Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 837
Filtrar
1.
J Clin Exp Neuropsychol ; 43(6): 611-622, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34730064

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Cognitive reserve plays a protective role against executive dysfunction in healthy adults and individuals with psychiatric illnesses such as bipolar disorder. However, the magnitude of the influence of cognitive reserve on specific executive functions (EFs), and its impact relative to variables such as depressive symptoms, age and psychiatric comorbidities, is unexplored. This study aimed to quantify the influence of cognitive reserve on specific EFs, and compare its impact with that of depressive symptoms, age and psychiatric comorbidities, in separate models for patients with bipolar disorder and healthy adults. METHOD: This was a cross-sectional study of 121 adults with no mood disorders and 109 with bipolar disorder, all of whom underwent a comprehensive psychiatric assessment and evaluation of the EFs. Cognitive reserve was measured using years of education, IQ and reading and writing habits. The association between EFs and predictors (cognitive reserve, depressive symptoms, age and psychiatric comorbidities) was evaluated through structural equation modeling. Four models were constructed for each group independently (bipolar disorder and control), one each for working memory, verbal fluency, inhibition and flexibility, due to group differences in age and cognitive reserve. RESULTS: Working memory, inhibition and flexibility were most significantly predicted by cognitive reserve and age. Verbal fluency was only predicted by cognitive reserve. Comorbidities and depressive symptoms were not significant in any of the models. Cognitive reserve had a positive influence on all EFs in models for patients with bipolar disorder and models for control participants. Age had a negative impact on three of the four EFs tested. CONCLUSION: Fostering cognitive reserve through continued education and cognitively stimulating leisure activities may be an effective intervention for executive dysfunction in patients and non-patients alike. In some cases, the effects of these interventions may outweigh the negative cognitive impact of aging, depressive symptoms and psychiatric conditions.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar , Reserva Cognitiva , Adulto , Transtorno Bipolar/complicações , Transtorno Bipolar/epidemiologia , Cognição , Estudos Transversais , Função Executiva , Humanos , Testes Neuropsicológicos
2.
Arch Clin Neuropsychol ; 36(7): 1291-1295, 2021 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34651645

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This review is aimed at understanding how cognitive reserve and related concepts contribute to promoting neurobehavioral and cognitive health, consistent with goal of the 2020 national academy of neuropsychology (NAN) Annual Meeting.Research indicates that lifestyle factors such as achieving educational and work milestones, participating in leisure and social activities and IQ are all associated with reduced risk of cognitive decline in normal aging and of developing dementia. Many of these lifestyle factors have also been associated with better cognition in other psychiatric and neurological conditions. The cognitive reserve hypothesis posits that these lifestyle factors result in individual differences in the flexibility and adaptability of brain networks that may allow some people to cope better than others with age- or dementia-related brain changes. Recent evidence also supports the idea that specific genetic and lifestyle factors may help preserve a healthy brain or enhance brain reserve, a process that has been called brain maintenance. The complementary concept of brain reserve posits that structural brain features can guard against dementia and related conditions. This review defines these theoretical concepts, their research basis, how they are studied and their clinical applications. CONCLUSION: Evidence supports the concept of reserve, which can be influenced by experiences in every stage of life. Focused research in this area can maximize the chance for successful intervention.


Assuntos
Reserva Cognitiva , Envelhecimento , Encéfalo , Cognição , Humanos , Testes Neuropsicológicos
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34682684

RESUMO

An elderly person who lives alone must often be autonomous and self-sufficient in daily living activities. We explored if living alone and marital status were associated with mild cognitive impairment and low cognitive reserve in a sample of Mexican women aged 60+ attending continuing education courses using a cross-sectional design. Objective cognitive functions were assessed using the MMSE and Blessed Dementia Scale. We administered the Cognitive Reserve Questionnaire. Independence skills were assessed with the Katz index and Lawton index. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used. We recruited 269 participants (x¯ = 69.0 ± 5.8 years). Single, widowed, separated, and divorced women comprised 73% of the participants. A third lived alone and 84% had completed high school. Mild cognitive deficit was observed among 24.5-29.0%; the upper range for cognitive reserve was 61.7%. Living alone versus living with someone was associated with cognitive impairment (OR = 0.51, p = 0.04) and with low to medium cognitive reserve (OR = 0.51, p = 0.02) after adjusting for confounding variables. Living alone was an independent factor associated with a lower probability of displaying mild cognitive impairment and a higher probability of displaying high cognitive reserve. Women living alone in this study had a more robust cognitive framework and had built their own support networks.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva , Reserva Cognitiva , Atividades Cotidianas , Idoso , Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , México/epidemiologia
4.
Psychiatr Danub ; 33(Suppl 4): 745-748, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34718312

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The high risk of cognitive impairment in people of older age groups determines the relevance of the study of factors contributing to the preservation of cognitive potential at a young age, which is necessary to develop a cognitive reserve model aimed at preventing the transformation of physiological aging into pathological. Purpose, to identify the importance of the "gender" factor for the formation of a cognitive reserve. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The research material was scientific publications on the topic of work. The general scientific method was applied: analysis of modern scientific literature on the research problem, generalization, comparison, systematization of theoretical data regarding the "gender" factor, which helps preserve the normative parameters of cognitive functions in the late period of life. The research material was scientific publications on the topic of the work. The General scientific method is applied: analysis of modern scientific literature on the problem of research, generalization, comparison, systematization of theoretical data in relation to factors that contribute to the preservation of normative parameters of cognitive functions in the later period of life. RESULTS: The "gender" factor is one of the factors determining the parameters of the cognitive reserve at a late age. Scientific novelty: for the first time, a systematic review of scientific literary sources was conducted, devoted to the analysis of the contribution of the "gender" factor to the formation of an individual's cognitive reserve. the concept of cognitive reserve is usually used in relation to old age, but there is no doubt that it is the total result of various activities that a person has performed throughout life. Factors that determine the cognitive reserve, acquired factors that are implemented during the life of the individual and biological factors, one of which is the "gender" factor. The "gender" factor has a certain effect on the risk of developing late dementia. The proven Polo-specific differences in the structure of the brain, the dynamics of cognitive functions, which are implemented differently in men and women in ontogenesis, suggest the need for different approaches to the formation and maintenance of the cognitive reserve in men and women.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva , Reserva Cognitiva , Idoso , Envelhecimento , Encéfalo , Cognição , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
5.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 18527, 2021 09 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34535714

RESUMO

Dance is a complex sensorimotor activity with positive effects on physical fitness, cognition, and brain plasticity in the aging population. We explored whether individual levels of cognitive reserve (CR) proxied by education moderate dance intervention (DI)-induced plasticity assessed by resting-state functional connectivity (rs-FC) changes of the sensorimotor network (SMN), and between the dorsal attention network (DAN) and anterior default mode network (aDMN). Our cohort consisted of 99 subjects, randomly assigned to either a DI group who underwent a 6-month intervention (n = 49, Mage = 69.02 ± 5.40) or a control group (n = 50, Mage = 69.37 ± 6.10). Moderation analyses revealed that CR moderated DI-induced increase of the SMN rs-FC with significant changes observed in participants with ≥ 15 years of education (b = 0.05, t(62) = 3.17, p = 0.002). Only DI alone was a significant predictor of the DAN-aDMN crosstalk change (b = 0.06, t(64) = 2.16, p = 0.035). The rs-FC increase in the SMN was correlated with an improved physical fitness measure, and changes in the DAN-aDMN connectivity were linked to better performance on figural fluency. Consistent with the passive CR hypothesis, we observed that CR correlated only with baseline behavioral scores, not their change.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento Cognitivo , Reserva Cognitiva , Dança , Plasticidade Neuronal , Idoso , Terapia através da Dança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
6.
Neurology ; 97(17): e1707-e1716, 2021 10 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34504021

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: To determine whether cognitive reserve attenuates the association of vascular brain injury with cognition. METHODS: Cross-sectional data were analyzed from 2 harmonized studies: the Canadian Alliance for Healthy Hearts and Healthy Minds (CAHHM) and the Prospective Urban and Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study. Markers of cognitive reserve were education, involvement in social activities, marital status, height, and leisure physical activity, which were combined into a composite score. Vascular brain injury was defined as nonlacunar brain infarcts or high white matter hyperintensity (WMH) burden on MRI. Cognition was assessed using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment Tool (MoCA) and the Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST). RESULTS: There were 10,916 participants age 35-81. Mean age was 58.8 years (range 35-81) and 55.8% were female. Education, moderate leisure physical activity, being in a marital partnership, being taller, and participating in social groups were each independently associated with higher cognition, as was the composite cognitive reserve score. Vascular brain injury was associated with lower cognition (ß -0.35 [95% confidence interval [CI] -0.53 to -0.17] for MoCA and ß -2.19 [95% CI -3.22 to -1.15] for DSST) but the association was not modified by the composite cognitive reserve variable (interaction p = 0.59 for MoCA and p = 0.72 for DSST). CONCLUSIONS: Both vascular brain injury and markers of cognitive reserve are associated with cognition. However, the effects were independent such that the adverse effects of covert vascular brain injury were not attenuated by higher cognitive reserve. To improve cognitive brain health, interventions to both prevent cerebrovascular disease and promote positive lifestyles are needed.


Assuntos
Infarto Encefálico/complicações , Cognição/fisiologia , Reserva Cognitiva/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/fisiopatologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
7.
Neurology ; 97(17): e1695-e1706, 2021 10 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34493618

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Evidence on the association of cognitive reserve (CR) with the cognitive trajectories is limited. We aimed to examine the influence of CR indicator on domain-specific cognitive trajectories taking brain pathologies into account. METHODS: Within the Rush Memory and Aging Project, 1,697 participants without dementia (mean age 79.6 years) were followed up to 21 years. CR indicator encompassing education, early-life, mid-life, and late-life cognitive activities and late-life social activity was ascertained at baseline and categorized as tertiles (lowest, middle, and highest). Global cognition, episodic memory, semantic memory, working memory, visuospatial ability, and perceptual speed were assessed annually with 19 tests, from which composite scores were derived. During the follow-up, 648 participants died and underwent autopsies to evaluate brain pathologies. Data were analyzed using linear mixed-effect models. RESULTS: Among the participants, the score of the CR indicator ranged from -8.00 to 5.74 (mean 0.00 ± 2.23). In multi-adjusted mixed-effect models, compared to the lowest CR, the highest was related to a slower decline in global cognition (ß = 0.028, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.012-0.043), episodic memory (ß = 0.028, 95% CI 0.010-0.047), and working memory (ß = 0.019, 95% CI 0.005-0.033) during the follow-up. In brain pathologic data analysis, the association of the highest CR with cognitive function changes remained significant among participants with high Alzheimer disease pathology or gross infarcts. DISCUSSION: High CR indicator is associated with preserved global cognitive function, episodic memory, and working memory, even in the presence of brain pathologies. Our findings highlight the important role of high CR accumulation in the prevention of cognitive decline.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/patologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/fisiopatologia , Reserva Cognitiva/fisiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Comportamento Social
8.
Neuropsychology ; 35(8): 876-888, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34553970

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Cognitive reserve (CR) is a term used to describe the adaptability of cognitive processes to brain changes. It helps to explain the different cognitive adaptation to daily functioning in aging individuals and in individuals with brain pathology: a higher CR is associated with a delay in the manifestation of cognitive symptoms. CR is estimated using different proxies, such as education, cognitively stimulating life experiences, premorbid intelligence quotient (IQ), and vocabulary size. Despite the complexity of CR, little research to date has systematically focused on the heterogeneity of its effects. METHOD: We investigated this issue in individuals with probable Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and in individuals with subjective cognitive decline (SCD) by focusing on two variables: (a) the type of CR proxy (i.e., Education and Life experience) and (b) the type of test used to assess cognitive performance (i.e., the Mini-Mental State Examination [MMSE] screening test and the extensive Brief Neuropsychological Examination-2 [ENB-2] test battery). RESULTS: Our results suggest that effects on CR varied: in individuals with probable AD, we found a positive relationship of Education with performance on both the MMSE and the ENB-2 tests; in contrast, individuals with SCD showed a positive relationship of a Life experience proxy selectively with the ENB-2 global score. CONCLUSIONS: Different proxies may reflect different compensatory mechanisms of CR depending on task demand and on an individual's global cognitive condition. In particular, while the Education proxy can capture CR-related cognitive compensation in a pathological condition such as probable AD, the more complex Life experience proxy might be useful for capturing CR-related effects when signs of deterioration are subtle, like in SCD. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Disfunção Cognitiva , Reserva Cognitiva , Doença de Alzheimer/complicações , Encéfalo , Humanos , Testes Neuropsicológicos
9.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 15583, 2021 08 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34341419

RESUMO

Cognitive reserve (CR) is the capability of an individual to cope with a brain pathology through compensatory mechanisms developed through cognitive stimulation by mental and physical activity. Recently, it has been suggested that CR has a protective role against the initiation of substance use, substance consumption patterns and cognitive decline and can improve responses to treatment. However, CR has never been linked to cognitive function and neurotrophic factors in the context of alcohol consumption. The present cross-sectional study aims to evaluate the association between CR (evaluated by educational level), cognitive impairment (assessed using a frontal and memory loss assessment battery) and circulating levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) in patients with alcohol use disorder (AUD). Our results indicated that lower educational levels were accompanied by earlier onset of alcohol consumption and earlier development of alcohol dependence, as well as impaired frontal cognitive function. They also suggest that CR, NT-3 and BDNF may act as compensatory mechanisms for cognitive decline in the early stages of AUD, but not in later phases. These parameters allow the identification of patients with AUD who are at risk of cognitive deterioration and the implementation of personalized interventions to preserve cognitive function.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo/sangue , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/sangue , Disfunção Cognitiva/sangue , Escolaridade , Neurotrofina 3/sangue , Abstinência de Álcool/psicologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/sangue , Alcoolismo/psicologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/psicologia , Reserva Cognitiva , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Proteína 3 de Ligação a Fator de Crescimento Semelhante à Insulina/sangue , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like II/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Análise de Componente Principal , Curva ROC
10.
Cells ; 10(7)2021 07 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34359997

RESUMO

The noradrenergic theory of Cognitive Reserve (Robertson, 2013-2014) postulates that the upregulation of the locus coeruleus-noradrenergic system (LC-NA) originating in the brainstem might facilitate cortical networks involved in attention, and protracted activation of this system throughout the lifespan may enhance cognitive stimulation contributing to reserve. To test the above-mentioned theory, a study was conducted on a sample of 686 participants (395 controls, 156 mild cognitive impairment, 135 Alzheimer's disease) investigating the relationship between LC volume, attentional performance and a biological index of brain maintenance (BrainPAD-an objective measure, which compares an individual's structural brain health, reflected by their voxel-wise grey matter density, to the state typically expected at that individual's age). Further analyses were carried out on reserve indices including education and occupational attainment. Volumetric variation across groups was also explored along with gender differences. Control analyses on the serotoninergic (5-HT), dopaminergic (DA) and cholinergic (Ach) systems were contrasted with the noradrenergic (NA) hypothesis. The antithetic relationships were also tested across the neuromodulatory subcortical systems. Results supported by Bayesian modelling showed that LC volume disproportionately predicted higher attentional performance as well as biological brain maintenance across the three groups. These findings lend support to the role of the noradrenergic system as a key mediator underpinning the neuropsychology of reserve, and they suggest that early prevention strategies focused on the noradrenergic system (e.g., cognitive-attentive training, physical exercise, pharmacological and dietary interventions) may yield important clinical benefits to mitigate cognitive impairment with age and disease.


Assuntos
Neurônios Adrenérgicos/patologia , Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico por imagem , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico por imagem , Reserva Cognitiva/fisiologia , Substância Cinzenta/diagnóstico por imagem , Locus Cerúleo/diagnóstico por imagem , Rede Nervosa/diagnóstico por imagem , Idoso , Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Doença de Alzheimer/fisiopatologia , Atenção/fisiologia , Teorema de Bayes , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neurônios Colinérgicos/patologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/patologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/fisiopatologia , Neurônios Dopaminérgicos/patologia , Escolaridade , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Feminino , Substância Cinzenta/patologia , Substância Cinzenta/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Locus Cerúleo/patologia , Locus Cerúleo/fisiopatologia , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Neurológicos , Rede Nervosa/patologia , Rede Nervosa/fisiopatologia , Neuroimagem , Tamanho do Órgão , Neurônios Serotoninérgicos/patologia , Fatores Sexuais
11.
Alzheimers Res Ther ; 13(1): 128, 2021 07 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34253231

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cognitive reserve is most commonly measured using socio-behavioural proxy variables. These variables are easy to collect, have a straightforward interpretation, and are widely associated with reduced risk of dementia and cognitive decline in epidemiological studies. However, the specific proxies vary across studies and have rarely been assessed in complete models of cognitive reserve (i.e. alongside both a measure of cognitive outcome and a measure of brain structure). Complete models can test independent associations between proxies and cognitive function in addition to the moderation effect of proxies on the brain-cognition relationship. Consequently, there is insufficient empirical evidence guiding the choice of proxy measures of cognitive reserve and poor comparability across studies. METHOD: In a cross-sectional study, we assessed the validity of 5 common proxies (education, occupational complexity, verbal intelligence, leisure activities, and exercise) and all possible combinations of these proxies in 2 separate community-dwelling older adult cohorts: The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA; N = 313, mean age = 68.9 years, range = 54-88) and the Cognitive Reserve/Reference Ability Neural Network Study (CR/RANN; N = 234, mean age = 64.49 years, range = 50-80). Fifteen models were created with 3 brain structure variables (grey matter volume, hippocampal volume, and mean cortical thickness) and 5 cognitive variables (verbal fluency, processing speed, executive function, episodic memory, and global cognition). RESULTS: No moderation effects were observed. There were robust positive associations with cognitive function, independent of brain structure, for 2 individual proxies (verbal intelligence and education) and 16 composites (i.e. combinations of proxies). Verbal intelligence was statistically significant in all models. Education was significant only in models with executive function as the cognitive outcome variable. Three robust composites were observed in more than two-thirds of brain-cognition models: the composites of (1) occupational complexity and verbal intelligence, (2) education and verbal intelligence, and (3) education, occupational complexity, and verbal intelligence. However, no composite had larger average effects nor was more robust than verbal intelligence alone. CONCLUSION: These results support the use of verbal intelligence as a proxy measure of CR in cross-sectional studies of cognitively healthy older adults.


Assuntos
Reserva Cognitiva , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Cognição , Estudos Transversais , Escolaridade , Humanos , Inteligência , Estudos Longitudinais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos
12.
Adv Gerontol ; 34(2): 202-209, 2021.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34245501

RESUMO

Information technology is becoming an increasingly important tool of scientific knowledge due to the exponential growth of the number of publications presenting the results of neurobiological and psychological research. To identify predictors of cognitive reserves and methods for their determination based on the developed applied ontology, we performed a bibliometric analysis of publications contained in the PubMed database. It is shown that the annual growth in the number of publications relevant to the topic in the period 1990-2019 was 11%, which is higher than the average for science. We found the following psychophysiological indicators of cognitive reserves to gain the greatest increase in the interest of researchers: prefrontal cortex, beta range (13-30 Hz) of EEG, inhibition and information load. Analysis of the role of these factors suggests that the development and/or realization of cognitive reserves is provided due to inhibitory functions of the prefrontal cortex for the effective selection of relevant stimuli under conditions of information load. The identified predictors of cognitive reserves and the most popular methods of their psychometric assessment can be useful for choosing new areas of research in gerontology.


Assuntos
Reserva Cognitiva , Córtex Pré-Frontal
13.
Arch Clin Neuropsychol ; 36(7): 1266-1273, 2021 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34244708

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The lack of disease-modifying pharmacological agents for dementia highlights the critical importance of prevention, but known modifiable factors (e.g., education, physical health and health behaviors, depression, and social isolation) do not fully represent potential intervention targets. Positive psychosocial factors predict cognitive aging outcomes above and beyond known risk factors and may also correspond to upstream determinants that open up new avenues for prevention and intervention, as well as for reducing racial/ethnic inequalities in dementia. In this brief report, I summarize contemporary evidence for three positive psychosocial factors that appear to be particularly relevant to cognitive aging: perceived control, religious involvement, and social relations. METHODS: Targeted review and synthesis of published studies. RESULTS: Each of the multidimensional constructs appears to contain "active ingredients" that could help to optimize cognitive aging through disparate mechanisms. Although historically marginalized racial/ethnic groups face disproportionate barriers to accessing certain psychosocial protective factors (e.g., perceived control), these same groups also exhibit naturally occurring sources of psychosocial resilience (e.g., religious involvement) that allow them to achieve better late-life cognitive health than would be otherwise expected. With regard to social relations, converging evidence from disparate studies shows that fostering late-life friendships in particular may have high potential for building cognitive reserve and promoting healthy cognitive aging. CONCLUSIONS: Positive psychosocial factors represent culturally relevant resources that, through careful research, could ultimately be harnessed to promote better cognitive aging for a growing and increasingly diverse population of older adults.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento Cognitivo , Reserva Cognitiva , Idoso , Envelhecimento , Escolaridade , Humanos , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Fatores de Proteção
14.
Neuropsychologia ; 160: 107958, 2021 09 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34273380

RESUMO

Recent bilingualism research attempts to understand whether continually controlling multiple languages provides domain-general benefits to other aspects of cognition. Yet little attention has been given to whether this extends to resistance to proactive interference (PI), which involves the filtering of irrelevant memory traces in order to focus attention on relevant to-be-remembered information. The present study sought to determine whether bilingualism provides benefits to resistance to PI performance and brain structure in regions supporting executive control of memory. Eighty-two younger and older adult participants, half English monolinguals and half highly proficient Spanish-English bilinguals, completed directed forgetting and release from PI tasks and underwent an MRI scan that measured cortical volume, thickness, and white matter integrity. While behavioral performance between bilinguals and monolinguals did not differ, bilinguals displayed thinner cortex in brain regions related to resistance to PI, providing evidence for cognitive reserve, and showed positive relationships between white matter integrity and resistance to PI performance, indicative of brain reserve. This study is the first to demonstrate cognitive reserve and brain reserve in different brain structure indices within the same healthy participants and suggests that bilingualism supports important structural relationships between regions necessary for executive control of memory.


Assuntos
Reserva Cognitiva , Multilinguismo , Idoso , Cognição , Função Executiva , Humanos , Testes Neuropsicológicos
16.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 82(3): 1147-1157, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34151797

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies have reported that apolipoprotein E epsilon 4 (APOE ɛ4) has adverse effects on executive functions (EFs) in late adulthood. However, the results have been inconsistent. Insufficient measurements of executive functioning, uncontrolled clinical and demographic confounders, and moderation effects from other environmental factors are suspected to account for the inconsistency. OBJECTIVE: This study used aggregate measures to examine the effects of APOE ɛ4 on four components of EFs, namely switching, working memory, inhibition, and reasoning. We further investigated whether high educational attainment, a proxy measure for cognitive reserve, moderates the adverse effects of ɛ4 on EFs. METHODS: Cognitively unimpaired older participants were divided into groups based on APOE genotype and into subgroups based on educational attainment level. The demographic and clinical variables were matched between the groups. Four core components of the EFs were measured using a relatively comprehensive battery. RESULTS: The results revealed that although no main effect of the APOE genotype was observed across the four EF components, the potentially adverse effects of ɛ4 on inhibition were alleviated by high educational attainment. A main effect of education on the reasoning component was also observed. The moderation analysis revealed that for older adults with 12 years of education or fewer, the relationship between the APOE ɛ4 genotype and inhibition performance became increasingly negative. CONCLUSION: This study highlights the distinctive role of response inhibition in the gene-environment interaction and underlines the importance of considering factors of both nature and nurture to understand the complex process of cognitive aging.


Assuntos
Apolipoproteína E4/genética , Reserva Cognitiva/fisiologia , Escolaridade , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Inibição Neural/fisiologia , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Idoso , Alelos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
17.
Geriatr Psychol Neuropsychiatr Vieil ; 19(2): 229-235, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34080985

RESUMO

To appraise the validity of the Yaakov Stern's theory, which postulates that the first cognitive deficits of Alzheimer's disease are delayed in patients with high cognitive reserve, compared to those with low cognitive reserve, but is subsequently associated with faster cognitive decline when cerebral lesions have reached some degree of severity. A retrospective study of 318 patients with Alzheimer's disease without associated cerebral disorders, was performed in the Memory Clinic of the University Hospital of Strasbourg. The patients were divided into 5 groups according to the degree of cognitive reserve assessed by the level of education (primary, middle school, intermediary, high school and higher education). Cognitive status was assessed by the scores on the Mini Mental Status at the first examination and during a 4-year or more follow-up. Slopes of cognitive decline were computed and compared between groups by ß linear regression. Patients in the higher education group had higher MMSE scores than those in the other groups at the first consultation, but a statistically significant steeper slope during the follow-up. Our results are congruent with the Stern's theoretical model, assuming that high cognitive reserve brings into play compensation mechanisms which hinder the onset of clinical cognitive decline in patients with Alzheimer's disease, but then is associated with a faster decline at a later stage when the reserve is exhausted.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Transtornos Cognitivos , Disfunção Cognitiva , Reserva Cognitiva , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Estudos Retrospectivos
18.
Psychogeriatrics ; 21(4): 552-559, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33934441

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cognitive reserve (CR) is a concept proposed to account for discrepancies between the extent of brain pathology and clinical manifestations of that pathology. This study aimed to explore the associations between CR and the effects of cognitive training using fully immersive virtual reality (VR). METHODS: A total of 44 older adults (22 cognitively normal, 22 with mild cognitive impairment) underwent eight cognitive training sessions using VR for a period of 4 weeks. CR was assessed using the Cognitive Reserve Index questionnaire (CRIq). To evaluate baseline cognitive function and the effects of VR training, the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease (CERAD) neuropsychological battery was administered to all participants before and after the training. RESULTS: Greater improvement in the total CERAD score was seen for cognitively normal participants with higher versus lower scores on the Education subdomain of the CRIq. Among patients with mild cognitive impairment, none of the CRIq subdomain scores (Education, Working Activity, Leisure Time) were related to a change in CERAD total scores. The CRIq total score did not predict the improvement of global cognition in either group. CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed different impacts of CR on cognitive training according to the participants' cognitive status. It also suggests that employing three proxies of CR rather than using a composite score would provide a more accurate understanding of one's CR.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva , Reserva Cognitiva , Realidade Virtual , Idoso , Cognição , Humanos , Testes Neuropsicológicos
19.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 81(3): 1285-1294, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33935072

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cognitive reserve (CR) is an important protective factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD), yet its mechanism has not been fully elucidated. OBJECTIVE: To explore the effect of CR on resting and dynamic brain intrinsic activity in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). METHODS: 65 amyloid-ß PET-negative (Aß-) normal controls (NC) and 30 amyloid-ß PET-positive (Aß+) MCI patients underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging were included from Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative. According to the years of education, the subjects were divided into high education group and low education group. A two-way analysis of variance was employed for the fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (fALFF) and dynamic fALFF (dfALFF) comparisons among the four groups. Moreover, the interaction effect of neuroimaging×pathology on clinical cognitive function was tested with linear regression analysis. RESULTS: The value of fALFF in the left prefrontal lobe was increased in Aß+ MCI patients compared to Aß- NC. The significant interactive effect between disease state and education (binary factor) was observed in the right parahippocampal gyrus (PHG) for fALFF, the right PHG and the right inferior parietal lobule for dfALFF. While no significant results between education (continuous factor) and brain activity was found in voxel-by-voxel analysis. For MCI patients, a significant fluorodeoxyglucose hypometabolic convergence index×right PHG dfALFF interaction was found, indicating the maintenance of executive function at higher levels of dfALFF in the right PHG. CONCLUSION: High CR can alleviate the impairment of hypometabolism on executive function in MCI patients, which is partially achieved by regulating the dynamic brain activity in the right PHG.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/fisiopatologia , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/fisiopatologia , Reserva Cognitiva/fisiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neuroimagem , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Sintomas Prodrômicos
20.
Eur J Neurol ; 28(8): 2622-2630, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33977580

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Cerebral small vessel disease is characterized by progressive white matter hyperintensities (WMH) and cognitive decline. However, variability exists in how individuals maintain cognitive capabilities despite significant neuropathology. The relationships between individual cognitive reserve, psychological resilience and cognitive functioning were examined in subjects with varying degrees of WMH. METHODS: In the Helsinki Small Vessel Disease Study, 152 subjects (aged 65-75 years) underwent a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment, evaluation of subjective cognitive complaints and brain magnetic resonance imaging with volumetric WMH evaluation. Cognitive reserve was determined by education (years) and the modified Cognitive Reserve Scale (mCRS). Psychological resilience was evaluated with the Resilience Scale 14. RESULTS: The mCRS total score correlated significantly with years of education (r = 0.23, p < 0.01), but it was not related to age, sex or WMH volume. Together, mCRS score and education were associated with performance in a wide range of cognitive domains including processing speed, executive functions, working memory, verbal memory, visuospatial perception and verbal reasoning. Independently of education, the mCRS score had incremental predictive value on delayed verbal recall and subjective cognitive complaints. Psychological resilience was not significantly related to age, education, sex, WMH severity or cognitive test scores, but it was associated with subjective cognitive complaints. CONCLUSIONS: Cognitive reserve has strong and consistent associations with cognitive functioning in subjects with WMH. Education is widely associated with objective cognitive functioning, whereas lifetime engagement in cognitively stimulating leisure activities (mCRS) has independent predictive value on memory performance and subjective cognitive complaints. Psychological resilience is strongly associated with subjective, but not objective, cognitive functioning.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva , Reserva Cognitiva , Leucoaraiose , Resiliência Psicológica , Substância Branca , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Cognição , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Substância Branca/diagnóstico por imagem
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...