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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 670: 181-187, 2019 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31018438

RESUMO

Plastic debris is a worldwide problem. This is particularly acute in the Pacific region, where its scale is a reason for serious concerns. There is an obvious need for studies to assess the extent to which plastic debris affects the Pacific. Therefore, this research aims to address this need by undertaking a systematic assessment of the ecological and health impacts of plastic debris on Pacific islands. Using pertinent historical qualitative and quantitative data of the distribution of plastic debris in the region, this study identified pollution and contamination trends and risks to ecosystems, and suggests some measures which may be deployed to address the identified problems. The study illustrates the fact that Pacific Island States are being disproportionately affected by plastic, and reiterates that further studies and integrated strategies are needed, involving public education and empowerment, governmental action, as well as ecologically sustainable industry leadership. It is also clear that more research is needed in respect of developing alternatives to conventional plastic, by the production of bio-plastic, i.e. plastic which is produced from natural (e.g. non-fossil fuel-based sources) materials, and which can be fully biodegradable.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Plásticos/efeitos adversos , Resíduos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes da Água/efeitos adversos , Animais , Humanos , Ilhas do Pacífico
2.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 139: 1-5, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30686404

RESUMO

Marine debris is defined as any manmade item, commonly plastics, which ends up in the ocean regardless of the source. Debris found along coastlines can cause harm or even death to nesting and hatchling sea turtles through ingestion, entrapment, or entanglement. Jekyll Island is a prominent nesting beach for loggerhead sea turtles with over 1700 emergences from 2012 to 2017. This study uses debris logged through NOAA's Marine Debris Tracker and loggerhead sea turtle nesting activity on Jekyll Island to generate density maps and evaluate possible interactions. These maps provide valuable information on portions of the coast most at risk for debris and sea turtle interactions. Using these maps help the GSTC Marine Debris Initiative focus citizen science efforts in high overlap areas of the beach. With marine debris being a global issue that impacts all sea turtle and beach nesting species, lessons learned can be applied across a wide range of taxa and management strategies.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Comportamento de Nidação/efeitos dos fármacos , Plásticos/análise , Tartarugas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Resíduos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Georgia , Ilhas , Plásticos/efeitos adversos , Tartarugas/fisiologia , Resíduos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/efeitos adversos
3.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 139: 59-64, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30686449

RESUMO

Anthropogenic marine debris (AMD) can cause obstructions for nesting marine turtles and hatchlings, increase their exposure to toxicants, and potentially alter the incubating environment of clutches. Given the potential impacts of AMD on marine turtles, this study provides baseline information on the abundance and distribution of AMD at the ten highest density nesting beaches in Florida used by the Northern Gulf of Mexico Loggerhead Recovery Unit. Monitoring for AMD at nesting beaches was conducted in 2017 following protocols from the International Coastal Cleanup. AMD was present at all the nesting beaches, with the majority of AMD observed at the westernmost sites beginning with St. Joseph Peninsula State Park (363 AMD/km) with a gradual decrease of abundance to the easternmost site, Alligator Point (16 AMD/km). Plastic and foam items accounted for 92% (n = 13,566) of all AMD found.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Comportamento de Nidação/efeitos dos fármacos , Plásticos/análise , Tartarugas/fisiologia , Resíduos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Florida , Golfo do México , Plásticos/efeitos adversos , Resíduos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/efeitos adversos
4.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 171: 798-804, 2019 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30660973

RESUMO

To manage the pistachio de-hulling waste (PW), investigated the co-composting process using a mixture of PW and cattle manure (CM) (5.5:10 dry weight) as well as PW and municipal dewatering sewage sludge (DSS) (1:10 dry weight) at the laboratory scale for 60 days. Compost toxicity was evaluated using the seed germination index (GI). The maximum temperatures in co-composting processes of PW+CM (51.9 °C) and PW+DSS (49.9 °C) were reported on the seventh day. The increase of temperature was higher in PW+CM and remained in the thermophilic phase for five days. In both reactors, the pH rates decreased, increased, and finally remained neutral. The C/N ratio decreased in both reactors, but the reduction rate was faster in the PW+DSS reactor. Sodium (Na%) and potassium (K%) contents were increased, while the concentrations of Cu, Zn, Fe, and Mn were decreased during the processes. The numbers of parasite eggs in the final composts of the reactors containing PW+CM and PW+DSS were zero and 8 Number/4gDW, respectively. The amounts of Salmonella were zero in the final products of reactors containing PW+CM and PW+DSS. The results of GI showed that the final compost of PW+CM process was not toxic for the plants, whereas the PW+DDS final compost was toxic. In conclusion, the co-compost product of the PW+CM reactor had higher quality than the PW+DSS reactor. So, it is suitable for PW management.


Assuntos
Esterco , Pistacia , Esgotos , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , Resíduos/efeitos adversos , Animais , Bovinos , Compostagem , Metais/análise , Temperatura
5.
Sci Total Environ ; 651(Pt 2): 2400-2409, 2019 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30336429

RESUMO

The environmental, social and cultural importance of beaches permeates human society, yet the risk of human injury associated with increasing exposure to anthropogenic beach litter remains an unknown. While the impact of marine debris and beach litter on marine and coastal fauna and flora is a widely reported global issue, we investigate the impact on human health in New Zealand. Anthropogenic beach litter is ubiquitous, few beaches remain pristine, which consequently influences tourist choices and potentially negatively interacts with humans. Human impacts are not well-investigated, with no quantitative studies of impact but many studies qualitatively inferring impact. New Zealand has a socialised medical system allowing a quantitative, decadal assessment of medical insurance claims to determine patterns and trends across ecosystems and causes. We demonstrate for the first time that anthropogenic beach litter poses a common and pervasive exposure hazard to all ages, with specific risk posed to young children. The New Zealand system allows these hazards to be investigated to determine the true effects and costs across a nation, providing an evidence base for decision-makers to address this ubiquitous environmental issue.


Assuntos
Praias , Monitoramento Ambiental , Resíduos/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nova Zelândia , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
6.
Hum Exp Toxicol ; 38(1): 3-10, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29932008

RESUMO

Occupational exposure to the waste anaesthetic gases (WAGs) is a crucial problem for healthcare personnel. Cancer is among the potential long-term adverse effects of WAGs. The present occupational molecular epidemiology study was conducted in healthcare personnel (anaesthetists, nurses and technicians; n = 46), working in operating rooms (ORs; n = 34) and recovery units (RUs; n = 12) of the same hospital, to assess the genotoxicity risk of WAGs exposure. Twenty-one healthy available hospital staff allocated to other wards, without the history of working in ORs and RUs were the control group. A micronucleus test was carried out for peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) and buccal epithelial cells (BECs). Exposure to the anaesthetics was assessed with sevoflurane concentrations and inorganic fluoride levels in post-shift urine samples of the healthcare staff. As an exposure marker, sevoflurane concentrations in ORs and RUs were measured using passive samplers. The micronuclei frequencies were increased in both PBLs (approximately two times) and BECs (approximately three times) of the healthcare personnel. Urinary sevoflurane concentrations exceeded the biological equivalent level in 23 personnel. Air sevoflurane levels in the breathing zone in three ORs and one RU did not exceed the established occupational exposure limits. Both in surrogate tissue (PBLs) and in target tissue (BECs) of the personnel of RUs and ORs of the same hospital, the genotoxicity risk was evident and similar. Originality of this study, in addition to the WAGs exposure confirmation of the healthcare personnel, was the involvement of the RU personnel for the genotoxicity assessment, which was the first time in the scientific literature.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/efeitos adversos , Anestésicos Inalatórios/efeitos adversos , Micronúcleos com Defeito Cromossômico/induzido quimicamente , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Salas Cirúrgicas , Sala de Recuperação , Sevoflurano/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/análise , Anestésicos Inalatórios/análise , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Feminino , Fluoretos/urina , Humanos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/efeitos dos fármacos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , Masculino , Testes para Micronúcleos , Mucosa Bucal/citologia , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Recursos Humanos em Hospital , Sevoflurano/análise , Resíduos/efeitos adversos , Resíduos/análise
7.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 12536, 2018 09 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30213956

RESUMO

Plastic in the marine environment is a growing environmental issue. Sea turtles are at significant risk of ingesting plastic debris at all stages of their lifecycle with potentially lethal consequences. We tested the relationship between the amount of plastic a turtle has ingested and the likelihood of death, treating animals that died of known causes unrelated to plastic ingestion as a statistical control group. We utilized two datasets; one based on necropsies of 246 sea turtles and a second using 706 records extracted from a national strandings database. Animals dying of known causes unrelated to plastic ingestion had less plastic in their gut than those that died of either indeterminate causes or due to plastic ingestion directly (e.g. via gut impaction and perforation). We found a 50% probability of mortality once an animal had 14 pieces of plastic in its gut. Our results provide the critical link between recent estimates of plastic ingestion and the population effects of this environmental threat.


Assuntos
Plásticos/toxicidade , Tartarugas/fisiologia , Resíduos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Ingestão de Alimentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos
8.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 10029, 2018 07 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29968739

RESUMO

Cellulose and lignin are the main polymeric components of the forest litter horizon. We monitored microbial community composition using phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis and investigated the ligninolytic and cellulolytic enzyme activities of the litter horizon across an alpine treeline ecotone in the eastern Tibetan Plateau. The activities of ligninolytic and cellulolytic enzymes and the biomass of microbial PLFAs were higher in the initial stage of litter decomposition than in the latter stage in the three vegetation types (coniferous forest, alpine shrubland and alpine meadow). Soil microbial community structure varied significantly over the course of litter decomposition in the three vegetation types. Furthermore, the BIOENV procedure revealed that the carbon to nitrogen (C:N) ratio, carbon to phosphorus (C:P) ratio and moisture content (MC) were the most important determinants of microbial community structure in the initial stage of litter decomposition, whereas pH and the lignin concentration were the major factors influencing the microbial community structure in the later stage of litter decomposition. These findings indicate that litter quality drives the differentiation of microbial communities in the litter horizon across an alpine treeline ecotone in the eastern Tibetan Plateau.


Assuntos
Celulose/análise , Lignina/análise , Resíduos/efeitos adversos , Altitude , Biomassa , Carbono/análise , Monitorização de Parâmetros Ecológicos/métodos , Ecossistema , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Florestas , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Microbiota , Nitrogênio/análise , Fosfolipídeos/análise , Fósforo/análise , Folhas de Planta/química , Estações do Ano , Solo/química , Microbiologia do Solo , Temperatura , Tibet , Traqueófitas
10.
Braz J Infect Dis ; 21(3): 306-311, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28365193

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Exposures to sharps injuries occurring in the community are relatively frequent. We describe characteristics of community sharp exposures reported in the city of Rio de Janeiro from 1997 to 2010. METHODS: A cross-sectional analysis of exposure reports to sharps in the community reported to a surveillance system, designed for health care workers, of the Municipal Health Department of Rio de Janeiro. The characteristics of exposed individuals analyzed included types of exposure, the circumstances of the accident, and the prophylaxis offered. RESULTS: 582 exposures were studied. Median age was 30 years and 83 (14%) involved children with less than 10 years of age. Two hundred and seventeen (37%) occurred with sharps found in the streets. The exposure was percutaneous in 515 (89%) and needles where involved in 406 (70%) of them. The sharps were present in the trash in 227 (39%) or in the environment in 167 (29%) of the reports. Professionals who work with frequent contact with domestic or urban waste were 196 (38%). The source was known in 112 (19%) of the exposures and blood was involved in 269 (46%). Only 101 (19%) of the injured subjects reported a complete course of vaccination for hepatitis B. Antiretroviral prophylaxis was prescribed for 392 (68%) of the exposed subjects. CONCLUSIONS: Sharps injuries occurring in the community are an important health problem. A great proportion would be avoided if practices on how to dispose needles and sharps used outside health units were implemented.


Assuntos
Patógenos Transmitidos pelo Sangue , Ferimentos Penetrantes Produzidos por Agulha/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Agulhas/estatística & dados numéricos , Características de Residência , Resíduos/efeitos adversos
11.
Environ Int ; 102: 165-176, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28284818

RESUMO

The presence of microplastics in the marine environment poses a great threat to the entire ecosystem and has received much attention lately as the presence has greatly impacted oceans, lakes, seas, rivers, coastal areas and even the Polar Regions. Microplastics are found in most commonly utilized products (primary microplastics), or may originate from the fragmentation of larger plastic debris (secondary microplastics). The material enters the marine environment through terrestrial and land-based activities, especially via runoffs and is known to have great impact on marine organisms as studies have shown that large numbers of marine organisms have been affected by microplastics. Microplastic particles have been found distributed in large numbers in Africa, Asia, Southeast Asia, India, South Africa, North America, and in Europe. This review describes the sources and global distribution of microplastics in the environment, the fate and impact on marine biota, especially the food chain. Furthermore, the control measures discussed are those mapped out by both national and international environmental organizations for combating the impact from microplastics. Identifying the main sources of microplastic pollution in the environment and creating awareness through education at the public, private, and government sectors will go a long way in reducing the entry of microplastics into the environment. Also, knowing the associated behavioral mechanisms will enable better understanding of the impacts for the marine environment. However, a more promising and environmentally safe approach could be provided by exploiting the potentials of microorganisms, especially those of marine origin that can degrade microplastics. CAPSULE: The concentration, distribution sources and fate of microplastics in the global marine environment were discussed, so also was the impact of microplastics on a wide range of marine biota.


Assuntos
Organismos Aquáticos/efeitos dos fármacos , Plásticos/análise , Resíduos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Cadeia Alimentar , Oceanos e Mares , Resíduos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/efeitos adversos
12.
Sci Total Environ ; 592: 86-90, 2017 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28314134

RESUMO

This study evaluated the phytotoxic effects of raw and treated effluents from a swine slaughterhouse on cucumber and lettuce seeds and determined correlations among physicochemical characteristics of such effluents and the germination of seeds used as bioindicators. Physicochemical parameters were characterized for both effluents and their phytotoxicity was determined through the germination index (GI), the root length (RL) and the number of germinated seeds (SG) for both plant species. The effluents treatment system was efficient to reduce the concentration of some physicochemical parameters to levels within those recommended by the Brazilian legislation, except for P, ammoniacal N and TKN concentration. Although phytotoxicity of the treated effluent was less in comparison to the raw effluent, the GI for cucumber and lettuce seeds submitted to each of the tested effluents was lower than 80%. Thus, both effluents were phytotoxic for the tested bioindicators (p<0.05). For lettuce seeds, the GI presented negative correlations (p<0.05) with the total Kjeldahl N (-0.93) and the surfactants concentration (-0.83) in the raw effluent. The Zn concentration in the treated effluent showed a negative correlation (p<0.05) with the GI of both lettuce (-0.63) and cucumber seeds (-0.64). Therefore, effluents from swine slaughterhouses may impair the germination of the evaluated plant species if used for agricultural purposes.


Assuntos
Matadouros , Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Esterco , Sementes/efeitos dos fármacos , Resíduos/efeitos adversos , Animais , Brasil , Cucumis sativus/efeitos dos fármacos , Resíduos Industriais/efeitos adversos , Alface/efeitos dos fármacos , Suínos
13.
J Hazard Mater ; 330: 149-156, 2017 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28279835

RESUMO

Using organic wastes, as soil amendments, is an important alternative to landfilling with benefits to soil structure, water retention, soil nutrient and organic matter concentrations. However, this practice should be monitored for its environmental risk due to the frequent presence, of noxious substances to soil organisms. To evaluate the potential of eight organic wastes with different origins, as soil amendments, reproduction tests with four soil invertebrate species (Folsomia candida, Enchytraeus crypticus, Hypoaspis aculeifer, Eisenia fetida) were performed using gradients of soil-waste mixtures. Results obtained demonstrated that contaminant concentrations required by current legislation might not be a protective measure for the soil ecosystem, as they do not properly translate the potential toxicity of wastes to soil invertebrates. Some wastes with contaminant loadings below thresholds showed higher toxicity than wastes with contaminants concentrations above legal limits. Also, test organism reproduction was differently sensitive to the selected wastes, which highlights the need to account for different organism sensitivities and routes of exposure when evaluating the toxicity of such complex mixtures. Finally this study shows that when combining chemical and ecotoxicological data, it is possible to postulate on potential sources of toxicity, contributing to better waste management practices and safer soil organic amendment products.


Assuntos
Anelídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Artrópodes/efeitos dos fármacos , Solo , Resíduos/efeitos adversos , Animais , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos , Resíduos/análise
14.
Sanid. mil ; 73(1): 46-56, ene.-mar. 2017. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-161344

RESUMO

Las tropas españolas destacadas en operaciones internacionales en áreas tropicales con enfermedades infecciosas emergentes pueden verse en situación de riesgo de contagio, a lo que se suma el potencial uso de armas biológicas en los actuales conflictos de guerra desigual. Este riesgo puede hacerse extensivo a toda la población bajo responsabilidad española. Esta situación hizo que la Sanidad Militar Española y, en el caso que se presenta, la Unidad Médica de Aeroevacuación (UMAER) actualizase sus procedimientos de defensa NBQ en vigor desde el inicio de las misiones de las Fuerzas Armadas en territorio africano. Se reforzó la respuesta a la amenaza biológica en dichos ambientes tropicales y se trabajó y entrenó en la posibilidad de transporte aéreo de pacientes con enfermedades infecciosas transmisibles para su tratamiento definitivo en territorio nacional. Este artículo es un informe de lo sucedido durante estas misiones. Es un reconocimiento a todas las personas involucradas y sus esfuerzos


Spanish troops deployed on international operations all over African tropical areas can be exposed to high-risk situations due to severe infectious diseases that can affect the population under their responsibility as well as to the possible use of biological weapons in current international conflicts. In this situation the Spanish Unified Defense Medical Command and, in this particular case, the Spanish Unit Medical Evacuation (UMAER) updated their NBC defense procedures since the beginning of these missions of Spanish armed forces in Africa. Initially the response capability to this biological threat was reinforced in these territories, and afterwards training was carried out for the possibility of MEDEVAC missions of patients with infectious diseases in order to receive definitive treatment on national territory. This article is a report of what happened during these missions. It is recognition of all people involved and their efforts


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Transporte de Pacientes/normas , Doenças Transmissíveis/complicações , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/normas , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/epidemiologia , Isolamento de Pacientes/métodos , Isolamento de Pacientes/normas , Isoladores de Pacientes/normas , Movimentação e Reposicionamento de Pacientes/normas , Resíduos de Serviços de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Resíduos de Serviços de Saúde/prevenção & controle , Resíduos/efeitos adversos , Protocolos/prevenção & controle
15.
Chemosphere ; 172: 286-293, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28086156

RESUMO

Land application of agricultural wastes is considered as a promising bioremediation approach for cleaning up soils contaminated by aged polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). However, it remains largely unknown about how microbial PAH-degraders, which play a key role in the biodegradation of soil PAHs, respond to the amendments of agricultural wastes. Here, a 90-day soil microcosm study was conducted to compare the effects of three agricultural wastes (i.e. WS, wheat stalk; MCSW, mushroom cultivation substrate waste; and CM, cow manure) on the dissipation of aged PAHs and the abundance and community structure of PAH-degrading microorganisms. The results showed that all the three agricultural wastes accelerated the dissipation of aged PAHs and significantly increased abundances of the bacterial 16S rRNA and PAH-degrading genes (i.e. pdo1 and nah). CM and MCSW with lower ratios of C:N eliminated soil PAHs more efficiently than WS with a high ratio of C:N. Low molecular weight PAHs were dissipated more quickly than those with high molecular weight. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all of the nah and C12O clones were affiliated within Betaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria, and application of agricultural wastes significantly changed the community structure of the microorganisms harboring nah and C12O genes, particularly in the CM treatment. Taken together, our findings suggest that the three tested agricultural wastes could accelerate the degradation of aged PAHs most likely through changing the abundances and community structure of microbial PAH degraders.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/química , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/metabolismo , Microbiologia do Solo , Poluentes do Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Resíduos/efeitos adversos , Animais , Betaproteobacteria/efeitos dos fármacos , Betaproteobacteria/genética , Betaproteobacteria/metabolismo , Biodegradação Ambiental/efeitos dos fármacos , Bovinos , Feminino , Gammaproteobacteria/efeitos dos fármacos , Gammaproteobacteria/genética , Gammaproteobacteria/metabolismo , Esterco , Filogenia , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/isolamento & purificação , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/isolamento & purificação
16.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 116(1-2): 192-195, 2017 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28069277

RESUMO

The growth of human population and deficient pollution control measures pose significant challenge to the environment. Despite conservation efforts, all sea turtle species are at some risk of extinction. The present study investigated the effect of marine debris on the gastrointestinal tract of green turtles in southeastern Brazil. Of the 777 animals evaluated, 290 showed marine debris in one segment of the gastrointestinal tract. The presence of these materials in the gastrointestinal tract may be harmful, independent of the segment involved, and increases the risk of impaction. Marine debris has become a significant hazard to Chelonia mydas in the region surveyed, causing perforation, rupture, or fecal impaction that, when not treated, is potentially fatal, exposing the intestine to bacterial infection.


Assuntos
Trato Gastrointestinal/patologia , Plásticos/efeitos adversos , Tartarugas , Resíduos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes da Água/efeitos adversos , Animais , Brasil
17.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 135: 319-326, 2017 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27770647

RESUMO

Sugarcane vinasse is one of the main residues generated by the transformation of cane into ethanol. Because of the high organic content (COD), high biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), low pH, the large amount that this residue is generated (15l for every liter of ethanol produced) and their use as fertilizer on the sugarcane crop, this residue is potentially polluting to the soil ecossystem and by percolation to water ecossystem too. Thus, this study aimed to assess the toxicity of vinasse by analyzing Oreochromis niloticus gills exposed to different dilutions (1%, 2.5%, 5% and 10%) in two bioassays. The gills were collected, fixed and analyzed using ultra morphological, histological, and histochemical techniques. After exposure to the vinasse, a statistically significant reduction of the ridges present on the surface of pavimentous cells was observed in one of the bioassays; such structures are responsible for mucus retention, which helps to protect the tissue. In addition, an intumescence of the cells was observed in the treatments with vinasse as well as an increase in the amount of chloridric cells. Some striking tissue changes detected in the treatments were epithelial detachment and loss of integrity of secondary lamellae, causing their rupture and consequent hemorrhage. In the first bioassay, the amount of these changes was statistically significant at the 5% dilution, and the focus of hemorrhage was significant at all dilution ratios. In the second bioassay, the epithelial disorganization was statistically significant only at the 2.5% dilution of vinasse. Moreover, for both bioassays performed, a significant increase in mucous cells was observed when compared with the control. Our results demonstrate the toxic action of sugarcane vinasse, which caused histopathological changes in the exposed animals at all four dilution tested. This highlights the need for caution in the disposal of sugarcane vinasse on the soil, especially due to its capacity for being leached or percolated into water resources, which could seriously damage aquatic fauna.


Assuntos
Brânquias/efeitos dos fármacos , Saccharum/toxicidade , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Tilápia/anatomia & histologia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Epitélio/efeitos dos fármacos , Fertilizantes/análise , Fertilizantes/toxicidade , Brânquias/patologia , Muco/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Resíduos/efeitos adversos , Resíduos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
18.
Gig Sanit ; 96(2): 144-7, 2017.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29446599

RESUMO

On the territory of Kazakhstan there are uranium deposits, many ofwhich are in mothballed since times of perestroika. Often, the mines are flooded and represent a "time-delay bomb". Inside of mines various there are accumulated gases of both organic and inorganic nature, periodically thrown out and adversely affecting on the health of local populations. The aim of the study was the investigation of the state of the environment of Esilsky district of the Akmola region by common pollutants and chemicals. As the basic variable for the investigation of ambient air there was accepted the maximum one-time concentration of suspended substances, phenol, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide. The results were evaluated in relation to the MPC for the analyzed substance in the air according to maximal single MPC (MPCms) and daily average MPC (MPCda). The content of metals in the water was determined with the use of spectrophotometer PD-303S. Evaluation of the results was executed in relation of the MPC of substances in water, by means of the comparison with the requirements of Federal standards for drinking water, samples from drinking water sources. There were executed calculations of the overall index of water pollution (IWVgen), the index of water pollution by heavy metals (IWVhm). Chemical analysis of soil was carried out with the use of spectrophotometer PD- 303S (Japan), the photometer expert-003 "Ekoniks". Evaluation of the results was carried out with the respect to the MPC in the soil, the toxicity of all components. Summarizing soil pollution index was evaluated for metals contained in the soil at the level of more than or equal to 1 MAC. The settlement Krasnogorskiy and the village of Kalachi were found to be characterized by a low level of air pollution, increased rigidity of drinking water exceeded the maximum permissible concentrations of copper by 3.45 times and chloride by 1.17 times in the soil cover.


Assuntos
Poluentes Radioativos do Ar , Doença Ambiental , Mineração , Poluentes Radioativos do Solo , Urânio , Contaminação Radioativa da Água , Poluentes Radioativos do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Radioativos do Ar/análise , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Doença Ambiental/induzido quimicamente , Doença Ambiental/epidemiologia , Doença Ambiental/prevenção & controle , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Monitoramento Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Cazaquistão/epidemiologia , Metais Pesados/efeitos adversos , Metais Pesados/análise , Saúde Pública/métodos , Saúde Pública/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluentes Radioativos do Solo/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Radioativos do Solo/análise , Urânio/efeitos adversos , Urânio/química , Resíduos/efeitos adversos , Resíduos/análise , Resíduos/estatística & dados numéricos , Contaminação Radioativa da Água/efeitos adversos , Contaminação Radioativa da Água/análise
19.
PLoS One ; 11(12): e0167926, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27942006

RESUMO

Recreational ground squirrel shooting is a popular activity throughout the western United States and serves as a tool for managing ground squirrel populations in agricultural regions. Belding's ground squirrels (Spermophilus beldingi) are routinely shot in California, Nevada, and Oregon across habitats that overlap with breeding avian scavengers. Ground squirrels shot with lead (Pb)-based bullets may pose a risk to avian scavengers if they consume carcasses containing Pb fragments. To assess the potential risk to breeding avian scavengers we developed a model to estimate the number, mass, and distribution of Pb fragments in shot ground squirrels using radiographic images. Eighty percent of shot carcasses contained detectible Pb fragments with an average of 38.6 mg of Pb fragments. Seven percent of all carcasses contained Pb fragment masses exceeding a lethal dose for a model raptor nestling (e.g. American kestrel Falco sparverius). Bullet type did not influence the number of fragments in shot ground squirrels, but did influence the mass of fragments retained. Belding's ground squirrels shot with .17 Super Mag and unknown ammunition types contained over 28 and 17 times more mass of Pb fragments than those shot with .22 solid and .22 hollow point bullets, respectively. Ground squirrel body mass was positively correlated with both the number and mass of Pb fragments in carcasses, increasing on average by 76% and 56% respectively across the range of carcass masses. Although the mass of Pb retained in ground squirrel carcasses was small relative to the original bullet mass, avian scavenger nestlings that frequently consume shot ground squirrels may be at risk for Pb-induced effects (e.g., physiology, growth, or survival). Using modeling efforts we found that if nestling golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos), red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), and Swainson's hawks (B. swainsoni) consumed shot ground squirrels proportionately to the nestling's mass, energy needs, and diet, 100% of the nestling period would exceed a 50% reduction in delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase production threshold, the last 13-27% of the nestling stage would exceed a reduced growth rate threshold, but no nestlings would be expected to exceed a level of Pb ingestion that would be lethal.


Assuntos
Águias/fisiologia , Cadeia Alimentar , Falcões/fisiologia , Intoxicação por Chumbo/etiologia , Chumbo/toxicidade , Sciuridae/fisiologia , Animais , Águias/metabolismo , Falcões/metabolismo , Humanos , Intoxicação por Chumbo/fisiopatologia , Atividades de Lazer , Reprodução , Sciuridae/metabolismo , Resíduos/efeitos adversos
20.
J Cancer Res Ther ; 12(2): 1088-9, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27461705

RESUMO

In March 2014, a big waste pollution occurs in Thailand. A big fire occurs at a big industrial waste landfill site, Phraeksa, Samut Prakan Province, Bangkok Metropolitan Region. This fire generates several pollutants, including particular matter 10 (PM10). According to the official report of the Bangkok Metropolis, the PM10 in the nearby area (5 km from the crisis area) is equal to 0.575 mg/m 3. The concern is on chronic health effect of PM10 exposure. Recently, the possible carcinogenic property of PM10 is mentioned. To estimate the cancer risk due to this crisis in Thailand, the author calculates the risk based on the ratio by Raaschou-Nielsen et al.; the risk is equal to 70.15 times. Based on the present study, a closed following up and monitoring on the problem of lung cancer in the future among the people living near the crisis area are needed.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental , Fogo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etiologia , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Resíduos/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Risco , Tailândia/epidemiologia , Instalações de Eliminação de Resíduos
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