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3.
Recurso na Internet em Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde | ID: lis-48240

RESUMO

A chegada do outono e a queda nas temperaturas traz à tona doenças respiratórias conhecidas de todos: a gripe, provocada pelos vírus H1N1 e H3N2, e o resfriado, além de outras doenças alérgicas, como a rinite. Esse situação se agrava com a Covid-19, causada pelo novo coronavírus, sendo necessários cuidados para evitar as doenças e em caso de contágio, atenção aos sintomas, pois, são muito parecidos.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Pneumonia Viral , Influenza Humana , Resfriado Comum , Sinais e Sintomas
4.
Pharmacol Res Perspect ; 9(4): e00810, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34128358

RESUMO

In this individual patient data meta-analysis we examined datasets of two randomized placebo-controlled trials which investigated the effect of nasal carrageenan separately on children and adults. In both trials, iota-carrageenan was administered nasally three times per day for 7 days for patients with the common cold and follow-up lasted for 21 days. We used Cox regression to estimate the effect of carrageenan on recovery rate. We also used quantile regression to calculate the effect of carrageenan on colds of differing lengths. Nasal carrageenan increased the recovery rate from all colds by 54% (95% CI 15%-105%; p = .003). The increase in recovery rate was 139% for coronavirus infections, 119% for influenza A infections, and 70% for rhinovirus infections. The mean duration of all colds in the placebo groups of the first four quintiles were 4.0, 6.8, 8.8, and 13.7 days, respectively. The fifth quintile contained patients with censored data. The 13.7-day colds were shortened by 3.8 days (28% reduction), and 8.8-day colds by 1.3 days (15% reduction). Carrageenan had no meaningful effect on shorter colds. In the placebo group, 21 patients had colds lasting over 20 days, compared with six patients in the carrageenan group, which corresponds to a 71% (p = .003) reduction in the risk of longer colds. Given that carrageenan has an effect on diverse virus groups, and effects at the clinical level on two old coronaviruses, it seems plausible that carrageenan may have an effect on COVID-19. Further research on nasal iota-carrageenan is warranted.


Assuntos
Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Carragenina/administração & dosagem , Resfriado Comum/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Influenza Humana/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Picornaviridae/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Intranasal , Adulto , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Carragenina/farmacologia , Pré-Escolar , Resfriado Comum/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Sprays Nasais , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Análise de Regressão , Análise de Sobrevida , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 524, 2021 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34088268

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), human coronaviruses (HCoVs) have recently attached worldwide attention as essential pathogens in respiratory infection. HCoV-229E has been described as a rare cause of lower respiratory infection in immunocompetent adults. CASE PRESENTATION: We reported a 72-year-old man infected by HCoV-229E with rapid progression to acute respiratory distress syndrome, in conjunction with new onset atrial fibrillation, intensive care unit acquired weakness, and recurrent hospital acquired pneumonia. Clinical and radiological data were continuously collected. The absolute number of peripheral T cells and the level of complement components diminished initially and recovered after 2 months. The patient was successfully treated under intensive support care and discharged from the hospital after 3 months and followed. CONCLUSION: HCoV-229E might an essential causative agent of pulmonary inflammation and extensive lung damage. Supportive treatment was essential to HCoVs infection on account of a long duration of immunological recovery in critical HCoV-229E infection.


Assuntos
Resfriado Comum/diagnóstico , Coronavirus Humano 229E , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Idoso , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/virologia , Resfriado Comum/complicações , Resfriado Comum/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus , Pneumonia Associada a Assistência à Saúde/complicações , Pneumonia Associada a Assistência à Saúde/tratamento farmacológico , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Masculino , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34064793

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: nasal or oral sprays are often marketed as medical devices (MDs) in the European Union to prevent common cold (CC), with ColdZyme®/Viruprotect® (trypsin/glycerol) mouth spray claiming to prevent colds and the COVID-19 virus from infecting host cells and to shorten/reduce CC symptoms as an example. We analyzed the published (pre)-clinical evidence. METHODS: preclinical: comparison of in vitro tests with validated host cell models to determine viral infectivity. Clinical: efficacy, proportion of users protected against virus (compared with non-users) and safety associated with trypsin/glycerol. RESULTS: preclinical data showed that exogenous trypsin enhances SARS-CoV-2 infectivity and syncytia formation in host models, while culture passages in trypsin presence induce spike protein mutants. The manufacturer claims >98% SARS-CoV-2 deactivation, although clinically irrelevant as based on a tryptic viral digest, inserting trypsin inactivation before host cells exposure. Efficacy and safety were not adequately addressed in clinical studies or leaflets (no COVID-19 data). Protection was obtained among 9-39% of users, comparable to or lower than placebo-treated or non-users. Several potential safety risks (tissue digestion, bronchoconstriction) were identified. CONCLUSIONS: the current European MD regulations may result in insufficient exploration of (pre)clinical proof of action. Exogenous trypsin exposure even raises concerns (higher SARS-CoV-2 infectivity, mutations), whereas its clinical protective performance against respiratory viruses as published remains poor and substandard.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Resfriado Comum , União Europeia , Humanos , Legislação de Dispositivos Médicos , Mutação , Sprays Orais , SARS-CoV-2 , Tripsina
7.
Nature ; 594(7864): 553-559, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33971664

RESUMO

Betacoronaviruses caused the outbreaks of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome, as well as the current pandemic of SARS coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)1-4. Vaccines that elicit protective immunity against SARS-CoV-2 and betacoronaviruses that circulate in animals have the potential to prevent future pandemics. Here we show that the immunization of macaques with nanoparticles conjugated with the receptor-binding domain of SARS-CoV-2, and adjuvanted with 3M-052 and alum, elicits cross-neutralizing antibody responses against bat coronaviruses, SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 (including the B.1.1.7, P.1 and B.1.351 variants). Vaccination of macaques with these nanoparticles resulted in a 50% inhibitory reciprocal serum dilution (ID50) neutralization titre of 47,216 (geometric mean) for SARS-CoV-2, as well as in protection against SARS-CoV-2 in the upper and lower respiratory tracts. Nucleoside-modified mRNAs that encode a stabilized transmembrane spike or monomeric receptor-binding domain also induced cross-neutralizing antibody responses against SARS-CoV and bat coronaviruses, albeit at lower titres than achieved with the nanoparticles. These results demonstrate that current mRNA-based vaccines may provide some protection from future outbreaks of zoonotic betacoronaviruses, and provide a multimeric protein platform for the further development of vaccines against multiple (or all) betacoronaviruses.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Resfriado Comum/prevenção & controle , Reações Cruzadas/imunologia , Pandemias , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Adjuvantes Imunológicos , Administração Intranasal , Animais , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , Resfriado Comum/imunologia , Resfriado Comum/virologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Macaca/imunologia , Masculino , Modelos Moleculares , Nanopartículas/química , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Traqueia , Vacinação
8.
BMC Emerg Med ; 21(1): 64, 2021 05 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34051730

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Trends in the characteristics and disease severity of patients using an after-hours house call (AHHC) medical service changed during the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. However, there have been no reports on this issue since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic. This study aimed to investigate patients' tendencies to utilize an AHHC medical service for fever or common cold symptoms during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study compared the characteristics and disease severity of patients with fever or common cold symptoms utilizing an AHHC medical service offered by a single large company between the control period (December 1, 2018 to April 30, 2019) and the COVID-19 pandemic exposure period (December 1, 2019 to April 30, 2020). We also assessed the proportion of these patients in relation to all patients calling the service for any reason. RESULTS: During the control and COVID-19 pandemic exposure periods, a total of 6462 and 10,003 patients consulted the AHHC medical service, respectively. Of these, 5335 (82.6%) and 7423 (74.2%) patients had fever and common cold symptoms, respectively, during the control and COVID-19 pandemic exposure periods (P < 0.001). The corresponding median (interquartile range) ages were 8 (3-11) and 10 (4-33) years, respectively. The distribution of disease severity differed between the groups. The proportions of patients with mild, moderate, and severe illness were 71.1, 28.7, and 0.2% in the control period and 42.3, 56.7, and 0.9% in the COVID-19 pandemic exposure period, respectively (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: During the COVID-19 pandemic, the proportion of patients with fever or common cold symptoms was lower than that in the control period, but disease severity was significantly higher.


Assuntos
Plantão Médico/estatística & dados numéricos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Resfriado Comum/epidemiologia , Febre/epidemiologia , Visita Domiciliar/estatística & dados numéricos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto , COVID-19/terapia , Continuidade da Assistência ao Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
9.
ACS Biomater Sci Eng ; 7(6): 2150-2176, 2021 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33979143

RESUMO

Human respiratory viral infections are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality around the world. Among the various respiratory viruses, coronaviruses (e.g., SARS-CoV-2) have created the greatest challenge and most frightening health threat worldwide. Human coronaviruses typically infect the upper respiratory tract, causing illnesses that range from common cold-like symptoms to severe acute respiratory infections. Several promising vaccine formulations have become available since the beginning of 2021. Nevertheless, achievement of herd immunity is still far from being realized. Social distancing remains the only effective measure against SARS-CoV-2 infection. Nanobiotechnology enables the design of nanobiosensors. These nanomedical diagnostic devices have opened new vistas for early detection of viral infections. The present review outlines recent research on the effectiveness of nanoplatforms as diagnostic and antiviral tools against coronaviruses. The biological properties of coronavirus and infected host organs are discussed. The challenges and limitations encountered in combating SARS-CoV-2 are highlighted. Potential nanodevices such as nanosensors, nanobased vaccines, and smart nanomedicines are subsequently presented for combating current and future mutated versions of coronaviruses.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Resfriado Comum , Vírus , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Resfriado Comum/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Front Immunol ; 12: 627568, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33995351

RESUMO

The beta-coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 induces severe disease (COVID-19) mainly in elderly persons with risk factors, whereas the majority of patients experience a mild course of infection. As the circulating common cold coronaviruses OC43 and HKU1 share some homologous sequences with SARS-CoV-2, beta-coronavirus cross-reactive T-cell responses could influence the susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection and the course of COVID-19. To investigate the role of beta-coronavirus cross-reactive T-cells, we analyzed the T-cell response against a 15 amino acid long peptide (SCoV-DP15: DLSPRWYFYYLGTGP) from the SARS-CoV-2 nucleoprotein sequence with a high homology to the corresponding sequence (QLLPRWYFYYLGTGP) in OC43 and HKU1. SCoV-DP15-specific T-cells were detected in 4 out of 23 (17.4%) SARS-CoV-2-seronegative healthy donors. As HIV-1 infection is a potential risk factor for COVID-19, we also studied a cohort of HIV-1-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy. 44 out of these 116 HIV-1-infected patients (37.9%) showed a specific recognition of the SCoV-DP15 peptide or of shorter peptides within SCoV-DP15 by CD4+ T-cells and/or by CD8+ T-cells. We could define several new cross-reactive HLA-I-restricted epitopes in the SARS-CoV-2 nucleoprotein such as SPRWYFYYL (HLA-B*07, HLA-B*35), DLSPRWYFYY (HLA-A*02), LSPRWYFYY (HLA-A*29), WYFYYLGTGP and WYFYYLGT. Epitope specific CD8+ T-cell lines recognized corresponding epitopes within OC43 and HKU1 to a similar degree or even at lower peptide concentrations suggesting that they were induced by infection with OC43 or HKU1. Our results confirm that SARS-CoV-2-seronegative subjects can target SARS-CoV-2 not only by beta-coronavirus cross-reactive CD4+ T-cells but also by cross-reactive CD8+ cytotoxic T-cells (CTL). The delineation of cross-reactive T-cell epitopes contributes to an efficient epitope-specific immunomonitoring of SARS-CoV-2-specific T-cells. Further prospective studies are needed to prove a protective role of cross-reactive T-cells and their restricting HLA alleles for control of SARS-CoV-2 infection. The frequent observation of SARS-CoV-2-reactive T-cells in HIV-1-infected subjects could be a reason that treated HIV-1 infection does not seem to be a strong risk factor for the development of severe COVID-19.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , COVID-19/imunologia , Resfriado Comum/imunologia , Epitopos de Linfócito T/imunologia , Nucleoproteínas/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/patologia , COVID-19/genética , COVID-19/patologia , Linhagem Celular , Resfriado Comum/genética , Resfriado Comum/patologia , Reações Cruzadas , Epitopos de Linfócito T/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nucleoproteínas/genética , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/patologia
11.
Front Immunol ; 12: 675679, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33995420

RESUMO

Background: COVID-19 Convalescent plasma (CCP) is safe and effective, particularly if given at an early stage of the disease. Our study aimed to identify an association between survival and specific antibodies found in CCP. Patients and Methods: Patients ≥18 years of age who were hospitalized with moderate to severe COVID-19 infection and received CCP at the MD Anderson Cancer Center between 4/30/2020 and 8/20/2020 were included in the study. We quantified the levels of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, as well as antibodies against antigens of other coronavirus strains, in the CCP units and compared antibody levels with patient outcomes. For each antibody, a Bayesian exponential survival time regression model including prognostic variables was fit, and the posterior probability of a beneficial effect (PBE) of higher antibody level on survival time was computed. Results: CCP was administered to 44 cancer patients. The median age was 60 years (range 37-84) and 19 (43%) were female. Twelve patients (27%) died of COVID-19-related complications. Higher levels of two non-SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies, anti-HCoV-OC43 spike IgG and anti-HCoV-HKU1 spike IgG, had PBE = 1.00, and 4 SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies had PBEs between 0.90 and 0.95. Other factors associated with better survival were shorter time to CCP administration, younger age, and female sex. Conclusions: Common cold coronavirus spike IgG antibodies anti-HCoV-OC43 and anti-HCoV-HKU1 may target a common domain for SARS-CoV-2 and other coronaviruses. They provide a promising therapeutic target for monoclonal antibody production.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , COVID-19/terapia , Resfriado Comum/imunologia , Convalescença , Coronavirus Humano OC43/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/mortalidade , Reações Cruzadas , Feminino , Humanos , Imunização Passiva , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
12.
F1000Res ; 10: 196, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34026045

RESUMO

In the spring of 2020, we and others hypothesized that T cells in COVID-19 patients may recognize identical protein fragments shared between the coronaviruses of the common cold and COVID-19 and thereby confer cross-virus immune memory. Here, we look at this issue by screening studies that, since that time, have experimentally addressed COVID-19 associated T cell specificities. Currently, the identical T cell epitope shared between COVID-19 and common cold coronaviruses most convincingly identified as immunogenic is the CD8 + T cell epitope VYIGDPAQL if presented by the MHC class I allele HLA-A*24:02. The HLA-A*24:02 allele is found in the majority of Japanese individuals and several indigenous populations in Asia, Oceania, and the Americas. In combination with histories of common cold infections, HLA-A*24:02 may affect their protection from COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Resfriado Comum , Resfriado Comum/genética , Epitopos de Linfócito T/genética , Humanos , Japão , SARS-CoV-2
13.
J Med Virol ; 93(7): 4392-4398, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33829531

RESUMO

With the arrival of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Brazil in February 2020, several preventive measures were taken by the population aiming to avoid severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection including the use of masks, social distancing, and frequent hand washing then, these measures may have contributed to preventing infection also by other respiratory viruses. Our goal was to determine the frequencies of Influenza A and B viruses (FLUAV/FLUBV), human mastadenovirus C (HAdV-C), Enterovirus 68 (EV-68), and rhinovirus (RV) besides SARS-CoV-2 among hospitalized patients suspect of COVID-19 with cases of acute respiratory disease syndrome (ARDS) in the period of March to December 2020 and to detect possible coinfections among them. Nucleic acid detection was performed using reverse-transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) in respiratory samples using naso-oropharyngeal swabs and bronchoalveolar lavage. A total of 418 samples of the 987 analyzed (42.3%) were positive for SARS-CoV-2, 16 (1.62%) samples were positive for FLUAV, no sample was positive for FLUBV or EV-68, 67 (6.78%) samples were positive for HAdV-C, 55 samples were positive for RV 1/2 (26.3%) and 37 for RV 2/2 (13.6%). Coinfections were also detected, including a triple coinfection with SARS-CoV-2, FLUAV, and HAdV-C. In the present work, a very low frequency of FLUV was reported among hospitalized patients with ARDS compared to the past years, probably due to preventive measures taken to avoid COVID-19 and the high influenza vaccination coverage in the region in which this study was performed.


Assuntos
Infecções por Adenoviridae/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Resfriado Comum/epidemiologia , Infecções por Enterovirus/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Distanciamento Físico , Infecções por Adenoviridae/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Brasil/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/virologia , Resfriado Comum/prevenção & controle , Enterovirus Humano D/genética , Enterovirus Humano D/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Enterovirus/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Vírus da Influenza A/genética , Vírus da Influenza A/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Influenza B/genética , Vírus da Influenza B/isolamento & purificação , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Máscaras , Mastadenovirus/genética , Mastadenovirus/isolamento & purificação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/métodos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa/métodos , Rhinovirus/genética , Rhinovirus/isolamento & purificação , SARS-CoV-2/genética , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Adulto Jovem
14.
Int J Hyperthermia ; 38(1): 696-707, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33910456

RESUMO

Background: One of the most challenging environmental extremes is immersion in cold/icy water, and consequent common assumption is that even a brief exposure to cold can lead to cold-related illnesses. The increase in the concentrations of the stress hormones cortisol, epinephrine (Epi), and norepinephrine (NE) in response to acute cold stress are thought to suppress the release of proinflammatory cytokines. No previous study has explored the residual consequences of whole-body short-term cold-water immersion (CWI; 14 °C for 10 min) on the immune response in healthy non-acclimated young adult men (aged 20-30 years).Materials and methods: In the current study, we tested the hypothesis that short-term acute whole-body CWI would induce high blood levels of cortisol, NE, and Epi, which in turn would increase circulating leukocyte numbers and delay the production of proinflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin 1ß (IL-1ß), and IL-6). Results: Short-term whole-body CWI produced a stressful physiological reaction, as manifested by hyperventilation and increased muscle shivering, metabolic heat production, and heart rate. CWI also induced the marked release of the stress hormones Epi, NE, and cortisol. The change in IL-6 concentration after CWI was delayed and TNF-α production was decreased, but IL-1ß was not affected within 48 h after CWI. A delayed increase in neutrophil percentage and decrease in lymphocyte percentage occurred after CWI.Conclusion: These findings suggest that, even though CWI caused changes in stress and immune markers, the participants showed no predisposition to symptoms of the common cold within 48 h after CWI.


Assuntos
Resfriado Comum , Adulto , Biomarcadores , Temperatura Baixa , Citocinas , Humanos , Imersão , Contagem de Leucócitos , Masculino , Água , Adulto Jovem
16.
mSphere ; 6(2)2021 04 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33910996

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) persists on stainless steel and plastic for up to 7 days, suggesting that coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) could be spread by fomite transmission. There is limited research on the stability of SARS-CoV-2 on textiles, with the risk of textiles acting as fomites not being well understood. To date, there does not appear to be any published research on the stability of coronaviruses during laundering, which is required to determine the efficacy of current laundering policies in the decontamination of health care textiles. The aim of this study was to investigate the environmental stability of human coronaviruses HCoV-OC43 and HCoV-229E on different textile fiber types and the persistence of HCoV-OC43 on textiles during domestic and industrial laundering. This study demonstrated that human coronaviruses (5 log10 50% tissue culture infective doses [TCID50]) remain infectious on polyester for ≥72 h, cotton for ≥24 h, and polycotton for ≥6 h; HCoV-OC43 was also able to transfer from polyester to PVC or polyester after 72 h. Under clean conditions, HCoV-OC43 was not detectable on cotton swatches laundered with industrial and domestic wash cycles without temperature and detergent (≥4.57-log10-TCID50 reduction), suggesting that the dilution and agitation of wash cycles are sufficient to remove human coronaviruses from textiles. In the presence of interfering substances (artificial saliva), ≤1.78 log10 TCID50 HCoV-OC43 was detected after washing domestically without temperature and detergent, unlike industrial laundering, where the virus was completely removed. However, no infectious HCoV-OC43 was detected when washed domestically with detergent.IMPORTANCE Synthetic textiles such as polyester could potentially act as fomites of human coronaviruses, indicating the importance of infection control procedures during handling of contaminated textiles prior to laundering. This study provides novel evidence that human coronaviruses can persist on textiles for up to 3 days and are readily transferred from polyester textile to other surfaces after 72 h of incubation. This is of particular importance for the domestic laundering of contaminated textiles such as health care uniforms in the United Kingdom and United States, where there may be a risk of cross-contaminating the domestic environment. It was demonstrated that human coronaviruses are removed from contaminated textiles by typical domestic and commercial wash cycles, even at low temperatures without detergent, indicating that current health care laundering policies are likely sufficient in the decontamination of SARS-CoV-2 from textiles.


Assuntos
COVID-19/transmissão , Resfriado Comum/transmissão , Coronavirus Humano 229E/efeitos dos fármacos , Coronavirus Humano OC43/efeitos dos fármacos , Detergentes/farmacologia , Têxteis/virologia , Linhagem Celular , Fibra de Algodão/virologia , Fômites/virologia , Humanos , Lavanderia , Poliésteres , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos
17.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 21(1): 112, 2021 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33827515

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Elderberry has traditionally been used to prevent and treat respiratory problems. During the COVID-19 pandemic, there has been interest in elderberry supplements to treat or prevent illness, but also concern that elderberry might overstimulate the immune system and increase the risk of 'cytokine storm'. We aimed to determine benefits and harms of elderberry for the prevention and treatment of viral respiratory infections, and to assess the relationship between elderberry supplements and negative health impacts associated with overproduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review and searched six databases, four research registers, and two preprint sites for studies. Two reviewers independently assessed studies for inclusion, extracted data from studies, assessed risk of bias using Cochrane tools, and evaluated certainty of estimates using GRADE. Outcomes included new illnesses and the severity and duration of illness. RESULTS: We screened 1187 records and included five randomized trials on elderberry for the treatment or prevention of viral respiratory illness. We did not find any studies linking elderberry to clinical inflammatory outcomes. However, we found three studies measuring production of cytokines ex vivo after ingestion of elderberry. Elderberry may not reduce the risk of developing the common cold; it may reduce the duration and severity of colds, but the evidence is uncertain. Elderberry may reduce the duration of influenza but the evidence is uncertain. Compared to oseltamivir, an elderberry-containing product may be associated with a lower risk of influenza complications and adverse events. We did not find evidence on elderberry and clinical outcomes related to inflammation. However, we found evidence that elderberry has some effect on inflammatory markers, although this effect may decline with ongoing supplementation. One small study compared elderberry to diclofenac (a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug) and provided some evidence that elderberry is as effective or less effective than diclofenac in cytokine reduction over time. CONCLUSIONS: Elderberry may be a safe option for treating viral respiratory illness, and there is no evidence that it overstimulates the immune system. However, the evidence on both benefits and harms is uncertain and information from recent and ongoing studies is necessary to make firm conclusions.


Assuntos
COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Resfriado Comum/tratamento farmacológico , Citocinas/metabolismo , Influenza Humana/tratamento farmacológico , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Sambucus , COVID-19/metabolismo , Resfriado Comum/metabolismo , Humanos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Influenza Humana/metabolismo , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
18.
J Infect Dis ; 223(10): 1833, 2021 05 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33909039
19.
Allergy ; 76(8): 2354-2366, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33730365

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although there are many asymptomatic patients, one of the problems of COVID-19 is early recognition of the disease. COVID-19 symptoms are polymorphic and may include upper respiratory symptoms. However, COVID-19 symptoms may be mistaken with the common cold or allergic rhinitis. An ARIA-EAACI study group attempted to differentiate upper respiratory symptoms between the three diseases. METHODS: A modified Delphi process was used. The ARIA members who were seeing COVID-19 patients were asked to fill in a questionnaire on the upper airway symptoms of COVID-19, common cold and allergic rhinitis. RESULTS: Among the 192 ARIA members who were invited to respond to the questionnaire, 89 responded and 87 questionnaires were analysed. The consensus was then reported. A two-way ANOVA revealed significant differences in the symptom intensity between the three diseases (p < .001). CONCLUSIONS: This modified Delphi approach enabled the differentiation of upper respiratory symptoms between COVID-19, the common cold and allergic rhinitis. An electronic algorithm will be devised using the questionnaire.


Assuntos
Asma , COVID-19 , Resfriado Comum , Rinite Alérgica , Consenso , Humanos , Rinite Alérgica/diagnóstico , SARS-CoV-2
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