenous compounds that can be coextracted with the analytes. Herein, we describe the use of cellulose thread both as a suitable sampling medium for various matrices and as a direct analysis platform through an improved thread spray mass spectrometry (MS) approach. Enhanced extraction and the subsequent generation of tiny nanodroplets, after the application of DC potential to the wet thread, enabled ultra-sensitive detection of pesticides without prior sample treatment. This methodology was applied to quantify glyphosate and its metabolite, aminomethylphosphonic acid, in surface water at 12.2 µg mL-1 limit of detection (LOD) via standard addition calibration. The method was also used for an internal standard calibration for the analysis of atrazine, which resulted in a LOD of 0.74 ng mL-1. The enhanced thread spray MS platform also proved effective when applied for direct analysis of diphenylamine and thiabendazole, which enabled the evaluation of post-harvest pesticide treatment of fruits (surface and interior) without complete destruction of the fruits.


Assuntos
Resíduos de Praguicidas , Praguicidas , Frutas/química , Espectrometria de Massas , Organofosfonatos , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise
11.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(9): 578, 2021 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34398280

RESUMO

Risks from combined exposure to multiple chemicals in food have prompted a growing concern for their effect on human health. Risk management of chemical mixtures should be based on developing and harmonizing methodologies to scientifically evaluate their cumulative adverse effects. In this study, a simplified tiered approach of cumulative exposure assessment is described along with a case study of vegetables in China's Hainan province during 2012-2014. This case study could be a reference for the Chinese National Risk Assessment Programs for vegetable and fruit products. In the proposed assessment approach, Tier 1 acts as a screening tier to categorize and evaluate chemicals under a conservative scenario, and it prioritizes the pesticides of most concern. Tier 2 refines the grouping of substances from Tier 1 and normalizes the toxic potency of the chemicals to sum the exposure of chemical mixtures in a given assessment group. Tier 3 applies the refined exposure model and the input parameter distribution to create probabilistic models using Monte Carlo simulation. This approach will be helpful in the cumulative exposure assessment where data on pesticide residues are sufficient, but the individual dietary consumption is inadequate.


Assuntos
Resíduos de Praguicidas , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Humanos , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Medição de Risco , Estações do Ano , Verduras
12.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(9): 561, 2021 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34379206

RESUMO

The present study was conducted to investigate pesticide residues on peach and nectarine. For method verification, samples were spiked at 0.1, 1.0, and 10.0 times of maximum residue limit (MRL) for each pesticide. The Quick-Easy-Cheap-Efficient-Rugged-Safe (QuEChERS)-liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry detection revealed that limit of quantifications (LOQs) of pesticides were below the MRL. The overall recovery was 113.51% with relative standard deviation (RSD) of 17.33% for peach and 113.61% with RSD of 11.44% for nectarine. These figures were within the Directorate-General for Health and Food Safety (SANTE) recovery limits (60-140%) and the values specified for the repeatability (RSD ≤ 20%). Samples were collected from 5 different stands at Çanakkale open markets for 12 weeks. None of the residues was not ≥ MRL in any samples. Maximum levels of 567.80 and 322.10 µg/kg boscalid were detected in peach and nectarine, respectively, corresponding approximately 1/10 and 1/15 of the MRL. Maximum levels for tebuconazole were about 1/12 and 1/10 of the MRL for peach (47.53 µg/kg) and nectarine (56.90 µg/kg), respectively. Chlorpyrifos residues of all samples were below LOQ. According to our findings and the World Health Organisation Guideline, chronic exposure levels of pesticides were low and there is no risk to human health in terms of 3 pesticides.


Assuntos
Resíduos de Praguicidas , Prunus persica , Monitoramento Ambiental , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Humanos , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Medição de Risco , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Turquia
13.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 107(2): 281-288, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34264365

RESUMO

The residues of bifenazate (sum of bifenazate and bifenazate-diazene) and etoxazole in whole citrus and pulp collected from twelve regions of China were monitored and their chronic dietary risk to consumer were also evaluated. The citrus samples were extracted by a QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) method, and analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). The average recoveries of target compounds were ranged from 83 to 100% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 0.59-11.8%. The limits of quantification (LOQs) for three analytes were 0.01 mg/kg. At the interval to harvest of 20 and 30 days, the residues of total bifenazate and etoxazole were from below 0.02 to 0.26 mg/kg and from below 0.01 to 0.30 mg/kg in citrus samples. The chronic risk quotients (RQs) were below 100%, indicating no unacceptable risk to consumers.


Assuntos
Citrus , Resíduos de Praguicidas , Carbamatos , Hidrazinas , Imidas , Oxazóis , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
15.
Anal Methods ; 13(32): 3592-3604, 2021 08 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34308461

RESUMO

A dispersive solid-phase microextraction method based on magnetic carbon nano-onions (MCNOs) was developed for the extraction and preconcentration of some pesticides from water and vegetable samples. For more cleanup and preconcentration, a dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) method was employed after performing the first step. In this method, firstly, MCNOs were prepared and then used for adsorption of the analytes from the sample solution. After that, the adsorbed analytes were eluted with an appropriate water-miscible organic solvent and used as a dispersive solvent in the following DLLME procedure. The extracted analytes were quantified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode. Various factors affecting the method efficiency such as sorbent weight, salt effect, pH, temperature, and type and volume of eluent and extraction solvent were optimized. This method showed wide linear ranges with a coefficient of determination ≥ 0.994, and low limits of detection (0.001-0.005 ng mL-1) and quantification (0.003-0.019 ng mL-1) under optimal conditions. Also, a good precision (relative standard deviation ≤ 8.6%) for five replicates and a satisfactory accuracy (mean relative recoveries between 82 and 99%) were obtained. It can be considered as an efficient and environment friendly method for the extraction of analytes from vegetable and fruit juices and water samples.


Assuntos
Microextração em Fase Líquida , Resíduos de Praguicidas , Carbono , Fenômenos Magnéticos , Cebolas , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Extração em Fase Sólida , Verduras , Água
16.
Environ Int ; 156: 106744, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34256297

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Conventionally grown fruits and vegetables (FVs) are the main source of general population exposure to pesticide residues. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relation of intake of high- and low-pesticide-residue FVs with cancer risk. METHODS: We followed 150,830 women (Nurses' Health Study, 1998-2016, and Nurses' Health Study II, 1999-2017) and 29,486 men (Health Professionals Follow-up Study, 1998-2016) without a history of cancer. We ascertained FV intake via validated food frequency questionnaires and categorized FVs as having high or low pesticide residue levels based on USDA surveillance data. We used Cox proportional hazards models to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of total and site-specific cancer related to quintiles of high- and low-pesticide-residue FV intake. RESULTS: We documented 23,678 incident cancer cases during 2,862,118 person-years of follow-up. In the pooled multivariable analysis, neither high- nor low-pesticide-residue FV intake was associated with cancer. The HRs (95% CI) per 1 serving/day increase in intake were 0.99 (0.97-1.01) for high- and 1.01 (0.99-1.02) for low-pesticide-residue FVs. Additionally, we found no association between high-pesticide-residue FV intake and risk of specific sites, including malignancies previously linked to occupational pesticide exposure ([HR, 95% CI comparing extreme quintiles of intake] lung [1.17 (0.95-1.43)], non-Hodgkin lymphoma [0.89 (0.72-1.09)], prostate [1.31 (0.88-1.93)]) or inversely related to intake of organic foods (breasts [1.03 (0.94-1.31)]). CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that overall exposure to pesticides through FV intake is not related to cancer risk, although they do not rule out associations with specific chemicals or sub-types of specific cancers.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Resíduos de Praguicidas , Praguicidas , Dieta , Seguimentos , Frutas/química , Humanos , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Risco , Verduras
17.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(8): 470, 2021 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34226978

RESUMO

The high patronage of herbal medicinal products in Ghana for the treatment of diverse disease conditions raises concerns about patient safety, given that much of the raw materials for production are obtained from the wild or farmlands potentially exposed to varied agrochemical residues. Therefore, the work sought to investigate the contamination of herbal medicinal products with pesticide residues and assess the potential risk posed to patients. As a result, validated gas chromatography with mass spectrometry as a detector was used to determine forty-two pesticides in thirty herbal medicinal products. The performance parameters of the method such as linearity, accuracy, and precision were found as acceptable. Pesticide residues such as chlorpyrifos and/or bifenthrin were found in 4/30 herbal medicinal products. Specifically, 3/30 herbal medicinal products contained only one pesticide, while 1/30 was contaminated with both pesticide residues. The levels of pesticide residue contamination ranged between 2.5 and 5.0 µg/kg. The acute hazard quotient and chronic hazard quotient for the two pesticide residues were evaluated and ranged between 0.21 and 0.92% and between 8.21 × 10-4 and 5.88 × 10-3%. The detected pesticide residue levels are below the maximum residue limit values, which may not cause acute and chronic health risks due to intake of the selected herbal medicinal product. Nevertheless, patient safety and potential public health risk can be reduced by regular monitoring, and regulation of pesticide residue levels in herbal medicinal products.


Assuntos
Resíduos de Praguicidas , Monitoramento Ambiental , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Gana , Humanos , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Medição de Risco
18.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(33): 44726-44754, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34231153

RESUMO

Pesticides are used to control pests that harm plants, animals, and humans. Their application results in the contamination of the food and water systems. Pesticides may cause harm to the human body via occupational exposure or the ingestion of contaminated food and water. Once a pesticide enters the human body, it may create health consequences such as cardiotoxicity. There is not enough information about pesticides that cause cardiotoxicity in the literature. Currently, there are few reports that summarized the cardiotoxicity due to some pesticide groups. This necessitates reviewing the current literature regarding pesticides and cardiotoxicity and to summarize them in a concrete review. The objectives of this review article were to summarize the advances in research related to pesticides and cardiotoxicity, to classify pesticides into certain groups according to cardiotoxicity, to discuss the possible mechanisms of cardiotoxicity, and to present the agents that ameliorate cardiotoxicity. Approximately 60 pesticides were involved in cardiotoxicity: 30, 13, and 17 were insecticides, herbicides, and fungicides, respectively. The interesting outcome of this study is that 30 and 13 pesticides from toxicity classes II and III, respectively, are involved in cardiotoxicity. The use of standard antidotes for pesticide poisoning shows health consequences among users. Alternative safe medical management is the use of cardiotoxicity-ameliorating agents. This review identifies 24 ameliorating agents that were successfully used to manage 60 cases. The most effective agents were vitamin C, curcumin, vitamin E, quercetin, selenium, chrysin, and garlic extract. Vitamin C showed ameliorating effects in a wide range of toxicities. The exposure mode to pesticide residues, where 1, 2, 3, and 4 are aerial exposure to pesticide drift, home and/or office exposure, exposure due to drinking contaminated water, and consumption of contaminated food, respectively. General cardiotoxicity is represented by 5, whereas 6, 7, 8 and 9 are electrocardiogram (ECG) of hypotension due to exposure to OP residues, ECG of myocardial infraction due to exposure to OPs, ECG of hypertension due to exposure to OC and/or PY, and normal ECG respectively.


Assuntos
Inseticidas , Exposição Ocupacional , Resíduos de Praguicidas , Praguicidas , Animais , Cardiotoxicidade , Humanos , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Praguicidas/toxicidade
19.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 222: 112487, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34252681

RESUMO

The residual behaviors and dietary risk probability of 12 pesticides in Dendrobium officinale Kimura et Migo cultivated at two representative locations under green house conditions were investigated using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Field trials showed that the half-lives of 12 pesticides ranged from 0.9 to 14.4 days in fresh D. officinale stems. Based on maximum residue levels (MRLs), the ultimate residues of imidacloprid, dimethomorph, metalaxyl, tebuconazole, and cyazofamid at a pre-harvest interval (PHI) of 28 days were within acceptable limits. For abamectin, indoxacarb, and difenoconazole, 35-day PHIs were needed. The PHIs of trifloxystrobin and fluopyram were 42 days, the time required for their residues to be reduced to an MRL of 4 mg/kg. The chronic and acute risk quotients of target pesticides at PHIs of 28-42 days were below 5.929% and 0.532%, respectively, showing that the evaluated D. officinale exhibited an acceptably low dietary risk to the general population.


Assuntos
Dendrobium , Resíduos de Praguicidas , Praguicidas , Cromatografia Líquida , Humanos , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Medição de Risco
20.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(31): 8649-8659, 2021 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34314157

RESUMO

The present work aimed to study the fate of field-applied pesticides during malting and mashing processes. Twenty-four field-collected barley samples were subject to micromalting followed by lab-scale mashing to investigate the carryover of residual pesticides from barley to malt and then from malt to sweet wort. The citrate-buffered QuEChERS sample preparation method was adapted for simultaneous determination of 57 pesticide residues in grain, malt, spent grains, and sweet wort samples using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectroscopy (UPLC-MS/MS). Residues of four fungicides (fenpropimorph, pyraclostrobin, tebuconazole, and trifloxystrobin) and two insecticides (chlorpyrifos and pirimiphos-methyl), frequently found in the barley samples, were investigated in detail in this study. The carryover percentages of these pesticides to malt, against the concentration of residues in barley grain, ranged from 22% for pirimiphos-methyl up to 78% for fenpropimorph. The results confirm a general rule that residues of pesticides with log P values >2 remain on the malt, but it was found that their transfer potential is more related to its individual physical-chemical properties but does not much correlate to their log P values. In the second part of the study, a noticeable carryover from malt to sweet wort was observed for pyraclostrobin, fenpropimorph, and tebuconazole residues, and these values ranged from 2 to 15%. Moreover, the analysis of pesticide residues in spent grain after mashing revealed that the spent grain samples contain on average once as much pyraclostrobin and tebuconazole residues as the original malt. It was concluded that (1) pyraclostrobin and tebuconazole residues could be incorporated into or associated with macromolecules in barley grain to form "hidden" (bound) forms, and (2) the parent compounds are subsequently released from their hidden forms during mashing.


Assuntos
Resíduos de Praguicidas , Praguicidas , Cerveja/análise , Cromatografia Líquida , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Praguicidas/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
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