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1.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 159: 111478, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32892916

RESUMO

The spatial distribution, sources and characteristics of marine litter (ML) from 36 locations spread over 12 beaches along the west coast of Qatar have been assessed. A total of 2376 ML items with varying sizes were found with an average abundance of 1.98 items/m2. The order of abundance of ML along the coast was as follows: plastics (71.4%) > metal (9.3%) > glass (5.1%) > paper (4.4%) > fabric (4.0%) > rubber (3.9%) > processed wood (2.0%). Locations in the south and northwest coasts of Qatar had significantly higher concentrations of ML. Surprisingly, nearly 47% of the beached polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles were derived from the countries bordering the Arabian/Persian Gulf (Gulf), and most of them were produced in the last 2 years. The plastic materials were drifted by winds and currents to the Qatar coast. Gulf circulation provides evidence to the pathways of ML beached on the Qatar coast.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Resíduos/análise , Praias , Metais , Plásticos , Catar
2.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(10): 648, 2020 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32951088

RESUMO

Here, we present a framework for a beach litter monitoring process, based on free and open-source software (FOSS), which allows customization for any sampling design. The framework was developed by means of a GIS project (QGIS), a GIS collector (QField), and an R code, allowing further adjustments according to the area to be surveyed and research questions. The aim is to improve data collection, accessibility, and interoperability, as well as to help to fill the currently existing gap between fieldwork and data analysis, preventing typos and allowing better data processing. Therefore, it is expected to take less than an hour from ending fieldwork to obtaining up-to-date products. To test the developed open-source geospatial framework, it was applied in different sectors and dates on an important southern Brazilian touristic beach. Results obtained from the open-source geospatial framework application produce baseline information on beach litter issues, such as amounts, sources, and spatial and temporal patterns. Adoption of the framework can facilitate data collection by local and regional stakeholders, and the results obtained from it can be applied to support management strategies. For researchers, it produces spatialized data for each item in an already tidy format, which can be used for robust and complex models. A series of supplementary files support reproducibility and provide a guide to future users.


Assuntos
Praias , Plásticos , Brasil , Monitoramento Ambiental , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Resíduos/análise
3.
Waste Manag ; 116: 49-57, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32784121

RESUMO

Identifying the source of marine litter is essential to design effective mitigation measures to reduce plastic leakage into marine ecosystems. Kenya recently banned the use of polyethylene bags, but PET drink bottles remain a contentious source of litter in the country. I collected bottles and other single-use containers at nine Kenyan beaches, and compared their composition, country of manufacture and approximate age (time since manufacture) to bottles collected in coastal towns. Locally manufactured bottles dominated street litter (98%) and on urban beaches (93%) but became increasingly uncommon with distance from coastal towns, comprising only 30% of bottles at remote beaches. These steep spatial gradients indicate that most local bottles do not disperse far from source areas. The presence of lids is important for long-distance dispersal of glass and PET bottles, and many PET bottles littered in urban areas lack lids. HDPE bottles are much more common on beaches than on streets, and most come from Indonesia. The presence of epibionts and bite marks suggest that most HDPE bottles have drifted in the South Equatorial Current from southeast Asia, whereas foreign PP bottles mostly come from Indian Ocean island states. Reducing plastic leakage in southeast Asia should reduce the amount of beach litter throughout the western Indian Ocean. Some foreign PET bottles come from neighbouring states, but many are probably dumped illegally from ships operating from Asia. In addition to reducing plastic leakage from land-based sources, we need to ensure compliance with MARPOL Annex V regulations banning the disposal of plastic wastes at sea.


Assuntos
Praias , Resíduos/análise , Ásia , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Ilhas do Oceano Índico , Indonésia , Quênia , Plásticos
4.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 159: 111497, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32738643

RESUMO

Macro-litter accumulation surveys were carried out in six beaches in Kilifi, Mombasa and Kwale Counties. Macro litter were collected, quantified and characterized to determine their composition, distribution and accumulation rates. The results showed that the accumulation rates ranged between 1.53 ± 1.23 and 11.46 ± 7.72 (for dry zones) and 2.69 ± 2.13 and 8.93 ± 7.87 items m-1 day-1 (for wet zones). Plastics and foam were the most abundant litter categories. Local products constituted about 88% of all the collected litter. Food packaging products constituted about 91.3% of all branded litter types. Marine litter pollution particularly by plastics was widespread in all studied coastal counties. However, a significant amount of litter encountered in the beaches was of local origin, thus a local solution to waste management (that will eliminate leakage into marine environments) will considerably reduce marine litter pollution in Kenya.


Assuntos
Praias , Resíduos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Quênia , Plásticos
5.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 159: 111501, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32750596

RESUMO

Nowadays, there are an increasing number of reports of deep-sea accumulation of marine debris, often associated with a wide array of pernicious effects on benthic fauna. Nevertheless, there is still a huge knowledge gap regarding the interaction of benthic organisms and marine debris. In this paper, we report for the first time the colonization of plastic debris by the protected sponges Lycopodina hypogea. The sponges were discovered growing on plastic debris tangled with nylon ropes on the Blanes canyon (northwestern Mediterranean Sea). Over 30 individuals of L. hypogea were identified attached on ca. 10 cm2 plastic debris, an unusual feature for a species mostly known for low-density populations and a patchy distribution. The implications of this discovery are discussed, and it is suggested that marine debris might provide substrate for benthic species on otherwise unsuitable habitats, with its possible role as stepping-stones for deep-sea benthic connectivity needing further study.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Plásticos , Carnivoridade , Ecossistema , Mar Mediterrâneo , Resíduos/análise
6.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 159: 111503, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32763560

RESUMO

The Wetlands Reserve in Al Wusta Governorate on the Arabian Sea is important for internationally migrating birds and local wildlife, but data on marine litter in the reserve, and wider region, are rare. Seven beaches around the reserve were surveyed for litter in February 2020. Abundance and weight of litter were categorised along 100 m transects. Abundance ranged from 0.1 to 1.4 items m-2 and weight ranged from 3.2 to 170.4 g m-2. Plastic was the dominant material in abundance (84.4-97.7%) and weight (71.3-99.3%). Top categories in abundance and weight were fisheries-related, water bottles and caps, and food packaging. Fisheries-related litter comprised 19.6-36.7% of all in abundance, but 41.4-94.4% in weight. The high proportion of fisheries-related litter (by weight) indicates that providing practical disposal facilities for unwanted and broken fishing gear would substantially reduce the impact of litter on this vital wetlands reserve.


Assuntos
Resíduos/análise , Áreas Alagadas , Praias , Monitoramento Ambiental , Omã , Plásticos
7.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 158: 111343, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32753167

RESUMO

As an emerging marine environmental issue, marine plastic debris pollution has attracted worldwide attention. Studies have covered more and more areas of the world's oceans. To further understand the sources and variation of marine plastic debris in the surface water of the Bohai Sea, in this study, plastic debris was collected during the four seasons of 2016-2017. The results showed the mean density of plastic debris over these seasons was 0.49 ± 0.18 particles/m3. Macro-, meso-, and micro- plastics accounted for 5%, 26%, and 69% of the total number of plastic debris, respectively. The density of the microplastics was 0.35 ± 0.13 particles/m3. The highest density was found in spring, followed by summer and winter, and the lowest in autumn. High distribution densities were observed in the Liaodong Bay and the Bohai Strait, which were attributed to the dynamics of the rim current, terrain, and fishery activities. CAPSULE ABSTRACT: Riverine input, dynamics of the rim current, terrain, and fishery activities contribute to the variations in marine plastic debris in the surface water of the Bohai Sea.


Assuntos
Plásticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Microplásticos , Oceanos e Mares , Resíduos/análise , Água
8.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 158: 111420, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32753204

RESUMO

A total of 23 beaches were surveyed between July and September 2019. Meso-litter was collected by sieving sediment collected from 0.25 m2 quadrats laid along perpendicular transects through 5 mm mesh size sieves. The results showed that plastics were the most abundant litter encountered on all the beaches. Beaches close to urban areas had a higher number of litter categories (i.e. plastic, metal, foam, and paper) compared to the remote beaches that only had plastics. In conclusion, the lack of statistically significant evidence of the influence of proximity to urban centers, the predominant activity in the beaches, and exposure to wave action on the amount of meso-litter attest to the fact that marine litter pollution is a geographical spread problem that will require national, regional, and global action and approach to address. The intervention efforts (including beach clean-ups) should preferably target beaches that have back vegetation compared to those with seawalls.


Assuntos
Praias , Resíduos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Quênia , Plásticos
9.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 158: 111421, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32753205

RESUMO

Microplastics are causing serious environmental threats worldwide. To evaluate the current state of microplastics pollution, 28 sediment samples were examined for microplastics and plastic debris contamination along Silver Beach, Southern India. Visual identification followed by FT-IR spectroscopy was used to estimate the overall distribution and characterization of plastic debris. The results reveal that white-colored (44%) and irregularly-shaped (82%) plastics are prevalent in the study area. Moreover, the dominant polymer in the study area is polyvinyl chloride (79%) followed by polyethylene (14%) and nylon (7%). Based on size fractions, mesoplastics are widely distributed in the beach sediments (65%), followed by microplastics (18%) and macroplastics (17%). The regional sources of plastic debris are tourism and fishing activities followed by storm water runoff through the Gadilam river and wave-induced deposition through high tides. Strict policy measures need to be implemented in recreational beaches like Silver beach to reduce plastic pollution.


Assuntos
Plásticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Sedimentos Geológicos , Índia , Microplásticos , Prata , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Resíduos/análise
10.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 158: 111425, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32753209

RESUMO

Plastic debris is nowadays a well-recognized global threat to marine ecosystems, due to its increasing abundance and pervasiveness. Although the effects of marine plastics on animal wildlife is generally documented, the available studies of plastics affecting seagrasses and their associated biota are relatively scarce. This makes the degree of risk uncertain as regards seagrass ecosystems affected by plastic debris, but also it results in several critical knowledge gaps such as to what extent plastic debris can affect food webs supported by seagrasses. In the age of plastics, the Plasticene, the international political agenda shows great interest in this matter. However, to date, no conservation policies have specifically targeted the protection of seagrasses from plastics debris. Future actions should therefore move in two directions: prompting a radical shift in plastics consumption, and shedding further light on plastics-biota interactions in the marine environment.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Plásticos , Animais , Biota , Monitoramento Ambiental , Resíduos/análise
11.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236410, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32797095

RESUMO

The use and management of single use plastics is a major area of concern for the public, regulatory and business worlds. Focusing on the most commonly occurring consumer plastic items present in European freshwater environments, we identified and evaluated consumer-based actions with respect to their direct or indirect potential to reduce macroplastic pollution in freshwater environments. As the main end users of these items, concerned consumers are faced with a bewildering array of choices to reduce their plastics footprint, notably through recycling or using reusable items. Using a Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis approach, we explored the effectiveness of 27 plastic reduction actions with respect to their feasibility, economic impacts, environmental impacts, unintended social/environmental impacts, potential scale of change and evidence of impact. The top ranked consumer-based actions were identified as: using wooden or reusable cutlery; switching to reusable water bottles; using wooden or reusable stirrers; using plastic free cotton-buds; and using refill detergent/ shampoo bottles. We examined the feasibility of top-ranked actions using a SWOT analysis (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats) to explore the complexities inherent in their implementation for consumers, businesses, and government to reduce the presence of plastic in the environment.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Plásticos/toxicidade , Rios/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Comportamento do Consumidor , Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Poluição Ambiental , Humanos , Plásticos/química , Reciclagem , Resíduos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química
12.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 159: 111479, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32692673

RESUMO

We determined if colour, category (e.g., food packaging) or intertidal activity could explain the occurrence of litter with acute levels of metals. Six beaches were sampled; an industrial site, a local and remote park and three beaches. Food packaging accounted for 66% of litter with acute levels of metals found in 10% of samples. Acute levels were independent of colour and category, but dependent on intertidal region and its anthropogenic use. Litter with acute levels of cadmium and lead were recovered from the industrial intertidal and high concentrations of zinc and cadmium associated with candy wrappers were found on recreational beaches. In addition to the intrinsic and extrinsic loads that litter carries, also too are memory effects, i.e., the previous use of the item carries over its trace metal burden posing extreme risks to marine ecosystems. In the managing of risk associated with beach litter, legacy contaminants need be considered.


Assuntos
Praias , Plásticos , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Metais , Resíduos/análise
13.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 159: 111467, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32692674

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was twofold: (i) to validate the drone methodology for floating marine macro-litter (FMML) monitoring, by comparing the results obtained through concurrent drone surveys and visual observations from vessels, and (ii) to assess FMML densities along the North Western Mediterranean Sea using the validated drone surveys. The comparison between monitoring techniques was performed based on 18 concurrent drone/vessel transects. Similar densities of FMML were detected through the two methods (16 items km-2 from the drone method vs 19 items km-2 from the vessel-based visual method). The assessment of FMML densities was done using 40 additional drone transects performed over the waters off the Catalan coast. The densities of FMML observed ranged 0-200 items km-2. These results provide a validation of the use of drones to monitor FMML and contribute to increasing the knowledge about the density of FMML in the North Western Mediterranean Sea.


Assuntos
Plásticos , Resíduos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Mar Mediterrâneo
14.
Environ Pollut ; 266(Pt 1): 115213, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32688110

RESUMO

Abundance, composition, and distribution of macro-litter found on the seafloor of the Strait of Sicily between 10 and 800 m depth has been studied using data collected by bottom trawl surveys MEDITS from 2015 to 2019. Three waste categories based on the items use were considered: single-use, fishing-related and generic-use. Over 600 sampling sites, just 14% of these were litter-free. The five-years average density of seafloor litter was 79.6 items/km2 and ranged between 46.8 in 2019 and 118.1 items/km2 in 2015. The predominant waste type was plastic (58% of all items). Regardless of material type, single-use items were a dominant (60% of items) and widespread (79% of hauls) fraction of litter with a mean density of 48.4 items/km2. Fishing-related items accounted for 12% of total litter items. Percentage of dirty hauls and litter density increased with depth. Analysis of the relation density-depth indicates a progressive increase of litter density beyond depth values situated within the interval 234-477 m depending on the litter category. A significant decrease in litter density by categories was observed over the period. Patterns of spatial distribution at the higher depths (200-80 0m) resulted stable over the years. Density hotspots of fishing-related items were found where the fishing activity that uses fish aggregating devices (FADs) is practised and in the proximity of rocky banks. Single-use and generic-use objects densities were greater on the seafloor along main maritime routes than other areas. Comparisons between the percentage of hauls littered with anthropic waste from the mid-1990s against those in 2018-19 highlighted an increase of about 10.8% and 15.3% for single-use items and fishing-related items respectively, and a decrease of 18.6% for generic-use items. This study provides a snapshot of the current situation of littering in the central Mediterranean Sea and represents a solid baseline against which the effectiveness of current and future mitigation strategies of the litter impact on marine environment can be measured.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Resíduos/análise , Animais , Mar Mediterrâneo , Plásticos , Sicília
15.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236149, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32722705

RESUMO

The crisis facing the world's oceans from plastics is well documented, yet there is little knowledge of the perspectives, experiences and options of the coastal communities facing overwhelming quantities of plastics on their beaches and in their fishing waters. In emerging economies such as those in the Coral Triangle, the communities affected are among the poorest of their countries. To understand the consequences of ocean plastic pollution in coastal regions, through the eyes of local people, this study examines the knowledge, use, disposal and local consequences of single use plastics in remote island communities in two archipelagos of southern Sulawesi, Indonesia. Using mixed methods-a survey of plastic literacy and behaviour, household interviews about purchasing and disposal, and focus group discussions to generate shared mental models-we identify a complex set of factors contributing to extensive plastic leakage into the marine environment. The rising standard of living has allowed people in low resource, remote communities to buy more single-use plastic items than they could before. Meanwhile complex geography and minimal collection services make waste management a difficult issue, and leave the communities themselves to shoulder the impacts of the ocean plastic crisis. Although plastic literacy is low, there is little the coastal communities can do unless presented with better choice architecture both on the supply side and in disposal options. Our results suggest that for such coastal communities improved waste disposal is urgent. Responsible supply chains and non-plastic alternatives are needed. Producers and manufacturers can no longer focus only on low-cost packaged products, without taking responsibility for the outcomes. Without access to biodegradable, environmentally friendly products, and a circular plastic system, coastal communities and surrounding marine ecosystems will continue to be inundated in plastic waste.


Assuntos
Modelos Teóricos , Plásticos/efeitos adversos , Plásticos/análise , Gerenciamento de Resíduos/estatística & dados numéricos , Resíduos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/efeitos adversos , Animais , Ecossistema , Humanos , Indonésia , Oceanos e Mares , Resíduos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
16.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 157: 111301, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32658669

RESUMO

Marine litter is currently one of the most widespread pollutants. However, monitoring the spatial-temporal changes of floating marine litter remains challenging. In this study, with data collected by citizen scientists, we investigated the distribution and density of floating marine litter in the waters around Taiwan. With 40 volunteers surveying 978 transects in 410 cruises from December 2017 to December 2018, the overall survey area was approximately 121.26 km2 (5455 km in length). We found that the mean density of floating marine litter was 90.10 ± 8.60 items/km2 and that the majority was plastic (63.2%). Nearly 70% of the litter was found in 30% of the surveyed area. We also identified hotspots of floating marine litter, which are at the Northwestern and Southeastern regions of Taiwan. Our study highlights the contribution of citizen science to monitor floating marine litter and provides insight into the management of marine litter.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Resíduos/análise , Ciência do Cidadão , Humanos , Plásticos , Taiwan
17.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 157: 111323, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32658688

RESUMO

The Albuquerque atoll was studied as a representative natural laboratory to explore the role of sea-based sources of marine litter. This work aimed to identify the small-scale spatial distribution of marine litter (i.e., plastic, glass, paper, and others) as well as to explore the connectivity among the atoll habitats (sand beach, water surface, and reef) to give insights of potential sources of marine litter (>5 cm), mainly plastics. Marine litter was dominated by plastic items, as expected, with an average value of 0.5 items/m2. Large microplastics (1-5 mm) were also sampled on beaches with an average value of 90 particles/m2. In the atoll inner lagoon, marine litter was also composed by plastic, mainly fragments (average 0.059 items/m3). The predominance of plastic fragments on both the sea surface and beaches of the atoll makes inferences on sources limited. However, o fishing activities and sea-based sources might be relevant since local sources are very limited.


Assuntos
Praias , Plásticos , Região do Caribe , Monitoramento Ambiental , Resíduos/análise
18.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 157: 111327, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32658692

RESUMO

Marine litter is a world-wide problem, but the knowledge on this topic in remote areas such as the poles and the deep-sea is still limited. This paper seeks to provide the first accounts of deep-sea litter in the South-Western Caribbean Sea. The survey used 5066 still images from ROV video surveys around four hydrocarbon exploratory drilling zones. Forty-eight deep-sea litter items were found at depths between 427 and 2561 m, and analyzed by three different marine litter classifications. Plastic was the most frequent material (65%) and general litter the main category (69%). Almost half of the deep-sea litter items were found close to marine organism. This baseline is a first step to further research of human impact on the marine bottoms of the Caribbean. The paper highlights the importance of deep-sea litter as a descriptor of marine pollution, and the role of scientific cooperation between off-shore industry and the academy.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Resíduos/análise , Região do Caribe , Mar Mediterrâneo , Plásticos , Poluição da Água/análise
19.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 157: 111364, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32658709

RESUMO

Around the coastline of the UK, macro-debris has been observed in average densities of over 700 items per metre. Systematic beach-cleans were conducted at 35 sites around the Scottish Orkney Islands, in order to quantify and categorise the level of marine debris found there. Litter was collected from 100 m transects and categorised by its material, broad source (terrestrial or marine) and potential sector source. Variation between sites, and the relative contribution of pre-determined environmental variables in influencing said variation, were analysed using the "capscale" function for a canonical analysis of principle coordinates (CAP). 513 items/m were observed, (77% plastic), with "String/cord (<1cm diameter)" being the most abundant and widely distributed litter type. 47% of macro-debris was attributed to the fishing sector and < 10% to leisure, living and tourism-associated activities. Conversely, the unique regional hydrodynamics must be examined further, before the source of any given item can be categorically assigned.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Resíduos/análise , Ilhas , Plásticos , Escócia
20.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 157: 111373, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32658715

RESUMO

Beaches on Henderson Island, one of the Pitcairn Islands in the central South Pacific, have been reported to have some of the highest standing stocks of stranded plastic recorded. Surveys of floating debris at sea show that this is not related to high densities of plastic in the area. Only 19 macroplastic items were observed during 905 km of at-sea transects (0.5 items·km-2; 135 g·km-2). This low density confirms previous microplastic surveys which show that the Pitcairn group lies west of the South Pacific Gyre. Plastic loads on beaches at other islands in the Pitcairn group are not exceptional. The east coast of Henderson Island appears to be particularly effective at accumulating drifting debris, but many small plastic fragments on these beaches probably result from degradation in situ, so removing macroplastics will reduce the formation of microplastics.


Assuntos
Plásticos , Resíduos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Ilhas , Ilha Pitcairn
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