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1.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(33): 9295-9306, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31365237

RESUMO

As a result of an innovative olive fruit processing method involving stone removal and dehydration, a new kind of olive oil and olive flour are generated. The main objective of this work was to accomplish the comprehensive characterization of the minor compounds of both products and to evaluate the effect of the dehydration temperature on their composition. To this end, olive oil and flour samples obtained through the novel processing method were analyzed and compared with "conventional" virgin olive oils (VOO). The applied LC-MS methodology allowed the determination of 57 metabolites belonging to different chemical classes (phenolic compounds, pentacyclic trirterpenes, and tocopherols). Both the new oils and flours presented considerable amounts of olive fruit metabolites that are usually absent from VOO. Quantitative differences were found among VOOs and the new oils, probably due to the inhibition of some enzymes caused by the temperature increase or the absence of water during the processing.


Assuntos
Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Olea/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Resíduos/análise , Cromatografia Líquida , Farinha/análise , Frutas/química , Azeite de Oliva/análise , Fenóis/química , Fenóis/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Tocoferóis/química , Tocoferóis/isolamento & purificação
2.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(38): 10713-10725, 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31453702

RESUMO

Converting peanut protein biomass waste into environmentally friendly meat substitutes by a high-moisture extrusion process can help solve both resource and waste problems and be "double green". A multiscale method combined with some emerging techniques such as atomic force microscopy-based infrared spectroscopy and X-ray microscopy was used to make the whole extrusion process visible to show the process of forming a meat-like fibrous structure using two-dimensional and three-dimensional perspectives. The results showed that the protein molecules underwent dramatic structural changes and unfolded in the extruder barrel, which created favorable conditions for molecular rearrangement in the subsequent zones. It was confirmed that the meat-like fibrous structure started to form at the junction of the die and the cooling zone and that this structure was caused by the phase separation and rearrangement of protein molecules in the cooling zone. Moreover, the interactions between hydrogen bonds and disulfide bonds formed in the cooling zone maintained the meat-like fibrous structure with an α-helix > ß-sheet > ß-turn > random coil. Of the two main peanut proteins, arachin played a greater role in forming the fibrous structure than conarachin, especially those subunits of arachin with a molecular weight of 42, 39, and 22 kDa.


Assuntos
Arachis/química , Aromatizantes/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Resíduos/análise , Aromatizantes/isolamento & purificação , Química Verde , Ligações de Hidrogênio , Raios Infravermelhos , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Conformação Proteica
3.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(37): 10306-10312, 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31464431

RESUMO

Conjugated linolenic acids (CLnAs) are natural phytochemicals with known and potential bioactivities in mammals. Established CLnA sources are limited to a few common fruit seeds, notably pomegranate seeds and cherry pits, and the search for alternatives is impeded in part by cumbersome methods for reliable measurement. We investigated CLnA contents in lower value fruit seeds with a recently available facile mass spectrometry method, solvent-mediated chemical ionization, enabling and quantitative analysis. We report for the first time the detection of CLnAs in cantaloupe and honeydew seeds at levels of 2 mg CLnA/g seed kernel. Based on the combined waste stream for these muskmelons of about 1.4 billion pounds in the USA annually, we estimate that the available CLnAs amount to 37.5 tons, similar to cherry pits. Our results suggest the potentially enhanced economic value of a specific class of bioactives that may be extracted from discarded food processing waste.


Assuntos
Cucurbitaceae/química , Ácidos Linoleicos Conjugados/análise , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Sementes/química , Resíduos/análise , Ácidos Linoleicos Conjugados/isolamento & purificação , Espectrometria de Massas , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação
4.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(35): 9858-9867, 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31389230

RESUMO

Farnesene is an important chemical platform for many industrial products, such as biofuels and polymers. We performed high-efficiency utilization of corncobs for ß-farnesene production by separate hydrolysis and fermentation with an optimized Escherichia coli strain. First, we developed a recycling strategy for both corncob pretreatment and cellulose hydrolysis, which saved great amounts of pretreatment reagents and presented a 96.83% cellulose conversion rate into glucose. However, the corncob hydrolysate strongly repressed cell growth and ß-farnesene production, being caused by high-concentrated citrate. Through expressing a heterologous ATP citrate lyase and screening for a suitable expression host, an optimized strain was constructed that produced ß-farnesene at 4.06 g/L after 48 h in a 5 L fermenter, representing an approximately 2.3-fold increase over the initial strain. Therefore, the proposed strategy about the recycling process and repression elimination was successful and suitable for the production of lignocellulosic-based ß-farnesene, which can be further studied to scale up for industrialization.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Lignina/metabolismo , Sesquiterpenos/metabolismo , Fermentação , Glucose/metabolismo , Hidrólise , Engenharia Metabólica , Reciclagem , Resíduos/análise , Zea mays/química , Zea mays/microbiologia
5.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(35): 9705-9718, 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31393722

RESUMO

Antimicrobial resistance is among the most urgent global challenges facing sustainable animal production systems. The use of antibiotics as growth promoters and for infectious disease prevention in intensive animal-farming practices has translated into the selection and spread of antimicrobial resistance genes in an unprecedented fashion. Several multi-resistant bacterial strains have been isolated from food-producing animals, thus constituting an alarming food-safety issue. Many industrial byproducts with potential antimicrobial properties are currently being investigated to identify empirical and affordable solutions/alternatives that can potentially be used in feed for animals. Grape pomace is among such byproducts that gained the attention as a result of its low cost, abundance, and, most importantly, its bioactive and antibacterial properties. This review discusses the recently reported studies with regard to exploring the use of grape pomace (and its extracts) in animal production to control pathogens, along with the promotion of beneficial bacterial species in the gut to ultimately alleviate antibacterial resistance. The review further summarizes realistic expectations connected with grape pomace usage and lists the still-to-be-addressed concerns about its application in animal agriculture.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Infecções Bacterianas/veterinária , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Vitis/química , Resíduos/análise , Animais , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/metabolismo , Infecções Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Bacterianas/metabolismo , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Vitis/metabolismo
6.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(32): 8810-8818, 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31318199

RESUMO

Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck is a popular fruit cultivated around the world, and its peels are sometimes used for the treatment of cough, abdominal pain, and indigestion in China. However, the peel is discarded after fruit consumption in most cases, and its chemical constituents and biological activities have not been validated before. The present study focused on evaluation of the chemical and pharmacological profile of coumarins from peels of C. grandis against inflammation. The extracts and phytochemicals from peels of C. grandis were prepared, and anti-inflammatory activities were carried out in vivo and in vitro, including inhibiting xylene-induced ear edema and carrageenan-induced paw edema in mice and the production of inflammatory cytokines (interleukin 1ß, prostaglandin 2, and tumor-necrosis factor α) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW 264.7 cells. Results indicated that methanolic extract, ethyl acetate fraction, and four major coumarins (compounds 7, 8, 13, and 16) inhibited swelling induced by xylene and carrageenan, separately, in vivo. Furthermore, 18 coumarins inhibited inflammatory factor secretion in macrophages primed by LPS, in which compounds 4, 6, 7, 10, 17 showed the most pronounced change, which were comparable to dexamethasone. In summary, peel of C. grandis showed an anti-inflammatory effect and coumarin compounds were responsible for regulating inflammatory mediators and cytokines, which might provide a novel nutritional strategy for inflammatory diseases.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/administração & dosagem , Citrus/química , Cumarínicos/administração & dosagem , Edema/tratamento farmacológico , Frutas/química , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Cumarínicos/química , Cumarínicos/isolamento & purificação , Dinoprostona/imunologia , Edema/genética , Edema/imunologia , Humanos , Interleucina-1beta/genética , Interleucina-1beta/imunologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/imunologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Células RAW 264.7 , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/imunologia , Resíduos/análise
7.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(32): 8855-8867, 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31343893

RESUMO

Abalone (Haliotis discus hannai) is a precious seafood in the market. It has been reported that biological active substances derived from abalone have anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, and anti-thrombosis potential. However, there were few studies to assess whether they have anti-cancer potential. In this study, we evaluated the anti-metastasis and anti-pro-angiogenic factors and mechanism of action of boiled abalone byproduct peptide (BABP, EMDEAQDPSEW) in human fibrosarcoma (HT1080) cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The results demonstrated that BABP treatment significantly lowers migration and the invasion of HT1080 cells and HUVECs. BABP inhibits phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-induced matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression and activity by blocking mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and NF-κB signaling and hypoxia-induced vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secretion and hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1α accumulation through suppressing the AKT/mTOR signal pathway. BABP treatment inhibits VEGF-induced VEGFR-2 expression and tube formation in HUVECs. The effect of BABP on anti-metastatic and anti-vascular activity in HT1080 cells and HUVECs revealed that BABP may be a potential pharmacophore for tumor therapy in the future.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Angiogênese/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Gastrópodes/química , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/efeitos dos fármacos , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Resíduos/análise , Inibidores da Angiogênese/química , Inibidores da Angiogênese/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/isolamento & purificação , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/metabolismo , Humanos , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/genética , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/metabolismo , Metaloproteinase 2 da Matriz/genética , Metaloproteinase 2 da Matriz/metabolismo , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz/genética , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz/metabolismo , Metástase Neoplásica , Neovascularização Patológica/tratamento farmacológico , Neovascularização Patológica/genética , Neovascularização Patológica/metabolismo , Neovascularização Patológica/fisiopatologia , Peptídeos/química , Peptídeos/isolamento & purificação , Frutos do Mar/análise , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/genética , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Receptor 2 de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/genética , Receptor 2 de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo
8.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(31): 8649-8659, 2019 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31283213

RESUMO

Spent coffee grounds (SCG) are the most abundant coffee byproduct and are generally discarded as waste. The horticultural use of SCG and SCG compost (SCGC) has become popular due to a growing interest in environmentally friendly measures for waste disposal. Estrogen-like endocrine disrupting chemicals in the soil can be absorbed by plants and subsequently by humans who consume these plants. The objectives of this study are to determine the phytochemical profiles of extracts of SCG and SCGC and to evaluate the estrogen-like activities of SCG, SCGC, and the major coffee phenolic acids, specifically, 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid (CQA), caffeic acid, and ferulic acid. Their inductive effects on estrogen receptor (ER)-mediated gene transcription have been examined in cultured cell lines. CQA was the most abundant phenolic acid in SCG and SCGC and was further examined for its ER-mediated estrogen-like activity using various assays. This is the first study to report the estrogen-like signaling activities of coffee byproducts and their major constituents.


Assuntos
Coffea/química , Hidroxibenzoatos/metabolismo , Fitoestrógenos/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Receptores Estrogênicos/genética , Ativação Transcricional , Resíduos/análise , Animais , Ácidos Cafeicos/análise , Ácidos Cafeicos/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Compostagem , Feminino , Genes Reporter , Humanos , Hidroxibenzoatos/química , Fitoestrógenos/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Receptores Estrogênicos/metabolismo , Sementes/química
9.
Chemosphere ; 233: 414-421, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31176905

RESUMO

The natural and forced mobilization of lead, cadmium and arsenic in zinc hydrometallurgy waste is studied with the purpose of establishing potentially environmentally damaging levels and associated risks in uncontrolled situations. Differential X-Ray diffraction is used to study, in simulated environmental situations, the relevant role played by several mineralogical and amorphous phases. The study of potential mobility shows that all the samples considered are susceptible of releasing a significant amount of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) depending of the particular environmental conditions. Two situations can be considered the most problematic: the natural mobilization of the released cadmium and zinc as a result of rain, and a change in the redox conditions caused by an anoxic environment (flooding and/or incorporation of organic matter). The presence of massive quantities of soluble salts increases the hazard potential of these residues, mobilizing the PTEs and creating a potential carcinogenic risk caused by a possible oral intake for both children and adults.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Substâncias Perigosas/análise , Resíduos/análise , Zinco/análise , Arsênico/análise , Cádmio/análise , Eletrólitos/análise , Chumbo/análise , Espanha
10.
Sci Total Environ ; 683: 737-748, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31150894

RESUMO

The presence of plastic bags on coastal dunes worldwide is well documented. Plastic bags contain additives that during rainfall events can leach out from bags into sand dune and be absorbed by seeds and roots of plants. Dune plants play a fundamental role in dune system formation, yet the possible impact of bag leaching on their establishment and development has been neglected. We assessed in laboratory whether (i) not biodegradable bags (high-density polyethylene, PE) and new generation of compostable bags (Mater-bi®, MB) would influence via leaching water chemical/physical properties and (ii) leachates would affect germination and seedling growth using Thinopyrum junceum and Glaucium flavum as models. Leachates were obtained from different amounts of not-exposed and bags exposed to beach or marine conditions simulating various pollution degrees (none, low, intermediate and high pollution). All water variables were affected by leaching. The magnitude of these alterations depended on bag type and environmental exposure. Seeds of T. junceum treated with the high concentration of marine-exposed MB bag leachate germinated later than controls while those of G. flavum treated with the remaining leachates germinated earlier. For both species, leachates from the low concentration of PE and MB marine-exposed bags increased seed germinability. A short radicle was observed in T. junceum seedlings treated with not-exposed MB bag leachates. Glaucium flavum seedlings treated with beach- and marine-exposed PE bags and not-exposed MB bags leachates showed a greater below-aboveground length ratio and those grown with the low concentration of not-exposed PE bag leachate had a longer hypocotyl compared to controls. Leachates from the high concentration of PE and MB bag caused seedling anomalies in both species. These findings indicate that not biodegradable and compostable bags may interact with abiotic/biotic factors and affect via leaching germination phenology, seedling establishment and plant interactions with consequences on dune community structure.


Assuntos
Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Plásticos/toxicidade , Resíduos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Ecossistema , Germinação , Raízes de Plantas , Plásticos/análise , Plântula , Sementes
11.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(25): 7082-7086, 2019 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31199642

RESUMO

Vitamins are important nutrients for many fermentations, but they are generally costly. Agricultural lignocellulose biomass contains considerable amounts of vitamin B compounds, but these water-soluble vitamins are easily lost into wastewater discharge during pretreatment or detoxification of lignocellulose in biorefinery processes. Here, we showed that the dry acid pretreatment and biodetoxification process allowed the preservation of significant amounts of vitamin B, which promoted l-lactic acid fermentation efficiency significantly. Supplementation with specific vitamin B compounds, VB3 and VB5, into corn stover hydrolysate led to further increases of cellulosic l-lactic acid yield and fermentation rates. This study provided a new solution for the enhancement of biorefinery fermentation efficiency by using vitamin B compounds in lignocellulose biomass.


Assuntos
Ácido Láctico/metabolismo , Lignina/metabolismo , Pediococcus acidilactici/metabolismo , Complexo Vitamínico B/metabolismo , Fermentação , Hidrólise , Lignina/química , Pediococcus acidilactici/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Caules de Planta/química , Caules de Planta/metabolismo , Caules de Planta/microbiologia , Resíduos/análise , Zea mays/química , Zea mays/metabolismo , Zea mays/microbiologia
12.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 142: 69-75, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31232350

RESUMO

Estimates of marine debris are often based on beach surveys. Few studies have documented the veracity of these observations and the factors that may affect accuracy. Our laboratory-scale experiment identified potential sources of error associated with visual identification of marine debris (1-2 cm long) during shoreline surveys of sand beaches. Characteristics of the survey site (beach characteristics), observer (personal characteristics), and debris (color and size) may be important factors to consider when analyzing data from shoreline surveys. The results of this study show that the ability of individuals to accurately identify plastic fragments depends on the plastic and sand color, and density of shell fragments. Most suggestively, the high accuracy of blue plastic counts (95%) and the under-counting of white (50%) and clear plastic counts (55%) confirmed the hypothesis that a significant amount of clear and white plastic fragments may be missed during shoreline surveys. These results highlight the need for further research and possible modifications of visual shoreline survey methodologies in order to optimize this cost-effective method of marine debris monitoring.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Plásticos/análise , Resíduos/análise , Poluentes da Água/análise , Praias/estatística & dados numéricos
13.
Food Chem ; 295: 289-299, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31174761

RESUMO

A method combining solid-liquid extraction based on ethanolic aqueous solution, cLC-DAD and chemometrics, was performed to extract and quantify polyphenols from citrus peels. LC-MS/MS was also employed for chemical profiling. The effect of extraction variables on the recovery was examined by experimental factorial design. Data were evaluated using multifactorial-ANOVA, response surface analysis and Principal Component Analysis. trans-Ferulic and p-coumaric antioxidants were found in lower quantities (<1.4 mg·g-1) in all peel extracts. Narangin flavonoid was also identified in all samples, while rutin flavonol was determined in the concentration range of 3.3-4.7 mg·g-1. The most abundant polyphenol in the extracts obtained from all evaluated citrus samples was the flavanone hesperidin (280-673 mg·g-1). Furthermore, peel extracts were evaluated in terms of total polyphenol and flavonoid content, total antioxidant activity and DPPH free radical scavenging. The obtained results suggested that evaluated citrus peel by-products could be reused as a source of polyphenols and transformed into value-added products.


Assuntos
Citrus/química , Polifenóis/análise , Polifenóis/isolamento & purificação , Resíduos/análise , Análise de Variância , Antioxidantes/análise , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Cromatografia Líquida , Flavonoides/análise , Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Hesperidina/análise , Hesperidina/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química , Análise de Componente Principal , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
14.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 144: 1-10, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31179974

RESUMO

Much marine litter comes from land-based sources, with a significant amount coming from activities on bathing beaches. Thus, the overall focus of this exploratory research is to identify elements important for the design of beach infrastructure (i.e., trash cans (TCs)) to reduce littering behaviors. We base our investigation on principles of a relatively new approach, called Design for Sustainable Behavior. In doing so, we consider design for two user groups: bathing beachgoers and beach managers. We examined these users' perceptions of beach TCs through the use of an on-line survey of beachgoers, in-depth interviews with Israeli beach managers, a survey of international Blue Flag beach managers and a design 'ideation' workshop. Most importantly, we found that there is interest on the part of beach managers and other stakeholders in applying design principles to improve TCs. The findings of this study have implications for further interdisciplinary - and multidisciplinary - research on this topic.


Assuntos
Praias/normas , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Plásticos/análise , Gerenciamento de Resíduos/métodos , Resíduos/análise , Praias/estatística & dados numéricos , Resíduos de Alimentos , Israel , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 144: 117-128, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31179977

RESUMO

Rivers and estuaries are among the main entrances of litter to the marine environment. This study characterizes marine litter deposits in three estuaries of the Gulf of Biscay, assesses its potential impact in estuarine habitats based on expert elucidation, and develops a methodology to estimate the associated environmental risk. Litter was ubiquitous in the estuaries of study, mostly represented by plastic debris and sanitary waste. High marsh communities acted as litter traps, showing significantly higher litter densities than adjacent habitats. The expected impact was valued to be low but different across habitats and possible litter-habitat interactions. The estimated risk was low but different across habitats and estuaries, determined by the probability of encounter and the expected impact. This study contributes to increase the scarce knowledge available on the threat that marine litter poses in estuarine environments and presents a methodology to help identify those habitats under a higher risk.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Estuários , Plásticos/análise , Água do Mar/química , Resíduos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Ecossistema , Medição de Risco , Espanha
16.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 144: 134-139, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31179979

RESUMO

The hypothesis that carnivorous consumers associated with the seabed are more likely to ingest marine debris was tested based on stomach content analysis of fish (Trichiurus lepturus and species of Ariidae) and cetaceans (Sotalia guianensis and Pontoporia blainvillei). Among 596 stomach contents, only 22 (3.7%) contained debris. The debris was flexible plastic, nylon yard, paper, latex, styrofoam and cigarette filter. The proportion of stomach contents with debris varied among species: P. blainvillei (pelagic demersal consumer) presented the highest frequency of ingestion (15.7%), while T. lepturus (pelagic consumer), S. guianensis (pelagic consumer) and Ariidae (demersal consumer) presented similar frequencies (1.3-1.8%). Therefore, a feeding site in the water column does not predict the probability of debris ingestion. Concerning these species, this probability seems to be more associated with prey-capture strategies (or feeding behavior), regardless of debris availability in the environment.


Assuntos
Carnivoridade , Golfinhos/fisiologia , Perciformes/fisiologia , Plásticos/análise , Água do Mar/química , Resíduos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Brasil , Carnivoridade/fisiologia , Ingestão de Alimentos , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal/química
17.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 144: 235-242, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31179993

RESUMO

Land-based sources contribute approximately 80% of anthropogenic debris in marine environments. A main pathway is believed to be rivers and storm-water systems, yet this input is rarely quantified. We aimed to quantify the abundance of land-based debris entering a river system through storm drains in an urban area of tropical Australia. To account for seasonal variability, debris was quantified pre, post and during the wet season from 2014 to 2017. Plastic items within the river were compared to those in adjacent parks to assess similarities in debris composition. A total of 27,943 items were collected (92% plastic). Debris loads in the post-wet seasons were significantly higher than the wet-season. Furthermore, variability in the portion of debris found in nearby parks compared to the river suggests that factors other than rainfall, play a role in debris abundance. These results can be used to identify targeted management strategies to reduce debris loads.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Plásticos/análise , Rios/química , Resíduos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Queensland , Estações do Ano , Clima Tropical , Urbanização
18.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 144: 309-324, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31180001

RESUMO

In this study, a general methodology that is based on numerical models and statistical analysis is developed to assist in the definition of marine litter cleanup and mitigation strategies at an estuarine scale. The methodology includes four main steps: k-means clustering to identify representative metocean scenarios; dynamic downscaling to obtain high-resolution drivers with which to force a transport model; numerical transport modelling to generate a database of potential litter trajectories; and a statistical analysis of this database to obtain probabilities of litter accumulation. The efficacy of this methodology is demonstrated by its application to an estuary along the northern coast of Spain by comparing the numerical results with field data. The necessary criteria to ensure its applicability to any other estuary were provided. As the main conclusion, the developed methodology successfully assesses the litter distribution in estuaries with minimum computational effort.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Estuários , Modelos Estatísticos , Resíduos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Probabilidade , Espanha
19.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 144: 325-333, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31180002

RESUMO

The Mediterranean Sea is one of the most polluted seas in terms of marine debris. To analyze the ingestion of anthropogenic particles in two areas, 197 gastrointestinal tracts from four fish species - Trachurus mediterraneus, Sardina pilchardus, Engraulis encrasicolus and Boops boops - were studied. 127 anthropogenic particles were identified in the gastrointestinal tract of 28% of the samples using visual sorting methods. Individuals from the peninsular coast showed higher ingestion occurrence (36%) than those from the Balearic Islands (12%). Significant differences in the ingestion of anthropogenic particles were found between species with Trachurus mediterraneus identified as the most affected species (43% of the individuals with mean values of 1.13 ±â€¯0.16 particles/individual), and Engraulis encrasicolus, the least affected (2.56% and 0.03 ±â€¯0.16 particles/individual). Moreover, the proportion of ingestion amongst species was similar in both areas, highlighting the importance of studying the same species at different locations as marine debris bioindicators.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal/química , Perciformes , Plásticos/análise , Resíduos/análise , Animais , Ingestão de Alimentos , Biomarcadores Ambientais , Mar Mediterrâneo , Perciformes/fisiologia , Espanha , Especificidade da Espécie
20.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 144: 48-60, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31180006

RESUMO

Marine litter is a global, persistent, and increasing threat to the oceans, and numerous initiatives aim to address this challenge. Fishing For Litter (FFL) is a voluntary clean-up scheme, where litter is collected as part of routine fishing operations. We surveyed fishers (n = 97) and stakeholders (n = 22) in the UK to investigate perceptions of FFL, its strengths and weaknesses, and potential co-benefits of the scheme. Fishers reported being aware of and concerned about the negative impacts of litter. Overall, FFL was evaluated very positively (7.85/10). In addition, FFL fishers reported less environmentally harmful waste management behaviors both out at sea and in other contexts than did non-FFL fishers. Fishers and stakeholders listed strengths and weaknesses of the scheme and made suggestions for future changes. As well as directly helping to remove litter, this paper demonstrates that clean-up schemes can make a contribution to addressing the underlying causes of marine pollution.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Pesqueiros , Gerenciamento de Resíduos/métodos , Resíduos/análise , Poluentes da Água/análise , Atitude , Oceanos e Mares , Reino Unido
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