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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34204013

RESUMO

Plant immunity is mediated in large part by specific interactions between a host resistance protein and a pathogen effector protein, named effector-triggered immunity (ETI). ETI needs to be tightly controlled both positively and negatively to enable normal plant growth because constitutively activated defense responses are detrimental to the host. In previous work, we reported that mutations in SUPPRESSOR OF rps4-RLD1 (SRFR1), identified in a suppressor screen, reactivated EDS1-dependent ETI to Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pto) DC3000. Besides, mutations in SRFR1 boosted defense responses to the generalist chewing insect Spodoptera exigua and the sugar beet cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii. Here, we show that mutations in SRFR1 enhance susceptibility to the fungal necrotrophs Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (FOL) and Botrytis cinerea in Arabidopsis. To translate knowledge obtained in AtSRFR1 research to crops, we generated SlSRFR1 alleles in tomato using a CRISPR/Cas9 system. Interestingly, slsrfr1 mutants increased expression of SA-pathway defense genes and enhanced resistance to Pto DC3000. In contrast, slsrfr1 mutants elevated susceptibility to FOL. Together, these data suggest that SRFR1 is functionally conserved in both Arabidopsis and tomato and functions antagonistically as a negative regulator to (hemi-) biotrophic pathogens and a positive regulator to necrotrophic pathogens.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/imunologia , Arabidopsis/microbiologia , Botrytis/fisiologia , Resistência à Doença/imunologia , Fusarium/fisiologia , Imunidade Vegetal , Alelos , Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Sequência de Bases , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas/genética , Resistência à Doença/genética , Edição de Genes , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Vetores Genéticos/metabolismo , Lycopersicon esculentum/genética , Mutação/genética , Imunidade Vegetal/genética , Plasmídeos/genética
2.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 307, 2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34193031

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maize rough dwarf disease (MRDD), a widespread disease caused by four pathogenic viruses, severely reduces maize yield and grain quality. Resistance against MRDD is a complex trait that controlled by many quantitative trait loci (QTL) and easily influenced by environmental conditions. So far, many studies have reported numbers of resistant QTL, however, only one QTL have been cloned, so it is especially important to map and clone more genes that confer resistance to MRDD. RESULTS: In the study, a major quantitative trait locus (QTL) qMrdd2, which confers resistance to MRDD, was identified and fine mapped. qMrdd2, located on chromosome 2, was consistently identified in a 15-Mb interval between the simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers D184 and D1600 by using a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from a cross between resistant ("80007") and susceptible ("80044") inbred lines. Using a recombinant-derived progeny test strategy, qMrdd2 was delineated to an interval of 577 kb flanked by markers N31 and N42. We further demonstrated that qMrdd2 is an incompletely dominant resistance locus for MRDD that reduced the disease severity index by 20.4%. CONCLUSIONS: A major resistance QTL (qMrdd2) have been identified and successfully refined into 577 kb region. This locus will be valuable for improving maize variety resistance to MRDD via marker-assisted selection (MAS).


Assuntos
Resistência à Doença/genética , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/virologia , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Zea mays/genética , Zea mays/virologia , Análise de Variância , Ligação Genética , Endogamia , Modelos Genéticos , Fenótipo , Mapeamento Físico do Cromossomo
3.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 310, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34210277

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The ability of chickpea to obtain sufficient nitrogen via its symbiotic relationship with Mesorhizobium ciceri is of critical importance in supporting growth and grain production. A number of factors can affect this symbiotic relationship including abiotic conditions, plant genotype, and disruptions to host signalling/perception networks. In order to support improved nodule formation in chickpea, we investigated how plant genotype and soil nutrient availability affect chickpea nodule formation and nitrogen fixation. Further, using transcriptomic profiling, we sought to identify gene expression patterns that characterize highly nodulated genotypes. RESULTS: A study involving six chickpea varieties demonstrated large genotype by soil nitrogen interaction effects on nodulation and further identified agronomic traits of genotypes (such as shoot weight) associated with high nodulation. We broadened our scope to consider 29 varieties and breeding lines to examine the relationship between soilborne disease resistance and the number of nodules developed and real-time nitrogen fixation. Results of this larger study supported the earlier genotype specific findings, however, disease resistance did not explain differences in nodulation across genotypes. Transcriptional profiling of six chickpea genotypes indicates that genes associated with signalling, N transport and cellular localization, as opposed to genes associated with the classical nodulation pathway, are more likely to predict whether a given genotype will exhibit high levels of nodule formation. CONCLUSIONS: This research identified a number of key abiotic and genetic factors affecting chickpea nodule development and nitrogen fixation. These findings indicate that an improved understanding of genotype-specific factors affecting chickpea nodule induction and function are key research areas necessary to improving the benefits of rhizobial symbiosis in chickpea.


Assuntos
Cicer/genética , Resistência à Doença/efeitos dos fármacos , Nitrogênio/farmacologia , Nodulação/genética , Raízes de Plantas/fisiologia , Solo , Biomassa , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Ontologia Genética , Genótipo , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Nódulos Radiculares de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Nódulos Radiculares de Plantas/metabolismo , Transcrição Genética/efeitos dos fármacos , Transcriptoma/efeitos dos fármacos , Transcriptoma/genética
4.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 312, 2021 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34215182

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Peanut smut is a disease caused by the fungus Thecaphora frezii Carranza & Lindquist to which most commercial cultivars in South America are highly susceptible. It is responsible for severely decreased yield and no effective chemical treatment is available to date. However, smut resistance has been identified in wild Arachis species and further transferred to peanut elite cultivars. To identify the genome regions conferring smut resistance within a tetraploid genetic background, this study evaluated a RIL population {susceptible Arachis hypogaea subsp. hypogaea (JS17304-7-B) × resistant synthetic amphidiploid (JS1806) [A. correntina (K 11905) × A. cardenasii (KSSc 36015)] × A. batizocoi (K 9484)4×} segregating for the trait. RESULTS: A SNP based genetic map arranged into 21 linkage groups belonging to the 20 peanut chromosomes was constructed with 1819 markers, spanning a genetic distance of 2531.81 cM. Two consistent quantitative trait loci (QTLs) were identified qSmIA08 and qSmIA02/B02, located on chromosome A08 and A02/B02, respectively. The QTL qSmIA08 at 15.20 cM/5.03 Mbp explained 17.53% of the phenotypic variance, while qSmIA02/B02 at 4.0 cM/3.56 Mbp explained 9.06% of the phenotypic variance. The combined genotypic effects of both QTLs reduced smut incidence by 57% and were stable over the 3 years of evaluation. The genome regions containing the QTLs are rich in genes encoding proteins involved in plant defense, providing new insights into the genetic architecture of peanut smut resistance. CONCLUSIONS: A major QTL and a minor QTL identified in this study provide new insights into the genetic architecture of peanut smut resistance that may aid in breeding new varieties resistant to peanut smut.


Assuntos
Arachis/genética , Arachis/microbiologia , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Resistência à Doença/genética , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Marcadores Genéticos , Endogamia , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Recombinação Genética/genética
5.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 315, 2021 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34215189

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Plant-produced specialised metabolites are a powerful part of a plant's first line of defence against herbivorous insects, bacteria and fungi. Wild ancestors of present-day cultivated tomato produce a plethora of acylsugars in their type-I/IV trichomes and volatiles in their type-VI trichomes that have a potential role in plant resistance against insects. However, metabolic profiles are often complex mixtures making identification of the functionally interesting metabolites challenging. Here, we aimed to identify specialised metabolites from a wide range of wild tomato genotypes that could explain resistance to vector insects whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) and Western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis). We evaluated plant resistance, determined trichome density and obtained metabolite profiles of the glandular trichomes by LC-MS (acylsugars) and GC-MS (volatiles). Using a customised Random Forest learning algorithm, we determined the contribution of specific specialised metabolites to the resistance phenotypes observed. RESULTS: The selected wild tomato accessions showed different levels of resistance to both whiteflies and thrips. Accessions resistant to one insect can be susceptible to another. Glandular trichome density is not necessarily a good predictor for plant resistance although the density of type-I/IV trichomes, related to the production of acylsugars, appears to correlate with whitefly resistance. For type VI-trichomes, however, it seems resistance is determined by the specific content of the glands. There is a strong qualitative and quantitative variation in the metabolite profiles between different accessions, even when they are from the same species. Out of 76 acylsugars found, the random forest algorithm linked two acylsugars (S3:15 and S3:21) to whitefly resistance, but none to thrips resistance. Out of 86 volatiles detected, the sesquiterpene α-humulene was linked to whitefly susceptible accessions instead. The algorithm did not link any specific metabolite to resistance against thrips, but monoterpenes α-phellandrene, α-terpinene and ß-phellandrene/D-limonene were significantly associated with susceptible tomato accessions. CONCLUSIONS: Whiteflies and thrips are distinctly targeted by certain specialised metabolites found in wild tomatoes. The machine learning approach presented helped to identify features with efficacy toward the insect species studied. These acylsugar metabolites can be targets for breeding efforts towards the selection of insect-resistant cultivars.


Assuntos
Resistência à Doença/genética , Variação Genética , Hemípteros/fisiologia , Metaboloma/genética , Solanum/genética , Tisanópteros/fisiologia , Tricomas/genética , Tricomas/metabolismo , Algoritmos , Animais , Ecótipo , Genótipo , Fenótipo , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34208600

RESUMO

Coumarins belong to a group of secondary metabolites well known for their high biological activities including antibacterial and antifungal properties. Recently, an important role of coumarins in plant resistance to pathogens and their release into the rhizosphere upon pathogen infection was discovered. It is also well documented that coumarins play a crucial role in the Arabidopsis thaliana growth under Fe-limited conditions. However, the mechanisms underlying interplay between plant resistance, accumulation of coumarins and Fe status, remain largely unknown. In this work, we investigated the effect of both mentioned factors on the disease severity using the model system of Arabidopsis/Dickeya spp. molecular interactions. We evaluated the disease symptoms in Arabidopsis plants, wild-type Col-0 and its mutants defective in coumarin accumulation, grown in hydroponic cultures with contrasting Fe regimes and in soil mixes. Under all tested conditions, Arabidopsis plants inoculated with Dickeya solani IFB0099 strain developed more severe disease symptoms compared to lines inoculated with Dickeya dadantii 3937. We also showed that the expression of genes encoding plant stress markers were strongly affected by D. solani IFB0099 infection. Interestingly, the response of plants to D. dadantii 3937 infection was genotype-dependent in Fe-deficient hydroponic solution.


Assuntos
Cumarínicos/metabolismo , Dickeya/fisiologia , Resistência à Doença , Ferro/metabolismo , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas/microbiologia , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/microbiologia , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Hidroponia , Folhas de Planta/microbiologia , Estresse Fisiológico
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34208611

RESUMO

Transcription factors are proteins that directly bind to regulatory sequences of genes to modulate and adjust plants' responses to different stimuli including biotic and abiotic stresses. Sedentary plant parasitic nematodes, such as beet cyst nematode, Heterodera schachtii, have developed molecular tools to reprogram plant cell metabolism via the sophisticated manipulation of genes expression, to allow root invasion and the induction of a sequence of structural and physiological changes in plant tissues, leading to the formation of permanent feeding sites composed of modified plant cells (commonly called a syncytium). Here, we report on the AtMYB59 gene encoding putative MYB transcription factor that is downregulated in syncytia, as confirmed by RT-PCR and a promoter pMyb59::GUS activity assays. The constitutive overexpression of AtMYB59 led to the reduction in A. thaliana susceptibility, as indicated by decreased numbers of developed females, and to the disturbed development of nematode-induced syncytia. In contrast, mutant lines with a silenced expression of AtMYB59 were more susceptible to this parasite. The involvement of ABA in the modulation of AtMYB59 gene transcription appears feasible by several ABA-responsive cis regulatory elements, which were identified in silico in the gene promoter sequence, and experimental assays showed the induction of AtMYB59 transcription after ABA treatment. Based on these results, we suggest that AtMYB59 plays an important role in the successful parasitism of H. schachtii on A. thaliana roots.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/parasitologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/parasitologia , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Tylenchoidea/fisiologia , Animais , Arabidopsis/ultraestrutura , Resistência à Doença/genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Fenótipo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/parasitologia , Raízes de Plantas/ultraestrutura , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas
8.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3378, 2021 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34099713

RESUMO

The re-emergence of stem rust on wheat in Europe and Africa is reinforcing the ongoing need for durable resistance gene deployment. Here, we isolate from wheat, Sr26 and Sr61, with both genes independently introduced as alien chromosome introgressions from tall wheat grass (Thinopyrum ponticum). Mutational genomics and targeted exome capture identify Sr26 and Sr61 as separate single genes that encode unrelated (34.8%) nucleotide binding site leucine rich repeat proteins. Sr26 and Sr61 are each validated by transgenic complementation using endogenous and/or heterologous promoter sequences. Sr61 orthologs are absent from current Thinopyrum elongatum and wheat pan genome sequences, contrasting with Sr26 where homologues are present. Using gene-specific markers, we validate the presence of both genes on a single recombinant alien segment developed in wheat. The co-location of these genes on a small non-recombinogenic segment simplifies their deployment as a gene stack and potentially enhances their resistance durability.


Assuntos
Resistência à Doença/genética , Proteínas NLR/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/microbiologia , Puccinia/patogenicidade , Triticum/microbiologia , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Genes de Plantas , Engenharia Genética , Marcadores Genéticos , Melhoramento Vegetal/métodos , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Caules de Planta/microbiologia , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Puccinia/isolamento & purificação , Triticum/genética
9.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3380, 2021 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34099714

RESUMO

Plant-parasitic nematodes (PPNs) are economically important pests of agricultural crops, and soybean cyst nematode (SCN) in particular is responsible for a large amount of damage to soybean. The need for new solutions for controlling SCN is becoming increasingly urgent, due to the slow decline in effectiveness of the widely used native soybean resistance derived from genetic line PI 88788. Thus, developing transgenic traits for controlling SCN is of great interest. Here, we report a Bacillus thuringiensis delta-endotoxin, Cry14Ab, that controls SCN in transgenic soybean. Experiments in C. elegans suggest the mechanism by which the protein controls nematodes involves damaging the intestine, similar to the mechanism of Cry proteins used to control insects. Plants expressing Cry14Ab show a significant reduction in cyst numbers compared to control plants 30 days after infestation. Field trials also show a reduction in SCN egg counts compared with control plants, demonstrating that this protein has excellent potential to control PPNs in soybean.


Assuntos
Toxinas de Bacillus thuringiensis/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/parasitologia , Resistência à Doença/genética , Endotoxinas/genética , Proteínas Hemolisinas/genética , Soja/parasitologia , Tylenchoidea/patogenicidade , Animais , Bacillus thuringiensis/genética , Toxinas de Bacillus thuringiensis/metabolismo , Bioensaio , Caenorhabditis elegans , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Endotoxinas/metabolismo , Feminino , Engenharia Genética , Proteínas Hemolisinas/metabolismo , Melhoramento Vegetal/métodos , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/parasitologia , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/parasitologia , Soja/genética , Soja/metabolismo , Tylenchoidea/isolamento & purificação
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(9)2021 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34063632

RESUMO

Temperature is one of the critical factors affecting gene expression in bacteria. Despite the general interest in the link between bacterial phenotypes and environmental temperature, little is known about temperature-dependent gene expression in plant pathogenic Pectobacterium atrosepticum, a causative agent of potato blackleg and tuber soft rot worldwide. In this study, twenty-nine P. atrosepticum SCRI1043 thermoregulated genes were identified using Tn5-based transposon mutagenesis coupled with an inducible promotorless gusA gene as a reporter. From the pool of 29 genes, 14 were up-regulated at 18 °C, whereas 15 other genes were up-regulated at 28 °C. Among the thermoregulated loci, genes involved in primary bacterial metabolism, membrane-related proteins, fitness-corresponding factors, and several hypothetical proteins were found. The Tn5 mutants were tested for their pathogenicity in planta and for features that are likely to remain important for the pathogen to succeed in the (plant) environment. Five Tn5 mutants expressed visible phenotypes differentiating these mutants from the phenotype of the SCRI1043 wild-type strain. The gene disruptions in the Tn5 transposon mutants caused alterations in bacterial generation time, ability to form a biofilm, production of lipopolysaccharides, and virulence on potato tuber slices. The consequences of environmental temperature on the ability of P. atrosepticum to cause disease symptoms in potato are discussed.


Assuntos
Elementos de DNA Transponíveis/genética , Pectobacterium/genética , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Solanum tuberosum/genética , Resistência à Doença/genética , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Pectinas/química , Pectinas/genética , Pectobacterium/patogenicidade , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Solanum tuberosum/microbiologia , Temperatura , Transposases/genética
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(9)2021 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34066846

RESUMO

In plant-pathogen interactions, a proper light environment affects the establishment of defense responses in plants. In our previous experiments, we found that nonhost resistance (NHR) to Pyricularia oryzae Cav. in Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. (Arabidopsis), in diurnal conditions, varies with the inoculation time. Moreover, we indicated that the circadian clock plays an important role in regulating time-of-day differences in NHR to P. oryzae in Arabidopsis. However, the involvement of photoperiod in regulating NHR was still not understood. To determine the photoperiod role, we performed the experiments in continuous light and darkness during the early Arabidopsis-P. oryzae interaction. We found that the light period after the inoculation in the evening enhanced the resistance to penetration. However, the dark period after the inoculation in the morning suppressed the penetration resistance. Furthermore, the genetic analysis indicated that jasmonic acid, reactive oxygen species, and tryptophan-derived metabolite(s) contribute to the photoperiod regulation of NHR in Arabidopsis. The present results denote that photoperiod plays an important role in regulating time-of-day differences in NHR to P. oryzae in Arabidopsis.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/microbiologia , Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Ascomicetos/fisiologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Fotoperíodo , Arabidopsis/genética , Escuridão , Resistência à Doença/imunologia , Genes de Plantas , Mutação/genética , Doenças das Plantas/imunologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34070394

RESUMO

The genetic control of host response to the fungal necrotrophic disease Septoria nodorum blotch (SNB) in bread wheat is complex, involving many minor genes. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling SNB response were previously identified on chromosomes 1BS and 5BL. The aim of this study, therefore, was to align and compare the genetic map representing QTL interval on 1BS and 5BS with the reference sequence of wheat and identify resistance genes (R-genes) associated with SNB response. Alignment of QTL intervals identified significant genome rearrangements on 1BS between parents of the DH population EGA Blanco, Millewa and the reference sequence of Chinese Spring with subtle rearrangements on 5BL. Nevertheless, annotation of genomic intervals in the reference sequence were able to identify and map 13 and 12 R-genes on 1BS and 5BL, respectively. R-genes discriminated co-located QTL on 1BS into two distinct but linked loci. NRC1a and TFIID mapped in one QTL on 1BS whereas RGA and Snn1 mapped in the linked locus and all were associated with SNB resistance but in one environment only. Similarly, Tsn1 and WK35 were mapped in one QTL on 5BL with NETWORKED 1A and RGA genes mapped in the linked QTL interval. This study provided new insights on possible biochemical, cellular and molecular mechanisms responding to SNB infection in different environments and also addressed limitations of using the reference sequence to identify the full complement of functional R-genes in modern varieties.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Resistência à Doença , Genes de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas , Ploidias , Triticum , Proteínas de Plantas/biossíntese , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Triticum/genética , Triticum/microbiologia
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34073183

RESUMO

Sharp eyespot, caused by necrotrophic fungus Rhizoctonia cerealis, is a serious fungal disease in wheat (Triticum aestivum). Certain wall-associated receptor kinases (WAK) mediate resistance to diseases caused by biotrophic/hemibiotrophic pathogens in several plant species. Yet, none of wheat WAK genes with positive effect on the innate immune responses to R. cerealis has been reported. In this study, we identified a WAK gene TaWAK7D, located on chromosome 7D, and showed its positive regulatory role in the defense response to R. cerealis infection in wheat. RNA-seq and qRT-PCR analyses showed that TaWAK7D transcript abundance was elevated in wheat after R. cerealis inoculation and the induction in the stem was the highest among the tested organs. Additionally, TaWAK7D transcript levels were significantly elevated by pectin and chitin treatments. The knock-down of TaWAK7D transcript impaired resistance to R. cerealis and repressed the expression of five pathogenesis-related genes in wheat. The green fluorescent protein signal distribution assays indicated that TaWAK7D localized on the plasma membrane in wheat protoplasts. Thus, TaWAK7D, which is induced by R. cerealis, pectin and chitin stimuli, positively participates in defense responses to R. cerealis through modulating the expression of several pathogenesis-related genes in wheat.


Assuntos
Resistência à Doença , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Proteínas de Plantas , Proteínas Quinases , Rhizoctonia/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Triticum , Proteínas de Plantas/biossíntese , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas Quinases/biossíntese , Proteínas Quinases/genética , Triticum/enzimologia , Triticum/genética , Triticum/microbiologia
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34073210

RESUMO

The Negative on TATA-less (NOT) 2_3_5 domain proteins play key roles in mRNA metabolism and transcription regulation, but few comprehensive studies have focused on this protein family in plants. In our study, a total of 30 NOT2_3_5 genes were identified in four cotton genomes: Gossypium. arboretum, G. raimondii, G. hirsutum and G. barbadense. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all the NOT2_3_5 domain proteins were divided into two classes. The NOT2_3_5 genes were expanded frequently, and segmental duplication had significant effects in their expansion process. The cis-regulatory elements analysis of NOT2_3_5 promoter regions indicated that NOT2_3_5 domain proteins might participate in plant growth and development processes and responds to exogenous stimuli. Expression patterns demonstrated that all of the GhNOT2_3_5 genes were expressed in the majority of tissues and fiber development stages, and that these genes were induced by multiple stresses. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that GbNOT2_3_5 genes were up-regulated in response to verticillium wilt and the silencing of GbNOT2_3_5-3/8 and GbNOT2_3_5-4/9 led to more susceptibility to verticillium wilt than controls. Identification and analysis of the NOT2_3_5 protein family will be beneficial for further research on their biological functions.


Assuntos
Resistência à Doença/genética , Gossypium , Proteínas de Plantas , Fatores Genéricos de Transcrição , Verticillium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Gossypium/genética , Gossypium/metabolismo , Gossypium/microbiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Fatores Genéricos de Transcrição/genética , Fatores Genéricos de Transcrição/metabolismo
15.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 272, 2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34130637

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Late blight seriously threatens potato cultivation worldwide. The severe and widespread damage caused by the fungal pathogen can lead to drastic decreases in potato yield. Although grafting technology has been widely used to improve crop resistance, the effects of grafting on potato late blight resistance as well as the associated molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Therefore, we performed RNA transcriptome sequencing analysis and the late blight resistance testing of the scion when the potato late blight-resistant variety Qingshu 9 and the susceptible variety Favorita were used as the rootstock and scion, respectively, and vice versa. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of the rootstock on scion disease resistance and to clarify the related molecular mechanisms. RESULTS: A Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway enrichment analysis revealed that the expression levels of genes related to plant-pathogen interactions, plant mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways, and plant hormone signal transduction pathways were significantly up-regulated in the scion when Qingshu 9 was used as the rootstock. Some of these genes encoded calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs), chitin elicitor receptor kinases (CERKs), LRR receptor serine/threonine protein kinases (LRR-LRKs), NPR family proteins in the salicylic acid synthesis pathway, and MAPKs which were potato late blight response proteins. When Favorita was used as the rootstock, only a few genes of late blight response genes were upregulated in the scion of Qingshu 9. Grafted plants using resistant variety as rootstocks inoculated with P. infestans spores showed significant reductions in lesion size while no significant difference in lesion size was observed when susceptible variety was used as the rootstock. We also showed that this induction of disease resistance in scions, especially scions derived from susceptible potato varieties was mediated by the up-regulation of expression of genes involved in plant disease resistance in scions. CONCLUSIONS: Our results showed that potato grafting using late blight resistant varieties as rootstocks could render or enhance resistance to late blight in scions derived from susceptible varieties via up-regulating the expression of disease resistant genes in scions. The results provide the basis for exploring the molecular mechanism underlying the effects of rootstocks on scion disease resistance.


Assuntos
Phytophthora infestans , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Raízes de Plantas/imunologia , Solanum tuberosum/genética , Resistência à Doença/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genoma de Planta , Horticultura/métodos , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases , Doenças das Plantas/imunologia , Solanum tuberosum/imunologia , Solanum tuberosum/microbiologia
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(9)2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34062819

RESUMO

An oxidative burst is an early response of plants to various biotic/abiotic stresses. In plant-microbe interactions, the plant body can induce oxidative burst to activate various defense mechanisms to combat phytopathogens. A localized oxidative burst is also one of the typical behaviors during hypersensitive response (HR) caused by gene-for-gene interaction. In this study, the occurrence of oxidative burst and its signaling pathways was studied from different levels of disease severity (i.e., susceptible, intermediate, and resistant) in the B. napus-L. maculans pathosystem. Canola cotyledons with distinct levels of resistance exhibited differential regulation of the genes involved in reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation and responses. Histochemical assays were carried out to understand the patterns of H2O2 accumulation and cell death. Intermediate and resistant genotypes exhibited earlier accumulation of H2O2 and emergence of cell death around the inoculation origins. The observations also suggested that the cotyledons with stronger resistance were able to form a protective region of intensive oxidative bursts between the areas with and without hyphal intrusions to block further fungal advancement to the uninfected regions. The qPCR analysis suggested that different onset patterns of some marker genes in ROS accumulation/programmed cell death (PCD) such as RBOHD, MPK3 were associated with distinct levels of resistance from B. napus cultivars against L. maculans. The observations and datasets from this article indicated the distinct differences in ROS-related cellular behaviors and signaling between compatible and incompatible interactions.


Assuntos
Cotilédone/genética , Resistência à Doença/genética , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Explosão Respiratória/genética , Brassica napus/genética , Brassica napus/parasitologia , Morte Celular/genética , Cotilédone/parasitologia , Epistasia Genética , Genótipo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Leptosphaeria/genética , Leptosphaeria/patogenicidade , Doenças das Plantas/parasitologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/genética
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(10)2021 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34063405

RESUMO

Fusarium circinatum causes one of the most important diseases of conifers worldwide, the pine pitch canker (PPC). However, no effective field intervention measures aiming to control or eradicate PPC are available. Due to the variation in host genetic resistance, the development of resistant varieties is postulated as a viable and promising strategy. By using an integrated approach, this study aimed to identify differences in the molecular responses and physiological traits of the highly susceptible Pinus radiata and the highly resistant Pinus pinea to F. circinatum at an early stage of infection. Dual RNA-Seq analysis also allowed to evaluate pathogen behavior when infecting each pine species. No significant changes in the physiological analysis were found upon pathogen infection, although transcriptional reprogramming was observed mainly in the resistant species. The transcriptome profiling of P. pinea revealed an early perception of the pathogen infection together with a strong and coordinated defense activation through the reinforcement and lignification of the cell wall, the antioxidant activity, the induction of PR genes, and the biosynthesis of defense hormones. On the contrary, P. radiata had a weaker response, possibly due to impaired perception of the fungal infection that led to a reduced downstream defense signaling. Fusarium circinatum showed a different transcriptomic profile depending on the pine species being infected. While in P. pinea, the pathogen focused on the degradation of plant cell walls, active uptake of the plant nutrients was showed in P. radiata. These findings present useful knowledge for the development of breeding programs to manage PPC.


Assuntos
Resistência à Doença/genética , Fusarium/patogenicidade , Pinus/genética , Pinus/microbiologia , Fusarium/genética , Regulação Fúngica da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Ontologia Genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Pinus/fisiologia , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Transdução de Sinais/genética
18.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3956, 2021 06 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34172741

RESUMO

Among crop fruit trees, the apricot (Prunus armeniaca) provides an excellent model to study divergence and adaptation processes. Here, we obtain nearly 600 Armeniaca apricot genomes and four high-quality assemblies anchored on genetic maps. Chinese and European apricots form two differentiated gene pools with high genetic diversity, resulting from independent domestication events from distinct wild Central Asian populations, and with subsequent gene flow. A relatively low proportion of the genome is affected by selection. Different genomic regions show footprints of selection in European and Chinese cultivated apricots, despite convergent phenotypic traits, with predicted functions in both groups involved in the perennial life cycle, fruit quality and disease resistance. Selection footprints appear more abundant in European apricots, with a hotspot on chromosome 4, while admixture is more pervasive in Chinese cultivated apricots. Our study provides clues to the biology of selected traits and targets for fruit tree research and breeding.


Assuntos
Domesticação , Genoma de Planta/genética , Prunus armeniaca/genética , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Resistência à Doença/genética , Evolução Molecular , Frutas/classificação , Frutas/genética , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fluxo Gênico , Variação Genética , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida/genética , Metagenômica , Fenótipo , Filogenia , Prunus armeniaca/classificação , Prunus armeniaca/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Seleção Genética
19.
Plant Sci ; 309: 110937, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34134844

RESUMO

Small GTP-binding proteins, also known as ROPs (Rho of Plants), are a subfamily of the Ras superfamily of signaling G-proteins and are required for numerous signaling processes, ranging from growth and development to biotic and abiotic signaling. In this study, we cloned and characterized wheat TaRop10, a homolog of Arabidopsis ROP10 and member of the class II ROP, and uncovered a role for TaRop10 in wheat response to Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst). TaRop10 was downregulated by actin depolymerization and was observed to be differentially induced by abiotic stress and the perception of plant hormones. A combination of yeast two-hybrid and bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays revealed that TaRop10 interacted with a h-type thioredoxin (TaTrxh9). Knocking-down of TaRop10 and TaTrxh9 was performed using the BSMV-VIGS (barley stripe mosaic virus-based virus-induced gene silencing) technique and revealed that TaRop10 and TaTrxh9 play a role in the negative regulation of defense signaling in response to Pst infection. In total, the data presented herein further illuminate our understanding of how intact plant cells accommodate fungal infection structures, and furthermore, support the function of TaRop10 and TaTrxh9 in negative modulation of defense signaling in response to stripe rust infection.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Resistência à Doença/genética , Proteínas de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Doenças das Plantas/imunologia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Puccinia/fisiologia , Triticum/enzimologia , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Regulação para Baixo , Proteínas de Ligação ao GTP/genética , Inativação Gênica , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico , Triticum/genética
20.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 247, 2021 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34059006

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Peppers (Capsicum annuum L.) containing distinct capsaicinoids are the most widely cultivated spices in the world. However, extreme genomic diversity among species represents an obstacle to breeding pepper. RESULTS: Here, we report de novo genome assemblies of Capsicum annuum 'Early Calwonder (non-pungent, ECW)' and 'Small Fruit (pungent, SF)' along with their annotations. In total, we assembled 2.9 Gb of ECW and SF genome sequences, representing over 91% of the estimated genome sizes. Structural and functional annotation of the two pepper genomes generated about 35,000 protein-coding genes each, of which 93% were assigned putative functions. Comparison between newly and publicly available pepper gene annotations revealed both shared and specific gene content. In addition, a comprehensive analysis of nucleotide-binding and leucine-rich repeat (NLR) genes through whole-genome alignment identified five significant regions of NLR copy number variation (CNV). Detailed comparisons of those regions revealed that these CNVs were generated by intra-specific genomic variations that accelerated diversification of NLRs among peppers. CONCLUSIONS: Our analyses unveil an evolutionary mechanism responsible for generating CNVs of NLRs among pepper accessions, and provide novel genomic resources for functional genomics and molecular breeding of disease resistance in Capsicum species.


Assuntos
Capsicum/genética , Evolução Molecular , Genoma de Planta , Leucina/genética , Sequências Repetitivas de Aminoácidos/genética , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Resistência à Doença/genética , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Filogenia , Melhoramento Vegetal , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Especificidade da Espécie
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