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1.
Einstein (Sao Paulo) ; 18: eAO4784, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31553356

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of three types of muscular resistance training on adiposity, inflammation levels and insulin activity in Swiss mice with fat-rich diet-induced obesity. METHODS: Lean and obese male Swiss mice were selected and allocated to one of eight groups comprising eight mice each, as follows: standard diet + no training; standard diet + muscular resistance training; standard diet + hypertrophy training; standard diet + strength training; high-fat diet + no training; high-fat diet + muscular resistance training; high-fat diet + hypertrophy training; high-fat diet + strength training. The training protocol consisted of stair climbing for a 10-week period. Blood samples were collected for lactate analysis, glucose level measurement and insulin tolerance test. After euthanasia, adipose tissues were removed and weighed for adiposity index determination. Fragments of epididymal adipose tissue were then embedded for histological analysis or homogenized for tumor necrosis factor alpha level determination using the ELISA method. RESULTS: Ausency of differences in total training volume and blood lactate levels overall emphasize the similarity between the different resistance training protocols. Body weight loss, reduced adipocyte area and lower adiposity index were observed in trained obese mice, regardless of training modality. Different training protocols also improved insulin sensitivity and reduced inflammation levels. CONCLUSION: Resistance training protocols were equally effective in reducing body fat, inflammation levels and insulin resistance in obese mice.


Assuntos
Adiposidade/fisiologia , Hipertrofia/fisiopatologia , Inflamação/fisiopatologia , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Exercícios de Alongamento Muscular/métodos , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Condicionamento Físico Animal/fisiologia , Tecido Adiposo Branco/fisiopatologia , Animais , Glicemia/análise , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Obesos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Treinamento de Resistência/métodos , Fatores de Tempo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/análise
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(39): e16788, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31574794

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to observe the effect and safety of Heyan Kuntai Capsule (HYKT) on glucose and lipid metabolism in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). METHODS: Hundred patients with PCOS were randomly divided into HYKT group (n = 50) and placebo groups (n = 50) in which the individuals were treated with HYKT and its placebo continuously for 6 months. Meanwhile, all participants received health education (such as exercise and diet). The primary outcomes were serum sex hormone levels, a series of blood lipid, fasting and postprandial 2 hours blood glucose. Body mass index (BMI), waist-hip ratio (WHR), insulin, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and insulin-sensitive index (ISI) were also observed. In addition, adverse events were recorded to evaluate the drug safety. RESULTS: After treatment, the BMI and WHR of all the patients were decreased. The fasting and postprandial 2 hours blood glucose levels were significantly declined when treated with HYKT, which were not observed in the placebo group. Similarly, serum sex hormones including luteinizing hormone (LH), LH/follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and testosterone were lowered after treated with HYKT instead of the placebo. Besides, blood lipids outcomes such as total cholesterol, triglyceride, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, as well as insulin and HOMA-IR were decreased with significance in HYKT group when compared with those in the placebo group, whereas high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and ISI increased obviously. CONCLUSION: HYKT showed the effect on ameliorating the glucose and lipid metabolism disorder and improving insulin resistance and increase insulin sensitivity of PCOS patients, which is similar to insulin sensitizing agent.


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/efeitos adversos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Lipídeos/sangue , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/sangue , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Método Duplo-Cego , Estradiol/sangue , Feminino , Hormônio Foliculoestimulante/sangue , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Resistência à Insulina , Hormônio Luteinizante/sangue , Prolactina/sangue , Testosterona/sangue , Relação Cintura-Quadril , Adulto Jovem
3.
Ther Umsch ; 76(3): 111-116, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31498044

RESUMO

Health effects of sugar consumption and possible alternatives Abstract. A wide range of chronic diseases is associated with sugar consumption: Caries, obesity, metabolic syndrome with impaired glucose tolerance and / or diabetes, elevated blood, lipids arterial, hypertension, hepatic steatosis and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. There is an urgent need to reduce sugar consumption. Sugar surrogates may help achieving this goal. However, artificial sweeteners seem to be associated with adverse metabolic effects such as insulin resistance, obesity, and altered gut microbiota composition. Naturally occurring sweeteners such as xylitol, erythritol and rare sugars are possibly more favorable, but have to be studied in detail.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Açúcares/administração & dosagem , Açúcares/efeitos adversos , Edulcorantes/administração & dosagem , Diabetes Mellitus/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Edulcorantes/efeitos adversos
4.
J Assoc Physicians India ; 67(7): 26-29, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31559764

RESUMO

Background: Although less common, insulin resistance and deranged lipids are also observed in normal weight individuals. Few studies have assessed body composition and lipid profiles in normal weight insulin resistant individuals. Objective: To assess differences in body composition and lipid profile in normal weight and overweight 40-60 years apparently healthy men with special reference to insulin resistance. Design: Cross-sectional observational study in apparently healthy men (40-60 yrs) was performed. Anthropometry, body composition (Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry scan), biochemical parameters (lipids, sugar and Insulin) were assessed. HOMA_IR was calculated. Subjects were grouped based on BMI and HOMA-IR for comparison. Results: Of the 286 subjects 152 (53%) had BMI < 25 (group A) and 134 (47%) had BMI > 25 (group B). Homa-IR was more than 3 in 18% in and in 36% in B. Group B had significantly higher fat, waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, insulin and HOMA-IR. In subgroup analysis in group A, subjects with HOMA IR>3 (group A2) had significantly higher BMI, waist, TG, TG: HDL ratio, android and total fat and lower HDL as compared sub-group A1(HOMA IR<3) (p< 0.05). Mean BMI, waist circumference and systolic blood pressure were significantly higher in B2 than A2 group (p< 0.05). Although total, android and gynoid fat percentage were significantly higher in group B2, android to gynoid ratio was significantly higher in A2 (p< 0.05). Conclusion: No significant difference in lipids and fat distribution between insulin resistant and non-resistant subjects in overweight groups suggests that insulin resistance in overweight may be an extension of the pathological state related to obesity. In contrast, significant differences in lipid and fat distribution in normal weight insulin resistant individuals may likely be due to a different mechanism.


Assuntos
Dislipidemias , Resistência à Insulina , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Insulina , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Circunferência da Cintura
5.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 99(34): 2665-2669, 2019 Sep 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31505716

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the relationship between insulin resistance (IR) and dyslipidemia in adults with type 1 diabetes (T1DM) and provide more insights on diabetes-related cardiovascular disease management. Methods: A cross-sectional study recruiting patients from Guangdong T1DM Translational Study cohort was conducted between 2011 and 2017. The patients aged ≥18 years, with a diabetes duration of ≥1 year were enrolled in the study. Plasma lipid profile data of eligible patients, including total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were collected and their relationships with insulin resistance were analyzed. IR in these adults with T1DM was estimated by glucose disposal rate (eGDR) calculated by a model published previously. Patients with eGDR lower than 25 percentiles were grouped as severe IR, otherwise non-severe IR. Results: In total, 499 eligible patients were studied, among which 274 were women (54.9%). The level of eGDR was 8.43 (6.11, 10.63) mg kg(-1) min(-1) and the overall incidence of lipid disorders was 65.3% (326/499) in the study population. The result showed that eGDR was correlated with TC, TG, HDL-C and LDL-C (r=-0.163, -0.303, 0.170 and -0.150, respectively, all P<0.05). After adjusting for gender, age and diabetes duration, eGDR was still associated with TG, TC and LDL-C (all P<0.05). Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis showed that gender (female), elevated TC and declined HDL-C were independent factors associated with the severity of IR (t=5.651, 5.823 and 2.908, respectively, all P<0.05). Conclusions: IR is associated with dyslipidemiain in adults with T1DM. Elevated TC and decreased HDL-C are independent associated factors for insulin resistance.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1 , Dislipidemias , Resistência à Insulina , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Triglicerídeos
6.
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi ; 21(9): 910-914, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31506152

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study the relationship between serum microRNA-122 (miR-122) and insulin resistance in obese children. METHODS: Forty-seven children with severely obesity aged 7-14 years and 45 age- and gender matched healthy children with normal weight (control group) were enrolled. The levels of height, weight, waistline, hip circumference, fasting blood glucose (FBG), fasting insulin (FINS), triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), free fatty acid (FFA), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and miR-122 in the two groups were measured. Body mass index (BMI), waist-hip ratio (WHR) and insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) were calculated. RESULTS: Compared with the control group, the height, weight, BMI, WHR, FINS, HOMA-IR, TG, FFA, IL-6, and miR-122 levels in the obese group were significantly increased (P<0.05). MiR-122 levels in the obese group were positively correlated with FINS, HOMA-IR and IL-6 levels (r=0.408, 0.442, and 0.464 respectively, P<0.05). The changes of miR-122 have a linear regression relationship with IL-6 (b'=0.318, P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The elevated serum miR-122 levels may be correlated with insulin resistance in obese children. The mechanism needs to be further studied.


Assuntos
Resistência à Insulina , MicroRNAs/genética , Adolescente , Glicemia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Humanos , Insulina , Obesidade , Relação Cintura-Quadril
7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(35): e16947, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31464934

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The incidence of diabetes mellitus (DM) is increasing year by year, and various complications can endanger the lives of patients. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) accounts for more than 90% of DM, most of which is associated with insulin resistance (IR), and IR has been shown to be closely related to the onset of T2DM and the presence of DM complications. Berberine (BBR) has been shown to improve T2DM with IR in a number of ways. In this study, we aim to evaluate the efficacy and safety of BBR in the treatment of T2DM with IR to provide the newest evidence for clinical use. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Literature research will be divided into 2 parts: electronic search and manual search. We will search PubMed, EMBASE, The Cochrane Library, the China National Knowledge Infrastructure, China Biology Medicine disc, the China Science and Technology Journal database, and the Wanfang database online. We will select the eligible studies published up to June 30, 2019. Dissertations, conference papers, ongoing trials, internal reports, etc., are searched by manual search methods. We use Homeostatic Model Assessment for IR (HOMA-IR) as the primary outcome of T2DM with IR, and we will also focus on the patient's blood glucose levels and all adverse reactions that occur during medication.Two reviewers will read the articles, extract the data information, and assess the risk of bias independently. Data analysis will use the software such as RevMan 5.3.5, ENDNOTE X7, and STATA 13.0. RESULTS: This study will provide a high-quality synthesis of current evidence of BBR for T2DM with IR from several aspects including HOMA-IR, blood glucose levels, and adverse events. CONCLUSION: This systematic review will provide evidence to assess the efficacy and safety of BBR in the treatment of T2DM with IR. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Because all of the data used in this systematic review has been published, ethical approval is not required. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: PROSPERO CRD42019123225.


Assuntos
Berberina/uso terapêutico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Projetos de Pesquisa , Berberina/administração & dosagem , Berberina/efeitos adversos , Glicemia , China , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
8.
Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi ; 58(9): 673-679, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31461819

RESUMO

Objective: To examine associations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations with sex hormone levels and cardiovascular risk factors. Methods: A total of 697 male subjects were obtained from the thyroid disorders, lodine status and diabetes: a national epidemiological survey-2014 (TIDE) research--Henan sub-center survey through multistage stratified cluster random sampling from December 2015 to March 2016. The associations between 25(OH)D and sex hormones or cardiovascular risk factors were analyzed by linear regression analyses. Results: The age of the subjects was (46.6±15.9) years (19-85 years). Proportions of vitamin D deficient, vitamin D intermediate and vitamin D optimal were 9.3%, 13.1% and 77.6%, respectively. More subjects with vitamin D deficient were in urban area than in rural area (13.3% vs. 5.7%, P=0.001). After fully adjusting for age, residence area, economic status, education, body mass index, waist circumference, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), hypertension, diabetes, triglyceride, high-density lipoproteincholesterol, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and uric acid, linear regression analyses showed that every 25 nmol/L increase in 25(OH)D levels increased lg FT(FT=free testosterone) by 0.013ng/L (ß=0.013, P=0.036), lg DHT (DHT=dihydrotestosterone) by 0.030 ng/L (ß=0.030, P=0.019), and lg AD (AD=androstenedione) by 0.019 µg/L (ß=0.019, P=0.008). After fully adjusting for age, residence area, economic status and education, every 25 nmol/L increase in 25(OH)D levels lowered glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) by 0.051% (ß=-0.051, P=0.027). Conclusions: Higher 25(OH)D concentrations in men were associated with higher FT, DHT, AD and lower HbA1c levels.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Vitamina D/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Índice de Massa Corporal , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etnologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , População Rural , População Urbana , Adulto Jovem
9.
Pharm Res ; 36(10): 141, 2019 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31367840

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of the present study was to investigate changes of blood-brain barrier (BBB) and brain parenchymal protein expression due to type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM) induced by a high-fat diet (HFD) by using SWATH-based quantitative proteomics. METHODS: Mice were fed a HFD for 2 or 10 weeks, and then SWATH-based quantitative proteomic analysis, western blot analysis, immunohistochemistry and functional transport studies were performed. RESULTS: In brain capillaries, expression levels of BBB transporters (Glut1, P-glycoprotein) and tight-junction proteins (claudin-5, occludin) were significantly reduced in HFD mice at 2 weeks, but recovered to the levels in the normal diet (ND) group at 10 weeks. P-glycoprotein function at the BBB was reduced at 2 weeks. In the cerebral cortex and hippocampus, neurofilament, which is important for neuronal function, was decreased in HFD mice at 2 weeks, but recovered at 10 weeks. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that changes in the status of insulin resistance influence expression of BBB transporters, which in turn may alter the expression of cognitive function-related proteins.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/metabolismo , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Resistência à Insulina , Insulina/metabolismo , Membro 1 da Subfamília B de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Animais , Barreira Hematoencefálica/metabolismo , Encéfalo/irrigação sanguínea , Capilares/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Transportador de Glucose Tipo 1/metabolismo , Filamentos Intermediários/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Proteômica , Proteínas de Junções Íntimas/metabolismo
10.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1155: 133-146, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31468392

RESUMO

Metabolic syndrome is a lifestyle-related disease caused by high nutrient condition and lack of exercise. The insulin resistance due to obesity has attracted attention as an underlying mechanism of metabolic syndrome. Insulin resistance refers to reduced insulin sensitivity in insulin target tissues. In this case, in order to maintain normal blood glucose levels, a compensatory large amount of insulin is released, leading to the occurrence of hyperinsulinemia. Taurine is widely distributed in animal tissues. Although it is not involved in protein synthesis, taurine plays an important role in maintaining the body's physiological function. In this experiment, insulin resistance model was induced by high fat and high sugar diet. Two percent taurine was added in drinking water to explore the mechanism of taurine in insulin resistance and to provide theoretical basis for using taurine to improve insulin resistance. The result showed that high-fat and high-sugar diet could decrease insulin sensitivity, and taurine could improve it by oral glucose tolerance test. Moreover, serum TG, TC were higher, while HDL-C in rats fed with high sugar and high fat diet was lower than normal rats, the changes of which can be significantly relieved by 2% taurine administration. mRNA and protein expressions of IRS1, and GLUT4 which were significantly changed by high sugar and high fat diet can also be regulated by 2% taurine. The results indicated that taurine can improve insulin sensitivity through remediating lipid metabolism disorder and regulating the expressions of IRS and GLUT4.


Assuntos
Resistência à Insulina , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Taurina/farmacologia , Animais , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Açúcares da Dieta/efeitos adversos , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Ratos
11.
Life Sci ; 234: 116734, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31394126

RESUMO

AIMS: Acute myocardial insulin resistance is an independent risk factor for patients who undergo cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). However, the underlying mechanism of insulin resistance during CPB has not been fully investigated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To explore the role of myocardial insulin resistance on the cardiac function and its underlying mechanism, CPB operation and pharmacological intervention were applied in mini pigs, and myocardial insulin signaling, glucose uptake, ATP production and cardiac function were examined. KEY FINDINGS: Our data showed that CPB elicited not only hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia, but also inactivated Akt, and impaired the transposition of membrane glucose transporter-4 (GLUT-4), reduced glucose uptake and ATP production in the myocardium as well, which in turn was accompanied with cardiac dysfunction. Meanwhile, linear correlations were established among reduced myocardial glucose uptake, ATP production, and depressed cardiac systolic or diastolic function. Reactivation of Akt by SC79, an Akt agonist, partially alleviated myocardial insulin resistance and restored post CPB cardiac function via augmenting myocardial glucose uptake and ATP production. SIGNIFICANCE: These findings revealed that acute myocardial insulin resistance due to inactivation of Akt played a key role in cardiac dysfunction post CPB via suppressing glucose metabolism related energy supply.


Assuntos
Ponte Cardiopulmonar/efeitos adversos , Resistência à Insulina , Insulina/metabolismo , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Animais , Glucose/metabolismo , Transportador de Glucose Tipo 4/metabolismo , Coração/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Miocárdio/patologia , Suínos , Porco Miniatura
12.
Life Sci ; 234: 116776, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31425698

RESUMO

Glucagon-like peptide-1 is a peptide of incretin family which is used in the management of diabetes as glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist (GLP-1RA). Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 enzyme metabolizes glucagon-like peptide-1 and various dipeptidyl peptidase-4 enzyme inhibitors (DPP-4i) are also used in the management of diabetes. These antidiabetic agents provide anti-hyperglycemic effects via several molecular mechanisms including promoting insulin secretion, suppression of glucagon secretion and slowing the gastric emptying. There is some research suggesting that they can induce insulin sensitivity in peripheral tissues. In this study, we review the possible molecular mechanisms by which GLP-1RA and DPP-4i can improve insulin resistance and increase insulin sensitivity in insulin-dependent peripheral tissues.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores da Dipeptidil Peptidase IV/uso terapêutico , Receptor do Peptídeo Semelhante ao Glucagon 1/agonistas , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Resistência à Insulina , Animais , Diabetes Mellitus/metabolismo , Inibidores da Dipeptidil Peptidase IV/farmacologia , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/metabolismo , Receptor do Peptídeo Semelhante ao Glucagon 1/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Insulina/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos
13.
Life Sci ; 234: 116793, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31465735

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Environmental factors have a key role in the control of gut microbiota and obesity. TLR2 knockout (TLR2-/-) mice in some housing conditions are protected from diet-induced insulin resistance. However, in our housing conditions these animals are not protected from diet-induced insulin-resistance. AIM: The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of our animal housing conditions on the gut microbiota, glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in TLR2-/- mice. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The microbiota was investigated by metagenomics, associated with hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp and GTT associated with insulin signaling through immunoblotting. RESULTS: The results showed that TLR2-/- mice in our housing conditions presented a phenotype of metabolic syndrome characterized by insulin resistance, glucose intolerance and increase in body weight. This phenotype was associated with differences in microbiota in TLR2-/- mice that showed a decrease in the Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes phyla and an increase in the Firmicutesphylum, associated with and in increase in the Oscillospira and Ruminococcus genera. Furthermore there is also an increase in circulating LPS and subclinical inflammation in TLR2-/-. The molecular mechanism that account for insulin resistance was an activation of TLR4, associated with ER stress and JNK activation. The phenotype and metabolic behavior was reversed by antibiotic treatment and reproduced in WT mice by microbiota transplantation. CONCLUSIONS: Our data show, for the first time, that the intestinal microbiota can induce insulin resistance and obesity in an animal model that is genetically protected from these processes.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Resistência à Insulina , Insulina/metabolismo , Receptor 2 Toll-Like/genética , Animais , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático , Deleção de Genes , Intolerância à Glucose/genética , Intolerância à Glucose/metabolismo , Intolerância à Glucose/microbiologia , Abrigo para Animais , Resistência à Insulina/genética , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Receptor 2 Toll-Like/metabolismo
14.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 34(9): 853-861, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31399939

RESUMO

Intake of individual antioxidants has been related to a lower risk of type 2 diabetes. However, the overall diet may contain many antioxidants with additive or synergistic effects. Therefore, we aimed to determine associations between total dietary antioxidant capacity and risk of type 2 diabetes, prediabetes and insulin resistance. We estimated the dietary antioxidant capacity for 5796 participants of the Rotterdam Study using a ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) score. Of these participants, 4957 had normoglycaemia and 839 had prediabetes at baseline. We used covariate-adjusted proportional hazards models to estimate associations between FRAP and risk of type 2 diabetes, risk of type 2 diabetes among participants with prediabetes, and risk of prediabetes. We used linear regression models to determine the association between FRAP score and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). We observed 532 cases of incident type 2 diabetes, of which 259 among participants with prediabetes, and 794 cases of incident prediabetes during up to 15 years of follow-up. A higher FRAP score was associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes among the total population (HR per SD FRAP 0.84, 95% CI 0.75; 0.95) and among participants with prediabetes (HR 0.85, 95% CI 0.73; 0.99), but was not associated with risk of prediabetes. Dietary FRAP was also inversely associated with HOMA-IR (ß - 0.04, 95% CI - 0.06; - 0.03). Effect estimates were generally similar between sexes. The findings of this population-based study emphasize the putative beneficial effects of a diet rich in antioxidants on insulin resistance and risk of type 2 diabetes.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Dieta , Resistência à Insulina , Avaliação Nutricional , Estado Pré-Diabético/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Feminino , Frutas , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Estado Pré-Diabético/sangue , Estado Pré-Diabético/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
15.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 35(8): 1382-1390, 2019 Aug 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31441609

RESUMO

Mitochondrial dynamics, the processes of mitochondrial fusion and fission maintain homeostasis, are precisely regulated by fusion/fission-related proteins, and play an important physiological role in mitochondrial metabolism, quality and function. The aberrant changes of these proteins can trigger mitochondrial dynamics imbalance, which cause mitochondrial dysfunctions and result various disease states. This article focuses on gene knockout technology, and reviews the role and application progress of genes encoding for fusion and fission knockout mice in insulin resistance researches, in order to lay a foundation for future studies on signal transduction mechanism of mitochondrial dynamics imbalance in insulin resistance.


Assuntos
Resistência à Insulina , Dinâmica Mitocondrial , Animais , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Camundongos , Mitocôndrias , Proteínas Mitocondriais
16.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(32): e16825, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31393416

RESUMO

Observational studies have reported that childhood obesity is positively associated with risks of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and coronary artery disease (CAD) in adults; however, whether this association is causal is still unclear. In the present study, we conducted the 2-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) studies to investigate whether childhood obesity is causally associated with T2D and CAD in adults.Seven single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that significantly associated with childhood obesity were used as instrumental variables. The 2-sample MR analyses were performed with the summary-level data of large-sample genome-wide association studies to evaluate the causal effects of childhood obesity on adult T2D and CAD and the levels of cardiometabolic traits.The 2-sample MR analyses suggested that each 1-unit increase in the log-odds of having childhood obesity was causally associated with an increased risk of adult T2D (odds ratio [OR] = 1.16, 95% confidential interval [CI] = 1.06-1.28; P = 1.0 × 10) and CAD (OR = 1.07, 95% CI = 1.02-1.12; P = 4.0 × 10) based on the inverse-variance weighted method. The MR analyses also suggested that childhood obesity was positively associated with the levels of adult body mass index, waist circumference, hip circumference, waist and hip ratio, log-transformed fasting glucose, log-transformed homeostatic model assessment (HOMA) of insulin resistance (%), and triglycerides. The childhood obesity was negatively associated with the adult high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level; however, there was no evidence of a causal association between childhood obesity and the levels of fasting glucose, 2-hour glucose, HbA1c (%), log-transformed HOMA of ß-cell function (%), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, or total cholesterol in adults.In conclusion, a genetic predisposition to childhood obesity was associated with an increased risk of adult T2D and CAD, providing causal relations between childhood obesity and the risks of T2D and CAD in adults; however, the results need to be validated with larger-scale intervention studies.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/genética , Glicemia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Pesos e Medidas Corporais , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco
17.
BMJ ; 366: l4697, 2019 08 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31434641

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess effects of increasing omega-3, omega-6, and total polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on diabetes diagnosis and glucose metabolism. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analyses. DATA SOURCES: Medline, Embase, Cochrane CENTRAL, WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, Clinicaltrials.gov, and trials in relevant systematic reviews. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials of at least 24 weeks' duration assessing effects of increasing α-linolenic acid, long chain omega-3, omega-6, or total PUFA, which collected data on diabetes diagnoses, fasting glucose or insulin, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), and/or homoeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). DATA SYNTHESIS: Statistical analysis included random effects meta-analyses using relative risk and mean difference, and sensitivity analyses. Funnel plots were examined and subgrouping assessed effects of intervention type, replacement, baseline risk of diabetes and use of antidiabetes drugs, trial duration, and dose. Risk of bias was assessed with the Cochrane tool and quality of evidence with GRADE. RESULTS: 83 randomised controlled trials (mainly assessing effects of supplementary long chain omega-3) were included; 10 were at low summary risk of bias. Long chain omega-3 had little or no effect on likelihood of diagnosis of diabetes (relative risk 1.00, 95% confidence interval 0.85 to 1.17; 58 643 participants, 3.7% developed diabetes) or measures of glucose metabolism (HbA1c mean difference -0.02%, 95% confidence interval -0.07% to 0.04%; plasma glucose 0.04, 0.02 to 0.07, mmol/L; fasting insulin 1.02, -4.34 to 6.37, pmol/L; HOMA-IR 0.06, -0.21 to 0.33). A suggestion of negative outcomes was observed when dose of supplemental long chain omega-3 was above 4.4 g/d. Effects of α-linolenic acid, omega-6, and total PUFA on diagnosis of diabetes were unclear (as the evidence was of very low quality), but little or no effect on measures of glucose metabolism was seen, except that increasing α-linolenic acid may increase fasting insulin (by about 7%). No evidence was found that the omega-3/omega-6 ratio is important for diabetes or glucose metabolism. CONCLUSIONS: This is the most extensive systematic review of trials to date to assess effects of polyunsaturated fats on newly diagnosed diabetes and glucose metabolism, including previously unpublished data following contact with authors. Evidence suggests that increasing omega-3, omega-6, or total PUFA has little or no effect on prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42017064110.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Gorduras Insaturadas na Dieta/uso terapêutico , Prevenção Primária/métodos , Prevenção Secundária/métodos , Adulto , Glicemia/análise , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Suplementos Nutricionais , Jejum/sangue , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/uso terapêutico , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-6/uso terapêutico , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Resistência à Insulina , Masculino , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
18.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi ; 36(8): 844-847, 2019 Aug 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31400143

RESUMO

Congenital lipodystrophic diabetes (CLD) is a rare genetic disease characterized by generalized or topical subcutaneous fat loss combined with various metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and impaired glucose tolerance. Recent studies have discovered genes underlying the disease. Mutations of such genes are associated with adipogenic anomaly, especially regulational function of peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor γ (γPPAR) for lipid. This paper has provided a review for the main clinical symptoms, classification, pathogenic genes, molecular mechanism and the relationship between PPARγ and fat loss.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus/genética , Lipodistrofia Generalizada Congênita/genética , PPAR gama/genética , Diferenciação Celular , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina , Fatores de Transcrição
19.
20.
Neoplasma ; 20192019 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31305124

RESUMO

Long-term survivors of Hodgkin lymphoma during childhood or adolescence (HL survivors) are at high risk of developing treatment-related late cardiovascular sequelae. In our study we evaluated the presence of modifiable cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension, hyperlipoproteinemia, hyperinsulinemia, obesity), endothelial and inflammatory markers (E-selectin, PAI-1, hs-CRP) and atherosclerotic changes in the common carotid arteries. Assessment was performed in 80 young adult Hodgkin lymphoma long-term survivors at more than 10 years after the potentially cardiovascular toxic anticancer treatment (median age at evaluation 34.7 years; range 24.1-40.9 years). The HL survivors were compared with 83 age- and gender-matched healthy volunteers. The HL survivors showed unfavorable lipid profiles compared to those of healthy controls: triglycerides (p=0.01), total cholesterol (p=0.0004), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (p=0.005). In HL survivors, we found a higher prevalence of hypertension (p=0.004) and insulin resistance - HOMA-IR (p=0.0002). Ultrasonographic examination of both common carotid arteries revealed a higher prevalence of atherosclerotic plaques (p=0.0009) and higher carotid intima-media thickness (p<0.0001) in HL survivors. Markers of oxidative stress (advanced oxidation protein products, oxidized low-density lipoprotein), inflammation (hs-CRP) and endothelial dysfunction (E-selectin, PAI-1) were also higher in HL survivors (p<0.0001, p=0.0002, p=0.0031, p=0.0087, p=0.004, respectively). Adult survivors of Hodgkin lymphoma during childhood and adolescence need closer follow-up with screening of metabolic syndrome components, unfavorable lifestyle factors and early management of these risk factors.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose , Doença de Hodgkin , Hiperlipoproteinemias , Resistência à Insulina , Adolescente , Adulto , Aterosclerose/etiologia , Aterosclerose/fisiopatologia , Espessura Intima-Media Carotídea , Criança , Doença de Hodgkin/complicações , Humanos , Hiperlipoproteinemias/etiologia , Hiperlipoproteinemias/fisiopatologia , Sobreviventes , Adulto Jovem
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