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2.
Virologie (Montrouge) ; 26(4): 283-302, 2022 07 01.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36120969

RESUMO

For a large proportion of mankind, the word coronavirus only became a reality in the year 2020, as it was the cause of one of the worst pandemics of the last two centuries. Nevertheless, well before this ominous moment, human coronaviruses (HCoV) were well characterized respiratory pathogens since the 1960s. The most recent discovery of SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV showed that coronaviruses have a pandemic potential with important consequences. With the COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2, this potential is now certain. Moreover, accumulating evidence support an association between coronaviruses and extra-respiratory pathologies, in particular of the central and peripheral nervous system. Linked or not with a neuro-invasive and neurotropic potential, it is now clear that coronaviruses can be associated with the development of neurological disorders.


Pour une grande partie de l'humanité, le terme coronavirus n'est devenu réalité qu'au début de l'année 2020, associé à une des plus importantes pandémies des deux derniers siècles. Pourtant, bien avant ce moment fatidique, les coronavirus humains (HCoV) étaient bien caractérisés en tant que pathogènes respiratoires depuis la fin des années 1960. Depuis le début du XXIe siècle, deux autres coronavirus pouvant infecter l'humain (SARS-CoV et MERS-CoV), ont montré que ces virus avaient un potentiel pandémique pouvant entraîner des conséquences importantes. Avec la survenue de la pandémie de Covid-19 créée par le SARS-CoV-2, ce potentiel ne fait aujourd'hui plus aucun doute. De plus, un nombre grandissant d'études supporte l'idée d'une association entre les coronavirus et diverses pathologies extra-respiratoires, en particulier au niveau des systèmes nerveux central et périphérique. Liés ou non à un véritable potentiel neuro-invasif et neurotrope, il apparaît maintenant de façon claire que les coronavirus peuvent être associés au développement de divers désordres neurologiques.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Resfriado Comum , Humanos , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/fisiologia , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
3.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 22(1): 701, 2022 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36096811

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antibiotics are important medicines to prevent maternal and child morbidity and mortality. Women's knowledge and attitudes towards antibiotic use influence their practice. When they become mothers, this may be mirrored in the use of antibiotics for their newborn children. The current study aimed to assess knowledge, attitudes, and reported practice of pregnant women regarding antibiotic use and antibiotic resistance as well as their approach towards antibiotic use for their newborn babies. METHODS: This was a follow-up study with data collected via structured interviews between September 2019 and August 2020 in Feuang (rural) and Vangvieng (urban) districts in Vientiane province, Lao PDR. We identified and invited all women attending antenatal care in their third trimester of pregnancy in the selected areas. Using a structured questionnaire at third trimester of pregnancy we captured data on knowledge regarding antibiotic use and resistance. We collected information on attitudes and reported practice at two time points: (i) at third trimester of pregnancy and (ii) 6 months after birth. Univariate analysis and frequency distributions were used to study pattern of responses. Chi-square and Mann-Whitney tests were used to compare categorical and continuous variables respectively. P value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: We surveyed 539 women with a mean age of 25 years. Two oral antibiotics, i) ampicillin and ii) amoxicillin were correctly identified by 68 and 47% of participants respectively. Only 24% of women (19% in Feuang and 29% in Vangvieng) answered correctly that antibiotics are effective against bacterial infections. The most prevalent response was "I don't know" suggesting the questions were challenging. Significantly less women would use antibiotics from a previous illness for their child than for themselves (16% vs 29%), however they would be more willing to use antibiotics for their baby even in case of mild symptoms (29% vs 17% while pregnant). The majority of antibiotics were prescribed by healthcare providers and 46% of children with the common cold received antibiotics. CONCLUSIONS: Women's knowledge was sub-optimal, still, they manifested appropriate attitudes towards antibiotic use during pregnancy and for their child. Nearly half of children received antibiotics for the common cold. There is a need for context adapted programs aiming at improving women's knowledge, as well as healthcare providers, emphasising rational antibiotic prescribing during pregnancy and for children.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Resfriado Comum , Adulto , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Resfriado Comum/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Seguimentos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Laos , Parto , Gravidez
4.
Cell Host Microbe ; 30(9): 1269-1278.e4, 2022 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35932763

RESUMO

The immune memory to common cold coronaviruses (CCCs) influences SARS-CoV-2 infection outcome, and understanding its effect is crucial for pan-coronavirus vaccine development. We performed a longitudinal analysis of pre-COVID19-pandemic samples from 2016-2019 in young adults and assessed CCC-specific CD4+ T cell and antibody responses. Notably, CCC responses were commonly detected with comparable frequencies as with other common antigens and were sustained over time. CCC-specific CD4+ T cell responses were associated with low HLA-DR+CD38+ signals, and their magnitude did not correlate with yearly CCC infection prevalence. Similarly, CCC-specific and spike RBD-specific IgG responses were stable in time. Finally, high CCC-specific CD4+ T cell reactivity, but not antibody titers, was associated with pre-existing SARS-CoV-2 immunity. These results provide a valuable reference for understanding the immune response to endemic coronaviruses and suggest that steady and sustained CCC responses are likely from a stable pool of memory CD4+ T cells due to repeated earlier exposures and possibly occasional reinfections.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Resfriado Comum , Anticorpos Antivirais , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Resfriado Comum/epidemiologia , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G , Memória Imunológica , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus
5.
Birth Defects Res ; 114(15): 885-894, 2022 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35932236

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Associations between birth defects and fevers attributed to colds, influenza, and urinary tract infections (UTIs) have been observed in previous studies. Our aim was to study associations between birth defects and fevers attributed to other causes. METHODS: We analyzed data from 34,862 participants in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, a multistate case-control study of major structural birth defects. Using multivariable logistic regression, we assessed the association between maternal report of fever during early pregnancy due to causes other than colds, influenza, or UTI and 36 categories of birth defects. RESULTS: Maternal reports of fever due to other causes were associated with significantly elevated odds ratios ranging from 1.93 to 10.60 for 8 of 36 birth defects, primarily involving the spine, limbs, and heart (spina bifida, intestinal atresia, intercalary limb deficiency, transverse limb deficiency, congenital heart defect with heterotaxy, tetralogy of Fallot, pulmonary atresia and atrial septal defect, not otherwise specified). CONCLUSION: Our data suggests fever itself or other physiologic changes associated with many infections are associated with some birth defects. Women who are pregnant or planning to become pregnant may want to consider speaking with their healthcare provider about the best ways to avoid infections that may cause fever and for guidance on how to treat fevers during pregnancy.


Assuntos
Resfriado Comum , Cardiopatias Congênitas , Influenza Humana , Infecções Urinárias , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Febre/complicações , Cardiopatias Congênitas/etiologia , Humanos , Influenza Humana/complicações , Razão de Chances , Gravidez
8.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 298: 115662, 2022 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36031102

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Gui-Zhi-Jia-Ge-Gen decoction (GJGD) is a classical Chinese medicine prescription that has been widely used in clinical practice for centuries. In recent times, TCM has received considerable attention for its potential efficacy in treating a wind-cold type of common cold. However, the effect of the Gui-Zhi-Jia-Ge-Gen decoction on the wind-cold type of common cold is still not fully understood, which presents challenges for both quality control, research and development. Furthermore, the identification of potential pharmacodynamic ingredients (PPIs) is important for developing quality control procedures for industrial and large-scale production. AIM OF THE STUDY: The aim of this study was to investigate the potential curative effect of Gui-Zhi-Jia-Ge-Gen decoction on wind-type of common cold using multidimensional qualitative analysis that combined water-decoction spectrums, in vivo plasma spectrums, and molecular docking to identify key constituents of GJGD. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Water-based GJGDs were formulated according to the clinical usage documented in ancient medical texts. Ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS) was combined with computer-aided modeling screening to identify GJGD PPIs in rats following oral administration. Molecular docking experiments were carried out to predict the binding affinity of the PPIs to tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß). Finally, the active ingredients of GJGD were further validated through pharmacodynamic experiments by assessing their efficacy in treating a wind-cold type of common cold in rats. RESULTS: A total of 61 compounds were identified in the GJGD, 8 of which were detected in rat blood samples, providing stronger evidence for PPIs. Molecular docking also confirmed that these 8 compounds had a better affinity for TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1ß. In animal studies, various doses of the GJGD groups and the positive control groups caused significant elevations (P < 0.05) in the levels of white blood cell count and lymphocyte ratio and caused a significant decrease (P < 0.05) in the monocyte ratio and neutrophilic granulocyte ratio compared to the model group. Organ indexes of the GJGD treated groups were higher than the model group (P < 0.05). Significant neutrophil infiltration, hemorrhage, compensatory vacuole, and interstitium proliferation were observed in the lung tissue of the model group. However, the lung tissues of the various dose groups that received GJGD showed a near normal appearance, except for slight thickening, interstitium proliferation, and compensatory vacuole in some areas. The GJGD was found to be effective against a cold-wind type of common cold, which is in accordance with molecular docking studies suggesting that GJGD may be effective against a cold-wind type of common cold. Finally, based on multidimensional analysis, 8 potential compounds in GJGD were identified as PPIs (puerarin, 3'-hydroxy puerarin, 3'- methoxy puerarin, daidzin, cinnamic acid, paeoniflorin, liquiritin, and glycyrrhizic acid). CONCLUSION: The present study combined water decoction spectral analysis, molecular docking, and in vivo blood plasma spectrum analysis to develop a multidimensional qualitative approach for the development of GJGD and to assess its effectiveness in a wind type of common cold in Sprague Dawley rats. Meanwhile, 8 compounds in the GJGD were identified as PPIs in this study, which may be useful in developing quality standards for complex TCM prescriptions.


Assuntos
Cinnamomum aromaticum , Resfriado Comum , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Resfriado Comum/tratamento farmacológico , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/análise , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Interleucina-6 , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/análise , Água , Vento
9.
J AOAC Int ; 105(5): 1268-1279, 2022 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35916665

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Common cold and cough preparations represent a huge segment of the global pharmaceutical market. Recently, cold/cough formulations containing paracetamol (PAR) have attracted significant attention as PAR has been implemented into the supportive treatment of mild cases of COVID-19 as the first-line antipyretic. From a literature review, no method has been reported yet for simultaneous estimation of PAR, pseudoephedrine hydrochloride (PSE) and carbinoxamine maleate (CRX) in any matrix. Thus, there is an urgent need for smart and green methods that would enable quantification of the cited components in their challenging ratio. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this work is to develop and validate the first UV spectrophotometric methods for simultaneous determination of the selected drugs taking into consideration the list of challenges including the highly overlapping features and spectral interferences in the cited mixture. METHODS: Namely, the proposed methods are: direct spectrophotometry, dual wavelength, first derivative, derivative ratio, ratio difference, constant center coupled with spectrum subtraction, and the constant multiplication method paired with spectrum subtraction. RESULTS: These methods were linear over the concentration range of 2.5-35, 1.5-20, and 4.5-35 µg/mL for PAR, PSE and CRX, respectively. These methods fulfill the validity parameters according to International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines. The results obtained were statistically benchmarked to the official ones where no significant difference was noticed. CONCLUSION: The developed methods are successfully applied for concurrent quantification of the studied components in the marketed dosage form without interference from matrix excipients. The impact on the environment was assessed by five green metrics, namely a recent Analytical greenness (AGREE) metric algorithm based on the green analytical chemistry framework, Green Analytical Procedure Index (GAPI), Eco-Scale, Assessment of Green Profile (AGP), and National Environmental Methods Index (NEMI). HIGHLIGHTS: Eco-friendly and successive spectrophotometric methods were firstly developed in this work, for the simultaneous quantification of PAR, PSE and CRX. These approaches incorporate a simple enrichment-aided technique to augment their spectrophotometric signals, facilitating the accurate quantitation of the minor component in the cited mixture.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Resfriado Comum , Acetaminofen , Tosse , Humanos , Pseudoefedrina , Espectrofotometria/métodos
10.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 11716, 2022 07 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35810192

RESUMO

The common cold is a leading cause of morbidity and contributes significantly to the health costs in Bhutan. The study utilized multivariate Zero-inflated Poisson regression in a Bayesian framework to identify climatic variability and spatial and temporal patterns of the common cold in Bhutan. There were 2,480,509 notifications of common cold between 2010 and 2018. Children aged < 15 years were twice (95% credible interval [CrI] 2.2, 2.5) as likely to get common cold than adults, and males were 12.4% (95 CrI 5.5%, 18.7%) less likely to get common cold than females. A 10 mm increase in rainfall lagged one month, and each 1 °C increase of maximum temperature was associated with a 5.1% (95% CrI 4.2%, 6.1%) and 2.6% (95% CrI 2.3%, 2.8%) increase in the risk of cold respectively. An increase in elevation of 100 m and 1% increase in relative humidity lagged three months were associated with a decrease in risk of common cold by 0.1% (95% CrI 0.1%, 0.2%) and 0.3% (95% CrI 0.2%, 0.3%) respectively. Seasonality and spatial heterogeneity can partly be explained by the association of common cold to climatic variables. There was statistically significant residual clustering after accounting for covariates. The finding highlights the influence of climatic variables on common cold and suggests that prioritizing control strategies for acute respiratory infection program to subdistricts and times of the year when climatic variables are associated with common cold may be an effective strategy.


Assuntos
Resfriado Comum , Adulto , Teorema de Bayes , Butão/epidemiologia , Criança , Resfriado Comum/epidemiologia , Análise de Dados , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Análise Espaço-Temporal
11.
PLoS One ; 17(7): e0270699, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35789217

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A glycerol throat spray containing cold-adapted cod trypsin (GCTS) deactivates common cold virus in vitro and decreases pharyngeal rhinovirus load after inoculation in humans. We relied on early self-diagnosis and evaluated two different scales to detect a treatment effect in naturally occurring common colds. METHODS: Adults were enrolled in this randomised, prospective, parallel group, single-blind study to begin treatment six times daily at first sign of a common cold or were assigned to a non-treated group. Jackson's symptom scale and the 9-item Wisconsin Upper Respiratory Symptom Survey (WURSS)-21 quality of life (QoL) domain were recorded daily by subjects and area under the curve over 12 days (AUC1-12) calculated. RESULTS: Treatment resulted in reduced symptoms with an AUC1-12 of 45.1 ± 32.5 for Jackson scores compared to 53.8 ± 35.7 in the controls (p = 0.023). AUC1-12 for the 9-item WURSS-21 QoL domain was likewise improved, 113.6 ± 107.7 and 152.7 ± 126.3 (p = 0.006), respectively. During the first four days fewer of the treated subjects (35.3%) used rescue medication than did the control group (50.4%, p = 0.014). CONCLUSIONS: Reduction in common cold symptoms was seen with treatment with a glycerol throat spray containing cold-adapted cod trypsin. This effect was best detected with the 9-item WURSS-21 QoL domain.


Assuntos
Resfriado Comum , Adulto , Resfriado Comum/diagnóstico , Resfriado Comum/tratamento farmacológico , Glicerol/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Faringe , Estudos Prospectivos , Qualidade de Vida , Rhinovirus , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Método Simples-Cego , Tripsina
12.
Indoor Air ; 32(6): e13063, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35762240

RESUMO

Common cold is usually considered to be associated with outdoor climate, but the evidence linking with indoor environmental factors is lacking. The role of indoor renovations during which critical timing window on childhood common cold remains unclear. Therefore, we investigated the effect of exposure to new furniture and/or redecoration during prenatal and postnatal periods on the occurrence and duration of common cold in preschool children. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 39 782 children aged 3-6 years in seven cities of China. The occurrence and duration of common cold in children, and their lifetime exposures to indoor new furniture and redecoration (including pregnancy, the first year of life, and after one year old) were assessed using a questionnaire administered by the parents. Associations between high frequency (>5 colds) and long duration (≥2 weeks per cold) of common cold during past 12 months and exposure to indoor new furniture/redecoration were examined by logistic regression models in terms of odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). We found that the prevalence of high frequency and long duration of common cold in preschool children in China were, respectively, 9.2% and 11.9%. Frequent common cold was significantly associated with exposure to indoor new furniture/redecoration during pregnancy, first year, and after 1 year old, respectively, with the ORs (95% CI) = 1.25 (1.12-1.39), 1.11 (1.00-1.25), and 1.09 (1.01-1.18). Furthermore, childhood long duration per cold was associated with exposure to indoor new furniture/redecoration during pregnancy with OR (95% CI) of 1.14 (1.03-1.25) but not with postnatal exposure. We identified that prenatal exposure to home renovation was more critical than postnatal exposure for an increased risk of high frequency and long duration of common cold. Sensitivity analysis showed that the association between prenatal exposure to indoor renovations and the risk of childhood common cold was consistent and robust, and the associations were modified by some personal and indoor environmental factors. Our findings indicated that prenatal and postnatal exposure to home renovation played an important role in the risk of childhood common cold, supporting the hypothesis of "fetal origin of childhood infection."


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Resfriado Comum , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Resfriado Comum/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
13.
Arerugi ; 71(4): 328-333, 2022.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35691901

RESUMO

We describe here the case of a 7-year-old male patient with Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS), which was suspected to be caused by treatment with tipepidine hibenzate (Asverin®). The day after taking tipepidine hibenzate and L-carbocysteine (Carbocysteine® DS) for relief of a cold, he began presenting with the following symptoms: fever above 38°C, wheezing, and decreased oxygen saturation. Two days later, mucous membrane rashes, such as erosions on the lips, eye mucosa, vulva, and blisters on the trunk appeared, and SJS was thus diagnosed. Because pseudomembrane formation and corneal epithelial defect in the eyes were also observed, steroid pulse therapy was administered early in the course of the disease, and the patient recovered without sequelae.A drug-induced lymphocyte stimulation test performed to determine the cause of the disease was positive for fixed-dose combination therapy with tipepidine hibenzate plus L-carbocysteine and for tipepidine hibenzate alone. It has now been three years since the onset of the disease, and no sequelae have been observed. Although tipepidine hibenzate is a drug frequently used for pediatric patients, it should be administered with caution because of its potential to cause SJS.


Assuntos
Carbocisteína , Resfriado Comum , Síndrome de Stevens-Johnson , Carbocisteína/uso terapêutico , Criança , Resfriado Comum/complicações , Feminino , Febre , Humanos , Masculino , Membrana Mucosa , Síndrome de Stevens-Johnson/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Stevens-Johnson/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome de Stevens-Johnson/etiologia
14.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 924725, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35770069

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections can cause long-lasting anosmia, but the impact of SARS-CoV-2 infection, which can spread to the nasal cavity via the oral route, on the olfactory receptor neuron (ORN) lineage and olfactory bulb (OB) remains undetermined. Using Syrian hamsters, we explored whether oral SARS-CoV-2 inoculation can lead to nasal viral infection, examined how SARS-CoV-2 affects the ORN lineage by site, and investigated whether SARS-CoV-2 infection can spread to the OB and induce inflammation. On post-inoculation day 7, SARS-CoV-2 presence was confirmed in the lateral area (OCAM-positive) but not the nasal septum of NQO1-positive and OCAM-positive areas. The virus was observed partially infiltrating the olfactory epithelium, and ORN progenitor cells, immature ORNs, and mature ORNs were fewer than in controls. The virus was found in the olfactory nerve bundles to the OB, suggesting the nasal cavity as a route for SARS-CoV-2 brain infection. We demonstrated that transoral SARS-CoV-2 infection can spread from the nasal cavity to the central nervous system and the possibility of central olfactory dysfunction due to SARS-CoV-2 infection. The virus was localized at the infection site and could damage all ORN-lineage cells.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Resfriado Comum , Neurônios Receptores Olfatórios , Animais , Cricetinae , Bulbo Olfatório , Mucosa Olfatória , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Eur J Med Res ; 27(1): 84, 2022 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35659786

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: During the last 2 years, in the Kurdistan Region, Northern Iraq, there were thousands of COVID-19 cases that have not been reported officially, but diagnosed and confirmed by private laboratories and private hospitals, or clinicians based on typical clinical signs, as well as few people using home self-test after appearing of some flu-like clinical symptoms. Thus, this study aims to assess the misdiagnosis and mismanagement of cases before COVID-19 confirmation. METHODS: This study enrolled 100 consecutive patients who visited an outpatient clinic of Shar Hospital that had symptoms highly suspicious of COVID-19 infection while misdiagnosed previously to have other types of disease. Detailed questionnaires were filled for all studied patients, including age, gender, main presenting symptoms, and duration of these symptoms with the following questions: who made the false diagnosis, depending on which diagnostic test the false diagnosis was made, which medication was used for the false diagnosis, who prescribed those medications, and how long those medications were used. They were investigated by RT-PCR on their nasopharyngeal swab for confirmation. RESULTS: Most of the false diagnoses were typhoid (63%), influenza (14%), pneumonia (9%), gastroenteritis (5%), common cold (4%), brucellosis (4%), and meningitis (1%). Regarding the false diagnosis of cases, 92% were made by non-physician healthcare workers, and only 8% were made by physicians. All false diagnoses with typhoid, gastroenteritis, and common cold were made by non-physician healthcare workers, together with about half of the diagnosis of pneumonia and brucellosis, with statistically significant results (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: We realized that some patients had been misdiagnosed before the COVID-19 infection confirmation. Their health conditions improved drastically after correct diagnosis and treatment, and this research is considered the first research to be conducted in Iraq in this regard.


Assuntos
Brucelose , COVID-19 , Resfriado Comum , Gastroenterite , Febre Tifoide , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Erros de Diagnóstico , Humanos , Iraque/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2/genética
16.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 47(10): 2819-2824, 2022 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35718502

RESUMO

Jingfang Granules have the effects of inducing sweating to releasing exterior, dispersing wind and dispelling dampness. Modern studies have demonstrated that it has antipyretic and antiviral activities. Therefore, this trial was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Jingfang Granules in the treatment of common cold(wind-cold syndrome). A total of 138 common cold(wind-cold syndrome) patients meeting the inclusion and exclusion criteria were randomly assigned into the experimental group(n=92) and the placebo group(n=46) at a ratio of 2∶1 and respectively received Jingfang Granules and Jingfang Granules simulation agent. The treatment lasted for 5 d, and the follow-up time was 8 d. Recovery time was employed as the main indicator of efficacy. The median reco-very time of the experimental group was 3.33 d, shorter than that 7.00 d of the placebo group. The efficacy of the experimental group was better than that of the placebo group(P<0.000 1). The major symptom severity score-time AUC of the experimental group was 489.90±206.95, which was smaller than that of the placebo group(763.50±339.53). The recovery rate and marked effective rate of the experimental group were higher than those of the placebo group, The above outcomes were statistically significant between the two groups(P<0.05). The disappearance time and rate of single symptoms including aversion to cold, nasal congestion, runny nose, cough, headache, pharyngeal itching/pain, white sputum, and somatalgia also had significant differences between the two groups(P<0.05), indicating that Jingfang Granules had good performance in alleviating the above symptoms. During the study period, one case of the experimental group had a slight increase in serum creatinine, which returned to the normal level after re-examination. The incidence of adverse reactions was 1.10%, and no serious adverse reaction was found. The two groups had no significant difference in the incidence of adverse reactions. In conclusion, Jingfang Granules can significantly shorten the course of common cold(wind-cold syndrome) and quickly alleviate the clinical symptoms, demonstrating good safety and clinical advantages.


Assuntos
Resfriado Comum , Faringite , Resfriado Comum/diagnóstico , Resfriado Comum/tratamento farmacológico , Tosse , Método Duplo-Cego , Humanos , Síndrome , Resultado do Tratamento , Vento
17.
EBioMedicine ; 80: 104048, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35533495

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 mRNA vaccines elicit strong T and B cell responses to the SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein in both SARS-CoV-2 naïve and experienced patients. However, it is unknown whether the post-vaccine CD4+ T cell responses seen in patients with a history of COVID-19 are due to restimulation of T cell clonotypes that were first activated during natural infection or if they are the result of new clones activated by the vaccine. METHODS: To address this question, we analyzed the SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein-specific CD4+ T cell receptor repertoire before and after vaccination in 10 COVID-19 convalescent patients and 4 SARS-CoV-2 naïve healthy donor vaccine recipients. We used the viral Functional Expansion of Specific T cells (ViraFEST) assay to quantitatively identify specific SARS-CoV-2 and common cold coronavirus CD4+ T cell clonotypes post COVID-19 disease resolution and post mRNA SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. FINDINGS: We found that while some preexisting T cell receptor clonotypes persisted, the post-vaccine repertoire consisted mainly of vaccine-induced clones and was largely distinct from the repertoire induced by natural infection. Vaccination-induced clones led to an overall maintenance of the total number of SARS-CoV-2 reactive clonotypes over time through expansion of novel clonotypes only stimulated through vaccination. Additionally, we demonstrated that the vaccine preferentially induces T cells that are only specific for SARS-CoV-2 antigens, rather than T cells that cross-recognize SARS-CoV-2/common cold coronaviruses. INTERPRETATION: These data demonstrate that SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in patients with prior SARS-CoV-2 infection induces a new antigen-specific repertoire and sheds light on the differential immune responses induced by vaccination versus natural infection. FUNDING: Bloomberg∼Kimmel Institute for Cancer Immunotherapy, The Johns Hopkins University, The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, NCI U54CA260492, NIH.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Resfriado Comum , Vacinas Virais , Anticorpos Antivirais , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Vacinação
18.
PLoS One ; 17(5): e0265874, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35552542

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Common cold is among the main reasons patients visit a medical facility. However, few studies have investigated whether prescriptions for common cold in Japan comply with domestic and international evidence. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether prescriptions for common cold complied with domestic and international evidence. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted between October 22, 2020, and January 16, 2021. Patients with cold symptoms who visited the two dispensing pharmacies and met the eligibility criteria were interviewed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: The pharmacists at each store and a physician classified the patients into two groups: the potentially inappropriate prescribing group and the appropriate prescribing group. RESULTS: Of the 150 selected patients, 14 were excluded and 136 were included in the analysis. Males accounted for 44.9% of the total study population, and the median patient age was 34 years (interquartile range [IQR], 27-42). The prevalence rates of potentially inappropriate prescriptions and appropriate prescriptions were 89.0% and 11.0%, respectively and the median drug costs were 602.0 yen (IQR, 479.7-839.2) [$5.2 (IQR, 4.2-7.3)] and 406.7 yen (IQR, 194.5-537.2) [$3.5 (IQR, 1.7-4.7)], respectively. The most common potentially inappropriate prescriptions were the prescription of oral cephem antibacterial agents to patients who did not have symptoms of bacterial infections (50.4%) and ß2 stimulants to those who did not have respiratory symptoms due to underlying disease or history (33.9%). CONCLUSIONS: Approximately 90% of prescriptions for common cold symptoms in the area were potentially inappropriate. Our findings could contribute to the monitoring of the use of medicines for the treatment of common cold symptoms.


Assuntos
Resfriado Comum , Prescrição Inadequada , Adulto , Resfriado Comum/tratamento farmacológico , Resfriado Comum/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Prescrições de Medicamentos , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Farmacêuticos
19.
Antiviral Res ; 203: 105343, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35598779

RESUMO

Besides pandemic SARS-CoV-2, also endemic seasonal human common cold coronaviruses (hCoVs) have a significant impact on human health and economy. Studies on hCoVs and the identification of antivirals are therefore crucial to improve human well-being. However, hCoVs have long been neglected and the methodology to study virus infection, replication and inhibition warrants being updated. We here evaluated the established plaque-based assays to determine viral titers and cell-to-cell spread and developed protocols for the immunodetection of the viral nucleocapsid protein by flow cytometry and in-cell ELISA to study infection rates at early time points. The developed protocols allow detection of hCoV-229E infection after 2, and hCoV-NL63 and -OC43 infection after 3 days at a single cell level or in a 96 well microtiter format, in large sample numbers without being laborious or expensive. Both assays can be applied to assess the susceptibility of cells to hCoV infection and replication, and to determine the efficacy of antiviral compounds as well as neutralizing antibodies in a sensitive and quantitative manner. Application revealed that clinically applied SARS-CoV-2 targeting monoclonal antibodies are inactive against hCoVs, but that the viral polymerase targeting antivirals remdesivir and molnupiravir are broadly active also against all three hCoVs. Further, the in-cell ELISA provided evidence that nirmatrelvir, previously shown to broadly inhibit coronavirus proteases, also prevents replication of authentic hCoVs. Importantly, the protocols described here can be easily adapted to other coronavirus strains and species as well as viruses of other families within a short time. This will facilitate future research on known and emerging (corona)viruses, support the identification of antivirals and increase the preparedness for future virus outbreaks.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Resfriado Comum , Coronavirus Humano NL63 , Antivirais/farmacologia , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Resfriado Comum/diagnóstico , Resfriado Comum/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Estações do Ano
20.
Environ Int ; 164: 107239, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35447424

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) exert immunosuppressive effects in experimental animals. Few epidemiologic studies investigated PFAS exposure and immune-related clinical outcomes such as common cold, especially during childhood when the immune system is developing. METHODS: This study used data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and included 517 children 3-11 years (2013-2014 cycle) and 2732 adolescents 12-19 years (2003-2016 cycles). Serum concentrations of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) and perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS) were quantified. Common cold was self-reported by the participant or parent as having a head cold or chest cold in the last month. Multivariable logistic regression models were applied to examine the covariate-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) between individual PFAS concentrations and common cold incidence in the past month. The joint effect of PFAS mixtures was evaluated using Probit Bayesian Kernel Machine Regression (BKMR). RESULTS: A doubling of serum PFHxS concentration was associated with a 31% higher odds (OR = 1.31, 95% CI: 1.06, 1.62) of common cold among children. Serum PFNA (OR = 1.36, 95% CI: 0.93, 1.98) and PFOA (OR = 1.32, 95% CI: 0.67, 2.62) concentrations were also related to common cold among children, as were serum PFOS concentrations among adolescents (OR = 1.13, 95% CI: 0.96, 1.32). ORs were higher in male than female children and adolescents. BKMR showed a clear increasing trend of common cold estimates across quantiles of the total PFAS mixture concentration among children, while no obvious pattern emerged in adolescents. DISCUSSION: Among children in the United States, serum concentrations of PFAS mixtures, especially PFHxS and PFNA, were associated with higher odds of common cold. Among adolescents, PFOS was associated with increased common cold in the last month. This study contributes to the existing evidence supporting the immunotoxicity of PFAS in childhood and adolescence.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos , Resfriado Comum , Poluentes Ambientais , Fluorcarbonetos , Adolescente , Teorema de Bayes , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Ácidos Sulfônicos , Estados Unidos
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