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1.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 412, 2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34496757

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (Fol) is a compendium of pathogenic and non-pathogenic fungal strains. Pathogenic strains may cause vascular wilt disease and produce considerable losses in commercial tomato plots. To gain insight into the molecular mechanisms mediating resistance to Fol in tomato, the aim of our study was to characterize the transcriptional response of three cultivars (CT1, CT2 and IAC391) to a pathogenic (Fol-pt) and a non-pathogenic (Fo-npt) strain of Fo. RESULTS: All cultivars exhibited differentially expressed genes in response to each strain of the fungus at 36 h post-inoculation. For the pathogenic strain, CT1 deployed an apparent active defense response that included upregulation of WRKY transcription factors, an extracellular chitinase, and terpenoid-related genes, among others. In IAC391, differentially expressed genes included upregulated but mostly downregulated genes. Upregulated genes mapped to ethylene regulation, pathogenesis regulation and transcription regulation, while downregulated genes potentially impacted defense responses, lipid transport and metal ion binding. Finally, CT2 exhibited mostly downregulated genes upon Fol-pt infection. This included genes involved in transcription regulation, defense responses, and metal ion binding. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that CT1 mounts a defense response against Fol-pt. IAC391 exhibits an intermediate phenotype whereby some defense response genes are activated, and others are suppressed. Finally, the transcriptional profile in the CT2 hints towards lower levels of resistance. Fo-npt also induced transcriptional changes in all cultivars, but to a lesser extent. Results of this study will support genetic breeding programs currently underway in the zone.


Assuntos
Fusarium/patogenicidade , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Lycopersicon esculentum/genética , Lycopersicon esculentum/microbiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Cromossomos de Plantas , Colômbia , Resistência à Doença/genética , Etilenos/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
2.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(36): 10678-10687, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468130

RESUMO

Terpinen-4-ol, the main component of tea tree oil, markedly increases the disease resistance of postharvest strawberry fruit. To understand the mechanism underlying the enhancement of disease resistance, a high-throughput RNA-seq was used to analyze gene transcription in terpinen-4-ol-treated and untreated fruit. The results show that terpinen-4-ol induces the expression of genes in the jasmonic acid (JA) biosynthesis pathway, secondary metabolic pathways such as phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, and pathways involved in plant-pathogen interactions. Terpinen-4-ol treatment reduced disease incidence and lesion diameter in strawberry fruit inoculated with Botrytis cinerea. Terpinen-4-ol treatment enhanced the expression of genes involved in JA synthesis (FaLOX, FaAOC, and FaOPR3) and signaling (FaCOI1), as well as genes related to disease defense (FaPAL, FaCHI, and FaGLU). In contrast, treatment with the JA biosynthesis inhibitor salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM) accelerated disease development and inhibited the induction of gene expressions by terpinen-4-ol. We conclude that the JA pathway participates in the induction of disease resistance by terpinen-4-ol in strawberry fruit. More generally, the results illuminate the mechanisms by which disease resistance is enhanced by essential oils.


Assuntos
Botrytis , Fragaria , Ciclopentanos , Resistência à Doença/genética , Fragaria/genética , Frutas/genética , Oxilipinas , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Terpenos
3.
Science ; 373(6555): 655-662, 2021 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34353948

RESUMO

We report de novo genome assemblies, transcriptomes, annotations, and methylomes for the 26 inbreds that serve as the founders for the maize nested association mapping population. The number of pan-genes in these diverse genomes exceeds 103,000, with approximately a third found across all genotypes. The results demonstrate that the ancient tetraploid character of maize continues to degrade by fractionation to the present day. Excellent contiguity over repeat arrays and complete annotation of centromeres revealed additional variation in major cytological landmarks. We show that combining structural variation with single-nucleotide polymorphisms can improve the power of quantitative mapping studies. We also document variation at the level of DNA methylation and demonstrate that unmethylated regions are enriched for cis-regulatory elements that contribute to phenotypic variation.


Assuntos
Genoma de Planta , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Zea mays/genética , Centrômero/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Cromossomos de Plantas , Metilação de DNA , Resistência à Doença/genética , Genes de Plantas , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Fenótipo , Doenças das Plantas , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Sequências Reguladoras de Ácido Nucleico , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Tetraploidia , Transcriptoma , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
4.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 366, 2021 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34380425

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Small RNAs are short non-coding RNAs that are key gene regulators controlling various biological processes in eukaryotes. Plants may regulate discrete sets of sRNAs in response to pathogen attack. Sclerotinia sclerotiorum is an economically important pathogen affecting hundreds of plant species, including the economically important oilseed B. napus. However, there are limited studies on how regulation of sRNAs occurs in the S. sclerotiorum and B. napus pathosystem. RESULTS: We identified different classes of sRNAs from B. napus using high throughput sequencing of replicated mock and infected samples at 24 h post-inoculation (HPI). Overall, 3999 sRNA loci were highly expressed, of which 730 were significantly upregulated during infection. These 730 up-regulated sRNAs targeted 64 genes, including disease resistance proteins and transcriptional regulators. A total of 73 conserved miRNA families were identified in our dataset. Degradome sequencing identified 2124 cleaved mRNA products from these miRNAs from combined mock and infected samples. Among these, 50 genes were specific to infection. Altogether, 20 conserved miRNAs were differentially expressed and 8 transcripts were cleaved by the differentially expressed miRNAs miR159, miR5139, and miR390, suggesting they may have a role in the S. sclerotiorum response. A miR1885-triggered disease resistance gene-derived secondary sRNA locus was also identified and verified with degradome sequencing. We also found further evidence for silencing of a plant immunity related ethylene response factor gene by a novel sRNA using 5'-RACE and RT-qPCR. CONCLUSIONS: The findings in this study expand the framework for understanding the molecular mechanisms of the S. sclerotiorum and B. napus pathosystem at the sRNA level.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos/fisiologia , Brassica napus/genética , Brassica napus/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , RNA de Plantas , Pequeno RNA não Traduzido , Sequência Conservada , Resistência à Doença/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Regulação para Cima
5.
Curr Opin Plant Biol ; 62: 102089, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34333377

RESUMO

Plants are resistant to most pathogens because of an immune system that perceives invading microbes and activates defense. A large repertoire of innate immune receptors mediates specific direct or indirect recognition of pathogen-derived molecules. Disease is often a consequence of insufficient immune surveillance, and the transfer of immune receptor genes from resistant plants to susceptible crop varieties is an effective strategy for combating disease outbreaks. We discuss approaches for identifying intracellular and cell surface immune receptors, with particular focus on recently developed and emerging methodologies. We also review considerations for the transfer of immune receptor genes into crop species, including additional host factors that may be required for immune receptor function. Together, these concepts lay out a broadly applicable playbook for developing crop varieties with durable disease resistance.


Assuntos
Doenças das Plantas , Imunidade Vegetal , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Resistência à Doença/genética , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Imunidade Vegetal/genética
6.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 947, 2021 08 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34373580

RESUMO

Land plant genomes carry tens to hundreds of Resistance (R) genes to combat pathogens. The induction of antiviral R-gene-mediated resistance often results in a hypersensitive response (HR), which is characterized by virus containment in the initially infected tissues and programmed cell death (PCD) of the infected cells. Alternatively, systemic HR (SHR) is sometimes observed in certain R gene-virus combinations, such that the virus systemically infects the plant and PCD induction follows the spread of infection, resulting in systemic plant death. SHR has been suggested to be the result of inefficient resistance induction; however, no quantitative comparison has been performed to support this hypothesis. In this study, we report that the average number of viral genomes that establish cell infection decreased by 28.7% and 12.7% upon HR induction by wild-type cucumber mosaic virus and SHR induction by a single-amino acid variant, respectively. These results suggest that a small decrease in the level of resistance induction can change an HR to an SHR. Although SHR appears to be a failure of resistance at the individual level, our simulations imply that suicidal individual death in SHR may function as an antiviral mechanism at the population level, by protecting neighboring uninfected kin plants.


Assuntos
Cucumovirus/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes vpr/fisiologia , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Tabaco/virologia , Cucumovirus/genética , Resistência à Doença/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Tabaco/genética
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360726

RESUMO

Fungal diseases pose a major threat to ornamental plants, with an increasing percentage of pathogen-driven host losses. In ornamental plants, management of the majority of fungal diseases primarily depends upon chemical control methods that are often non-specific. Host basal resistance, which is deficient in many ornamental plants, plays a key role in combating diseases. Despite their economic importance, conventional and molecular breeding approaches in ornamental plants to facilitate disease resistance are lagging, and this is predominantly due to their complex genomes, limited availability of gene pools, and degree of heterozygosity. Although genetic engineering in ornamental plants offers feasible methods to overcome the intrinsic barriers of classical breeding, achievements have mainly been reported only in regard to the modification of floral attributes in ornamentals. The unavailability of transformation protocols and candidate gene resources for several ornamental crops presents an obstacle for tackling the functional studies on disease resistance. Recently, multiomics technologies, in combination with genome editing tools, have provided shortcuts to examine the molecular and genetic regulatory mechanisms underlying fungal disease resistance, ultimately leading to the subsequent advances in the development of novel cultivars with desired fungal disease-resistant traits, in ornamental crops. Although fungal diseases constitute the majority of ornamental plant diseases, a comprehensive overview of this highly important fungal disease resistance seems to be insufficient in the field of ornamental horticulture. Hence, in this review, we highlight the representative mechanisms of the fungal infection-related resistance to pathogens in plants, with a focus on ornamental crops. Recent progress in molecular breeding, genetic engineering strategies, and RNAi technologies, such as HIGS and SIGS for the enhancement of fungal disease resistance in various important ornamental crops, is also described.


Assuntos
Resistência à Doença/genética , Fungos Mitospóricos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Melhoramento Vegetal , Doenças das Plantas , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/microbiologia
8.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 382, 2021 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34412592

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cysteine-rich receptor-like kinases (CRKs) represent a large subfamily of receptor-like kinases and play vital roles in diverse physiological processes in regulating plant growth and development. RESULTS: CaCRK5 transcripts were induced in pepper upon the infection of Ralstonia solanacearum and treatment with salicylic acid. The fusions between CaCRK5 and green fluorescence protein were targeted to the plasma membrane. Suppression of CaCRK5 via virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) made pepper plants significantly susceptible to R. solanacearum infection, which was accompanied with decreased expression of defense related genes CaPR1, CaSAR8.2, CaDEF1 and CaACO1. Overexpression of CaCRK5 increased resistance against R. solanacearum in Nicotiana benthamiana. Furthermore, electrophoretic mobility shift assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled with quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that a homeodomain zipper I protein CaHDZ27 can active the expression of CaCRK5 through directly binding to its promoter. Yeast two-hybrid and bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) analyses suggested that CaCRK5 heterodimerized with the homologous member CaCRK6 on the plasma membrane. CONCLUSIONS: Our data revealed that CaCRK5 played a positive role in regulating immune responses against R. solanacearum infection in pepper.


Assuntos
Capsicum/genética , Capsicum/microbiologia , Cisteína/genética , Cisteína/metabolismo , Resistência à Doença/genética , Proteínas Quinases/genética , Proteínas Quinases/metabolismo , Ralstonia solanacearum/patogenicidade , Capsicum/fisiologia , China , Resistência à Doença/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas
9.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 360, 2021 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34362300

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dendrobium catenatum belongs to the Orchidaceae, and is a precious Chinese herbal medicine. In the past 20 years, D. catenatum industry has developed from an endangered medicinal plant to multi-billion dollar grade industry. The necrotrophic pathogen Sclerotium delphinii has a devastating effection on over 500 plant species, especially resulting in widespread infection and severe yield loss in the process of large-scale cultivation of D. catenatum. It has been widely reported that Jasmonate (JA) is involved in plant immunity to pathogens, but the mechanisms of JA-induced plant resistance to S. delphinii are unclear. RESULTS: In the present study, the role of JA in enhancing D. catenatum resistance to S. delphinii was investigated. We identified 2 COI1, 13 JAZ, and 12 MYC proteins in D. catenatum genome. Subsequently, systematic analyses containing phylogenetic relationship, gene structure, protein domain, and motif architecture of core JA pathway proteins were conducted in D. catenatum and the newly characterized homologs from its closely related orchid species Phalaenopsis equestris and Apostasia shenzhenica, along with the well-investigated homologs from Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa. Public RNA-seq data were investigated to analyze the expression patterns of D. catenatum core JA pathway genes in various tissues and organs. Transcriptome analysis of MeJA and S. delphinii treatment showed exogenous MeJA changed most of the expression of the above genes, and several key members, including DcJAZ1/2/5 and DcMYC2b, are involved in enhancing defense ability to S. delphinii in D. catenatum. CONCLUSIONS: The findings indicate exogenous MeJA treatment affects the expression level of DcJAZ1/2/5 and DcMYC2b, thereby enhancing D. catenatum resistance to S. delphinii. This research would be helpful for future functional identification of core JA pathway genes involved in breeding for disease resistance in D. catenatum.


Assuntos
Basidiomycota/patogenicidade , Ciclopentanos/metabolismo , Dendrobium/microbiologia , Oxilipinas/metabolismo , Imunidade Vegetal/fisiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Acetatos/farmacologia , Ciclopentanos/farmacologia , Dendrobium/efeitos dos fármacos , Dendrobium/imunologia , Dendrobium/metabolismo , Resistência à Doença/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Família Multigênica , Oxilipinas/farmacologia , Filogenia , Doenças das Plantas/imunologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/imunologia , Transdução de Sinais/genética
10.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 166: 950-957, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34247109

RESUMO

Durable disease resistance genes such as the wheat gene Lr34 are valuable sources of resistance for agricultural breeding programs. Lr34 encodes an ATP-binding cassette transporter protein involved in the transport of the phytohormone abscisic acid. Lr34 from wheat is functionally transferable to barley, maize, rice and sorghum. A pleiotropic effect of Lr34 induces the development of a senescence-like phenotype, referred to as leaf tip necrosis. We used Lr34-expressing wheat and transgenic barley plants to elucidate the role of abscisic acid in the development of leaf tip necrosis. Leaf tips in Lr34-expressing wheat and barley showed an accumulation of abscisic acid. No increase of Lr34 expression was detected in the leaf tip. Instead, the development of ectopic, Lr34-induced leaf tip necrosis after removing the leaf tip suggests an increased flux of abscisic acid towards the tip, where it accumulates and mediates the development of leaf tip necrosis. This redistribution of abscisic acid was also observed in adult transgenic barley plants with a high Lr34 expression level growing in the field and coincided with leaf tip necrosis as well as complete field resistance against Puccinia hordei and Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei. In a barley transgenic line with a lower Lr34 expression level, a quantitative resistance against Puccinia hordei was still observed, but without a significant redistribution of abscisic acid or apparent leaf tip necrosis. Thus, our results imply that fine-tuning the Lr34 expression level is essential to balance disease resistance versus leaf tip necrosis to deploy transgenic Lr34 in breeding programs.


Assuntos
Basidiomycota , Hordeum , Ácido Abscísico , Ascomicetos , Resistência à Doença/genética , Hordeum/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Folhas de Planta/genética , Triticum/genética
11.
J Genet ; 1002021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34282731

RESUMO

The gene-for-gene relationship of host-pathogen interaction explained by H. H. Flor in mid of the 20th century set a milestone in understanding the biochemical and genetic basis of plant diseases and several components involved in plant-pathogen interactions. It highlighted the importance of accomplishing differential sets and understanding the pathogen population structure, it further led to the identification and cloning of several resistance (R) genes in plants. These R genes have been deployed and altered for fighting against diseases in a large number of crops using various conventional approaches and biotechnological tools. Identification of R genes and their corresponding Avr genes in many cases played a significant role in understanding of R-Avr gene interactions. Rapid cloning of R genes and editing of susceptible R genes are the other avenues that have broadened the horizon of utilizing R genes in crop improvement programmes. Further, combining R genes with quantitative disease resistance genes has paved the way to develop durable resistance in cultivars. The recent advances in genetics, genomics, bioinformatics and other OMICS tools are now providing greater prospects for deeper understanding of host-pathogen interaction.


Assuntos
Resistência à Doença/genética , Evolução Molecular , Genes vpr/genética , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Produtos Agrícolas/microbiologia , Genômica , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia
12.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2288: 49-72, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34270004

RESUMO

Molecular markers are employed for doubled haploid (DH) technology by researchers and applied plant breeders in many crops. In the 1990s, isozymes and RFLPs were commonly used marker technologies to characterize DHs and were later replaced by PCR- based markers (e.g., RAPDs, AFLPs, ISSRs, SSRs) and today by SNPs. Markers are used for multiple purposes in DH production, that is, for the study of genes underlying haploid induction and confirming homozygous plants of gametophytic origin. Furthermore, they are tools for investigating segregation in DH populations and for mapping simple and complex traits using DHs. The deployment of DHs and markers for developing trait-linked markers are demonstrated with examples from rapeseed, wheat, and barley. Marker development for resistance to viruses derived from genetic resources and their use in, for example, pyramiding of resistance genes, are given as an example for the combination of DH-technology and marker development in research. Today, marker systems amenable to automation are frequently used in applied plant breeding. Practical examples are given from Lantmännen (LM) ( https://Lantmannen.com ) using large-scale genotyping for variety development based on SSRs and SNPs.


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal/métodos , Brassica napus/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/virologia , DNA de Plantas/genética , Diploide , Resistência à Doença/genética , Genes de Plantas , Marcadores Genéticos , Haploidia , Homozigoto , Hordeum/genética , Isoenzimas/genética , Biologia Molecular/métodos , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/virologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Triticum/genética
13.
Front Immunol ; 12: 620847, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34248929

RESUMO

Ticks cause substantial production losses for beef and dairy cattle. Cattle resistance to ticks is one of the most important factors affecting tick control, but largely neglected due to the challenge of phenotyping. In this study, we evaluate the pooling of tick resistance phenotyped reference populations from multi-country beef cattle breeds to assess the possibility of improving host resistance through multi-trait genomic selection. Data consisted of tick counts or scores assessing the number of female ticks at least 4.5 mm length and derived from seven populations, with breed, country, number of records and genotyped/phenotyped animals being respectively: Angus (AN), Brazil, 2,263, 921/1,156, Hereford (HH), Brazil, 6,615, 1,910/2,802, Brangus (BN), Brazil, 2,441, 851/851, Braford (BO), Brazil, 9,523, 3,062/4,095, Tropical Composite (TC), Australia, 229, 229/229, Brahman (BR), Australia, 675, 675/675, and Nguni (NG), South Africa, 490, 490/490. All populations were genotyped using medium density Illumina SNP BeadChips and imputed to a common high-density panel of 332,468 markers. The mean linkage disequilibrium (LD) between adjacent SNPs varied from 0.24 to 0.37 across populations and so was sufficient to allow genomic breeding values (GEBV) prediction. Correlations of LD phase between breeds were higher between composites and their founder breeds (0.81 to 0.95) and lower between NG and the other breeds (0.27 and 0.35). There was wide range of estimated heritability (0.05 and 0.42) and genetic correlation (-0.01 and 0.87) for tick resistance across the studied populations, with the largest genetic correlation observed between BN and BO. Predictive ability was improved under the old-young validation for three of the seven populations using a multi-trait approach compared to a single trait within-population prediction, while whole and partial data GEBV correlations increased in all cases, with relative improvements ranging from 3% for BO to 64% for TC. Moreover, the multi-trait analysis was useful to correct typical over-dispersion of the GEBV. Results from this study indicate that a joint genomic evaluation of AN, HH, BN, BO and BR can be readily implemented to improve tick resistance of these populations using selection on GEBV. For NG and TC additional phenotyping will be required to obtain accurate GEBV.


Assuntos
Cruzamento , Bovinos/genética , Resistência à Doença/genética , Genoma , Genômica/métodos , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária , Carrapatos/fisiologia , Animais , Brasil , Bovinos/fisiologia , Feminino , Genótipo , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Masculino , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , África do Sul , Infestações por Carrapato/genética
14.
Viruses ; 13(6)2021 06 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199957

RESUMO

Viruses, and in particular the deformed wing virus (DWV), are considered as one of the main antagonists of honey bee health. The 'suppressed in ovo virus infection' trait (SOV) described for the first time that control of a virus infection can be achieved from genetically inherited traits and that the virus state of the eggs is indicative for this. This research aims to explore the effect of the SOV trait on DWV infections in queens descending from both SOV-positive (QDS+) and SOV-negative (QDS-) queens. Twenty QDS+ and QDS- were reared from each time four queens in the same starter-finisher colony. From each queen the head, thorax, ovaries, spermatheca, guts and eviscerated abdomen were dissected and screened for the presence of the DWV-A and DWV-B genotype using qRT-PCR. Queens descending from SOV-positive queens showed significant lower infection loads for DWV-A and DWV-B as well as a lower number of infected tissues for DWV-A. Surprisingly, differences were less expressed in the reproductive tissues, the ovaries and spermatheca. These results confirm that selection on the SOV trait is associated with increased virus resistance across viral genotypes and that this selection drives DWV towards an increased tissue specificity for the reproductive tissues. Further research is needed to explore the mechanisms underlying the interaction between the antiviral response and DWV.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Animais/virologia , Abelhas/virologia , Cruzamento , Resistência à Doença/genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Infecções por Vírus de RNA/veterinária , Vírus de RNA/fisiologia , Doenças dos Animais/genética , Animais , Carga Viral
15.
Viruses ; 13(6)2021 06 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34205728

RESUMO

Antibody responses are crucial for the control of virus infection. Understanding of the mechanism of antibody induction is important for the development of a vaccine eliciting effective anti-virus antibodies. Virus-specific B cell receptor (BCR)/antibody repertoires are different among individuals, but determinants for this difference remain largely unclear. We have recently reported that a germline BCR immunoglobulin (IgG) gene polymorphism (VH3.33_ET or VH3.33_VI) in rhesus macaques is the determinant for induction of potent B404-class anti-simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) neutralizing antibodies in neutralization-sensitive SIVsmH635FC infection. In the present study, we examined whether neutralization-resistant SIVsmE543-3 infection can induce the anti-SIV neutralizing antibodies associated with the germline VH3.33 polymorphism. Anti-SIVsmE543-3 neutralizing antibodies were induced in all the macaques possessing the VH3.33_ET allele, but not in those without VH3.33_ET, in the chronic phase of SIVsmE543-3 infection. Next generation sequencing analysis of BCR VH genes found B404-class antibody sequences only in those with VH3.33_ET. These results indicate that anti-SIVsmE543-3 neutralizing antibody induction associated with the germline BCR IgG gene polymorphism can be triggered by infection with neutralization-resistant SIVsmE543-3. This animal model would be useful for the elucidation of the mechanism of potent antibody induction against neutralization-resistant viruses.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Resistência à Doença/genética , Genes de Imunoglobulinas , Polimorfismo Genético , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida dos Símios/genética , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida dos Símios/imunologia , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Símia/imunologia , Alelos , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Resistência à Doença/imunologia , Células Germinativas , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Macaca mulatta , Filogenia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida dos Símios/virologia
16.
Plant Sci ; 310: 110973, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34315591

RESUMO

TaLHY is an MYB transcription factor (TF) that is upregulated by salicylic acid induction and shows circadian rhythms. However, the study of the upstream regulatory factors is still unclear. In this study, we cloned the promoter sequence of the TaLHY homologous genes, verified the activity of the promoters, and identified important regions that affect promoter activity. Furthermore, we explored a possible upstream regulator of TaLHY, named TaWRKY10, which played a key role in the expression of TaLHY. We found that the three promoters pTaLHYa, pTaLHYb, and pTaLHYd had transcriptional activity in wheat protoplasts. All three promoters have W-Box, which can bind to WRKY TFs. Using virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS), after silencing TaWRKY10, the resistance of ChuanNong 19 (CN19) to stripe rust pathogen strain CYR32 was lost, and the expression level of the TaLHY homologous gene decreased. At the same time, in wheat protoplasts, the transcriptional activity of TaLHY homologous promoters improved after TaWRKY10 overexpression. This indicates that TaWRKY10 is a key gene for wheat immune response to stripe rust, and this gene may bind to TaLHYa, TaLHYb, and TaLHYd promoters to regulate the expression of TaLHY.


Assuntos
Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Triticum/metabolismo , Basidiomycota/patogenicidade , Resistência à Doença/genética , Resistência à Doença/fisiologia , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Triticum/genética
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34204013

RESUMO

Plant immunity is mediated in large part by specific interactions between a host resistance protein and a pathogen effector protein, named effector-triggered immunity (ETI). ETI needs to be tightly controlled both positively and negatively to enable normal plant growth because constitutively activated defense responses are detrimental to the host. In previous work, we reported that mutations in SUPPRESSOR OF rps4-RLD1 (SRFR1), identified in a suppressor screen, reactivated EDS1-dependent ETI to Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pto) DC3000. Besides, mutations in SRFR1 boosted defense responses to the generalist chewing insect Spodoptera exigua and the sugar beet cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii. Here, we show that mutations in SRFR1 enhance susceptibility to the fungal necrotrophs Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (FOL) and Botrytis cinerea in Arabidopsis. To translate knowledge obtained in AtSRFR1 research to crops, we generated SlSRFR1 alleles in tomato using a CRISPR/Cas9 system. Interestingly, slsrfr1 mutants increased expression of SA-pathway defense genes and enhanced resistance to Pto DC3000. In contrast, slsrfr1 mutants elevated susceptibility to FOL. Together, these data suggest that SRFR1 is functionally conserved in both Arabidopsis and tomato and functions antagonistically as a negative regulator to (hemi-) biotrophic pathogens and a positive regulator to necrotrophic pathogens.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/imunologia , Arabidopsis/microbiologia , Botrytis/fisiologia , Resistência à Doença/imunologia , Fusarium/fisiologia , Imunidade Vegetal , Alelos , Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Sequência de Bases , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas/genética , Resistência à Doença/genética , Edição de Genes , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Vetores Genéticos/metabolismo , Lycopersicon esculentum/genética , Mutação/genética , Imunidade Vegetal/genética , Plasmídeos/genética
18.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 307, 2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34193031

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maize rough dwarf disease (MRDD), a widespread disease caused by four pathogenic viruses, severely reduces maize yield and grain quality. Resistance against MRDD is a complex trait that controlled by many quantitative trait loci (QTL) and easily influenced by environmental conditions. So far, many studies have reported numbers of resistant QTL, however, only one QTL have been cloned, so it is especially important to map and clone more genes that confer resistance to MRDD. RESULTS: In the study, a major quantitative trait locus (QTL) qMrdd2, which confers resistance to MRDD, was identified and fine mapped. qMrdd2, located on chromosome 2, was consistently identified in a 15-Mb interval between the simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers D184 and D1600 by using a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from a cross between resistant ("80007") and susceptible ("80044") inbred lines. Using a recombinant-derived progeny test strategy, qMrdd2 was delineated to an interval of 577 kb flanked by markers N31 and N42. We further demonstrated that qMrdd2 is an incompletely dominant resistance locus for MRDD that reduced the disease severity index by 20.4%. CONCLUSIONS: A major resistance QTL (qMrdd2) have been identified and successfully refined into 577 kb region. This locus will be valuable for improving maize variety resistance to MRDD via marker-assisted selection (MAS).


Assuntos
Resistência à Doença/genética , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/virologia , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Zea mays/genética , Zea mays/virologia , Análise de Variância , Ligação Genética , Endogamia , Modelos Genéticos , Fenótipo , Mapeamento Físico do Cromossomo
19.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 312, 2021 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34215182

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Peanut smut is a disease caused by the fungus Thecaphora frezii Carranza & Lindquist to which most commercial cultivars in South America are highly susceptible. It is responsible for severely decreased yield and no effective chemical treatment is available to date. However, smut resistance has been identified in wild Arachis species and further transferred to peanut elite cultivars. To identify the genome regions conferring smut resistance within a tetraploid genetic background, this study evaluated a RIL population {susceptible Arachis hypogaea subsp. hypogaea (JS17304-7-B) × resistant synthetic amphidiploid (JS1806) [A. correntina (K 11905) × A. cardenasii (KSSc 36015)] × A. batizocoi (K 9484)4×} segregating for the trait. RESULTS: A SNP based genetic map arranged into 21 linkage groups belonging to the 20 peanut chromosomes was constructed with 1819 markers, spanning a genetic distance of 2531.81 cM. Two consistent quantitative trait loci (QTLs) were identified qSmIA08 and qSmIA02/B02, located on chromosome A08 and A02/B02, respectively. The QTL qSmIA08 at 15.20 cM/5.03 Mbp explained 17.53% of the phenotypic variance, while qSmIA02/B02 at 4.0 cM/3.56 Mbp explained 9.06% of the phenotypic variance. The combined genotypic effects of both QTLs reduced smut incidence by 57% and were stable over the 3 years of evaluation. The genome regions containing the QTLs are rich in genes encoding proteins involved in plant defense, providing new insights into the genetic architecture of peanut smut resistance. CONCLUSIONS: A major QTL and a minor QTL identified in this study provide new insights into the genetic architecture of peanut smut resistance that may aid in breeding new varieties resistant to peanut smut.


Assuntos
Arachis/genética , Arachis/microbiologia , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Resistência à Doença/genética , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Marcadores Genéticos , Endogamia , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Recombinação Genética/genética
20.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 315, 2021 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34215189

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Plant-produced specialised metabolites are a powerful part of a plant's first line of defence against herbivorous insects, bacteria and fungi. Wild ancestors of present-day cultivated tomato produce a plethora of acylsugars in their type-I/IV trichomes and volatiles in their type-VI trichomes that have a potential role in plant resistance against insects. However, metabolic profiles are often complex mixtures making identification of the functionally interesting metabolites challenging. Here, we aimed to identify specialised metabolites from a wide range of wild tomato genotypes that could explain resistance to vector insects whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) and Western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis). We evaluated plant resistance, determined trichome density and obtained metabolite profiles of the glandular trichomes by LC-MS (acylsugars) and GC-MS (volatiles). Using a customised Random Forest learning algorithm, we determined the contribution of specific specialised metabolites to the resistance phenotypes observed. RESULTS: The selected wild tomato accessions showed different levels of resistance to both whiteflies and thrips. Accessions resistant to one insect can be susceptible to another. Glandular trichome density is not necessarily a good predictor for plant resistance although the density of type-I/IV trichomes, related to the production of acylsugars, appears to correlate with whitefly resistance. For type VI-trichomes, however, it seems resistance is determined by the specific content of the glands. There is a strong qualitative and quantitative variation in the metabolite profiles between different accessions, even when they are from the same species. Out of 76 acylsugars found, the random forest algorithm linked two acylsugars (S3:15 and S3:21) to whitefly resistance, but none to thrips resistance. Out of 86 volatiles detected, the sesquiterpene α-humulene was linked to whitefly susceptible accessions instead. The algorithm did not link any specific metabolite to resistance against thrips, but monoterpenes α-phellandrene, α-terpinene and ß-phellandrene/D-limonene were significantly associated with susceptible tomato accessions. CONCLUSIONS: Whiteflies and thrips are distinctly targeted by certain specialised metabolites found in wild tomatoes. The machine learning approach presented helped to identify features with efficacy toward the insect species studied. These acylsugar metabolites can be targets for breeding efforts towards the selection of insect-resistant cultivars.


Assuntos
Resistência à Doença/genética , Variação Genética , Hemípteros/fisiologia , Metaboloma/genética , Solanum/genética , Tisanópteros/fisiologia , Tricomas/genética , Tricomas/metabolismo , Algoritmos , Animais , Ecótipo , Genótipo , Fenótipo , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
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