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1.
Einstein (Sao Paulo) ; 18: eAO4784, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31553356

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of three types of muscular resistance training on adiposity, inflammation levels and insulin activity in Swiss mice with fat-rich diet-induced obesity. METHODS: Lean and obese male Swiss mice were selected and allocated to one of eight groups comprising eight mice each, as follows: standard diet + no training; standard diet + muscular resistance training; standard diet + hypertrophy training; standard diet + strength training; high-fat diet + no training; high-fat diet + muscular resistance training; high-fat diet + hypertrophy training; high-fat diet + strength training. The training protocol consisted of stair climbing for a 10-week period. Blood samples were collected for lactate analysis, glucose level measurement and insulin tolerance test. After euthanasia, adipose tissues were removed and weighed for adiposity index determination. Fragments of epididymal adipose tissue were then embedded for histological analysis or homogenized for tumor necrosis factor alpha level determination using the ELISA method. RESULTS: Ausency of differences in total training volume and blood lactate levels overall emphasize the similarity between the different resistance training protocols. Body weight loss, reduced adipocyte area and lower adiposity index were observed in trained obese mice, regardless of training modality. Different training protocols also improved insulin sensitivity and reduced inflammation levels. CONCLUSION: Resistance training protocols were equally effective in reducing body fat, inflammation levels and insulin resistance in obese mice.


Assuntos
Adiposidade/fisiologia , Hipertrofia/fisiopatologia , Inflamação/fisiopatologia , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Exercícios de Alongamento Muscular/métodos , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Condicionamento Físico Animal/fisiologia , Tecido Adiposo Branco/fisiopatologia , Animais , Glicemia/análise , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Obesos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Treinamento de Resistência/métodos , Fatores de Tempo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/análise
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(35): e16947, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31464934

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The incidence of diabetes mellitus (DM) is increasing year by year, and various complications can endanger the lives of patients. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) accounts for more than 90% of DM, most of which is associated with insulin resistance (IR), and IR has been shown to be closely related to the onset of T2DM and the presence of DM complications. Berberine (BBR) has been shown to improve T2DM with IR in a number of ways. In this study, we aim to evaluate the efficacy and safety of BBR in the treatment of T2DM with IR to provide the newest evidence for clinical use. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Literature research will be divided into 2 parts: electronic search and manual search. We will search PubMed, EMBASE, The Cochrane Library, the China National Knowledge Infrastructure, China Biology Medicine disc, the China Science and Technology Journal database, and the Wanfang database online. We will select the eligible studies published up to June 30, 2019. Dissertations, conference papers, ongoing trials, internal reports, etc., are searched by manual search methods. We use Homeostatic Model Assessment for IR (HOMA-IR) as the primary outcome of T2DM with IR, and we will also focus on the patient's blood glucose levels and all adverse reactions that occur during medication.Two reviewers will read the articles, extract the data information, and assess the risk of bias independently. Data analysis will use the software such as RevMan 5.3.5, ENDNOTE X7, and STATA 13.0. RESULTS: This study will provide a high-quality synthesis of current evidence of BBR for T2DM with IR from several aspects including HOMA-IR, blood glucose levels, and adverse events. CONCLUSION: This systematic review will provide evidence to assess the efficacy and safety of BBR in the treatment of T2DM with IR. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Because all of the data used in this systematic review has been published, ethical approval is not required. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: PROSPERO CRD42019123225.


Assuntos
Berberina/uso terapêutico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Projetos de Pesquisa , Berberina/administração & dosagem , Berberina/efeitos adversos , Glicemia , China , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
3.
J Assoc Physicians India ; 67(4): 68-70, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31299843

RESUMO

Introduction: Visceral abdominal Fat, not Subcutaneous Abdominal Fat better correlates with insulin resistance. Hence the present study was undertaken to study the association of sonographically assessed visceral and subcutaneous abdominal fat with insulin resistance in patients with pre-diabetes. Material and Methods: It was a hospital based cross sectional study done in prediabetes subjects. All the subjects were called fasting overnight and were given a structured questionnaire designed by investigator. Fasting and postprandial blood sugar, lipid profile, HB1Ac and fasting insulin levels was done in every subject. Ultrasound assessment of subcutaneous and visceral abdominal fat, fatty liver and fatty pancreas was done. Results: Seventy Five patients (males 35 and females 40) were studied. Twenty nine patients had fatty liver and 40 patients had fatty pancreas. Among all sonographic parameters visceral abdominal fat thickness (VAF) showed a significant positive correlation with insulin resistance (p< 0.05). Subcutaneous abdominal fat thickness (SAF) had a positive though statistically non significant correlation with insulin resistance. Visceral abdominal fat thickness correlated best with fatty pancreas and had a significant positive correlation with insulin resistance. Conclusion: Fatty pancreas and visceral abdominal fat prove to be two important indices which mark the risk of insulin resistance thus may be considered an important predictor for screening of metabolic syndrome.


Assuntos
Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/diagnóstico por imagem , Estado Pré-Diabético/epidemiologia , Abdome , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Ultrassonografia
4.
J Assoc Physicians India ; 67(3): 34-38, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31304703

RESUMO

Introduction: Metabolic risk factors such as obesity, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia are associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). In the development and progression of NAFLD genetic mutations also play a significant role. NAFLD associated with the rs 738409 polymorphism of patatin-like phospholipase domain containing 3 gene (PNPLA3) G allele does not feature the typical metabolic abnormalities of NAFLD, including insulin resistance. In the light of rising epidemic of metaobesity in our population this study aimed to evaluate the relation of PNPLA3 polymorphism with insulin resistance. Methods: In this case control hospital based study, 100 patients of NAFLD were recruited based on ultrasound findings of hepatic steatosis. Healthy subjects age and gender matched(n = 100) from the institute who volunteered to be part of the study were recruited as controls based on the sole criteria of the absence of fatty liver on ultrasonography and normal alanine and aspartate transaminases (ALT and AST) levels. Anthropometry, biochemical profiles and insulin resistance by homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were assessed. Results: A higher frequency of CG and GG genotypes of rs738409 polymorphism of PNPLA3 was observed in patients with NAFLD than controls. These patients with G allele had increased ALT, dyslipidemia and insulin resistance. The polymorphism had positive correlation with severity of hepatic steatosis. Conclusion: The presence of the PNPLA3 G allele is associated with a risk of NAFLD. Our study shows that subjects with variant PNPLA3 are not only at increased risk for the development and progression of NAFLD, but also have increased insulin resistance.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lipase , Proteínas de Membrana
5.
Life Sci ; 231: 116558, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31194993

RESUMO

AIMS: We aimed to explore the role of SIRT6 in Insulin resistance (IR). We are the first to investigate on this crucial relationship in an obese mouse model fed on a high-fat diet (HFD) and an IR model based on the mature 3T3-L1-derived adipocytes. MAIN METHODS: Western blotting (WB) and qPCR analysis were performed to evaluate the SIRT6 protein and mRNA expressions in HFD mice as well as IR cells. Injection of adenovirus encoding SIRT6 gene in HFD mice and transfection of pcDNA3-SIRT6 in IR cells increased the glucose uptake levels and insulin sensitivity. KEY FINDINGS: The positive regulatory effects of SIRT6 on transient receptor potential vallinoid 1 (TRPV1) in IR cells were confirmed by a mechanistic investigation at both protein and mRNA levels. Further, the overexpression of SIRT6 was found to activate the TRPV1/Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) signaling and upregulate the glucose transporter (GLUT) expression at protein and mRNA levels. Additionally, administration of the TRPV1 antagonist, SB-705498 repressed the insulin sensitivity upregulated by SIRT6 overexpression accompanied with the inhibition of CGRP and decrease in GLUT proportions. The results also showed that TRPV1 agonist, Capsaicin boosted the SIRT6-induced glucose uptake, CGRP production, and GLUT4 levels. SIGNIFICANCE: Overall, SIRT6 was concluded to be involved in the TRPV1-CGRP-GLUT4 signaling axis thus leading to increased glucose uptake and decreased IR in HFD mice and 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Therefore, in terms of obesity and diabetes, SIRT6 is a novel candidate for treating IR.


Assuntos
Glucose/metabolismo , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Sirtuínas/metabolismo , Células 3T3-L1 , Adipócitos/metabolismo , Animais , Transporte Biológico , Peptídeo Relacionado com Gene de Calcitonina/metabolismo , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Transportador de Glucose Tipo 4/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Obesidade/metabolismo , Canais de Cátion TRPV/metabolismo
6.
Life Sci ; 231: 116574, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31207311

RESUMO

AIMS: Electric lighting is beneficial to modern society; however, it is becoming apparent that light at night (LAN) is not without biological consequences. Several studies have reported negative effects of LAN on health and behavior in humans and nonhuman animals. Exposure of non-diabetic mice to dim LAN impairs glucose tolerance, whereas a return to dark nights (LD) reverses this impairment. We predicted that exposure to LAN would exacerbate the metabolic abnormalities in TALLYHO/JngJ (TH) mice, a polygenic model of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We exposed 7-week old male TH mice to either LD or LAN for 8-10 weeks in two separate experiments. After 8 weeks of light treatment, we conducted intraperitoneal glucose tolerance testing (ipGTT) followed by intraperitoneal insulin tolerance testing (ipITT). In Experiment 1, all mice were returned to LD for 4 weeks, and ipITT was repeated. KEY FINDINGS: The major results of this study are i) LAN exposure for 8 weeks exacerbates glucose intolerance and insulin resistance ii) the effects of LAN on insulin resistance are reversed upon return to LD, iii) LAN exposure results in a greater increase in body weight compared to LD exposure, iv) LAN increases the incidence of mice developing overt T2DM, and v) LAN exposure decreases survival of mice with T2DM. SIGNIFICANCE: In conclusion, LAN exacerbated metabolic abnormalities in a polygenic mouse model of T2DM, and these effects were reversed upon return to dark nights. The applicability of these findings to humans with T2DM needs to be determined.


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Iluminação/efeitos adversos , Animais , Barorreflexo , Pressão Sanguínea , Peso Corporal , Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Intolerância à Glucose/metabolismo , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Frequência Cardíaca , Hemodinâmica , Insulina/sangue , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Luz , Masculino , Camundongos , Norepinefrina , Ganho de Peso
7.
Arq Gastroenterol ; 56(1): 28-33, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31141077

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Insulin resistance, especially that induced by obesity, plays a central role in the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Although the evaluation of overweight patients is important, the nutritional assessment tools used in clinical practice have limitations. Neck circumference (NC), from this, becomes a viable and low-cost alternative, which seems to be related to the accumulation of fat in the hepatic tissue. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between NC and metabolic alterations in patients with non- alcoholic fatty liver disease. METHODS: A cross-sectional study performed in 82 patients, of whom 76 underwent liver biopsy. We performed weight, height, abdominal circumference and NC measures. Values of NC ≥42 cm and ≥36 cm were considered as altered for men and women, respectively. Laboratory tests and liver biopsy result were collected in the participants' charts. We evaluated fasting blood glucose levels, insulin, glycosylated hemoglobin, triglycerides, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein (LDL-C), ferritin, alkaline phosphatase, gamma glutamyltransferase, albumin, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, glutamic-oxalacetic transaminase, glutamic-pyruvic transaminase and the HOMA-IR index. RESULTS: We evaluated eighty-two patients. Patients with altered NC had increased body mass index (P=0.043), abdominal circumference (P=0.007), insulin (P=0.003) and HOMA-IR (P=0.029) when compared to those with adequate NC. NC was significantly correlated with reduced levels of high-density cholesterol (HDL-C) in men (r= -042, P<0.05), increased insulin levels in men and female (rs=0.47; P<0.05 and rs=0.51; P<0.01, respectively), as well as higher HOMA-IR index both males (rs=0.49; P<0.01) and female (rs=0.30; P<0.05). There was no significant association between NC and liver outcomes (r=0.145; P=0.36). CONCLUSION: NC is associated with the HOMA-IR index in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. NC can be used in the screening of insulin resistance in these patients, considering that insulin resistance plays a key role in the progression of the disease.


Assuntos
Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Pescoço/anatomia & histologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Adulto , Biópsia , Glicemia/análise , Índice de Massa Corporal , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Ferritinas/sangue , Homeostase/fisiologia , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/fisiopatologia , Fatores Sexuais , Circunferência da Cintura
8.
Braz J Med Biol Res ; 52(6): e8344, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31141089

RESUMO

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) is a common endocrine and metabolic disorder, and poses threats to human health worldwide. Recently, microRNAs (miRNAs) have been suggested to play important roles in the pathophysiology of T2D. In this study, we explored the role of miR-3666 in T2D. miR-3666 was significantly down-regulated in the serum of T2D patients when compared to that of healthy volunteers, and miR-3666 expression level was negatively correlated with blood glucose levels of T2D patients. Overexpression of miR-3666 inhibited cell proliferation, reduced insulin secretion, and promoted cell apoptosis of pancreatic ß-cell line (INS-1 cells). On the other hand, knockdown of miR-3666 had the opposite effects in INS-1 cells. The bio-informatics analysis using TargetScan revealed that adiponectin (ADIPOQ) was a downstream target of miR-3666, and the interaction between miR-3666 and ADIPOQ was validated by luciferase reporter assay. In addition, miR-3666 negatively regulated the mRNA and protein expression of ADIPOQ. Overexpression of ADIPOQ promoted insulin secretion after glucose stimulation, promoted cell proliferation, inhibited cell apoptosis, and partially abolished the effects of miR-3666 overexpression on insulin secretion, cell proliferation, and cell apoptosis of INS-1 cells. In conclusion, our results revealed that miR-3666 inhibited pancreatic cell proliferation, reduced insulin sensitivity, and promoted apoptosis by targeting ADIPOQ.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatologia , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Células Secretoras de Insulina/fisiologia , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Adiponectina/genética , Adiponectina/metabolismo , Apoptose , Proliferação de Células , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Feminino , Citometria de Fluxo , Humanos , Células Secretoras de Insulina/metabolismo , Masculino , MicroRNAs/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(9)2019 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31085992

RESUMO

Obesity is a critical risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D), and its prevalence is rising worldwide. White adipose tissue (WAT) has a crucial role in regulating systemic energy homeostasis. Adipose tissue expands by a combination of an increase in adipocyte size (hypertrophy) and number (hyperplasia). The recruitment and differentiation of adipose precursor cells in the subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), rather than merely inflating the cells, would be protective from the obesity-associated metabolic complications. In metabolically unhealthy obesity, the storage capacity of SAT, the largest WAT depot, is limited, and further caloric overload leads to the fat accumulation in ectopic tissues (e.g., liver, skeletal muscle, and heart) and in the visceral adipose depots, an event commonly defined as "lipotoxicity." Excessive ectopic lipid accumulation leads to local inflammation and insulin resistance (IR). Indeed, overnutrition triggers uncontrolled inflammatory responses in WAT, leading to chronic low-grade inflammation, therefore fostering the progression of IR. This review summarizes the current knowledge on WAT dysfunction in obesity and its associated metabolic abnormalities, such as IR. A better understanding of the mechanisms regulating adipose tissue expansion in obesity is required for the development of future therapeutic approaches in obesity-associated metabolic complications.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/citologia , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/metabolismo , Adipogenia/fisiologia , Animais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Humanos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Gordura Subcutânea/citologia , Gordura Subcutânea/metabolismo
10.
Phytother Res ; 33(6): 1697-1705, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31074547

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect and mechanism of hesperidin (HES) on insulin resistance (IR) in the human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (HepG2 cells). HepG2 cells were induced with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as a model of IR and treated with HES at three dosages. Next, the levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), the glucose content, and glucose uptake were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, glucose oxidase-peroxidase method (GOD-POD), or (2-(N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1, 3-diazol-4-yl)amino)-2-deoxyglucose) (2-NBDG). Moreover, the protein expression of toll-like receptors 4 (TLR4), insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1), nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), and glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2) in HepG2 cells treated with HES were assessed via western blotting analysis. In addition, GLUT2 protein expression exposed to HES was detected following treatment with TLR4 inhibitor (HTA125). Our results demonstrated that HES decreased the levels of TNF-α and IL-6, attenuated the glucose content in culture medium and increased glucose uptake in insulin-resistant HepG2 cells in vitro. Moreover, HES upregulated the expression of IRS1 and GLUT2 protein and downregulated the protein expression of TLR4 and NF-κB in insulin-resistant HepG2 cells. The expression of GLUT2 protein had no significant changes when treated with HES after blockade of TLR4. HES attenuated IR in LPS-inducedinsulin-resistant HepG2 cells. Therefore, regulating the IRS1-GLUT2 pathway via TLR4 represents a potential mechanism of HES on IR in HepG2 cells.


Assuntos
Transportador de Glucose Tipo 2/metabolismo , Hesperidina/farmacologia , Proteínas Substratos do Receptor de Insulina/metabolismo , Resistência à Insulina , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Animais , Glucose/metabolismo , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Insulina/metabolismo , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
12.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 152: 156-165, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31102684

RESUMO

AIM: To investigate the effect of a single and 15 units of high-intensity circuit training (HICT) programme on glucose metabolism, myokines' response and selected genes' expression in women. METHODS: Thirty-three, non-active women (mean age: 38 ±â€¯12) were split into a HICT (n = 20) or a control group (CON, n = 13). The training protocol included three circuits of nine exercises with own body weight as a workload performed 3 times a week for five weeks. The CON group performed HICT twice. Blood samples were taken before, 1 h and 24 h after the first and last unit to determine IGF-1, myostatin, irisin, decorin, HSP27, interleukin-15 concentrations using the ELISA immunoenzymatic method. To evaluate HSPB1, TNF-α and DCN mRNA, real-time PCR was used. Pre- and post-intervention, the oral glucose test and body composition assessment were completed. RESULTS: The following parameters tended to decrease after the 5-week HICT program: insulin and HOMA-IR Training diminished insulin/IGF-1 ratio (51% CI: -63% to -34%) and induced the drop of myostatin concentration but significantly only among middle-aged women and at baseline insulin resistance. CONCLUSION: Obtained data revealed that HICT improved an insulin sensitivity and diminished myostatin concentration among older, insulin-resistant women with lower baseline physical capacity.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Exercícios em Circuitos , Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Tolerância ao Exercício/fisiologia , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Aptidão Física/fisiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Glicemia/metabolismo , Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Exercícios em Circuitos/métodos , Decorina/genética , Decorina/metabolismo , Metabolismo Energético/genética , Exercício/fisiologia , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/genética , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/metabolismo , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/genética , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Miostatina/genética , Miostatina/metabolismo , Treinamento de Resistência/métodos , Adulto Jovem
13.
Heart Fail Clin ; 15(3): 333-340, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31079691

RESUMO

Heart failure is a clinical syndrome characterized by left ventricular dysfunction and/or elevated intracardiac pressures, with a prevalence of about 1% to 2% in the general population. In the last decades, many metabolic disorders have been studied as linked with heart failure. Diabetes mellitus and insulin resistance are strictly related to heart failure, with a bidirectional link, where each can influence the other. The aim of this article is to report the role of glucose metabolism abnormalities in the development of heart failure, defining the epidemiology and assessing pathophysiology and prognosis of heart failure related to glucose metabolism disorders.


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus/sangue , Insuficiência Cardíaca/sangue , Hiperglicemia/sangue , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Comorbidade , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Hemodinâmica/fisiologia , Humanos , Hiperglicemia/epidemiologia , Prognóstico
14.
Heart Fail Clin ; 15(3): 349-358, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31079693

RESUMO

The interplay between metabolic syndrome (MetS) and heart failure (HF) is intricate. Population studies show that MetS confers an increased risk to develop HF and this effect is mediated by insulin resistance (IR). However, obesity, a key component in MetS and common partner of IR, is protective in patients with established HF, although IR confers an increased risk of dying by HF. Such phenomenon, known as "obesity paradox," accounts for the complexity of the HF-MetS relationship. Because IR impacts more on outcomes than MetS itself, the former may be considered the actual target for MetS in HF patients.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca/etiologia , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/complicações , Saúde Global , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Humanos , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/metabolismo , Morbidade/tendências , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências
15.
Biomed Res Int ; 2019: 7213913, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31080828

RESUMO

Fenugreek is known since ancient times as a traditional herbal medicine of its multiple beneficial effects. Fenugreek's most studied and employed effect is its hypoglycemic property, but it can also be useful for the treatment of certain thyroid disorders or for the treatment of anorexia. The regulation of glucose homeostasis is a complex mechanism, dependent on the interaction of different types of hormones and neurotransmitters or other compounds. For the study of how diosgenin and fenugreek seeds modify insulin sensitivity, we used a rat insulin resistance model induced by high-fat diet. Diosgenin in three different doses (1mg/bwkg, 10mg/bwkg, and 50 mg/bwkg, respectively) and fenugreek seed (0.2 g/bwkg) were administered orally for 6 weeks. Insulin sensitivity was determined by hyperinsulinemic euglycemic glucose clamp method. Our research group found that although glucose infusion rate was not significantly modified in either group, the increased insulin sensitivity index and high metabolic clearance rate of insulin found in the 1 mg/kg diosgenin and the fenugreek seed treated group suggested an improved peripheral insulin sensitivity. Results from the 10 mg/kg diosgenin group, however, suggest a marked insulin resistance. Fenugreek seed therapy results on the investigated anabolic hormones support the theory that, besides insulin and gastrointestinal peptides, the hypothalamic-hypopituitary axis regulated hormones synchronized action with IGF-1 also play an important role in the maintaining of normal glucose levels. Both diosgenin and fenugreek seeds are capable of interacting with substrates of the above-mentioned regulatory mechanisms, inducing serious hormonal disorders. Moreover, fenugreek seeds showed the ability to reduce the thyroid hormone levels at the periphery and to modify the T4/T3 ratio. It means that in healthy people this effect could be considered a severe side effect; however, in hypothyroidism this effect represents a possibility of alternative natural therapy.


Assuntos
Diosgenina/farmacologia , Medicina Herbária , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Trigonella/química , Administração Oral , Animais , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Diosgenina/administração & dosagem , Diosgenina/uso terapêutico , Glucose , Hormônio do Crescimento/análise , Insulina , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/análise , Masculino , Modelos Animais , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Plantas Medicinais , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Hormônios Tireóideos
16.
Transplant Proc ; 51(5): 1357-1361, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31076145

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Long-term kidney transplantation survival has been limited to cardiovascular-disease-associated death, which may be related to insulin resistance. The aim of this study is to evaluate the association between homeostatic model assessment (HOMA) and renal graft function. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From January 2013 to March 2015, 55 nondiabetic kidney recipients were reviewed retrospectively with their baseline fasting serum insulin and glucose levels as the basis the following indexes: 1. HOMA insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), 2. HOMA-ß, and 3. insulin-glucose ratio (IGR). These patients were divided into 2 groups according to their HOMA indexes, and the serum creatinine (Cr) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) were analyzed on the basis of every 6 months up to 3 years after kidney transplantation. Finally, we evaluate whether these HOMA indexes are a determinant factor of eGFR at post-transplant 1 year, 2 year, and 3 year. RESULTS: There was no persisting difference in Cr and eGFR between high- and low-HOMA indexes except that the Cr and eGFR difference by HOMA-ß stratification increased with time and became nearly significant at 3 years after transplantation. Further univariate and multivariate linear regression models showed no factor affected the 1-year eGFR independently, while weight affected the 2-year eGFR and only HOMA-ß affected the 3-year eGFR independently. CONCLUSION: In non-diabetic kidney recipients, the eGFR difference between high- and low-HOMA-ß patients increases over time. In multivariate linear regression, HOMA-ß, but not HOMA-IR nor IGR, has independent significant association with eGFR at 3 years after transplantation.


Assuntos
Taxa de Filtração Glomerular/fisiologia , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Transplante de Rim , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
17.
Aging Clin Exp Res ; 31(6): 889-895, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31054116

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The impact of the two adipokines, visfatin and retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP-4) on bone mineral density (BMD) has been analysed in various studies with conflicting results. Visfatin is highly expressed in visceral fat with stimulatory effect on osteoblast proliferation and inhibition on osteoclast formation, while RBP-4 acts as a transporter protein for retinol, associated with changes in insulin sensitivity, independent of obesity, with no consensus on its effect on bone metabolism. We evaluated the relationship between serum concentrations of visfatin, RBP-4, markers of insulin resistance and current BMD in treated postmenopausal osteoporosis (PO). METHODS: Demographics, previous treatment, metabolic status, anthropometry, serum Alkaline phosphatise (ALP), visfatin, RBP-4, the HOMA IR (homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance) index and BMD were evaluated in 61 subjects with PO. Statistical analysis used SPSS v. 25.0, with a level of significance α = 0.05. Regression models were constructed to evaluate the relationship between adipokines and BMD, adjusting for covariates. RESULTS: In multilinear regression analysis, the strongest predictor for current BMD was a previous BMD, followed by ALP and age. RBP4 and HOMA IR were significant predictors, while visfatin had no significant effect. A significant correlation between body mass index (BMI) and BMD at the femoral neck was observed. ALP was negatively correlated with BMD and visfatin positively with RBP4. CONCLUSIONS: Data indicate a positive relationship between BMD and RBP-4, an inverse relationship between markers of insulin resistance, bone turn-over and current BMD. No significant effect of visfatin on BMD was observed.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea/fisiologia , Citocinas/sangue , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Nicotinamida Fosforribosiltransferase/sangue , Osteoporose Pós-Menopausa/sangue , Proteínas Plasmáticas de Ligação ao Retinol/análise , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/sangue
18.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 1587, 2019 04 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30962478

RESUMO

Caloric restriction and intermittent fasting are emerging therapeutic strategies against obesity, insulin resistance and their complications. However, the effectors that drive this response are not completely defined. Here we identify arginase 2 (Arg2) as a fasting-induced hepatocyte factor that protects against hepatic and peripheral fat accumulation, hepatic inflammatory responses, and insulin and glucose intolerance in obese murine models. Arg2 is upregulated in fasting conditions and upon treatment with the hepatocyte glucose transporter inhibitor trehalose. Hepatocyte-specific Arg2 overexpression enhances basal thermogenesis, and protects from weight gain, insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, hepatic steatosis and hepatic inflammation in diabetic mouse models. Arg2 suppresses expression of the regulator of G-protein signalling (RGS) 16, and genetic RGS16 reconstitution reverses the effects of Arg2 overexpression. We conclude that hepatocyte Arg2 is a critical effector of the hepatic glucose fasting response and define a therapeutic target to mitigate the complications of obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.


Assuntos
Arginase/metabolismo , Jejum/fisiologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Termogênese/fisiologia , Animais , Arginase/genética , Restrição Calórica , Colesterol/genética , Colesterol/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Hepatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Fígado/enzimologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/genética , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Proteínas RGS/genética , Proteínas RGS/metabolismo , Termogênese/genética , Trealose/farmacologia
19.
Phytother Res ; 33(6): 1616-1626, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30950136

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The impetus for the current study was to evaluate the efficacy of propolis supplementation on markers of glycemic status in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). METHODS: A comprehensive search was conducted in PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and Google Scholar up to August 2018, identifying randomized controlled trials investigating the effect of propolis supplementation on glycemic markers in adults with T2DM. Cochrane Collaboration tool was used to evaluate the risk of bias assessment. A random-effects model was applied in the meta-analysis to compensate for potential heterogeneity among the included studies. RESULTS: Six randomized controlled trials comprising 373 participants were included in the systematic review and meta-analysis. The results of the meta-analysis revealed significant reductions in fasting plasma glucose (-13.51 mg/dl; 95% CI [-24.98, -2.04]) and hemoglobin A1C (-0.52%; 95% CI [-0.94, -0.10]) concentrations following propolis supplementation. However, no significant lowering effect was observed in fasting insulin levels (-0.53 pmol/L; 95% CI [-1.69, 0.63]) or homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (-0.543; 95% CI [-1.72, 0.64]). CONCLUSION: This systematic review and meta-analysis suggested that propolis supplementation may be effective in controlling glycemic levels for T2DM patients. Further studies are needed to confirm these results.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Própole/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Biomarcadores/análise , Glicemia/análise , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Jejum/sangue , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Hemoglobina A Glicada/efeitos dos fármacos , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Masculino
20.
Med Sci Monit ; 25: 2337-2343, 2019 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30928991

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Meteorin-like (Metrnl) is a novel adipomyokine that may improve glucose tolerance and affect insulin resistance. This study aimed to investigate the association between serum levels of Metrnl with blood glucose status and to its association with insulin resistance. MATERIAL AND METHODS The study included 160 subjects with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) (n=40), impaired fasting glucose (IFG) (n=40), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) (n=40), and newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) (n=40). An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to measure the serum levels of Metrnl. Partial correlation analysis was used to analyze the relationship between serum levels of Metrnl and metabolic parameters. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the association between serum levels of Metrnl with the risk of diabetes. RESULTS Serum levels of Metrnl was highest in patients with T2DM and significantly increased in patients with prediabetes compared with individuals with NGT. After adjusting for age, gender, and body mass index (BMI), serum Metrnl level was significantly correlated with lipid profile, glucose profile, and insulin resistance. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that Metrnl significantly increased the risk of T2DM (OR=1.727; P=0.008) before adjusting for the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). When further adjusted for HOMA-IR, Metrnl was no longer associated with an increased OR for T2DM (OR=1.491; P=0.066), while the HOMA-IR significantly increased the risk of T2DM (OR=1.935; P=0.008). CONCLUSIONS Serum levels of Metrnl were significantly increased in patients with T2DM and may increase the risk of T2DM independent of insulin resistance.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Adipocinas/análise , Adipocinas/sangue , Adulto , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicemia/metabolismo , Índice de Massa Corporal , China , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Feminino , Glucose/metabolismo , Intolerância à Glucose/sangue , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose/métodos , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Insulina/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estado Pré-Diabético/sangue
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