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1.
J Contemp Dent Pract ; 21(2): 114-118, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32381812

RESUMO

AIM: Newer zirconia materials may have greater strength degradation under cyclic fatigue with increased yttria and cubic content. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the flexural strength (FS) degradation of newer zirconia materials compared to more traditional tetragonal zirconia materials. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The following materials were tested: two 3 mol% yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (3Y-TZP) materials (Lava Plus, 3M ESPE; Katana ML, Kuraray), one 4 mol% partially stabilized zirconia (4Y-PSZ) material (Katana STML, Kuraray), two 5 mol% partially stabilized zirconia (5Y-PSZ) materials (Katana STML, Kuraray; Lava Esthetic, 3M ESPE), and one lithium disilicate material (IPS e.max CAD LT, Ivoclar Vivadent). Thirty beams were milled for each ceramic material with final dimensions of 4.0 × 1.3 × 18.0 mm after sintering or crystallization. Each specimen was placed on a 3-point bend test device on a universal testing machine (Instron, Norwood, MA). Flexural strength was determined on 10 beam specimens per group with a central load applied until fracture. Flexural fatigue strength was then measured on the remaining 20 beam specimens per group using the staircase method for 6,000 cycles at 2 Hz. Data were analyzed with one-way ANOVAs/Tukey post hoc tests (α = 0.05). RESULTS: A significant difference was found between groups (p < 0.001) per property. The 3Y-TZP zirconia materials had the greatest flexural and flexural fatigue strength. The cubic containing zirconia materials performed more moderately. The lithium disilicate material had the lowest strength values. The percent degradation in flexural fatigue strength of the 3Y-TZP zirconia materials was less than the 5Y-PSZ, Katana UTML, and the 4Y-PSZ, Katana STML, cubic containing materials, but similar to the 5Y-PSZ cubic containing material, Lava Esthetic. CONCLUSION: The amount of strength degradation was material dependent, with the 4Y-PSZ or 5Y-PSZ cubic containing zirconia materials demonstrating greater or similar strength degradation compared to the primarily tetragonal 3Y-TZP zirconia materials. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: The differences in FS degradation between cubic containing materials and traditional zirconia materials could significantly impact the long-term success of these newer materials. Clinicians should be aware that these cubic containing materials may perform differently long-term than the very strong traditional 3Y-TZP materials and to follow manufacturer instructions on required material thickness and indications for use to prevent premature failure of the restoration.


Assuntos
Materiais Dentários , Resistência à Flexão , Estética Dentária , Teste de Materiais , Zircônio
2.
Ned Tijdschr Tandheelkd ; 127(4): 245-253, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Holandês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32459220

RESUMO

The fracture strength of endodontically treated molars restored by means of various types of direct and indirect materials was studied in vitro. 105 sound molars were endodontically treated and randomly assigned to 1 control group (endodontic access cavity only) and 6 experimental groups (n = 15) with restorations of the following materials: glass fibre reinforced composite (GFRC); microhybrid composite (C); microhybrid composite restoration with glass fiber post (CP); full-contour lithium disilicate crown (LDS); full-contour lithium disilicate crown with glass fiber post (P-LDS); and an endocrown (EC). Specimens were thermo-mechanically aged and axially loaded until failure. Data were analysed using ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc test (α = 0.05). Fracture strength was significantly affected by the type of restoration (p = 0.000). LDS had significantly higher fracture strength than the control group and GFRC, C and CP groups. Groups EC, LDS and P-LDS were not statistically different from each other in fracture strength. This was also the case with EC, P-LDS and all composite groups. The glass fibre strength of composite restoration resulted in significantly fewer fatal fractures.


Assuntos
Técnica para Retentor Intrarradicular , Fraturas dos Dentes , Dente não Vital , Resinas Compostas , Falha de Restauração Dentária , Análise do Estresse Dentário , Resistência à Flexão , Humanos , Teste de Materiais , Dente Molar
3.
Quintessence Int ; 51(4): 268-273, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32128525

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present study was to assess the effect of monolithic and bilayer restorations considering heat-pressed and milled/CAD/CAM reinforced lithium disilicate ceramic veneers, on the flexural strength after cementation. METHOD AND MATERIALS: Thirty-five specimens were divided into five groups (n = 7), according to the restorative solution: 2-mm thickness composite resin (CR2); heat-pressed monolithic ceramic 0.6 mm (HPM), CAD/CAM monolithic ceramics 0.6 mm (CCM); heat-pressed monolithic ceramic 0.4 mm + 0.2 mm glass-ceramic (HPB); CAD/CAM monolithic ceramic 0.4 mm + 0.2 glass-ceramic (CCB). Specimens were cemented on composite resin bars and submitted to a three-point bending test on a Universal Testing Machine, until fracture. Fractured samples were analyzed under stereomicroscope and SEM. Flexural strength data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Tukey test. RESULTS: The control group showed the highest flexural strength results (119.57 ± 19.49 MPa), with values similar to groups HPM (98 ± 25.62 MPa) and CCM (96.14 ± 20.60 MPa). Groups HPB and CCB showed lower values when compared with the other groups. Fracture started from the base on monolithic groups and from ceramic on bilayer groups. CONCLUSION: Both ceramic systems (CAD/CAM and heat-pressed) have similar fracture strength, although bilayer restorations present lower strength when compared with monolithic ceramics.


Assuntos
Porcelana Dentária , Resistência à Flexão , Cerâmica , Resinas Compostas , Desenho Assistido por Computador , Análise do Estresse Dentário , Teste de Materiais , Propriedades de Superfície
4.
Braz Oral Res ; 34: e004, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32022223

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to analyze the structural, morphological and mechanical properties of two different lithium disilicate glass-reinforced ceramics for CAD-CAM systems (IPS e.max CAD and Rosetta SM). Five methodologies were used for both ceramics: microstructure (n = 2) was analyzed using x-ray diffraction (XRD); morphological properties (n = 2) were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), with and without hydrofluoric etching; porosity (n = 3) was assessed using 3D micro-computed tomography (micro-CT); flexural strength was measured (n =1 0) using the three-point bending test; and bond strength was determined with self-adhesive resin cement (n = 10), using a microshear bond test. After performing all the tests, the data were analyzed using t-Student test and two-way ANOVA. All the tests used a significance level of α = 0.05. High peak positions corresponding to standard lithium metasilicate and lithium disilicate with similar intensities were observed for both ceramics in the XRD analysis. Morphological analysis showed that the crystalline structure of the two ceramics studied showed no statistical difference after acid etching. Additionally, no significant differences were recorded in the number or size of the pores for the ceramics evaluated. Moreover, no differences in flexural strength were found for the ceramic materials tested, or in the bond strength to ceramic substrates for the resin cements. Based on the study results, no significant differences were found between the two CAD-CAM lithium disilicate glass-reinforced ceramics tested, since they presented similar crystalline structures with comparable intensities, and similar total porosity, flexural strength and bond strength.


Assuntos
Cerâmica/química , Desenho Assistido por Computador , Porcelana Dentária/química , Vidro/química , Análise de Variância , Colagem Dentária/métodos , Resistência à Flexão , Teste de Materiais , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Porosidade , Valores de Referência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Cimentos de Resina/química , Resistência ao Cisalhamento , Propriedades de Superfície , Difração de Raios X
5.
Braz Oral Res ; 34: e005, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32022224

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of ionizing radiation from high energy X-ray on fluoride release, surface roughness, flexural strength, and surface chemical composition of the materials. The study groups comprised five different restorative materials: Beautifil II, GCP Glass Fill, Amalgomer CR, Zirconomer, and Fuji IX GP. Twenty disk-shaped specimens (8x2 mm) for fluoride release and 20 bar-shaped specimens (25 x 2x 2 mm) for flexural strength were prepared from each material. Each material group was divided into two subgroups: irradiated (IR) and non-irradiated (Non-IR). The specimens from IR groups were irradiated with 1.8 Gy/day for 39 days (total IR = 70.2 Gy). The amount of fluoride released into deionized water was measured using a fluoride ion-selective electrode and ion analyzer after 24 hours and on days 2, 3, 7, 15, 21, 28, 35, and 39 (n = 10). The flexural strength was evaluated using the three-point bending test (n = 10). After the period of measurement of fluoride release, seven specimens (n = 7) from each group were randomly selected to evaluate surface roughness using AFM and one specimen was randomly selected for the SEM and EDS analyses. Data were analyzed with two-way ANOVA and Tukey tests (p = 0.05). The irradiation significantly increased fluoride release and surface roughness for Amalgomer CR and Zirconomer groups (p < 0.05). No significant change in flexural strength of the materials was observed after irradiation (p > 0.05). The ionizing radiation altered the amount of fluoride release and surface roughness of only Amalgomer CR and Zirconomer. The effect could be related to the chemical compositions of materials.


Assuntos
Apatitas/efeitos da radiação , Bis-Fenol A-Glicidil Metacrilato/efeitos da radiação , Resinas Compostas/efeitos da radiação , Fluoretos/química , Cimentos de Ionômeros de Vidro/efeitos da radiação , Radiação Ionizante , Zircônio/efeitos da radiação , Análise de Variância , Apatitas/química , Bis-Fenol A-Glicidil Metacrilato/química , Resinas Compostas/química , Resistência à Flexão , Cimentos de Ionômeros de Vidro/química , Teste de Materiais , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Valores de Referência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Espectrometria por Raios X , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Propriedades de Superfície/efeitos da radiação , Fatores de Tempo , Zircônio/química
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32032409

RESUMO

To correct for angulation discrepancies in the maxilla, implant companies have designed angulated screw channel (ASC) abutments. The design of these abutments allows for the restorative screw channel to be placed up to 25 degrees off the center axis of the implant. Minimal independent research has been published to evaluate the fatigue resistance of this implant-abutment connection. This study evaluated the fracture strength of a newly designed zirconia crown with a 25-degree angulated screw channel (n = 5) vs a straight channel (n = 5). Each specimen was subjected to an off-axis compression load from an MTS cyclic loading machine with a custom-designed indenter simulating a natural dentition. All the 25-degree angulated screw channel specimens failed, with four of the five (80%) catastrophically failing. Four of the five straight-channel specimens failed, with two of the five (40%) catastrophically failing. Results revealed the potential abutment fracture from internal stresses at the screw-zirconia and metallic-zirconia interfaces. Further research is needed to test the use of all-ceramic crowns with the use of the angulated screw channel.


Assuntos
Projeto do Implante Dentário-Pivô , Implantes Dentários , Parafusos Ósseos , Cerâmica , Coroas , Dente Suporte , Falha de Restauração Dentária , Análise do Estresse Dentário , Resistência à Flexão , Teste de Materiais , Projetos Piloto , Titânio , Zircônio
7.
J Appl Oral Sci ; 28: e20190371, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32049135

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to evaluate the influence of different air-abrasion pressures and subsequent heat treatment on the flexural strength, surface roughness, and crystallographic phases of highly translucent partially stabilized zirconia (Y-PSZ), and on the tensile bond strength of resin cement to Y-PSZ. METHODOLOGY: Fully sintered zirconia specimens were ground with SiC paper (control) and/or air-abraded with 50 µm particles of alumina at 0.1, 0.15, 0.2, or 0.3 MPa or left as-sintered. After air-abrasion at 0.2 MPa (0.2AB), additional specimens were then heated to 1500°C, and held for one hour at this temperature (0.2AB+HT1h). Flexural strength and surface roughness were evaluated. Crystalline phase identification was also carried out using X-ray diffraction. Bonded zirconia specimens with self-adhesive resin cement were stored in distilled water at 37°C for 24 h, either with or without aging (thermal cycling 4-60°C/20000). Results were analyzed statistically by ANOVA and Tukey-Kramer tests. RESULTS: The flexural strength decreased with the increase in air-abrasion pressure, while in contrast, the surface roughness increased. The lowest flexural strength and the highest roughness value were found for the 0.2AB and 0.3AB groups, respectively. All groups contained cubic-, tetragonal ( t )-, and rhombohedral ( r )-ZrO2 phases with the exception of the as-sintered group. Upon increasing the air-abrasion pressure, the relative amount of the r -ZrO2 phase increased, with a significant amount of r -ZrO2 phase being detected for the 0.2AB and 0.3AB groups. The 0.2AB+HT1h group exhibited a similar flexural strength and t -ZrO2 phase content as the as-sintered group. However, the 0.2AB group showed a significantly higher tensile bond strength (p<0.05) than the 0.2AB+HT1h group before and after aging. CONCLUSION: Micromechanical retention by alumina air-abrasion at 0.2 MPa, in combination with chemical bonding of a resin to highly translucent Y-PSZ using a MDP-containing resin cement may enable durable bonding.


Assuntos
Abrasão Dental por Ar/métodos , Óxido de Alumínio/química , Colagem Dentária/métodos , Cimentos de Resina/química , Zircônio/química , Análise de Variância , Resistência à Flexão , Temperatura Alta , Teste de Materiais , Microscopia Confocal/métodos , Valores de Referência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Propriedades de Superfície , Resistência à Tração , Difração de Raios X/métodos
8.
Dent Mater ; 36(3): 420-430, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32007315

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To test and compare five pressable lithium-X-silicate-ceramics on their mechanical and wear properties. METHODS: Specimens were pressed and prepared from: i. Amber Press (AP), ii. Celtra Press (CP), iii. Initial LiSi Press (IL), iv. Livento Press (LP), and v. IPS e.max Press (IE). Four-point flexural strength (FS), SEVNB fracture toughness (KIC), three-body wear (3BW), Martens hardness (HM) and indentation modulus (EIT) were measured. For CP, FS and HM were measured with and without additional Power Firing. Each subgroup contained 15 specimens. Data were analyzed using Kolmogorov-Smirnov, one-way ANOVA followed by Scheffé test, Kruskal-Wallis-H-, Mann-Whitney-U-, and Spearman-Rho-test (p < 0.05). The Weibull modulus was calculated using the maximum likelihood estimation method. RESULTS: AP and CP presented higher FS than IL. LP presented the highest Weibull modulus. CP showed lower KIC values than AP, and AP was not significant compared to LP and IE. The most 3BW material loss was observed for CP. CP revealed higher HM values than the remaining ceramics. IL presented lower EIT compared to AP and CP. The following correlations were observed between the test parameters: 3BW with FS (r = 0.279, p = 0.015), with HM (r = -0.378, p = 0.001), and with EIT (r = -0.344, p = 0.004); EIT with FS (r = 0.203, p = 0.028); and HM with FT (r = -0.223, p = 0.027) and EIT (r = 0.884, p < 0.001). No correlations were observed between FS and KIC (r = 0.046; p = 0.346). SIGNIFICANCE: AP followed by LP showed the highest and IL followed by CP the lowest properties tested. Power Firing of CP improved the flexural strength. Ceramics with high flexural strength and Martens parameters showed lower wear. Materials with high Martens hardness presented lower fracture toughness values and ones with high indentation modulus showed high flexural strength.


Assuntos
Resistência à Flexão , Mustelidae , Animais , Cerâmica , Porcelana Dentária , Dureza , Lítio , Teste de Materiais , Silicatos , Propriedades de Superfície
9.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 373, 2020 01 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31953388

RESUMO

The layered architecture of stiff biological materials often endows them with surprisingly high fracture toughness in spite of their brittle ceramic constituents. Understanding the link between organic-inorganic layered architectures and toughness could help to identify new ways to improve the toughness of biomimetic engineering composites. We study the cylindrically layered architecture found in the spicules of the marine sponge Euplectella aspergillum. We cut micrometer-size notches in the spicules and measure their initiation toughness and average crack growth resistance using flexural tests. We find that while the spicule's architecture provides toughness enhancements, these enhancements are relatively small compared to prototypically tough biological materials, like nacre. We investigate these modest toughness enhancements using computational fracture mechanics simulations.


Assuntos
Materiais Biocompatíveis , Materiais Biomiméticos/química , Resinas Compostas/química , Resistência à Flexão , Poríferos/química , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Cerâmica/química , Dureza , Teste de Materiais , Modelos Teóricos , Nácar/química , Estresse Mecânico , Propriedades de Superfície
10.
J Prosthodont Res ; 64(1): 71-77, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31088735

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the biaxial flexural strength and translucent characteristics of dental lithium disilicate glass ceramics with different translucencies. METHODS: Two heat pressed lithium disilicate glass ceramics (IPS e.max Press and an experimental ceramic) and one computer aided design/ computer aided manufacture (CAD/CAM) lithium disilicate glass ceramic (IPS e.max CAD) with different translucencies were evaluated. Disk-shaped specimens of each group were subjected to a biaxial flexural strength (BFS) test. Translucent parameters (TP) were also tested at 0.5 mm and 1.0 mm thickness, respectively. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and SEM were used for crystalline and microstructural analysis. RESULTS: BFS values of two heat pressed lithium disilicate glass ceramics were significantly higher than the CAD/CAM counterpart. No difference in BFS between two heat pressed glass ceramic was found. There were significant differences in BFS and TP values among the tested subgroups with different translucencies for IPS e.max Press and IPS e.max CAD. No difference in crystalline composition was found among the tested glass ceramics, but microstructure with shorter and wider crystal was revealed for IPS e.max CAD ceramics. CONCLUSIONS: Lithium disilicate glass ceramics with different translucencies demonstrated different BFS and TP values.


Assuntos
Porcelana Dentária , Resistência à Flexão , Cerâmica , Desenho Assistido por Computador , Teste de Materiais , Propriedades de Superfície
11.
Oper Dent ; 45(1): 41-51, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31034352

RESUMO

The objectives of the study were to compare the flexural modulus and strength of restorative and flowable bulk-fill resin-based composites (RBCs) to their conventional counterparts and to determine the effects of conditioning environment on their flexural properties. The materials evaluated included three conventional RBCs (Filtek Z350, Tetric N Ceram, and Beautifil II), three restorative bulk-fill RBCs (Filtek Bulk-Fill Restorative, Tetric N Ceram Bulk-Fill, and Beautifil Bulk-fill Restorative), as well as three flowable bulk-fill RBCs (Filtek Bulk-Fill Flowable, Tetric N Flow Bulk-Fill, and Beautifil Bulk-Fill Flowable). Specimens were fabricated using customized stainless-steel molds, finished, measured, and randomly divided into four groups. The various RBCs were conditioned in the following mediums (n=10) for seven days at 37°C: air, artificial saliva (SAGF), 0.02 N citric acid, and 50% ethanol-water solution. After conditioning, the specimens were rinsed, blotted dry, measured, and subjected to flexural testing using a universal testing machine. Data were subjected to statistical analysis using analysis of variance and the Tukey test at a significance level of α = 0.05. Significant differences in flexural properties were observed between materials and conditioning mediums. Bulk-fill restorative RBCs exhibited higher flexural modulus than their bulk-fill flowable and conventional counterparts. With the exception of Filtek Bulk-Fill Flowable, bulk-fill flowable RBCs had significantly higher flexural strength than bulk-fill restorative and conventional RBCs. Flexural properties were highest when RBCs were conditioned in air and generally the lowest after exposure to ethanol.


Assuntos
Resinas Compostas , Resistência à Flexão , Materiais Dentários , Análise do Estresse Dentário , Teste de Materiais
12.
J Prosthodont ; 29(2): 129-135, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29961952

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of different surface treatments on Vickers hardness and flexural strength of zirconia and lithium disilicate ceramics. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 50 zirconia and 50 lithium disilicate ceramic specimens were used. After identifying one group as the control, grinding, sandblasting, CoJet, and Er:YAG laser were applied on the surface of specimens (n = 10). After applying Vickers hardness test to specimens, flexural strength test was performed. The data were analyzed with two-way ANOVA and Duncan's multiple comparisons tests. RESULTS: There were statistically significant differences found between surface treatment groups in terms of Vickers hardness of zirconia and lithium disilicate ceramics (p < 0.001), but there were no statistically significant differences found between surface treatment groups in terms of flexural strength (p > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Surface treatments could affect the hardness of ceramics. Therefore, was zirconia found to be harder and more durable than lithium disilicate ceramics.


Assuntos
Resistência à Flexão , Zircônio , Cerâmica , Porcelana Dentária , Dureza , Teste de Materiais , Propriedades de Superfície
13.
J Prosthodont ; 29(1): 26-33, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29968266

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the influence of various Y-TZP thicknesses and veneer firing cycles on the strength of two ceramic veneers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 180 Y-TZP cores of 0.5, 1.0, and 5.0 mm thickness were prepared followed by sintering in a high temperature furnace; 180 presintered veneering ceramic discs (Vita VM9 porcelain and e.max Ceram) were also prepared using a mold. The discs were placed on zirconia plates (zirconia cores) of different thickness (0.5, 1.0, and 5.0 mm) and exposed to different firing cycles (Vita VM9 porcelain-910, 930, and 950°C; e.max Ceram-750, 770, and 790°C). Ball-on-three-balls flexural strength test was performed (universal testing machine) at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. Scanning electron microscopy of fractured specimens was performed. Means and standard deviations of flexural strength were analyzed using Tukey-Kramer HSD test for multiple comparisons. RESULTS: Specimens within material groups showed no significant difference (p > 0.05) for flexural strength with respect to Y-TZP core thickness (0.5, 1.0, and 5.0 mm) (VM9 [117.30 ± 14.328, 117.75 ± 13.66, 113.75 ± 20.10], e.max Ceram [94.79 ± 17.5, 100.02 ± 14.7, 95.23 ± 15.4]). Flexural strength within material groups with respect to different firing cycles ([VM9-910, 930, 950°C], e.max Ceram [750, 770, 790°C]), for VM9 (111.49 ± 15.7, 120.86 ± 13.2, 116.46 ± 18.4), and e.max Ceram (94.64 ± 15.2, 101.6 ± 16.69, 93.8 ± 15.20) showed no significant difference (p > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Different zirconia thicknesses (0.5, 1.0, and 5.0 mm) and veneer firing cycles for Vita VM9 and e.max ceramics failed to show any significant influence on their biaxial flexural strengths.


Assuntos
Porcelana Dentária , Facetas Dentárias , Cerâmica , Análise do Estresse Dentário , Resistência à Flexão , Teste de Materiais , Propriedades de Superfície , Zircônio
14.
J Prosthodont ; 29(1): 34-41, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31702090

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine and compare the fracture toughness, flexural strength and flexural modulus of four new, commercially available CAD/CAM resin composite blocks and one new CAD/CAM lithium disilicate glass-ceramic block, tested under dry and aged conditions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three dispersed-fillers resin composite blocks, CERASMART, KZR-CAD-HR2, and CAMouflage NOW, one polymer-infiltrated ceramic network resin composite block, Enamic, along with Obsidian, a lithium disilicate glass-ceramic block, were characterized. Fracture toughness was determined through the notchless triangular prism specimen test, while flexural strength and flexural modulus were determined by three-point bend testing. Blocks were cut and ground to obtain (6 × 6 × 6 × 12) mm prisms and 10:1 span-to-thickness ratio bars (n = 25/group); half of the resin composite specimens were aged in 37°C distilled water for 30 days before testing. Fractured surfaces were characterized using a scanning electron microscope. Results were analyzed using Weibull statistics and two-way ANOVA, followed by Scheffé multiple means comparisons (α = 0.05). RESULTS: With regards to fracture toughness, KZR stood out among resin composites with a dry value of 1.37 MPa·m1/2 ; this was significantly affected by ageing, while the fracture toughness of the other dispersed-fillers resin composite blocks was not. Obsidian had the highest fracture toughness at 1.47 MPa·m1/2 . With regards to flexural strength, Obsidian > CERASMART = KZR > CAMouflage > Enamic. The flexural strength of the resin composites was lowered by ageing. Enamic was found to have the highest flexural modulus among the resin composites (33.02 GPa), but its value was significantly lower than that of Obsidian (76.46 GPa); flexural modulus was not affected by ageing. CONCLUSION: There was a significant difference in flexural strength between the materials, but not unanimously in flexural modulus and fracture toughness. The tested resin composite block materials had inferior flexural strength, flexural modulus and fracture toughness compared with the tested lithium disilicate glass-ceramic block (Obsidian). Enamic, the polymer infiltrated ceramic network material, had a significantly higher flexural modulus than the dispersed-fillers materials. Ageing had a deleterious impact on the flexural strength of all RCB, while its effect on the flexural modulus was insignificant. The selection of any restorative material requires a thorough analysis of its advantages and limitations to inform the clinical decision in a case-by-case approach.


Assuntos
Cerâmica , Resistência à Flexão , Resinas Compostas , Desenho Assistido por Computador , Materiais Dentários , Teste de Materiais , Propriedades de Superfície
15.
Dent Mater ; 36(1): 60-67, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31727444

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The rapidly increasing use of zirconia-based CAD/CAM multi-layer structures in dentistry calls for a thorough evaluation of their mechanical integrity. This work examines the effect of the multi-layering architecture as well as variations in composition and inclusion of pigments among the layers on the flexural strength of multi-layer zirconias. METHODS: A modified 4-point bending test, aided by a Finite Element Analysis (FEA), was used to probe the interfacial strength of 3 classes of yttria-partially-stabilized zirconia: Ultra Translucent Multi-Layer (UTML-5Y-PSZ), Super Translucent Multi-Layer (STML-4Y-PSZ), Multi-Layer (ML-3Y-PSZ). In accord with the size limitation (22-mm height) of CAD/CAM pucks, test samples were prepared in the form of "long" (25×2×3mm) and "short" (17.8×1.5×2mm) beams. Homogeneous beams (both long and short) were produced from either the Enamel (the lightest shade) or Dentin (the darkest shade) layer, whereas multi-layer beams (short beam only) were obtained by cutting the pucks along their thickness direction, where the material components of various shades were stacked. RESULTS: The Enamel and Dentin layers exhibited similar flexural strength for a given material class, with ML amassing the highest strength (800-900MPa) followed by STML (560-650MPa) and UTML (470-500MPa). The 3 classes of multi-layer zirconia showed a trade-off between strength and translucency, reflecting different yttria contents in these materials. The failure stress of the cross-sectional multi-layer beams was, however, ∼30% lower than that of their Enamel or Dentin layer counterparts, regardless of material tested. SIGNIFICANCE: The weakness of interfaces is a drawback in these materials. Additionally, when measuring strength using short beam flexure, friction between the specimen and supporting pins and accuracy in determining loading span distances may lead to major errors.


Assuntos
Resistência à Flexão , Zircônio , Cerâmica , Estudos Transversais , Materiais Dentários , Teste de Materiais , Propriedades de Superfície
16.
Gerodontology ; 37(1): 53-58, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31746036

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of different irrigation protocols on microhardness (MH) and flexural strength (FS) values of young and aged crown dentin. BACKGROUND: In addition to ageing, root canal irrigation might also affect the mechanical properties of coronal dentin walls. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred and twenty dentin bars (2 mm × 2 mm × 8 mm) were obtained from the crowns of extracted, non-caries, human molars of young and older patients (n = 60 bars; average patient ages: 16.7 and 65.4, respectively). Subgroups were formed as follows: 2.5%NaOCl(sodium hypochlorite)+5%EDTA(ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid), 2.5%NaOCl + 15%EDTA, 2.5%NaOCl, 5%EDTA, 15%EDTA and Saline. NaOCl and saline were used for 20 minutes and EDTA solutions for 1 minute. MH values of each sample were measured before and after the irrigation protocols. The same samples were also submitted for FS analysis. The data were statistically analysed. RESULTS: Young samples had lower MH values at pre- and post-treatment compared to aged samples (P < .05). A significant decrease was observed in MH values of aged samples exposed to 2.5%NaOCl and both NaOCl + EDTA combinations (P < .05). FS values of the young saline-treated group were statistically higher than aged ones (P < .05). Both NaOCl + EDTA combinations caused a significant decrease in FS values of young samples compared to saline (P < .05). CONCLUSION: Ageing has a significant effect on the MH and FS values of crown dentin samples. 5% EDTA solutions revealed similar results to 15%EDTA regarding MH and FS values of crown dentin in both age groups. The NaOCl + EDTA combination had a prominent effect than EDTA alone, on MH values of young-, and FS values of aged dentin samples.


Assuntos
Cavidade Pulpar , Irrigantes do Canal Radicular , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Coroas , Dentina , Resistência à Flexão , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hipoclorito de Sódio , Adulto Jovem
17.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl ; 106: 110283, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31753393

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to characterize glycolic acid (GA) and examine its effects on powder and flexural strength of dentin. Particle size and energy-dispersive EDS in GA powder was performed for chemical analysis. Surface tension and pH levels of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), citric acid (CA), and GA solutions were evaluated at different times and temperatures. Dentin powder and mineralized dentin beams were immersed for 1 min in EDTA, CA, or GA solutions and subjected to Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy for apatite/collagen ratio analysis and 3-point flexure test, respectively. GA showed the largest particle size (µm), and its surface tension was similar to that of EDTA and CA. Surface tension decreased in solutions of higher concentrations. GA showed pH stability at all times and temperatures evaluated. The apatite/collagen ratio reduced with increased GA concentrations, while flexural strength was not significantly affected by GA concentration. GA seems a good choice as a final irrigation solution after root canal preparation.


Assuntos
Dentina/química , Glicolatos/química , Ácido Cítrico/química , Colágeno/química , Colágeno/metabolismo , Cavidade Pulpar/efeitos dos fármacos , Dentina/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Edético/química , Resistência à Flexão , Glicolatos/farmacologia , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Tamanho da Partícula , Desnaturação Proteica , Irrigantes do Canal Radicular/química , Irrigantes do Canal Radicular/farmacologia , Tensão Superficial , Temperatura
18.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl ; 106: 110292, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31753402

RESUMO

The objective of this systematic review is to evaluate the effect of the incorporation of zirconia (ZrO2) particles on the mechanical properties of PMMA (polymethyl methacrylate), and to establish which characteristics of this material yield the best results aiming their biomedical applicability. This study was carried out in accordance with the Items of Preferred Reports for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyzes (PRISMA) and is registered in PROSPERO under registration number: CRD42018095801. The searches were carried out in the PubMed, MEDLINE, Scopus and Cochrane Library databases for articles published up until April 2018. After the different stages of the article selection process, eight articles were selected for qualitative and quantitative analysis. All were in vitro studies, totaling 536 evaluated samples. The concentrations of zirconia ranged from 0.5% to 20% and the particle sizes were between 15 nm and 10 µm. The incorporation of zirconia particles did not increase the flexural strength of PMMA in only one study. While the concentration of zirconia influences PMMA, the type of acrylic resin, size, and silanization of zirconia particles did not influence the results. Thus, the addition of zirconia particles showed a positive effect on PMMA enhancing their use in the medical and dental field, especially when certain anatomical areas requires higher strength of the materials, providing longevity for the rehabilitation.


Assuntos
Polimetil Metacrilato/química , Zircônio/química , Bases de Dados Factuais , Resistência à Flexão , Tamanho da Partícula
19.
J Prosthodont ; 29(4): 334-340, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31876065

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine the effects of the total thickness and core/veneer thickness ratio of bilayered ceramics on their three-point flexural strength and translucency. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two groups of specimens were prepared with two different total thicknesses, 1.0 mm and 0.6 mm. These groups were divided into five and three subgroups with ten specimens each, respectively, having different core/veneer thickness ratios. Lithium disilicate was pressed on the zirconia surface using the "lost-wax technique." The translucency and three-point flexural strength were measured, and a one-way analysis of variance test (p < 0.05) was performed to determine whether the translucency and three-point flexural strength were affected by the total thickness and core/veneer thickness ratio of the specimens. RESULTS: For the same total thickness, translucency decreased with a increase in the zirconia core proportion (p < 0.001). For the same core/veneer ratio, the translucency decreased with an increase in the total thickness (p < 0.001). If the zirconia thickness was less than half of the total thickness, the bilayered ceramic specimens containing zirconia cores and monolithic lithium disilicate specimens exhibited a similar translucency. The three-point flexural strength increased with the increasing proportion of zirconia; however, it did not change significantly with the total thickness. However, for the same total thickness, the flexural strengths of the bilayered ceramics were higher than those of the monolithic specimens. CONCLUSIONS: At the same total thickness, increasing the zirconia core thickness decreased the translucency and increased the three-point flexural strength. Bilayered ceramic specimens with low zirconia ratios exhibited translucency similar to that of monolithic lithium disilicate ceramic but a higher flexural strength.


Assuntos
Porcelana Dentária , Resistência à Flexão , Cerâmica , Análise do Estresse Dentário , Teste de Materiais , Propriedades de Superfície , Zircônio
20.
Dent Mater J ; 39(2): 302-308, 2020 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31852879

RESUMO

To test the impact of the pressing furnace on flexural strength and facture toughness of the lithium-disilicate-ceramics HS10PC (HS) and IPS e.max Press (IP). Three hundred and sixty specimens (3×4×30 mm) were pressed (n=180/ceramic) using different pressing furnaces, namely Austromat 654 Press-i-dent (AUS), Programat EP5000 (PRO), and Vario Press 300 (VAR). Three-point flexural strength (n=30) and fracture toughness (n=30) were measured. Flexural strength (336-360 MPa) was not affected by pressing furnace or ceramic and showed comparable values between all groups. Fracture toughness (2.65-2.81 MPa√m) provided higher values for HS pressed using AUS compared to specimens pressed in PRO and VAR. For IP, no impact of the pressing furnace on fracture toughness was found. IP presented higher fracture toughness than HS when pressed using PRO. No correlations were found. Both lithium disilicate ceramics showed comparable flexural strength regardless of the pressing furnace. Fracture toughness depended on the ceramic and on the pressing furnace.


Assuntos
Porcelana Dentária , Resistência à Flexão , Cerâmica , Teste de Materiais , Propriedades de Superfície
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