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1.
Waste Manag ; 120: 364-372, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33340818

RESUMO

A range of energy fuels (ethanol, char, oil/wax and gas) was produced from fibre waste contaminated with plastic through the application of a fermentation-pyrolysis route. The fibre component was first converted to ethanol by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF), achieving an ethanol concentration of 39.8 g/L. The residue, enriched in lignin and plastics, was subjected to fast pyrolysis at temperatures between 350 and 550 °C. A wax product with a higher heating value (HHV) higher than 28 MJ/kg was obtained for temperatures higher than 450 °C, while values lower than 15 MJ/kg were observed for the oils produced from the untreated waste stream. Pyrolysis at 550 °C produced a wax with an HHV as high as 32.1 MJ/kg, where 51.8% of the energy content of the fermentation residue was transferred. The attractive energy contents of the pyrolysis products were enabled by oxygen removal from the feedstock during fermentation to ethanol.


Assuntos
Pirólise , Reciclagem , Carboidratos , Fermentação , Plásticos , Resíduos/análise
2.
Chemosphere ; 263: 128068, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33297072

RESUMO

Several years after decommissioning, a magnesium dross and mixed waste heap at a former industrial facility is still reactive, as evidenced by the emission of heat, Volatile Organic Carbon (VOCs), acetylene (C2H2), cyanide (HCN) and ammonia (NH3) from deep, discordant, epigenetic fissures. To evaluate the longer-term stability of the waste heap material, four cores were collected to evaluate vertical variations in temperature, moisture, gas composition, geochemistry, and mineralogy. Temperature increased with depth and peaked at around 8 m, reaching in excess of 90 °C. The waste heap was a mixture of unreacted materials (mainly MgO and CaO) and a variety of hydrated secondary reaction products. Formation of the latter could account for the generation of heat and creation of the fissures via thermal and secondary mineral volumetric expansion. With a large inventory of unreacted CaO and MgO and substantial in situ water present, the waste heap will probably remain reactive in the foreseeable future. Importantly, the CaO/MgO ratio of solid materials in the waste heap provides a useful proxy for down hole temperature, pH, and fugitive gas concentrations. Fugitive gases emitted by the waste heap are related to the reaction of co-existing minerals in the heap based on an historical analysis of site waste disposal. These waste materials include calcium carbide (CaC2), magnesium nitride (Mg3N2) and calcium cyanamide (CaCN2). Capping to limit the ingress of additional meteoric water and targeted venting to facilitate cooling and the controlled release and dispersion of gases are recommended to manage the environmental risk.


Assuntos
Gases , Eliminação de Resíduos , Carbono , Minerais , Resíduos
3.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(3): 2893-2903, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32895793

RESUMO

Marine debris is known for its ubiquitousness and harmful effects on marine life. This study is the first analysis to provide information on the distribution of floating marine debris in German waters using aerial survey data collected between 2002 and 2016. During regular harbour porpoise monitoring flights, 191,167 km were covered and 26,512 floating debris items recorded (average encounter rate 0.1387 items/km). Debris was encountered more often in the North Sea than in the Baltic Sea (0.16 items/km; 0.08 items/km). The average encounter rate was higher in offshore waters than in coastal areas. Overlaps of marine debris distribution with 'Special Areas of Conservation' are a particular reason for concern. Moreover, the spring months (March-May) were identified to be the time of the year with the highest average encounter rates for marine debris. Fishing-related debris was shown to contribute up to 25% of the total number of all observed items. This study shows that opportunistically collected data on marine debris from aerial surveys are valuable for identifying distribution patterns of floating debris without additional survey effort and costs. These data can be used as baseline information to inform management schemes such as the Marine Strategy Framework Directive.


Assuntos
Plásticos , Resíduos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Mar do Norte , Inquéritos e Questionários , Resíduos/análise
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 754: 142216, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33254855

RESUMO

Plastic pollution is one of the major challenges in the Anthropocene. Upon reaching the marine environment, plastic debris is subject to anthropogenic and environmental conditions that result in novel items that vary in composition, physical and chemical characteristics. Here, we reviewed and discussed the potential fate and threat to the environment of four recently described plastic formations: Plastiglomerates, pyroplastics, plasticrusts, and anthropoquinas. The threats identified were mostly related to the release of toxic chemicals and plastic ingestion. Transportation of alien invasive species or microbial pathogens and fragmentation of larger plastics into microplastics (<5 mm), potentially reaching marine trophic webs, are suspected as potential impacts based on the characteristics of these plastic formations. Some plastic forms may persist in the environment and voyage across the ocean, while others are denser and less likely to enter the plastic cycle or interact with biota. In the latter case, plastics are expected to become buried in the sediment and incorporate into the geological record. It is necessary to establish sampling protocols or standards that are specific to each plastic formation and start reporting the occurrence of these new plastic categories as such to avoid underestimating plastic pollution in marine environments. It is suggested that monitoring plans include these categories and identify potential sources. Further research must focus on investigating whether the suspected impacts are a matter of concern. In this sense, we have suggested research questions to address the knowledge gaps and have a better understanding of the impacts and distribution of the new plastic forms.


Assuntos
Plásticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Biota , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluição Ambiental , Geologia , Microplásticos , Resíduos
5.
Bioresour Technol ; 319: 124213, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33254448

RESUMO

Bio-based rhamnolipid production from waste streams is gaining momentum nowadays because of increasing market demand, huge range of applications and its economic and environment friendly nature. Rhamnolipid type biosurfactants are produced by microorganisms as secondary metabolites and have been used to reduce surface/interfacial tension between two different phases. Biosurfactants have been reported to be used as an alternative to chemical surfactants. Pseudomonas sp. has been frequently used for production of rhamnolipid. Various wastes can be used in production of rhamnolipid. Rhamnolipids are widely used in various industrial applications. The present review provides information about structure and nature of rhamnolipid, production using different waste materials and scale-up of rhamnolipid production. It also provides comprehensive literature on various industrial applications along with perspectives and challenges in this research area.


Assuntos
Glicolipídeos , Pseudomonas , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Tensão Superficial , Tensoativos , Resíduos
6.
Environ Pollut ; 268(Pt A): 115886, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33120350

RESUMO

The main objective of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) was to achieve a Good Environmental Status (GES) in European waters by 2020, according to 11 descriptors. Descriptor 10 is related to marine litter and envisages that the properties and quantities of marine litter are at a level that does not cause harm to the coastal and marine environment. Even if GES was not achieved by 2020, the first MSFD implementation cycle filled many gaps in knowledge. Here we present the first data (2015-2018) on beach litter densities along Italian coasts and discuss lessons learnt and future perspectives. The beach litter median density was 477 items/100 m (interquartile range: 261-934 items/100 m), but subregional differences emerged both in terms of litter quantities and composition. The Adriatic Sea was the most polluted subregion (590 items/100 m), followed by the Western Mediterranean Sea (491 items/100 m) and the Ionian Sea and Central Mediterranean Sea subregion (274 items/100 m). A high presence of aquaculture-related litter (mainly mussel nets) characterised beaches in the Adriatic Sea. At the same time, the numbers of cotton bud sticks were extremely high in some beaches of the Western Mediterranean Sea. General litter (items discarded or left by the public on the coast or inland and carried by winds and rivers or objects originating from tourism and recreation at land or sea, poor waste management practices, etc.) was the most common litter typology (38.8%). The results of this study represent the first baseline to compare achievement towards GES in the next years and the efficacy of the program of measures which entered into force in 2016, concerning beach litter densities and composition. They also highlight the necessity of a joint effort for deploying harmonised marine litter monitoring methodologies across the European Member States to obtain comparable results.


Assuntos
Plásticos , Resíduos , Animais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Itália , Mar Mediterrâneo , Resíduos/análise
7.
Bioresour Technol ; 320(Pt A): 124299, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33129091

RESUMO

Hydrogen and gaseous fuel derived from wastes have opened up promising alternative pathways for the production of renewable and sustainable fuels to substitute classical fossil energy resources that cause global warming and pollution. Existing review articles focus mostly on gasification, reforming and pyrolysis processes, with limited information on particularly gaseous fuel production via pyrolysis of various waste products. This review provides an overview on the recent advanced pyrolysis technology used in hydrogen and gaseous fuel production. The key parameters to maximize the production of specific compounds were discussed. More studies are needed to optimize the process parameters and improve the understanding of reaction mechanisms and co-relationship between these advanced techniques. These advanced techniques provide novel environmentally sustainable and commercially procedures for waste-based production of hydrogen and gaseous fuels.


Assuntos
Hidrogênio , Pirólise , Resíduos
8.
Environ Pollut ; 267: 115495, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33254720

RESUMO

Plastic pollution is a global problem that poses a threat to coastal and marine ecosystems and human livelihoods and requires effective solutions adaptable to local conditions. In Colombia, the knowledge about marine plastic pollution is still limited and the development of effective strategies for managing marine and coastal environments is crucial. Therefore, plastic pollution was assessed on 43 Colombian sandy beaches on the Caribbean and Pacific coasts. Amounts of macroplastic ranged from 35 ± 15 to 81 ± 23 items 100 m-1, being product's packaging the most common. Microplastic densities ranged from 3 to 1387 items m-2. The highest microplastic concentrations were found on the beaches from Caribbean cities and in rural areas of Pacific municipalities. Fragments and polyethylene were the most commonly observed shape and polymer categories, respectively. Tourism and poor waste management practices are the primary plastic sources on the studied beaches. Plastic litter on Colombian beaches are a problem that requires prevention, mitigation, and control actions to help conserve this ecosystem.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Plásticos , Praias , Região do Caribe , Cidades , Colômbia , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Resíduos
9.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0242081, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33180857

RESUMO

The most economical method of drill cuttings disposal may be their application in land reclamation which allows for the wastes recovery. However, the wastes application into the soil should ensure that the quality of the environment would not be deteriorated. These investigations were aimed at identifying the effect of drill cuttings, which were the mixture of different types of drilling wastes, on the physicochemical properties of acidic soil and growth of red clover (Trifolium pratense L.). The experimental design comprised 5 treatments, which differed in a dose of the drill cuttings: 0% (control), 2.5%, 5%, 10% and 15% of dry weight. A six-week pot experiment was conducted to determine the influence of the wastes on the plant growth. The results showed that the drill cuttings addition significantly changed the chemical and physicochemical properties of the soil, such as: electrical conductivity (EC), pH, base saturation, content of carbonate, alkaline cations (Ca2+, Na+, K+, Mg2+), organic matter, total organic carbon (TOC), and available phosphorus form. However, the most important factors that influenced the growth of red clover were pH, base saturation, content of Mg2+ and plant available phosphorus. The red clover biomass was increased from 1.5 to 2.5 times depending on the dose of wastes. We concluded that the examined wastes can be used for reclamation of the acid and unfertile degraded soils, but the amount of wastes should not exceed 5% of the soil, because the highest total clover biomass was observed just at this dose.


Assuntos
Poluentes do Solo/farmacologia , Solo/química , Trifolium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Biomassa , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Fósforo/análise , Potássio/análise , Trifolium/efeitos dos fármacos , Resíduos/análise
10.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 9075-9088, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33235452

RESUMO

Background: The natural food waste peels/shells discarded as waste materials are ample sources of natural bioactive compounds. The natural food waste mediated silver (Ag) nanoparticle (NPs) synthesis will be advantageous over chemical synthesis. Materials and Methods: Using the various phytochemical-rich ripe P. americana peel (PAP), fresh Beta vulgaris peel (BVP), and rawArachis hypogaea shell (AHS) extracts, the bio-synthesis of PAP-AgNPs, BVP-AgNPs, and AHS-AgNPs, respectively, were carried out and its characterization was completed by standard procedures. The three biosynthesized AgNP's multiple biological effects were accomplished by evaluating their cytotoxicity, antidiabetic, and antioxidant effects. Results: The biosynthesis of the three generated Ag nanoparticles was confirmed through UV-vis spectrum analysis while the X-ray diffraction outlines revealed the generated AgNPs nature. The morphological structure and elemental information of the three AgNPs were obtained through SEM (scanning electron microscopy) and EDX (energy-dispersive X-ray) study. Multiple biological assays exhibited that the three generated AgNPs have significant cytotoxic, antidiabetic, and moderate antioxidant activity. In a comparative analysis, the PAP-AgNPs displayed higher anticancer potential than BVP and AHS-AgNPs, whereas AHS-AgNPs exhibited a higher antidiabetic effect with the lowest IC50 value (1.68 µg/mL) than PAP and BVP AgNPs. All three generated AgNPs displayed moderate antioxidant effects, among them BVP-AgNPs were more effective than PAP and AHS AgNPs. More than two effects of the three biosynthesized AgNPs specifies that they have ample perspective in therapeutic applications in pharmaceutical and other related industries in controlling cancer and diabetes.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Alimentos , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Prata/farmacologia , Resíduos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Diabetes Mellitus , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/farmacologia , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Espectrometria por Raios X , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Difração de Raios X
11.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 161(Pt B): 111744, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33171412

RESUMO

We analyzed litter occurrence in 68 underwater video transects performed on the middle/outer continental shelf and submarine canyon off Cap de Creus (NW Mediterranean), an area recently declared Site of Community Importance (SCI). Low densities of urban litter were registered on the shelf (7.2 items ha-1), increasing in abundance towards the deepest part of the submarine canyon, with 188 items ha-1 below 1000 m depth. We hypothesize that the strong bottom currents that recurrently affect this area efficiently move litter objects from the shelf towards the deep. Of all litter items, approximately 50% had a fishing-related origin, mostly longlines entangled on rocks in the canyon head and discarded trawl nets in deeper areas. Over 10% of cold-water colonies observed had longlines entangled, indicating the harmful effects of such practices over benthic habitats. These results should be considered when designing mitigation measures to reduce litter pollution in Cap de Creus SCI.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Plásticos , Ecossistema , Mar Mediterrâneo , Plásticos/análise , Navios , Resíduos/análise
12.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 161(Pt A): 111827, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33213857

RESUMO

The increasing abundance of marine litter is impacting the environment, human health and economies in the South Pacific. Small Islands Developing States are particularly affected by marine litter, primarily due to insufficient waste management systems. For the first time, marine litter was quantified and characterised on 13 beaches in Solomon Islands and Vanuatu in the South Pacific region using the OSPAR beach litter monitoring guidelines. A total of 1053 (±1017) and 974 (±745) items of litter per 100 m beach were recorded in Solomon Islands and Vanuatu respectively. Litter composition and distribution show that the majority of the litter comes from local land-based sources and large quantities of fragments and single use plastics were found by cities and river mouths. Actions to reduce single use plastic, improve collection, reuse and recycling, together with outreach campaigns would reduce marine litter significantly in these countries. Furthermore, there is great potential to develop a more circular economy to manage the substantial quantities of recyclable items that were found stranded on the beaches.


Assuntos
Praias , Resíduos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Ilhas , Melanesia , Plásticos , Resíduos Sólidos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Vanuatu , Resíduos/análise
13.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 160: 111647, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33181929

RESUMO

Monitoring Floating Marine Macro Litter (FMML) is a global priority, stressed within international programs, and regulated for the European Seas by the Marine Strategy Framework Directive. Although some well-defined common protocols exist for the assessment of beach litter and ingested litter, methodologies for FMML monitoring still vary, leading to some inconsistent results and hampering the global assessment of this threat. Within the MEDSEALITTER project (2016-2019), field experiments were implemented to define optimal monitoring parameters for FMML visual monitoring at different spatial scales, by assessing the influence of platform speed, strip width, observers experience, weather conditions, and litter size on its detectability. Along with the results of these experiments, we present the FMML density ranges detected across the over 20,000 km surveyed, highlighting a decreasing gradient from river mouths to coastal areas and the open sea, and providing a valuable contribution to the assessment of FMML in the Mediterranean Sea.


Assuntos
Plásticos , Resíduos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Mar Mediterrâneo , Valores de Referência , Resíduos/análise
14.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 160: 111689, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33181959

RESUMO

Anthropogenic litter is ubiquitous throughout marine ecosystems, but its abundance and distribution are driven by complex interactions of distinct environmental factors and thus can be extremely heterogeneous. Here we compare the extent of anthropogenic litter pollution at a sheltered lagoon habitat and nearby open coast sites. Monthly surveys over a period of five months showed that both the types and sources of litter always differed significantly between lagoon and open coast sites. Pollution within the lagoon was mainly land-derived and was largely made up of construction materials (70% to 95%). At open coast sites, construction materials represented a minor portion of pollution (4% to 12%) while plastics were the most abundant (82% to 95%). We show that stranded anthropogenic litter in adjacent marine habitats can differ significantly and stress the importance of sampling at appropriate spatial scales to gain realistic insights into the sources of pollution.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Resíduos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluição Ambiental , Plásticos , Resíduos/análise
15.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 160: 111692, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33181961

RESUMO

Morocco is well known for its attractive Mediterranean beaches, which play an important economic role. With the fast development and growth, these beaches have become more contaminated by marine debris. This paper examined the abundance, composition and marine debris sources on five beaches in the Moroccan Mediterranean during 2019 four seasons. A total of 7839 marine debris were collected from the five beaches with a total weight of 231 kg. The average density of the debris collected was 0.20 ± 0.098 items/m2. Polymer materials constituted the majority of debris found, with a percentage of 71.36%, followed by paper/cardboard (11.50%), metal (5.77%), processed wood (5.34%), cloth/textile (2.51%) and glass/ceramics (1.76%). Human recreational activities were the main source of debris (70.13%), followed by smoking-related (13.98%). Debris density appears to be particularly influenced by beach users. Awareness campaigns are needed for beach users to improve the quality of the beaches.


Assuntos
Praias , Plásticos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Marrocos , Resíduos/análise
16.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 161(Pt A): 111690, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33039791

RESUMO

The omnipresence of plastic particles in marine ecosystems, a.k.a. Marine Plastic Pollution (MPP) constitutes a major environmental and socioeconomic threat. In the last decade, the realization of the severity of the MPP problem by international organizations, governments and policy makers worldwide, has triggered the publication of a large number of review papers studying the current state of the art of MPP, from a plethora of different perspectives. This study attempts to classify the existing review efforts, by conducting a systematic analysis of review papers on MPP, published from 2000 to 2019. A sample of 114 review studies, retrieved from the SCOPUS database, are classified based on a number of carefully selected coding criteria and processed in order to produce a set of meaningful descriptive statistics and visualizations. Ultimately, the objective of this paper is to synthesize the different perspectives on MPP, assess the research progress and highlight future research directions.


Assuntos
Plásticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluição Ambiental , Resíduos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
17.
J Food Sci ; 85(11): 3943-3953, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33037629

RESUMO

Brewers' spent grain (BSG) is the major byproduct of brewing beer, rich in protein and dietary fiber. This study investigated the effect of two drying methods (impingement and hot-air drying) on chemical composition, physicochemical properties, and bioactive compounds of BSGs from three different brewers (BSG1, BSG2, and BSG3), and then evaluated the quality and consumer acceptance of BSG flour fortified muffins. Results showed that impingement drying led to significantly lower moisture content (MC, 1.33-1.87 g/100g) and water activity (aw , 0.04-0.07) of BSGs than hot-air drying (5.44 to 5.57 g/100 g and 0.19 to 0.20, respectively). Among different dried BSGs, impingement dried BSG3 achieved the highest protein (18.03 g/100 g dry matter [DM]), total phenolic content (TPC, 2.21 mg GAE/g DM), radical scavenging activity (RSA, 1.58 mg AAE/g DM), and total flavonoid content (TFC, 0.68 mg QE/g DM), and retained lighter color (L*, 54.68) and higher total dietary fiber (TDF, 42.40 g/100 g DM), which was selected for making BSG-fortified muffins. BSG3 was substituted 1:1 as white: whole wheat flour at three concentrations (10, 15, and 20 g/100 g flour mix) for muffins (BSG10, BSG15, and BSG20, respectively). BSG15 provided higher protein (13.11 g/100 g DM), TDF (16.88 g/100 g DM), and higher bioactive compounds compared to control and retained brighter color of muffin compared to BSG20, showing no difference in firmness and overall liking compared to the control muffin. This study demonstrated that impingement dried BSG could be utilized as a functional ingredient in muffins to add value to the food chain providing nutritional and environmental benefits. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: This study reported the benefit of impingement drying method for the retention of physicochemical quality and bioactive compounds of brewer's spent grains (BSG) produced from three different brewers in comparison with hot-air drying. The study also reported that muffins fortified with BSG flours (15% replacement of wheat flour) yielded a 23% increase in total dietary fiber and 13% increase in protein without affecting consumer acceptance of the products. This information is essential for developing value-added applications of BSG, a byproduct from brewing industry, as a functional ingredient to make nutritive baking goods, such as muffins, for promoting human health.


Assuntos
Pão/análise , Farinha/análise , Aditivos Alimentares/análise , Aditivos Alimentares/metabolismo , Triticum/metabolismo , Adulto , Cerveja/análise , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Feminino , Manipulação de Alimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Valor Nutritivo , Paladar , Triticum/química , Resíduos/análise , Adulto Jovem
18.
J Insect Sci ; 20(5)2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33089872

RESUMO

As global food demand is increasing along with human population growth, there is a greater need for alternative protein sources. Insect protein, especially the larvae of the black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (L.) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), has become a key approach for solving this issue in part due to its ability to convert organic waste into insect biomass with minimal resource (e.g., land, water) requirements. However, most information utilized to develop industrial production of this species is reliant on data generated from laboratory-scaled studies. Unfortunately, scaling these data to an industrial level potentially is not linear resulting in over, or under, estimating production. In this study, we compared selected life-history traits of larval black soldier fly produced at benchtop (e.g., 1 liter container with 614 larvae) and industrial scales (e.g., 29.5 liter container inoculated with 10,000 larvae). Larvae were provided a single feeding (2 g/larva) in each treatment. Significant differences in the mean larval weight (24.7%), survivorship (-28.2%), and biomass conversion (-2.7%) were determined between benchtop and industrial treatments. These results indicate larval number and the associated container size are important factors to consider when designing a black soldier fly factory. Furthermore, caution should be taken when applying data from laboratory studies to industrial scale production systems as the values potentially are not linear.


Assuntos
Dípteros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Instalações Industriais e de Manufatura/organização & administração , Animais , Biodegradação Ambiental , Biorretroalimentação Psicológica , Biomassa , Peso Corporal , Traços de História de Vida , Esterco , Resíduos
19.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 161(Pt A): 111670, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33022491

RESUMO

Marine debris on the seafloor has not been thoroughly investigated, and there is little information compared to other types of marine debris. We conducted bottom trawl surveys to determine the present situation of marine debris on the seafloor in offshore areas around Japan. The survey was conducted in three sea areas with different characteristics. As a result, it was found that the amount of marine debris in submarine canyons (2926.1 items/km2) was higher than on the continental shelf. It was revealed that most marine debris on the seafloor is comprised of plastic products, and that debris on the seafloor retains its condition for a long time (over 30 years) without deterioration. In addition, the type of marine debris is affected by the industries operating in each area. Continuing to investigate marine debris on the seafloor in more areas will contribute to solving the problem of marine debris.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Resíduos , Japão , Plásticos/análise , Navios , Resíduos/análise
20.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 161(Pt A): 111746, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33068788

RESUMO

Plastic pollution and the subsequent entanglement of marine animals is a global and increasing problem. In this study we present an analysis of the seabirds recorded as entangled by a rehabilitation centre and an associated marine animal stranding network, along the central coast of Portugal, between 2008 and 2018. Results show a high annual rate of entangled seabirds (average 6.9%) compared to other studies and fisheries related materials are a relevant cause of seabird entanglement (82%) compared to other debris. When comparing age classes, juveniles were more vulnerable to entanglement than other age classes in the species studied. Regarding the rehabilitation of entangled seabirds, the release rate was higher in non-fishing material entanglement cases. In conclusion, this study highlights the impact of fisheries related material on marine fauna and the need for reinforcement of the existing legislation for protecting seabirds and the implementation of mitigation measures associated with fishing activities.


Assuntos
Pesqueiros , Plásticos , Animais , Aves , Portugal , Prevalência , Resíduos/análise
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