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1.
Chemosphere ; 275: 130092, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33984908

RESUMO

COVID-19 has led to the enormous rise of medical wastes throughout the world, and these have mainly been generated from hospitals, clinics, and other healthcare establishments. This creates an additional challenge in medical waste management, particularly in developing countries. Improper managing of medical waste may have serious public health issues and a significant impact on the environment. There are currently three disinfection technologies, namely incineration, chemical and physical processes, that are available to treat COVID-19 medical waste (CMW). This study focuses on thermochemical process, particularly pyrolysis process to treat the medical waste. Pyrolysis is a process that utilizes the thermal instability of organic components in medical waste to convert them into valuable products. Besides, the technique is environmentally friendly, more efficient and cost-effective, requires less landfill capacity, and causes lower pollution. The current pandemic situation generates a large amount of plastic medical wastes, which mainly consists of polyethylene, polypropylene, polystyrene, polyethylene terephthalate, and nylon. These plastic wastes can be converted into valuable energy products like oil, gas and char through pyrolysis process. This review provides detailed information about CMW handling, treatment, valuable product generation, and proper discharge into the open environment.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Resíduos de Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Incineração , Pirólise , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Sci Total Environ ; 787: 147522, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33989867

RESUMO

Specific awareness is an important factor that affects individual behavioral decisions. This study explored the relationship between crisis awareness and medical waste separation behavior shown by urban residents during the COVID-19 epidemic in China. The results of a questionnaire survey data (N = 668) were subjected to statistical analyses, regression analyses, and cross-analyses. In terms of medical waste separation, the detection rate was 12.65%, among which, the waste separation behavior by citizens was the highest (24.56%). In terms of the relationship between crisis awareness and medical waste separation behavior, the crisis awareness generated by the environmental situation is significantly related to individuals' participation in the separation of medical waste. In particular, individual spontaneous crisis awareness only had a significant positive correlation with the waste separation behavior for the decision factor. The residents were clustered into "sensitive", "conscious", "passive", and "insensitive" types based on the original crisis awareness characteristics. The "sensitive" group was more actively involved in the separation of medical waste, while the "insensitive" group showed the worst performance for the separation of medical waste. A comparison of the separation behaviors shown by the "conscious" group and the "passive" group confirmed that environment-driven crisis awareness has a higher correlation with the separation of medical waste by residents.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Epidemias , Resíduos de Serviços de Saúde , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Waste Manag ; 126: 388-399, 2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33827006

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic attracts concerns globally and leads to an exponential increase in medical waste generation, and disposal of medical waste is an urgent need for preventing the epidemic spread. Emergency disposal scenarios of medical waste generated during the COVID-19 pandemic require a systematic assessment to quantify their potential environmental impacts. The environmental impacts and key factors of three movable disposal scenarios (i.e. incineration disposal vehicle, movable steam and microwave sterilization equipment both followed by co-incineration with municipal solid waste) were quantified via life cycle assessment approach. Furthermore, the environmental impacts of three movable disposal and two co-incineration scenarios were compared via life cycle assessment by expanding system boundaries. The results show that co-incineration with municipal solid waste has the lowest environmental impacts due to environmental benefits produced by power generation, while co-incineration with hazardous waste is the highest due to the high energy consumption. Energy consumption (i.e. kerosene, electricity and diesel) are the key factors for three movable disposal scenarios. For movable steam and microwave sterilization equipment followed by co-incineration with municipal solid waste, power generation from incinerating disinfected medical waste has significant beneficial environmental impacts due to avoided impacts of electricity consumption. The recommendations for improvement of the emergency disposal and management of medical waste during the COVID-19 pandemic globally and other serious epidemic in the future are provided.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Resíduos de Serviços de Saúde , Eliminação de Resíduos , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , Animais , China , Humanos , Incineração , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Resíduos Sólidos/análise , Instalações de Eliminação de Resíduos
4.
Environ Pollut ; 279: 116934, 2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33744627

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has exerted great shocks and challenges to the environment, society and economy. Simultaneously, an intractable issue appeared: a considerable number of hazardous medical wastes have been generated from the hospitals, clinics, and other health care facilities, constituting a serious threat to public health and environmental sustainability without proper management. Traditional disposal methods like incineration, landfill and autoclaving are unable to reduce environmental burden due to the issues such as toxic gas release, large land occupation, and unsustainability. While the application of clean and safe pyrolysis technology on the medical wastes treatment to produce high-grade bioproducts has the potential to alleviate the situation. Besides, medical wastes are excellent and ideal raw materials, which possess high hydrogen, carbon content and heating value. Consequently, pyrolysis of medical wastes can deal with wastes and generate valuable products like bio-oil and biochar. Consequently, this paper presents a critical and comprehensive review of the pyrolysis of medical wastes. It demonstrates the feasibility of pyrolysis, which mainly includes pyrolysis characteristics, product properties, related problems, the prospects and future challenges of pyrolysis of medical wastes.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Resíduos de Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Pandemias , Pirólise , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Anesth Analg ; 132(5): 1450-1456, 2021 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33667211

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pharmacological treatments for critical processes in patients need to be initiated as rapidly as possible; for this reason, it is a standard of care to prepare the main anesthesia and emergency drugs in advance. As a result, 20%-50% of the prepared drugs remain unused and are then discarded. Decreasing waste by optimizing drug use is an attractive strategy for meeting both cost containment and environmental sustainability. The primary end point of this study was to measure the actual amount of drug wastage in the operating rooms (ORs) and intensive care units (ICUs) of a Regional Health Service (RHS). The secondary end point was to analyze and estimate the economic implications of this waste for the Health Service and to suggest possible measures to reduce it. METHODS: This prospective observational multicenter study was conducted across 12 hospitals, all of which belong to the same RHS in the north-east of Italy. Data collection took place in March 2018 and included patients admitted to ICUs, emergency areas, and ORs of the participating hospitals. Data concerning drug preparation and administration were collected for all consecutive patients, independent of case types and of whether operations were scheduled or unscheduled. Drug wastage was defined as follows: drugs prepared in ready-to-use syringes but not administered at all and discarded untouched. We then estimated the costs of wasted drugs for a 1-year period using the data from this study and the yearly regional pharmacy orders of drugs provided to the ORs and ICUs. We also performed a sensitivity analysis to validate the robustness of our assumptions and qualitative conclusions. RESULTS: We collected data for a total of 13,078 prepared drug syringes. Drug wastage varied from 7.8% (Urapidil, an alpha-1 antagonist antihypertensive) to 85.7% (epinephrine) of prepared syringes, with an overall mean wastage rate of 38%. The estimated yearly waste was 139,531 syringes, for a total estimated financial cost of €78,060 ($92,569), and an additional quantity of medical waste amounting to 4968 kg per year. The total provider time dedicated to the preparation of unused drugs was predicted to be 1512 working hours per year. CONCLUSIONS: The overall extent of drug wastage in ORs and ICUs is concerning. Interventions aimed at minimizing waste-related costs and improving the environmental sustainability of our practice are paramount. Effort should be put into designing a more efficient workflow that reduces this waste while providing for the emergency availability of these medications in the OR and ICU.


Assuntos
Anestésicos/administração & dosagem , Anestésicos/economia , Custos de Medicamentos , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/economia , Custos Hospitalares , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/economia , Resíduos de Serviços de Saúde/economia , Salas Cirúrgicas/economia , Anestésicos/provisão & distribuição , Redução de Custos , Análise Custo-Benefício , Composição de Medicamentos/economia , Uso de Medicamentos/economia , Humanos , Itália , Resíduos de Serviços de Saúde/prevenção & controle , Estudos Prospectivos , Seringas/economia , Fatores de Tempo , Fluxo de Trabalho
6.
Indian J Med Microbiol ; 39(2): 171-178, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33766404

RESUMO

COVID-19 pandemic and it's consequent biomedical waste is an unprecedented challenge worldwide. Biomedical waste generated during COVID-19 patient isolation, testing and care needs special consideration as it challenges the previous notion that only 15-20% of waste can be considered infectious. With establishment of new home quarantine facility, isolation/quarantine centres the chances of general waste getting contaminated with biomedical waste has increased exponentially. Through this systematic review the authors searched for all possible queries raised by different researchers on COVID19 waste management on Pubmed. A summary of all the different issues unique to COVID19 waste was prepared. Guidelines, rules and recommendation given by national and international agencies published till date were taken into account while trying to answer all the above questions raised by different studies. The key step in COVID19 waste management is segregation of biomedical waste from solid waste. Waste generated from COVID19 patients is like any other infectious waste, therefore creating public awareness about the COVID19 waste hazards and segregation at source is highlighted in all guidelines as a recommendation. These guidelines for management of waste generated during diagnostics and treatment of COVID-19 suspected or confirmed patients, are required to be followed in addition to existing practices under regulation. BMWM in COVID-19 context is a public health concern and is both a legal and social responsibility for all stakeholders.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Resíduos de Serviços de Saúde , Isolamento de Pacientes , SARS-CoV-2 , Gerenciamento de Resíduos/métodos , Guias como Assunto , Humanos , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Esgotos
7.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 233, 2021 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33639871

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The risk of hepatitis B virus infection among medical waste handlers who undergo collection, transportation, and disposal of medical wastes in the health institutions is higher due to frequent exposure to contaminated blood and other body fluids. There is limited evidence on the seroprevalence of hepatitis B among medical waste handlers in eastern Ethiopia. The study was aimed at studying the seroprevalence of Hepatitis B Virus and associated risk factors among medical waste collectors at health facilities of eastern Ethiopia. METHODS: A facility-based cross-sectional study was conducted among randomly selected medical waste collectors from public health facilities in eastern Ethiopia from March to June 2018. A pre-tested and well-structured questionnaire was used to collect data on socio-demographic characteristics and hepatitis B infection risk factors. A2.5ml venous blood was also collected, centrifuged and the serum was analyzed for hepatitis B surface antigen using the instant hepatitis B surface antigen kit. Descriptive summary measures were done. Chi-square and Fisher exact tests were used to assess the risk of association. Multivariate logistic regression was conducted with 95% CI and all value at P-value < 0.05 was declared statistically significant. RESULTS: From a total of 260 (97.38%) medical waste collectors participated, HBV was detected in 53 (20.4%) of the participants [95%CI; 15.8, 25.6]. No significant differences were observed in the detection rates of HBV with respect to socio-demographic characteristics. In both bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analysis, being unvaccinated (AOR = 6.35; 95%CI = [2.53-15.96], P = 0.001), history of blood transfusion (receiving) (AOR; 3.54; 95%CI; [1.02-12.24], P = 0.046), history of tattooing (AOR = 2.86; 95%CI = [1.12-7.27], p = 0.03), and history of multiple sexual partner (AOR = 10.28; 95%CI = [4.16-25.38], P = 0.001) remained statistically significantly associated with HBsAg positivity. CONCLUSION: This cross-sectional study identified that HBV infection is high among medical waste collectors in eastern Ethiopia. Immunization and on job health promotion and disease prevention measures should be considered in order to control the risk of HBV infection among medical waste collectors in eastern Ethiopia.


Assuntos
Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Serviço Hospitalar de Limpeza/estatística & dados numéricos , Eliminação de Resíduos de Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Recursos Humanos em Hospital/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Centros Comunitários de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecção Hospitalar/sangue , Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/etiologia , Estudos Transversais , Escolaridade , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Hepatite B/sangue , Hepatite B/etiologia , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/sangue , Vírus da Hepatite B/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Hepatite B/fisiologia , Hospitais Públicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Resíduos de Serviços de Saúde/efeitos adversos , Resíduos de Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Logradouros Públicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
8.
Environ Pollut ; 276: 116621, 2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33592442

RESUMO

COVID-19 induced pandemic situations have put the bio-medical waste (BMW) management system, of the world, to test. Sudden influx, of COVID-infected patients, in health-care facilities, has increased the generation of yellow category BMW (Y-BMW) and put substantial burden on the BMW-incineration units of India. This study presents the compromising situation of the BMW-incineration units of India, in the wake of COVID-19 pandemic, from 21st March 2020 to 31st August 2020. This analysis revealed that on an average each COVID-infected patient in India generates approximately 3.41 kg/d of BMW and average proportion of Y-BMW in it is 50.44%. Further, it was observed that on 13th July 2020, the total Y-BMW, generated by both the normal and COVID-infected patients, fully utilized the BMW-incineration capacity of India. Also, it was made evident that, during the study period, BMW-incineration emitted several pollutants and their concentration was in the order: NOx > CO > SOx > PM > HCl > Cd > Pb > Hg > PCBs > Ni > Cr > Be > As. Subsequently, life time cancer risk assessment depicted that with hazard quotient >10-6, Cd may induce carcinogenic health impacts on both the adults and children of India. Therefore, to mitigate the environmental-health impacts associated with the incineration of BMW, evaluation of various options, viz., alternative technologies, substitution of raw materials and separate treatment of specific wastes, was also done. It is expected that the findings of this study may encourage the global auditory comprising scientific community and authorities to adopt alternate BMW-management strategies during the pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Resíduos de Serviços de Saúde , Criança , Humanos , Incineração , Índia/epidemiologia , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Rev. enferm. UFPE on line ; 15(1): [1-6], jan. 2021.
Artigo em Português | BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1147004

RESUMO

Objetivo: conhecer o gerenciamento de resíduos de serviços de saúde oriundos de materiais hospitalares e medicamentos descartados devido à data de validade expirada, em um hospital universitário. Método: trata-se de um estudo quantitativo, descritivo, transversal, a ser realizado em um hospital universitário. Coletar-se-ão os dados por meio de consulta ao banco de dados e formulários restritos do cenário de estudo. Investigar-se-ão as seguintes variáveis: descrição do resíduo; período de destinação final; custo do produto e da destinação final; quantidade e local de geração. Organizar-se-ão os dados em planilhas de Excel, analisando-os pelo software Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, versão 19. Realizar-se-á o estudo após a aprovação dos Comitês de Ética responsáveis. Resultados esperados: pretendem-se obter informações que subsidiem a intervenção por meio de planejamento, monitoramento e avaliação logística de todos os processos da gestão de resíduos de serviços de saúde.(AU)


Assuntos
Gerenciamento de Resíduos , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Equipamentos e Provisões Hospitalares , Resíduos de Serviços de Saúde , Epidemiologia Descritiva , Estudos Transversais , Hospitais Universitários
10.
Rev. enferm. UFPE on line ; 15(1): [1-17], jan. 2021. ilus, tab
Artigo em Português | BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1147295

RESUMO

Objetivo: analisar o conhecimento dos profissionais da equipe de Enfermagem e de higienização sobre o manejo dos resíduos sólidos dos serviços de saúde. Método: trata-se de um estudo quantitativo, descritivo, exploratório. Utilizaram-se para a coleta de dados dois questionários, um para a equipe de Enfermagem com 53 integrantes e outro para a equipe de limpeza com 21 integrantes, abordando questões pertinentes a cada categoria profissional. Calcularam-se as frequências relativas e absolutas das respostas para fins de mensuração e comparação. Resultados: observou-se, um nível de acertos alto de ambos os grupos entrevistados, que pode estar associado ao fato de a instituição manter, no seu Plano de Gerenciamento de Resíduos de Saúde, um programa de educação continuada, independentemente do tipo de vínculo empregatício dos trabalhadores. Conclusão: conclui-se que o conhecimento dos profissionais envolvidos sobre a prática correta do gerenciamento de resíduos de saúde demonstrou-se satisfatório e aqui destacamse os profissionais de limpeza, por vezes, negligenciados. Pontua-se que não se pode negar o impacto desse trabalho conjunto nos custos da instituição, na saúde dos trabalhadores e na preservação do meio ambiente.(AU)


Objective: to analyze the knowledge of the Nursing and Cleaning team professionals on the management of solid waste from health services. Method: It is a quantitative, descriptive, exploratory study. Two questionnaires were used for data collection, one for the 53-member nursing team and the other for the 21-member cleaning team, addressing issues relevant to each professional category. The relative and absolute frequencies of the answers were calculated for measurement and comparison purposes. Results: It was observed a high level of success of both groups interviewed, which may be associated to the fact that the institution maintains, in its Health Waste Management Plan, a program of continuous education, regardless of the type of employment relationship of the workers. Conclusion: The conclusion is that the knowledge of the professionals involved about the correct practice of health waste management has proved to be satisfactory and here cleaning professionals are sometimes neglected. It is pointed out that one cannot deny the impact of this joint work on the institution's costs, on the workers' health and on the environment's preservation.(AU)


Objetivo: analizar el conocimiento de los profesionales del equipo de Enfermería e higienización sobre el manejo de residuos sólidos de los servicios de salud. Método: se trata de un estudio cuantitativo, descriptivo, exploratorio. Para la recolección de datos se utilizaron dos cuestionarios, uno para el equipo de Enfermería con 53 integrantes y otro para el equipo de limpieza con 21 integrantes, abordando temas relevantes para cada categoría profesional. Se calcularon las frecuencias relativas y absolutas de las respuestas con fines de medición y comparación. Resultados: hubo un alto nivel de aciertos de ambos grupos entrevistados, lo que puede estar asociado a que la institución mantiene, en su Plan de Manejo de Residuos Sanitarios, un programa de educación continua, independientemente del tipo de relación laboral de los trabajadores. Conclusión: se concluye que el conocimiento de los profesionales involucrados sobre la correcta práctica de la gestión de residuos sanitarios resultó ser satisfactorio y aquí destacan los profesionales de la limpieza, en ocasiones desatendidos. Se señala que no se puede negar el impacto de este trabajo conjunto sobre los costos de la institución, la salud de los trabajadores y la preservación del medio ambiente.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Riscos Ocupacionais , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Saúde do Trabalhador , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , Serviço Hospitalar de Limpeza , Resíduos de Serviços de Saúde , Equipe de Enfermagem , Epidemiologia Descritiva
11.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0243817, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33406119

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The management and treatment of Medical Waste (MW) are of great concern owing to its potential hazard to human health and the environment, particularly in developing countries. In Bhutan, although guidelines exist on the prevention and management of wastes, the implementation is still hampered by technological, economic, social difficulties and inadequate training of staff responsible for handling these waste. The study aimed at assessing the awareness and practice of medical waste management among health care providers and support staff at the National Referral Hospital and its compliance with the existing National guidelines and policies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An observational cross-sectional study was conducted from March to April 2019. Three research instruments were developed and used; (i) Demographic questionnaire, (ii) Awareness questions, and (iii) the Observational checklist. The data was coded and double entered into Epi data version 3.1 and SPSS version 18 was used for analysis. Descriptive statistics were used to present the findings of the study. RESULTS: The majority of the respondents were female (54.1%) with a mean age of 32.2 (±7.67) years, most of whom have not received any waste management related training/education (56.8%). About 74.4% are aware of medical waste management and 98.2% are aware on the importance of using proper personal protective equipment. Only 37.6% knew about the maximum time limit for medical waste to be kept in hospital premises is 48 hours. About 61.3% of the observed units/wards/departments correctly segregated the waste in accordance to the national guidelines. However, half of the Hospital wastes are not being correctly transported based on correct segregation process with 58% of waste not segregated into infectious and general wastes. CONCLUSION: The awareness and practice of medical waste management among healthcare workers is often limited with inadequate sensitization and lack of proper implementation of the existing National guidelines at the study site. Therefore, timely and effective monitoring is required with regular training for healthcare workers and support staff. Furthermore, strengthening the waste management system at National Referral Hospital would provide beneficial impact in enhancing safety measures of patients.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde , Hospitais , Resíduos de Serviços de Saúde , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , Adulto , Lista de Checagem , Feminino , Resíduos Perigosos , Humanos , Masculino , Eliminação de Resíduos de Serviços de Saúde , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Inquéritos e Questionários , Transportes , Adulto Jovem
12.
Waste Manag ; 122: 124-131, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33513532

RESUMO

Approximately 90% of medical waste generated in the operating room (OR) is considered to be non-infectious and non-regulated (Wyssusek, Keys & van Zundert, 2019). Frequently, this waste is inappropriately disposed of into infectious regulated medical waste containers. Due to differences in waste treatment, improper segregation can lead to the misuse or inappropriate allocation of resources, environmental pollution, and increased cost for institutions. A waste segregation initiative was instituted in a tertiary care medical center in the anesthesia work-space of 35 ORs. This initiative included education of medical waste management to increase anesthesia staff knowledge and compliance with waste segregation and optimization of existing waste disposal containers to decrease waste disposal costs. After implementation, there was an increase in overall provider knowledge (p < 0.001) particularly in the categories of medication vial disposal, medication disposal and identification of items for disposal in the sharps containers (p ≤ 0.05). Data suggests a 34.7% increase in providers reporting to always practice waste segregation (p ≤ 0.05). Additionally, there was a statistically significant decrease in overall weight of regulated medical waste items from 0.33 kg/case to 0.09 kg/case (p < 0.001). This decrease in regulated waste supports an improvement in waste segregation and inappropriate items being disposed of in the general trash container. The omission of inappropriate waste was further confirmed by a segregation audit that showed an overall increase in correctly segregated regulated waste of 65%. Collectively, this lead to a cost savings of $15.60 per OR per week, or $28,392 annually.


Assuntos
Anestesia , Eliminação de Resíduos de Serviços de Saúde , Resíduos de Serviços de Saúde , Eliminação de Resíduos , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , Humanos
13.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 232: 113690, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33434878

RESUMO

Countries with abundant solar radiation have the potential to invest in simple technologies for deactivation of many bacteria and viruses in medical solid waste. In addition to the traditional Infection and Prevention Control (IPC) measures, these simple technologies contribute to better protection of health care workers in countries with compromised solid management schemes. Monitoring of temperature, relative humidity and ultraviolet inside containers soundly designed to collect disposal infectious waste illustrated to deactivate several viruses and bacteria. Casanova et al., 2010, used some surrogate viruses to overcome the challenges of working with SARS-CoV, concluded that by temperature above 40 °C most of viruses become below levels of detection after 90 min. Here we are proposing a model of a simple transparent container almost 200 L in volume that allow solar energy to be accumulated inside. In summer conditions in the testing site, temperature inside the container reached above 50 °C when the ambient air temperature was around 30 °C. The container was built using epoxy glass to guarantee maximum heat penetration. Actual temperature measurement inside the container was measured in real time against ambient air temperature. We present a mathematical model for predication of maximum temperature at different positions inside the container and their relation to different ambient air temperature scenarios. The mathematical formulas used are based on the conservation laws and a good agreement of a full month of field measurements were obtained. Even in winter conditions in many of developing countries air temperature can maintain levels above 20 °C, which will produce temperature around 30 °C and viruses can reach levels below detection limit in maximum 3 h.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Descontaminação/métodos , Resíduos de Serviços de Saúde , SARS-CoV-2 , Resíduos Sólidos , Luz Solar , Gerenciamento de Resíduos/métodos , Países em Desenvolvimento , Umidade , Modelos Teóricos , Temperatura
14.
J Hazard Mater ; 402: 123472, 2021 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32731115

RESUMO

The public has started to increasingly scrutinize the proper disposal and treatment of rapidly growing medical wastes, in particular, given the COVID-19 pandemic, raised awareness, and the advances in the health sector. This research aimed to characterize pyrolysis drivers, behaviors, products, reaction mechanisms, and pathways via TG-FTIR and Py-GC/MS analyses as a function of the two medical plastic wastes of syringes (SY) and medical bottles (MB), conversion degree, degradation stage, and the four heating rates (5,10, 20, and 40 °C/min). SY and MB pyrolysis ranged from 394.4 to 501 and from 417.9 to 517 °C, respectively. The average activation energy was 246.5 and 268.51 kJ/mol for the SY and MB devolatilization, respectively. MB appeared to exhibit a better pyrolysis performance with a higher degradation rate and less residues. The most suitable reaction mechanisms belonged to a geometrical contraction model (R2) for the SY pyrolysis and to a nucleation growth model (A1.2) for the MB pyrolysis. The main evolved gases were C4-C24 alkenes and dienes for SY and C6-C41 alkanes and C8-C41 alkenes for MB. The pyrolysis dynamics and reaction pathways of the medical plastic wastes have important implications for waste stream reduction, pollution control, and reactor optimization.


Assuntos
Gases/química , Resíduos de Serviços de Saúde , Plásticos/química , Pirólise , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/virologia , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Cinética , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Termodinâmica , Termogravimetria
16.
Recurso educacional aberto em Português | CVSP - Regional | ID: oer-3913

RESUMO

Manejo Resíduos de Serviços de Saúde Medidas de prevenção e controle de doenças


Assuntos
Saneamento de Hospitais , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Protocolos Clínicos , Resíduos de Serviços de Saúde
17.
G Ital Nefrol ; 37(5)2020 Oct 05.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33026201

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 is an infectious respiratory syndrome caused by the virus called SARS-CoV-2, belonging to the family of coronaviruses. The first ever cases were detected during the 2019-2020 pandemic. Coronaviruses can cause a common cold or more serious diseases such as Middle Eastern Respiratory Syndromes (MERS) and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS). They can cause respiratory, lung and gastrointestinal infections with a mild to severe course, sometimes causing the death of the infected person. This new strain has no previous identifiers and its epidemic potential is strongly associated with the absence of immune response/reactivity and immunological memory in the world population, which has never been in contact with this strain before. Most at risk are the elderly, people with pre-existing diseases and/or immunodepressed, dialyzed and transplanted patients, pregnant women, people with debilitating chronic diseases. They are advised to avoid contacts with other people, unless strictly necessary, and to stay away from crowded places, also observing scrupulously the recommendations of the Istituto Superiore di Sanità. In this article we detail the recommendations that must be followed by the nursing care staff when dealing with chronic kidney disease patients in dialysis or with kidney transplant patients. We delve into the procedures that are absolutely essential in this context: social distancing of at least one meter, use of PPI, proper dressing and undressing procedures, frequent hand washing and use of gloves, and finally the increase of dedicated and appropriately trained health personnel on ward.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/enfermagem , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Transplante de Rim/enfermagem , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/enfermagem , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Diálise Renal/enfermagem , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/enfermagem , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Desinfecção , Desinfecção das Mãos , Humanos , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Paciente para o Profissional/prevenção & controle , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Profissional para o Paciente/prevenção & controle , Resíduos de Serviços de Saúde , Processo de Enfermagem/normas , Registros de Enfermagem , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Isolamento de Pacientes , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/cirurgia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/terapia , Precauções Universais
18.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 5794-5797, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019291

RESUMO

Waste auditing is important for effectively reducing the medical waste generated by resource-intensive operating rooms. To replace the current time-intensive and dangerous manual waste auditing method, we propose a system named iWASTE to detect and classify medical waste based on videos recorded by a camera-equipped waste container. In this pilot study, we collected a video dataset of 4 waste items (gloves, hairnet, mask, and shoecover) and designed a motion detection based preprocessing method to extract and trim useful frames. We propose a novel architecture named R3D+C2D to classify waste videos by combining features learnt by 2D convolutional and 3D convolutional neural networks. The proposed method obtained a promising result (79.99% accuracy) on our challenging dataset.Clinical Relevance-iWaste enables consistent and effective real-time monitoring of solid waste generation in operating rooms, which can be used to enforce medical waste sorting policies and to identify waste reduction strategies.


Assuntos
Resíduos de Serviços de Saúde , Redes Neurais de Computação , Projetos Piloto , Resíduos Sólidos , Gravação em Vídeo
20.
Rev. SOBECC ; 25(3): 151-158, 30-09-2020.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1122702

RESUMO

Objetivo: Determinar o perfil de geração e mensurar os custos dos materiais utilizados no gerenciamento de resíduos de serviços de saúde em um centro cirúrgico. Método: Trata-se de pesquisa exploratória, descritiva, com abordagem quantitativa, na modalidade estudo de caso. O local foi o Centro Cirúrgico do Hospital Universitário da Universidade de São Paulo. A amostra estratificada foi de 1.120 cirurgias, e os resíduos foram pesados por 82 dias. Resultados: Os resíduos do Centro Cirúrgico representaram 6,38% do total hospitalar. O grupo mais representativo foi A-infectantes (50,62%). A média de geração foi de 3,72 kg por cirurgia. A sala de operação foi o local que mais gerou resíduos (55,93%), e as cirurgias buco-maxilares as que mais geraram resíduos, em termos de massa. O custo de um quilo foi: Grupo A (R$ 1,10), Grupo B (R$ 5,70), Grupo D Reciclado (R$ 0,96), Grupo D Não Reciclado (R$ 1,01) e Grupo E (R$ 3,23). Conclusão: O custo total médio por cirurgia foi de R$ 8,641, e sua redução depende da negociação de compra dos itens de consumo que tiveram maior representatividade nos custos.


Objective: To determine the waste generation profile and measure the costs of materials used in medical waste management in a surgical site. Method: This is an exploratory-descriptive survey, with a quantitative approach, in the case study modality. The site was the surgical site of the University Hospital of Universidade de São Paulo. The stratified sample was of 1,120 surgeries, and the waste was weighed for 82 days. Results: The surgical site waste accounted for 6.38% of the total hospital waste. The most representative group was A-infectious (50.62%). The mean generation was 3.72 kg per surgery. Most of the waste was generated in the operating room (55.93%), and oral maxillary surgeries generated most of the waste in terms of mass. The cost per kilo was: Group A (R$ 1.10), Group B (R$ 5.70), Group D Recycled (R$ 0.96), Group D Nonrecycled (R$ 1.01) and Group E (R$ 3.23). Conclusion: The mean total cost per surgery was R$ 8.641, and its reduction depends on strategies of purchasing consumable supplies that had greater impact on costs.


Objetivo: Determinar el perfil de generación y medir los costos de los materiales utilizados en la gestión de los Residuos De Los Servicios De Salud en un Centro Quirúrgico. Método: Esta es una investigación exploratoria, descriptiva, con un enfoque cuantitativo, en la modalidad de estudio de caso. El sitio fue el Centro Quirúrgico del Hospital Universitario de la Universidad de São Paulo. La muestra estratificada fue de 1.120 cirugías y los residuos se pesaron durante 82 días. Resultados: Los residuos del Centro Quirúrgico representaron el 6,38% del total del hospital. El grupo más representativo fue A-infeccioso (50,62%). La generación promedio fue de 3,72 kg por cirugía. El quirófano fue el lugar que generó la mayor cantidad de residuos (55,93%) y las cirugías orales-maxilares las que generaron la mayor cantidad de residuos, en términos de masa. El costo de un kilo fue: Grupo A (R$ 1,10), Grupo B (R$ 5,70), Grupo D Reciclado (R$ 0,96), Grupo D No Reciclado (R$ 1,01) y Grupo E (R$ 3,23). Conclusión: El costo total promedio por cirugía fue de R$ 8,641 y su reducción depende de la negociación de compra de los artículos de consumo que tuvieron mayor representatividad en los costos.


Assuntos
Humanos , Cirurgia Geral , Centros Cirúrgicos , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , Resíduos , Custos e Análise de Custo , Hospitais , Resíduos de Serviços de Saúde
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