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1.
Mar Environ Res ; 169: 105345, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33964671

RESUMO

In 2018, unidentified packages appeared along approximately 1600 Km of the Brazilian coastline causing widespread pollution to beaches and danger to society. The packages were found to be bales of raw rubber ranging in size from 0.06 m³ to 3.4 m³ and weighing up to 200 kg. A few bales were marked with the stamp "Product of French Indochina" and colonized by the barnacle Lepas anatifera, an oceanic species. We found that unidentified packages are from a Second World War (WWII) shipwreck, and that the source is almost certainly the SS Rio Grande found at 5,762 m depth. Numerical simulations show that currents can carry out the bales from the SS Rio Grande to the beaches. We highlight transnational measures to study and protect the WWI shipwrecks because they represent an overlooked environmental risk.


Assuntos
Thoracica , Animais , Praias , Brasil , Monitoramento Ambiental , Oceanos e Mares , Plásticos , Resíduos/análise
2.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 168: 112372, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33940371

RESUMO

Floating marine debris (FMD) were abundantly reported in the Northern Chilean Patagonia in 2009 where sea-based activities (mussel and salmon aquaculture) are responsible for most of them. Identifying the sources of FMD is important to take the necessary actions to diminish their abundance. In 2019 eleven transects were opportunistically conducted to evaluate the abundance, spatial distribution and composition of FMD in the same area, and to compare them with the previous study using the same methodology. FMD identified were classified into the same six categories from the previous study, however "Others" category were now the dominant one indicating that new pollutants have been increasing during the last decade. Inside the "others" category, plastics buoy and other floating devices, that normally are used by the salmon aquaculture, were the main items. Similarly than the previous study, styrofoam and domestic plastics were also the other most abundant items. In general, also, an increase in abundance compared with the previous study was found. The highest abundances were similarly found in the "Golfo de Corcovado" zone ranging from 50 to 230 items km-2. Our results, as well as the previous study, confirm that sea-based activities are still responsible for the FMD found in the Northern Patagonia. To avoid the origin of this contamination it is urgent to implement public policies that effectively reduce FMD, and hold the aquaculture industries responsible.


Assuntos
Poluentes da Água , Poluição da Água , Chile , Monitoramento Ambiental , Plásticos , Resíduos/análise , Poluentes da Água/análise , Poluição da Água/análise
3.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 168: 112428, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33940375

RESUMO

Plastic production and pollution of the environment with plastic items is rising rapidly and outpacing current mitigation measures. Success of mitigation actions can only be determined if progress can be measured reliably through incorporation of specific, measurable targets. Here we evaluate temporal changes in the amount and composition of plastic in boluses from Flesh-footed Shearwaters during 2002-2020 and assess their suitability for measuring progress against national and international commitments to reduce plastic pollution. Plastic in the shearwater boluses showed a generally decreasing pattern from 2002 to 2015 and increasing again to 2020. The colour and type of plastics in boluses was comparable to items recovered from live and necropsied birds, but a much smaller sample size (~35 boluses/year) was required to detect changes in plastic number and mass over time. We therefore suggest shearwater boluses are a low-effort, high-statistical power monitoring tool for quantifying progress against environmental policies in Australia.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Plásticos , Animais , Austrália , Aves , Resíduos/análise
4.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 168: 112432, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33962083

RESUMO

Shallow seafloor marine litter (ML) is the least studied component of ML, and a better understanding of its distribution and accumulation patterns is needed to develop efficient management practices. Abundance and composition of seafloor ML were quantified in two eastern Adriatic Natura 2000 sites (Vis Island and Pakleni Islands), applying a structured sampling design to test whether the intensity of nautical tourism or exposure to prevailing winds and currents are significant drivers determining the ML distribution on shallow, coastal seafloor. ML was widespread and present in considerable amounts across the entire studied area, regardless of the remoteness from most known potential ML sources. Tourism intensity and exposure seem not to be significant predictors of ML accumulation in the investigated Natura 2000 sites. ML abundances displayed large small-scale spatial variation, while for ML composition at a larger scale, regional differences between the two Natura 2000 sites were detected. The Pakleni Islands are mainly polluted by glass items, suggesting a local vessel-based source. The ML composition on Vis Island, with a predominance of plastics, is more determined by long-distance transport. The study indicates the complexity and multi-layeredness of processes driving the patterns of seafloor ML accumulation. Hence, it is suggested to mitigate the issue by addressing the root causes: inadequate waste management and lack of public awareness.


Assuntos
Gerenciamento de Resíduos , Resíduos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Plásticos/análise , Resíduos/análise , Vento
5.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 168: 112466, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33989953

RESUMO

The conventional survey of marine debris standing-stock has various drawbacks such as high cost and inaccuracy because the total amount of debris in the whole beach is inferred using the results of the manual investigation in selected narrow areas. To overcome the disadvantages, an automatic detection method using a deep learning-based network model was developed to detect and quantify the beach debris. The network model developed in this study classified items with a precision of 0.87 (87%) mAP and showed <5% error compared to actual survey. This study is the first fieldwork in Korea that shows the difference between automatic and conventional methods to predict the beach debris standing-stock. The results provide essential information for the development of effective beach debris management systems and policies.


Assuntos
Praias , Aprendizado Profundo , Monitoramento Ambiental , Plásticos , República da Coreia , Resíduos/análise
6.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 168: 112471, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34000707

RESUMO

Marine litter in mangroves comes mainly from poor waste management practices and its abundance is increased by natural catastrophes occurrence that affects coastal settlements, as occurred in November-2020, when two hurricanes (ETA and IOTA) destroyed homes and deposited litters in mangroves of the Providencia and Santa Catalina islands, in the Colombian Caribbean. This study aims to assess the litter pollution in mangrove forests of these islands after Hurricane IOTA. Litter pollution was high in mangroves near urban areas and low in mangroves with little urban influence. In three mangrove sectors with high pollution, litter densities of 0.4-1.4 items m-2 and masses of 0.1-1.2 kg m-2 were determined; the majority were megalitter (sizes >1 m). Plastics were the most abundant (>60%). Local community is aware of the litter pollution problem and their participation in scientific research and mangroves recovery is key to understanding the impacts of natural and anthropogenic events and for ecosystem conservation.


Assuntos
Tempestades Ciclônicas , Ecossistema , Região do Caribe , Colômbia , Monitoramento Ambiental , Ilhas , Plásticos , Providencia , Resíduos/análise , Áreas Alagadas
7.
Environ Sci Process Impacts ; 23(4): 535-552, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33908937

RESUMO

Macroplastics are the primary contributor to riverine plastic pollution by mass, posing a wide range of serious threats for riverine systems, from adversely affecting various life forms within the riverine system, to potentially increasing flood risk, and generally resulting in adverse effects on any livelihoods. Compared to other river-related research disciplines, research into riverine macroplastics and their effects has not yet featured prominently. Various quantification methods are presently used to assess the presence of macroplastics at different locations within river systems; however, overcoming limitations and unifying methods remain an essential need. Macroplastic dynamics in rivers are subject to various factors, including both material and river characteristics. We review the diverse factors that potentially influence macroplastic dynamics in rivers, and highlight our knowledge limits. We advocate for future research that enables synergies between improved field quantification techniques, use of global protocols and data sharing, and laboratory experiments. This is needed to obtain a riverine macroplastic budget model, required for the implementation of targeted management practices. Finally, a multilayer potential management strategy is presented: (i) reducing the macroplastic supply into rivers; (ii) removing effectively and safely macroplastics from within rivers; and (iii) treating macroplastics once removed from the riverine system.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Rios , Poluição Ambiental , Plásticos , Resíduos/análise
8.
J Biosci Bioeng ; 132(1): 25-32, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33867273

RESUMO

Most commercially circulating mushrooms are produced via cultivation using artificially produced mushroom substrates. However, after mushroom harvesting, the disposal of spent mushroom substrates (SMSs) is a serious problem for the mushroom industry owing to the need for a disposal site and the cost involved. Thus, in view of the possibility of recycling SMSs as a soil modifier, we examined the effect of soil mixed with SMSs on the infection of Arabidopsis leaves by Alternaria brassicicola, the causal agent of cabbage leaf spot. The mixing of SMSs used for Hypsizygus marmoreus, Pholiota microspora, Lyophyllum decastes, and Auricularia polytricha into culture soil suppressed the lesion formation caused by A. brassicicola. The defense responses of Arabidopsis were not induced by the culturing of these seedlings in soils containing SMSs. Suppressed lesion formation was observed after the seedlings were treated with volatiles emitted from SMSs that were incubated with soil for 7 days and used for H. marmoreus, P. microspora, L. decastes, A. polytricha, Lentinula edodes, and Cyclocybe cylindracea. The volatiles from the SMSs reduced the elongation of A. brassicicola hyphae. GC-MS analyses of extracts from the SMS containing soils led to the detection of various volatile compounds; among these, skatole, 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol, γ-dodecalactone, butyric acid, guaiacol, 6-amyl-2-pyrone, and 1-octen-3-ol were examined for inhibitory activity on A. brassicicola and found to suppress hyphae elongation. These findings indicate that the antifungal volatile compounds emitted by the SMSs suppress A. brassicicola infection.


Assuntos
Agaricales/química , Alternaria/fisiologia , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/farmacologia , Alternaria/efeitos dos fármacos , Arabidopsis/microbiologia , Brassica/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Solo , Resíduos/análise
9.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 168: 112418, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33930645

RESUMO

Plastic pollution is becoming a growing concern on coastal tourism sites. Unquantified amounts of plastic materials are discharged into coastal waters with detrimental effects on local marine environments. With the expansion of the tourism industry, waste increasingly originates from tourism activities and ends up into the ocean due to poor management of solid waste post-consumption. This study explores the sources, abundance, and type of litter in Zanzibar, Tanzania by surveying four coastal tourism sites. The analysis illustrates the contributions to plastic pollution of four sectors of Zanzibar's economy (residential households, building and construction, tourism, and commercial sector). Findings suggest that plastic accounted for almost half (48.5%) of the waste inflow to the environment, and single-use packaging was the dominant litter item on all sampled sites.


Assuntos
Plásticos , Resíduos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluição Ambiental , Tanzânia , Turismo , Resíduos/análise
10.
Molecules ; 26(5)2021 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33801293

RESUMO

In this study, the role of two reactive fillers, specifically a sand from a clay washing process as an alternative to waste glass powder and a commercial metakaolin (MK), into the geopolymerization process of waste clay-based materials was assessed. Three kinds of clayey wastes from mining operations-halloysitic, kaolinitic and smectitic clays-were tested as potential precursor of geopolymeric materials in view of a potential valorisation of these by-products. A mix-design based on the addition of low percentages (20%) of these fillers or MK to improve the mechanical and chemico-physical properties of geopolymeric formulations was evaluated. All the clays were thermally treated at a temperature of 650 °C, while the geopolymeric pastes were cured at room temperature. In particular, the chemical stability in water (pH and ionic conductivity of leachate water, weight loss), the variations in the microstructure (XRD, SEM), and in the mechanical performance (compressive strength) were analysed. The most reactive additive was MK, followed by sand and waste glass at very similar levels-1:1 or 2:1-depending upon the type of the clay but not strictly related to the clay type. The increase of geopolymeric gel densification due to the presence of MK and sand was replaced by a crack deflection mechanism in the case of the WG grains. The worst performance (chemical stability and mechanical properties) was found for the halloysitic clay, while kaolinitic and smectitic clays developed strengths slightly below 30 MPa.


Assuntos
Argila/química , Materiais de Construção/análise , Vidro/química , Resíduos Industriais/análise , Caulim/química , Areia , Resíduos/análise , Temperatura
11.
Molecules ; 26(5)2021 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33802601

RESUMO

Annually, millions of tons of foods are generated with the purpose to feed the growing world population. One particular eatable is orange, the production of which in 2018 was 75.54 Mt. One way to valorize the orange residue is to produce bioethanol by fermenting the reducing sugars generated from orange peel. Hence, the objective of the present work was to determine the experimental conditions to obtain the maximum yield of reducing sugars from orange peel using a diluted acid hydrolysis process. A proximate and chemical analysis of the orange peel were conducted. For the hydrolysis, two factorial designs were prepared to measure the glucose and fructose concentration with the 3,5-DNS acid method and UV-Visible spectroscopy. The factors were acid concentration, temperature and hydrolysis time. After the hydrolysis, the orange peel samples were subjected to an elemental SEM-EDS analysis. The results for the orange peel were 73.530% of moisture, 99.261% of volatiles, 0.052% of ash, 0.687% of fixed carbon, 19.801% of lignin, 69.096% of cellulose and 9.015% of hemicellulose. The highest concentration of glucose and fructose were 24.585 and 9.709 g/L, respectively. The results highlight that sugar production is increased by decreasing the acid concentration.


Assuntos
Carboidratos/química , Citrus sinensis/metabolismo , Resíduos/análise , Carboidratos/isolamento & purificação , Citrus sinensis/química , Fermentação , Hidrólise , Temperatura
12.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 167: 112296, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33799144

RESUMO

Marine litter, such as plastic bags, bottles, fabrics, or fishing gear, serve as a shelter for many marine organisms that are likely to colonize artificial substrata. Such assemblages can potentially turn marine litter into vectors of alien invasive species (AIS). Here, we report the abundance and diversity of macroinvertebrates inhabiting marine litter in Peruvian beaches. Results indicate that most of the fouled items found came from land-based sources (81.5%) and Bivalvia was the most abundant class (53.5%), mainly composed of the mussel Semimytilus algosus. No significant differences were found in the abundance and diversity of macroinvertebrates (class level) among sampling sites or sources of litter. Polypropylene and low-density polyethylene items were most frequently found with fouled biota. Although none of the identified species were non-native to the coast of Peru, we discuss marine litter as a potential source of AIS in this region.


Assuntos
Plásticos , Resíduos , Animais , Praias , Monitoramento Ambiental , Espécies Introduzidas , Peru , Resíduos/análise
13.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 167: 112263, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33799146

RESUMO

Despite an increasing understanding of the issue of marine pollution, humanity continues on a largely unsustainable trajectory. This study aimed to identify and classify the range of scientific studies and interventions to address coastal and marine pollution. We reviewed 2417 scientific papers published between 2000 and 2018, 741 of which we analysed in depth. To classify pollution interventions, we applied the systems-oriented concept of leverage points, which focuses on places to intervene in complex systems to bring about systemic change. We found that pollution is largely studied as a technical problem and fewer studies engage with pollution as a systemic social-ecological issue. While recognising the importance of technical solutions, we highlight the need to focus on under-researched areas pertaining to the deeper drivers of pollution (e.g. institutions, values) which are needed to fundamentally alter system trajectories.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Poluição Ambiental , Monitoramento Ambiental , Plásticos , Resíduos/análise
14.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 167: 112258, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33839567

RESUMO

The launch of Roadmap towards Zero Single-use Plastics in 2018 demands baseline data on the management of marine debris in Malaysia. In 2021, Malaysia is placed 28th top plastic polluter in the world with plastic consumption at 56 kg/capita/year, therefore data on mismanaged plastic is imperative. This paper reviews the abundance and distribution of marine debris in selected Malaysian beaches over the last decade (2010-2020) and discusses issue on its management. Plastic debris on beaches in Malaysia, was reported to range from 64 items/m2, to as high as 1930 items/m2, contributing 30-45% of total waste collected. Plastics film was the most dominant, mainly originated from packaging materials. Therefore, appropriate action including improved marine waste management system is crucial to tackle the problem, together with effective governance mechanisms. Various suggestions were proposed based on the statistical-environmental data to reduce the occurrence of marine debris in the country.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Resíduos , Praias , Poluição Ambiental , Malásia , Plásticos , Resíduos/análise
15.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 167: 112346, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33865042

RESUMO

Information from established beach litter protocols is insufficient to implement targeted, preventive management measures. Complementary methodologies, named "Beach litter Deep Dives", have been developed to get a better understanding of the sources of and behaviour behind littering. The methods are adaptive and determined by the context and aim of the deep dive. A Professional Deep Dive's aim is documentation, where trained professionals register information relevant for the research or management question of concern. Deep Dives with Experts invites people from relevant backgrounds that have knowledge on the sources of and behaviour behind litter found. Deep Dive Workshops focus on dialogue with stakeholders and decision makers to identify actions. Experience from deep dives illustrates their potential to provide valuable information that is directly relevant to managers and polluters. Inclusion of stakeholders has increased their awareness, resulting in polluters taking ownership to the problem and motivated measures to reduce littering.


Assuntos
Praias , Resíduos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Resíduos/análise
16.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 167: 112366, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33866204

RESUMO

Plastics are an environmental threat; however, their fate once in the pelagic environment is poorly known. We compare results from assessments of floating plastics in the South Pacific Ocean with accumulated beach plastics from Henderson Island. We also compare accumulated plastic mass on Henderson during 2015 and 2019 and investigate the presence of nanoplastics. There were differences between the size classes of beach and pelagic plastics, and an increase in microplastics (0.33-5 mm) on the beach between 2015 and 2019. Micro- and nanoplastics were found at all sites (mean ± SE: 1960 ± 356 pieces/kg dw). Across the whole beach this translates to >4 billion plastic particles in the upper 5 cm. This is concerning, particularly given Henderson is uninhabited and distant from urban centres (~2350 km from Pape'ete, French Polynesia). The vast number of small particles on Henderson may make nearshore filter feeders susceptible to ingestion and subsequent detrimental impacts.


Assuntos
Plásticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Monitoramento Ambiental , Ilhas , Oceano Pacífico , Polinésia , Resíduos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
17.
Molecules ; 26(8)2021 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33918886

RESUMO

Defatted seed meals of oleaginous Brassicaceae, such as Eruca sativa, and potato peel are excellent plant matrices to recover potentially useful biomolecules from industrial processes in a circular strategy perspective aiming at crop protection. These biomolecules, mainly glycoalkaloids and phenols for potato and glucosinolates for Brassicaceae, have been proven to be effective against microbes, fungi, nematodes, insects, and even parasitic plants. Their role in plant protection is overviewed, together with the molecular basis of their synthesis in plant, and the description of their mechanisms of action. Possible genetic and biotechnological strategies are presented to increase their content in plants. Genetic mapping and identification of closely linked molecular markers are useful to identify the loci/genes responsible for their accumulation and transfer them to elite cultivars in breeding programs. Biotechnological approaches can be used to modify their allelic sequence and enhance the accumulation of the bioactive compounds. How the global challenges, such as reducing agri-food waste and increasing sustainability and food safety, could be addressed through bioprotector applications are discussed here.


Assuntos
Brassicaceae/química , Proteção de Cultivos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Solanum tuberosum/química , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Resíduos/análise
18.
Molecules ; 26(7)2021 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33917644

RESUMO

Oxidative stability of food is one of the most important parameters affecting integrity and consequently nutritional properties of dietary constituents. Antioxidants are widely used to avoid deterioration during transformation, packaging, and storage of food. In this paper, novel poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA)-based films were prepared by solvent casting method adding an hydroxytyrosol-enriched extract (HTyrE) or an oleuropein-enriched extract (OleE) in different percentages (5, 10 and 20% w/w) and a combination of both at 5% w/w. Both extracts were obtained from olive oil wastes and by-products using a sustainable process based on membrane technologies. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of each sample carried out by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and nuclear resonance magnetic spectroscopy (NMR) proved that the main components were hydroxytyrosol (HTyr) and oleuropein (Ole), respectively, two well-known antioxidant bioactive compounds found in Olea europaea L. All novel formulations were characterized investigating their morphological, optical and antioxidant properties. The promising performances suggest a potential use in active food packaging to preserve oxidative-sensitive food products. Moreover, this research represents a valuable example of reuse and valorization of agro-industrial wastes and by-products according to the circular economy model.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Glucosídeos Iridoides/farmacologia , Azeite de Oliva/química , Álcool Feniletílico/análogos & derivados , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Álcool de Polivinil/química , Resíduos/análise , Varredura Diferencial de Calorimetria , Sequestradores de Radicais Livres/química , Glucosídeos Iridoides/química , Fenóis/análise , Álcool Feniletílico/química , Álcool Feniletílico/farmacologia , Espectroscopia de Prótons por Ressonância Magnética , Termogravimetria
19.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 166: 112188, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33795148

RESUMO

The abyss (3500-6500 m) covers the bulk of the deep ocean floor yet little is known about the extent of plastic debris on the abyssal seafloor. Using video imagery we undertook a quantitative assessment of the debris present on the abyssal seafloor (5700-5800 m depth) beneath the Kuroshio Extension current system in the Northwest Pacific. This body of water is one of the major transit pathways for the massive amounts of debris that are entering the North Pacific Ocean from Asia. Shallower sites (1400-1500 m depth) were also investigated for comparison. The dominant type of debris was single-use plastics - mainly bags and food packaging. The density of the plastic debris (mean 4561 items/km2) in the abyssal zone was the highest recorded for an abyssal plain suggesting that the deep-sea basin in the Northwest Pacific is a significant reservoir of plastic debris.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Plásticos , Ásia , Oceano Pacífico , Resíduos/análise
20.
Environ Pollut ; 280: 116954, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33773306

RESUMO

Marine litter is widely distributed in marine environments and has been a severe concern worldwide, due to the disposal of waste from diverse sources. The severity of this threat has garnered increasing attention in India over the last decade, but the full consequences of this pollution are yet to be quantified. To estimate the spatiotemporal distribution, composition and beach quality of marine litter pollution, 17 beaches along the Hooghly estuary, a part of the Gangetic delta was studied. Marine litter was collected from 100 m long transects during two seasons (monsoon and post-monsoon). The OSPAR monitoring standard was applied to the 16,597 litter items collected, then grouped under 6 types and 44 categories. In terms of number, litter abundance was higher during monsoon (1.10 ± 0.39 items/m2) than that of post-monsoon (0.86 ± 0.32 items/m2). Most of the beaches were categorized as low cleanliness as computed by the general index and clean coast index and the good for the pellet pollution index. Hazardous litter constituted 6.5% of the total collected litter items. The model prediction revealed that the influence of high discharge from Hooghly, Rasulpur and Subarnarekha River carried enormous anthropogenic litter to the northeast beaches. The litter flux decreases with an increase in distance from the shore, and act as a sink to the sea-floor. The results denote that the distribution and typology of marine litter were representatives of household, tourism and fishing, which in turn highlights the need for better regional litter management measures. Suggested management practices include source reduction, mitigation, management of beach environment and change in littering behaviour through environmental education.


Assuntos
Praias , Plásticos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Índia , Resíduos/análise
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