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1.
Euro Surveill ; 26(5)2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33541485

RESUMO

In June-November 2020, SARS-CoV-2-infected mink were detected in 290 of 1,147 Danish mink farms. In North Denmark Region, 30% (324/1,092) of people found connected to mink farms tested SARS-CoV-2-PCR-positive and approximately 27% (95% confidence interval (CI): 25-30) of SARS-CoV-2-strains from humans in the community were mink-associated. Measures proved insufficient to mitigate spread. On 4 November, the government ordered culling of all Danish mink. Farmed mink constitute a potential virus reservoir challenging pandemic control.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/virologia , /veterinária , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Reservatórios de Doenças/veterinária , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/veterinária , Vison/virologia , Pandemias/veterinária , /isolamento & purificação , /transmissão , Animais , /virologia , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Fazendas , Genes Virais , Humanos , Incidência , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Saúde Pública , RNA Viral/análise , RNA Viral/genética , /virologia , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma , Zoonoses/transmissão , Zoonoses/virologia
2.
Pathog Dis ; 79(1)2021 01 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33537740

RESUMO

A vast proportion of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) individuals remain asymptomatic and can shed severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV) type 2 virus to transmit the infection, which also explains the exponential increase in the number of COVID-19 cases globally. Furthermore, the rate of recovery from clinical COVID-19 in certain pockets of the globe is surprisingly high. Based on published reports and available literature, here, we speculated a few immunovirological mechanisms as to why a vast majority of individuals remain asymptomatic similar to exotic animal (bats and pangolins) reservoirs that remain refractile to disease development despite carrying a huge load of diverse insidious viral species, and whether such evolutionary advantage would unveil therapeutic strategies against COVID-19 infection in humans. Understanding the unique mechanisms that exotic animal species employ to achieve viral control, as well as inflammatory regulation, appears to hold key clues to the development of therapeutic versatility against COVID-19.


Assuntos
Animais Exóticos/virologia , /virologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Imunidade Inata/imunologia , /imunologia , Animais , Infecções Assintomáticas , Quirópteros/virologia , Humanos , /virologia
3.
Viruses ; 13(2)2021 01 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33525437

RESUMO

The establishment of selective colonies of potential vertebrate hosts for viruses would provide experimental models for the understanding of pathogen-host interactions. This paper briefly surveys the reasons to conduct such studies and how the results might provide information that could be applied to disease prevention activities.


Assuntos
Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Animais , /transmissão , Quirópteros/virologia , Coronavirus/classificação , Coronavirus/genética , Coronavirus/patogenicidade , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Humanos , /genética , Zoonoses/prevenção & controle , Zoonoses/virologia
5.
J Biol Dyn ; 15(1): 86-108, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33402047

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remains a global pandemic at present. Although the human-to-human transmission route for this disease has been well established, its transmission mechanism is not fully understood. In this paper, we propose a mathematical model for COVID-19 which incorporates multiple transmission pathways and which employs time-dependent transmission rates reflecting the impact of disease prevalence and outbreak control. Applying this model to a retrospective study based on publicly reported data in China, we argue that the environmental reservoirs play an important role in the transmission and spread of the coronavirus. This argument is supported by our data fitting and numerical simulation results for the city of Wuhan, for the provinces of Hubei and Guangdong, and for the entire country of China.


Assuntos
/transmissão , Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Meio Ambiente , Modelos Biológicos , /fisiologia , /epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Simulação por Computador , Humanos
6.
Nature ; 589(7842): 363-370, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33473223

RESUMO

There have been several major outbreaks of emerging viral diseases, including Hendra, Nipah, Marburg and Ebola virus diseases, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS)-as well as the current pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Notably, all of these outbreaks have been linked to suspected zoonotic transmission of bat-borne viruses. Bats-the only flying mammal-display several additional features that are unique among mammals, such as a long lifespan relative to body size, a low rate of tumorigenesis and an exceptional ability to host viruses without presenting clinical disease. Here we discuss the mechanisms that underpin the host defence system and immune tolerance of bats, and their ramifications for human health and disease. Recent studies suggest that 64 million years of adaptive evolution have shaped the host defence system of bats to balance defence and tolerance, which has resulted in a unique ability to act as an ideal reservoir host for viruses. Lessons from the effective host defence of bats would help us to better understand viral evolution and to better predict, prevent and control future viral spillovers. Studying the mechanisms of immune tolerance in bats could lead to new approaches to improving human health. We strongly believe that it is time to focus on bats in research for the benefit of both bats and humankind.


Assuntos
Quirópteros/imunologia , Quirópteros/virologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/veterinária , /transmissão , Animais , Doenças Assintomáticas , Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Evolução Molecular , Humanos , Tolerância Imunológica , /virologia
7.
Med Hypotheses ; 146: 110419, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33309251

RESUMO

Limited knowledge about the contagiosity and case fatality rate of COVID-19 as well as the still enigmatic route of transmission have led to strict limitations of non-emergency health care especially in head and neck medicine and dentistry. There are theories that the oral cavity provides a favorable environment for SARS-CoV-2 entry and persistence which may be a risk for prolonged virus shedding. However, intraoral innate immune mechanisms provide antiviral effects against a myriad of pathogenic viruses. Initial hints of their efficacy against SARS-CoV-2 are surfacing. It is hypothesized that intraoral immune system activity modulates the invasion pattern of SARS-CoV-2 into oral cells. Thus, the significance of intraoral tissues for SARS-CoV-2 transmission and persistence cannot be assessed. The underlying concept for this hypothesis was developed by the critical observation of a clinically asymptomatic COVID-19 patient. Despite a positive throat swab for SARS-CoV-2, molecular pathologic analysis of an oral perisulcular tissue specimen failed to detect SARS-CoV-2 RNA. More research effort is necessary to define the true origin of the contagiosity of asymptomatic COVID-19 patients.


Assuntos
/virologia , Modelos Biológicos , Boca/virologia , /patogenicidade , Eliminação de Partículas Virais , Adulto , Infecções Assintomáticas , /imunologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Feminino , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos/imunologia , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Boca/imunologia , Pandemias , RNA Viral/isolamento & purificação , Carga Viral
8.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 10: 575559, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33363049

RESUMO

The current COVID-19 pandemic is a great challenge for worldwide researchers in the human microbiota area because the mechanisms and long-term effects of the infection at the GI level are not yet deeply understood. In the current review, scientific literature including original research articles, clinical studies, epidemiological reports, and review-type articles concerning human intestinal infection with SARS-CoV-2 and the possible consequences on the microbiota were reviewed. Moreover, the following aspects pertaining to COVID-19 have also been discussed: transmission, resistance in the human body, the impact of nutritional status in relation to the intestinal microbiota, and the impact of comorbid metabolic disorders such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBS), obesity, and type two diabetes (T2D). The articles investigated show that health, age, and nutritional status are associated with specific communities of bacterial species in the gut, which could influence the clinical course of COVID-19 infection. Fecal microbiota alterations were associated with fecal concentrations of SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 severity. Patients suffering from metabolic and gastrointestinal (GI) disorders are thought to be at a moderate-to-high risk of infection with SARS-CoV-2, indicating the direct implication of gut dysbiosis in COVID-19 severity. However, additional efforts are required to identify the initial GI symptoms of COVID-19 for possible early intervention.


Assuntos
/microbiologia , Disbiose/etiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Pandemias , /fisiologia , Animais , /epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/microbiologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Enterócitos/patologia , Enterócitos/virologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Fezes/virologia , Gastroenteropatias/etiologia , Gastroenteropatias/microbiologia , Humanos , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/epidemiologia , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/microbiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/microbiologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/microbiologia , Fatores de Risco , /patogenicidade
9.
Viruses ; 12(11)2020 10 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33120981

RESUMO

MERS-CoV is a zoonotic virus that has emerged in humans in 2012 and caused severe respiratory illness with a mortality rate of 34.4%. Since its appearance, MERS-CoV has been reported in 27 countries and most of these cases were in Saudi Arabia. So far, dromedaries are considered to be the intermediate host and the only known source of human infection. This study was designed to determine the seroprevalence and the infection rate of MERS-CoV in slaughtered food-camels in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A total of 171 nasal swabs along with 161 serum samples were collected during the winter; from January to April 2019. Nasal swabs were examined by Rapid test and RT-PCR to detect MERS-CoV RNA, while serum samples were tested primarily using S1-based ELISA Kit to detect MERS-CoV (IgG) antibodies and subsequently by MERS pseudotyped viral particles (MERSpp) neutralization assay for confirmation. Genetic diversity of the positive isolates was determined based on the amplification and sequencing of the spike gene. Our results showed high prevalence (38.6%) of MERS-CoV infection in slaughtered camels and high seropositivity (70.8%) during the time of the study. These data indicate previous and ongoing MERS-CoV infection in camels. Phylogenic analysis revealed relatively low genetic variability among our isolated samples. When these isolates were aligned against published spike sequences of MERS-CoV, deposited in global databases, there was sequence similarity of 94%. High seroprevalence and high genetic stability of MERS-CoV in camels indicating that camels pose a public health threat. The widespread MERS-CoV infections in camels might lead to a risk of future zoonotic transmission into people with direct contact with these infected camels. This study confirms re-infections in camels, highlighting a challenge for vaccine development when it comes to protective immunity.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Camelus/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , RNA Viral/análise , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Matadouros , Animais , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Variação Genética/genética , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/genética , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/isolamento & purificação , Prevalência , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética
11.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 9(1): 140, 2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33028426

RESUMO

Most human pathogens originate from non-human hosts and certain pathogens persist in animal reservoirs. The transmission of such pathogens to humans may lead to self-sustaining chains of transmission. These pathogens represent the highest risk for future pandemics. For their prevention, the transmission over the species barrier - although rare - should, by all means, be avoided. In the current COVID-19 pandemic, surprisingly though, most of the current research concentrates on the control by drugs and vaccines, while comparatively little scientific inquiry focuses on future prevention. Already in 2012, the World Bank recommended to engage in a systemic One Health approach for zoonoses control, considering integrated surveillance-response and control of human and animal diseases for primarily economic reasons. First examples, like integrated West Nile virus surveillance in mosquitos, wild birds, horses and humans in Italy show evidence of financial savings from a closer cooperation of human and animal health sectors. Provided a zoonotic origin can be ascertained for the COVID-19 pandemic, integrated wildlife, domestic animal and humans disease surveillance-response may contribute to prevent future outbreaks. In conclusion, the earlier a zoonotic pathogen can be detected in the environment, in wildlife or in domestic animals; and the better human, animal and environmental surveillance communicate with each other to prevent an outbreak, the lower are the cumulative costs.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Zoonoses/prevenção & controle , Doenças dos Animais/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Animais/prevenção & controle , Doenças dos Animais/transmissão , Animais , Betacoronavirus , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Reservatórios de Doenças/veterinária , Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Monitoramento Epidemiológico/veterinária , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Saúde Única , Pandemias/economia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/transmissão
12.
Front Immunol ; 11: 570927, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33123144

RESUMO

The emergence and rapid spread of SARS-CoV-2 in December 2019 has brought the world to a standstill. While less pathogenic than the 2002-2003 SARS-CoV, this novel betacoronavirus presents a global threat due to its high transmission rate, ability to invade multiple tissues, and ability to trigger immunological hyperactivation. The identification of the animal reservoir and intermediate host were important steps toward slowing the spread of disease, and its genetic similarity to SARS-CoV has helped to determine pathogenesis and direct treatment strategies. The exponential increase in cases has necessitated fast and reliable testing procedures. Although RT-PCR remains the gold standard, it is a time-consuming procedure, paving the way for newer techniques such as serologic tests and enzyme immunoassays. Various clinical trials using broad antiviral agents in addition to novel medications have produced controversial results; however, the advancement of immunotherapy, particularly monoclonal antibodies and immune modulators is showing great promise in clinical trials. Non-orthodox medications such as anti-malarials have been tested in multiple institutions but definitive conclusions are yet to be made. Adjuvant therapies have also proven to be effective in decreasing mortality in the disease course. While no formal guidelines have been established, the multitude of ongoing clinical trials as a result of unprecedented access to research data brings us closer to halting the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Monofosfato de Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Monofosfato de Adenosina/uso terapêutico , Alanina/análogos & derivados , Alanina/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus/genética , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Reposicionamento de Medicamentos/métodos , Humanos , Técnicas Imunoenzimáticas , Imunoterapia , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Receptores Virais/metabolismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Testes Sorológicos/métodos , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo
13.
Nat Med ; 26(9): 1339-1350, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32895573

RESUMO

Therapeutic strategies are being clinically tested either to eradicate latent HIV reservoirs or to achieve virologic control in the absence of antiretroviral therapy. Attaining this goal will require a consensus on how best to measure the numbers of persistently infected cells with the potential to cause viral rebound after antiretroviral-therapy cessation in assessing the results of cure-directed strategies in vivo. Current measurements assess various aspects of the HIV provirus and its functionality and produce divergent results. Here, we provide recommendations from the BEAT-HIV Martin Delaney Collaboratory on which viral measurements should be prioritized in HIV-cure-directed clinical trials.


Assuntos
Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/virologia , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Carga Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Latência Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
14.
Rev Esp Salud Publica ; 942020 Sep 30.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32994390

RESUMO

In the midst of the SARS-CoV-2 public-health pandemic emergency, it is important to understand its zoonotic origin and how an animal virus finally infects humans. Identifying the circumstances in which a virus jumps species boundaries to infect humans so productively is objective of this work and will help us to determine the epidemiology and pathogenisis of this agent. Nowadays, it is known that bats serve as reservoir hosts for virus progenitor, but determine the possibility of a potential intermediate host of SARS-CoV-2 is still a challenge. Scientific investigations stablish the natural selection theory as the most probable (natural selection in an animal host before zoonotic transfer or acquired mutations in humans following crossing species barrier). It is necessary to find out how SARS-CoV-2 emerged, its rapidly spreads within a community and the optimal context in which this virus binds to human receptor. One Health is a multisectoral, collaborative and transdisciplinary approach which allows a cooperative working between animal and human health that will help us to introduce some possible control measures that might reduce the spread of the virus; improving sanitary management, identifying new outbreaks and preventing future zoonotic and pandemic events.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Quirópteros/virologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Zoonoses/transmissão , Animais , Betacoronavirus/genética , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Saúde Global , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Seleção Genética , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/virologia
15.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(9): e0007920, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32956349

RESUMO

Lassa virus is a significant burden on human health throughout its endemic region in West Africa, with most human infections the result of spillover from the primary rodent reservoir of the virus, the natal multimammate mouse, M. natalensis. Here we develop a Bayesian methodology for estimating epidemiological parameters of Lassa virus within its rodent reservoir and for generating probabilistic predictions for the efficacy of rodent vaccination programs. Our approach uses Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC) to integrate mechanistic mathematical models, remotely-sensed precipitation data, and Lassa virus surveillance data from rodent populations. Using simulated data, we show that our method accurately estimates key model parameters, even when surveillance data are available from only a relatively small number of points in space and time. Applying our method to previously published data from two villages in Guinea estimates the time-averaged R0 of Lassa virus to be 1.74 and 1.54 for rodent populations in the villages of Bantou and Tanganya, respectively. Using the posterior distribution for model parameters derived from these Guinean populations, we evaluate the likely efficacy of vaccination programs relying on distribution of vaccine-laced baits. Our results demonstrate that effective and durable reductions in the risk of Lassa virus spillover into the human population will require repeated distribution of large quantities of vaccine.


Assuntos
Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Febre Lassa/prevenção & controle , Doenças dos Roedores/epidemiologia , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Simulação por Computador , Guiné/epidemiologia , Vírus Lassa/imunologia , Modelos Teóricos , Murinae , Doenças dos Roedores/imunologia , Doenças dos Roedores/virologia , Vacinação , Zoonoses
16.
J Transl Med ; 18(1): 358, 2020 09 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32957995

RESUMO

COVID-19 caused by a novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) originated in Wuhan (Hubei province, China) during late 2019. It has spread across the globe affecting nearly 21 million people with a toll of 0.75 million deaths and restricting the movement of most of the world population during the past 6 months. COVID-19 became the leading health, economic, and humanitarian challenge of the twenty-first century. In addition to the considerable COVID-19 cases, hospitalizations, and deaths in humans, several cases of SARS-CoV-2 infections in animal hosts (dog, cat, tiger, lion, and mink) have been reported. Thus, the concern of pet owners is increasing. Moreover, the dynamics of the disease requires further explanation, mainly concerning the transmission of the virus from humans to animals and vice versa. Therefore, this study aimed to gather information about the reported cases of COVID-19 transmission in animals through a literary review of works published in scientific journals and perform genomic and phylogenetic analyses of SARS-CoV-2 isolated from animal hosts. Although many instances of transmission of the SARS-CoV-2 have been reported, caution and further studies are necessary to avoid the occurrence of maltreatment in animals, and to achieve a better understanding of the dynamics of the disease in the environment, humans, and animals. Future research in the animal-human interface can help formulate and implement preventive measures to combat the further transmission of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Pandemias/veterinária , Pneumonia Viral/veterinária , Zoonoses/transmissão , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Betacoronavirus/classificação , Betacoronavirus/genética , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Gatos , Coronavirus/classificação , Coronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Reservatórios de Doenças/veterinária , Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Cães , Genoma Viral , Humanos , Vison/virologia , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Exposição Ocupacional , Animais de Estimação/virologia , Filogenia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Pesquisa Médica Translacional , Zoonoses/epidemiologia
17.
Biomolecules ; 10(9)2020 09 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32933047

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is causing a pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The worldwide transmission of COVID-19 from human to human is spreading like wildfire, affecting almost every country in the world. In the past 100 years, the globe did not face a microbial pandemic similar in scale to COVID-19. Taken together, both previous outbreaks of other members of the coronavirus family (severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV) and middle east respiratory syndrome (MERS-CoV)) did not produce even 1% of the global harm already inflicted by COVID-19. There are also four other CoVs capable of infecting humans (HCoVs), which circulate continuously in the human population, but their phenotypes are generally mild, and these HCoVs received relatively little attention. These dramatic differences between infection with HCoVs, SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2 raise many questions, such as: Why is COVID-19 transmitted so quickly? Is it due to some specific features of the viral structure? Are there some specific human (host) factors? Are there some environmental factors? The aim of this review is to collect and concisely summarize the possible and logical answers to these questions.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Coronavirus/patogenicidade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Fatores Etários , Animais , Betacoronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/etiologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/fisiopatologia , Surtos de Doenças , Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Feminino , Saúde Global , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Masculino , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/patogenicidade , Especificidade de Órgãos , Peptídeo Hidrolases/fisiologia , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/fisiologia , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Receptores Virais/fisiologia , Fatores de Risco , Vírus da SARS/patogenicidade , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/epidemiologia , Proteínas Virais/fisiologia , Tropismo Viral , Virulência , Internalização do Vírus
18.
Viruses ; 12(9)2020 09 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32933150

RESUMO

Coronaviruses are enveloped RNA viruses capable of causing respiratory, enteric, or systemic diseases in a variety of mammalian hosts that vary in clinical severity from subclinical to fatal. The host range and tissue tropism are largely determined by the coronaviral spike protein, which initiates cellular infection by promoting fusion of the viral and host cell membranes. Companion animal coronaviruses responsible for causing enteric infection include feline enteric coronavirus, ferret enteric coronavirus, canine enteric coronavirus, equine coronavirus, and alpaca enteric coronavirus, while canine respiratory coronavirus and alpaca respiratory coronavirus result in respiratory infection. Ferret systemic coronavirus and feline infectious peritonitis virus, a mutated feline enteric coronavirus, can lead to lethal immuno-inflammatory systemic disease. Recent human viral pandemics, including severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), and most recently, COVID-19, all thought to originate from bat coronaviruses, demonstrate the zoonotic potential of coronaviruses and their potential to have devastating impacts. A better understanding of the coronaviruses of companion animals, their capacity for cross-species transmission, and the sharing of genetic information may facilitate improved prevention and control strategies for future emerging zoonotic coronaviruses. This article reviews the clinical, epidemiologic, virologic, and pathologic characteristics of nine important coronaviruses of companion animals.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Coronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Animais de Estimação/virologia , Animais , Camelídeos Americanos/virologia , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Doenças do Gato/virologia , Gatos/virologia , Quirópteros/virologia , Coronavirus/classificação , Coronavirus/genética , Coronavirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/virologia , Cães/virologia , Peritonite Infecciosa Felina/epidemiologia , Peritonite Infecciosa Felina/virologia , Furões/virologia , Variação Genética , Doenças dos Cavalos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/virologia , Cavalos/virologia , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Humanos , RNA Viral/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/fisiologia , Replicação Viral , Zoonoses
19.
Indian J Med Microbiol ; 38(2): 210-212, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32883935

RESUMO

Recent emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and subsequent containment procedures have impacted the world as never seen before. Therefore, there is considerable curiosity about the genome evolution related to the origin, transmission and vaccine impact of this virus. We have analysed genome sequences of SARS-CoV-2 isolated from Indian patients to gain an in-depth understanding of genomic evolution and transmission in India. Phylogenetic analysis and mutation profiling revealed major lineages being evolved by characteristic mutations. As the mutation frequency in spike protein is comparatively lesser, the candidate vaccines expected to have wide coverage worldwide including India.


Assuntos
Antígenos Virais/genética , Betacoronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Genoma Viral , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Vacinas Virais/genética , Animais , Antígenos Virais/imunologia , Antígenos Virais/metabolismo , Betacoronavirus/classificação , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Quirópteros/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Eutérios/virologia , Evolução Molecular , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Mutação , Filogenia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Vacinas Virais/biossíntese , Vacinas Virais/imunologia
20.
Arch Virol ; 165(10): 2291-2299, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32754877

RESUMO

The multimammate mouse (Mastomys natalensis; M. natalensis) serves as the main reservoir for the zoonotic arenavirus Lassa virus (LASV), and this has led to considerable investigation into the distribution of LASV and other related arenaviruses in this host species. In contrast to the situation with arenaviruses, the presence of other viruses in M. natalensis remains largely unexplored. In this study, herpesviruses and polyomaviruses were identified and partially characterized by PCR methods, sequencing, and phylogenetic analysis. In tissues sampled from M. natalensis populations in Côte d'Ivoire and Mali, six new DNA viruses (four betaherpesviruses, one gammaherpesvirus and one polyomavirus) were identified. Phylogenetic analysis based on glycoprotein B amino acid sequences showed that the herpesviruses clustered with cytomegaloviruses and rhadinoviruses of multiple rodent species. The complete circular genome of the newly identified polyomavirus was amplified by PCR. Amino acid sequence analysis of the large T antigen or VP1 showed that this virus clustered with a known polyomavirus from a house mouse (species Mus musculus polyomavirus 1). These two polyomaviruses form a clade with other rodent polyomaviruses, and the newly identified virus represents the third known polyomavirus of M. natalensis. This study represents the first identification of herpesviruses and the discovery of a novel polyomavirus in M. natalensis. In contrast to arenaviruses, we anticipate that these newly identified viruses represent a low zoonotic risk due to the normally highly restricted specificity of members of these two DNA virus families to their individual mammalian host species.


Assuntos
Genoma Viral , Infecções por Herpesviridae/epidemiologia , Herpesviridae/genética , Filogenia , Infecções por Polyomavirus/epidemiologia , Polyomavirus/genética , Doenças dos Roedores/epidemiologia , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , Animais , Antígenos Virais de Tumores/genética , Proteínas do Capsídeo/genética , Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Herpesviridae/classificação , Herpesviridae/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Herpesviridae/virologia , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Tipagem Molecular , Murinae/virologia , Polyomavirus/classificação , Polyomavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Polyomavirus/virologia , Doenças dos Roedores/virologia , Proteínas do Envelope Viral/genética
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