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1.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 171: 104746, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33357539

RESUMO

Anopheles sacharovi, a primer malaria vector species of Turkey, have a significant public health importance. It is aimed to determine the insecticide resistance status in Anopheles sacharovi populations in the Aegean and Mediterranean regions of Turkey. A total of 1638 individuals were analysed from 15 populations. Bioassay results indicated all An. sacharovi populations were resistant to DDT, malathion, fenitrothion, bendiocarb, propoxur. Many populations have begun to have resistance against permethrin and deltamethrin. Biochemical analyses results revealed that glutathione-S-transferases and P450 monooxygenases might be responsible from the mechanisms of DDT resistance; esterases and acetylcholinesterase might be responsible for organophosphate and carbamate resistance; P450 monooxygenases and esterases might be responsible for pyrethroid resistance into populations sampled from the study area. Allele-specific primers detected L1014F and L1014S mutations that provide kdr resistance against pyrethroids and DDT. Increased acetylcholinesterase insensitivity was detected while Ace-1 G119S mutations were not detected in An. sacharovi populations by using allele-specific primers. Overall results indicate the presence of multiple resistance mechanisms in Turkish An. sacharovi field populations suggesting that populations might gain resistance against all possible insecticide in the future. Therefore, insecticide resistance management strategies are urgently needed for effective vector control implementation.


Assuntos
Anopheles , Inseticidas , Malária , Piretrinas , Acetilcolinesterase/genética , Alelos , Animais , Anopheles/genética , Resistência a Inseticidas/genética , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Malária/genética , Mosquitos Vetores , Mutação
2.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 171: 104720, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33357542

RESUMO

Chilo suppressalis Walker (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) is a widely destructive pest occurring in rice, particularly in the rice-growing regions of Asia. In recent years, C. suppressalis has developed resistance to several insecticides because of the extensive use of insecticides. The resistance levels to four insecticides were determined among populations from different regions of Sichuan Province, China, using a drop-method bioassay. Based on LC50 values of a laboratory susceptible strain, all field populations showed moderate level of resistance to triazophos (23.9- to 83.5-fold) and were either susceptible or had a low level of resistance to abamectin (2.1- to 5.8-fold). All field-collected populations had a low or moderate level of resistance to chlorpyrifos (1.7- to 47.1-fold) and monosultap (2.7- to 13.5-fold). The synergism experiment indicated that the resistance of the XW19 to triazophos may be associated with cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s), with the highest synergistic ratio (SR) of 3.05-fold and increased ratio (IR) of 2.28-fold for piperonylbutoxide (PBO). The P450 activity of the TJ19 population was the greatest among the six field populations. Moreover, the relative expression levels of four resistance-related P450 genes were detected with qRT-PCR, and the results indicated that CYP324A12, CYP321F3 and CYP9A68 were overexpressed in the resistant population, especially in the XW19 population (by 1.2-, 3.4 -, and 18.0-fold, respectively). In addition, the relative expression levels of CYP9A68 among the CZ19 and TJ19 populations were also enhanced 10.5- and 24.9-fold, respectively. These results suggested that CYP324A12, CYP321F3 and CYP9A68 may be related to the resistance development of C. suppressalis to triazophos.


Assuntos
Clorpirifos , Inseticidas , Lepidópteros , Mariposas , Oryza , Animais , China , Clorpirifos/farmacologia , Resistência a Inseticidas/genética , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Mariposas/genética , Oryza/genética
3.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 171: 104723, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33357545

RESUMO

The white-backed planthopper, Sogatella furcifera (Horváth) (Hemiptera, Delphacidae), is an energetic rice insect pest in rice production or rice-growing areas. Due to excessive use of the chemical insecticide, S. furcifera has produced the high resistance to some frequently used insecticides. In this paper, the resistance levels of S. furcifera from the eight different areas of Sichuan Province against the five chemicals were monitored by using the rice seedling dipping during 2017-2018 to understand the resistance levels. The results showed that most of all populations have developed low or moderate level of resistance for chlorpyrifos (3.4 to 44.3-fold) and thiamethoxam (3.9- to 15.5-fold), the populations in the LS (1.7 to 5.4- fold)and WS (1.6 to 5.0- fold) regions were still sensitive or low resistance levels compared with other local populations. Almost all populations displayed the susceptible to imidacloprid (0.9- to 5.0-fold), buprofezin (0.9- to 4.3-fold) or low levels of resistance to pymetrozine (1.5- to 6.8-fold). The synergism experiment indicated that P450 enzymes may be important contributed to the metabolic detoxification of chlorpyrifos. The cross-resistance bioassay showed that there was no cross-resistance between chlorpyrifos and triflumezopyrim, but for sulfoxaflor, in the XY17 population. The relative expression level of twelve insecticide resistant-related P450 genes were analyzed by using qRT-PCR and found that CYP4C77, CYP418A1, CYP418A2, CYP408A3 and CYP6ER4 were significantly more expressed in the 3rd-instar nymph of the XY17 and XY18 field populations. To determine the main resistant-related P450 gene for chlorpyrifos, the relative expression level of five P450 genes were detected by using qRT-PCR from the G2 and G4 generation of XY17 under the pressure with LC50 of chlorpyrifos. The results showed that CYP6ER4 was significantly up-regulated expression in XY17 G2 and G4 generations population over 700-fold (P < 0.01). The full length and proteins tertiary structure were also cloned and predicted. Meanwhile, the function of CYP6ER4 was analyzed by RNA interference and the results indicated that the relative expression of CYP6ER4 in the XY17 (G4) population after injected dsRNA was lower than that in the dsGFP injected group. Moreover, the mortality rates of the S. furcifera treated with the LC50 concentration of chlorpyrifos after dsRNA microinjection was significantly higher than that of the dsGFP injected group 72 h after treatment (P < 0.01). Therefore, the overexpression of CYP6ER4 may be one of the primary factors in the development of chlorpyrifos resistance in S. furcifera.


Assuntos
Clorpirifos , Hemípteros , Inseticidas , Animais , China , Clorpirifos/toxicidade , Hemípteros/genética , Resistência a Inseticidas/genética , Inseticidas/toxicidade
4.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 171: 104725, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33357548

RESUMO

Due to the extensive use of chemical insecticides, the field populations of Rhopalosiphum padi, a serious wheat pest worldwide, have developed resistance to insecticides. Therefore, deep understanding of the mechanisms of the aphid's physiological response to insecticides would be of importance for the management of insecticide resistance in pests. Takeout belongs to a protein superfamily found exclusively in insects. Previous research showed that the takeout gene had various functions in insect physiology and behavior. However, few studies have explored the functions of takeout in insect insecticide susceptibility. The susceptibility of R. padi to imidacloprid and beta-cypermethrin was tested. Thirteen takeout-like genes were identified based on the genome database of R. padi. The number of exons was variable in these takeout-like genes, and nine highly conserved amino acids (two Cysteine, two Proline, four Glycine and one Aspartic acid) were identified. Expression levels of takeout-like-2, takeout-like-3, takeout-like-5, takeout-like-8, takeout-like-10 and takeout-like-11 were significantly increased after imidacloprid treatment; seven genes (takeout-like-1, takeout-like-2, takeout-like-5, takeout-like-6, takeout-like-7, takeout-like-8 and takeout-like-11) tended to be upregulated after beta-cypermethrin treatment. RNA interference results showed that the mortalities of R. padi injected with dsTOL-2, dsTOL-5, dsTOL-8, dsTOL-10 and dsTOL-11 were significantly increased after exposure to imidacloprid in comparison with control (injection of dsGFP). Under two sublethal concentrations of beta-cypermethrin, the silencing of takeout-like-2, takeout-like-5 and takeout-like-11 significantly increased the mortalities of R. padi. These results provide evidence for the involvement of takeout-like genes in insecticide susceptibility of R. padi, which improves our understanding the determinant of insecticide susceptibility.


Assuntos
Afídeos , Inseticidas , Animais , Afídeos/genética , Resistência a Inseticidas/genética , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Triticum
5.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 171: 104727, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33357549

RESUMO

Insecticide resistance is an ongoing challenge in agriculture and disease vector control. Here, we demonstrate a novel strategy to attenuate resistance. We used genomics tools to target fundamental energy-associated pathways and identified a potential "Achilles' heel" for resistance, a resistance-associated protein that, upon inhibition, results in a substantial loss in the resistance phenotype. Specifically, we compared the gene expression profiles and structural variations of the insulin/insulin-like growth factor signaling (IIS) pathway genes in DDT-susceptible (91-C) and -resistant (91-R) Drosophila melanogaster (Drosophila) strains. A total of eight and seven IIS transcripts were up- and down-regulated, respectively, in 91-R compared to 91-C. A total of 114 nonsynonymous mutations were observed between 91-C and 91-R, of which 51.8% were fixed. Among the differentially expressed transcripts, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), down-regulated in 91-R, encoded the greatest number of amino acid changes, prompting us to perform PEPCK inhibitor-pesticide exposure bioassays. The inhibitor of PEPCK, hydrazine sulfate, resulted in a 161- to 218-fold decrease in the DDT resistance phenotype (91-R) and more than a 4- to 5-fold increase in susceptibility in 91-C. A second target protein, Glycogen synthase kinase 3ß (GSK3ß-PO), had one amino acid difference between 91-C and 91-R, and the corresponding transcript was also down-regulated in 91-R. A GSK3ß-PO inhibitor, lithium chloride, likewise reduced the resistance but to a lesser extent than did hydrazine sulfate for PEPCK. We demonstrate the potential role of IIS genes in DDT resistance and the potential discovery of an "Achilles' heel" against pesticide resistance in this pathway.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Drosophila , Drosophila melanogaster , Animais , DDT/farmacologia , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Drosophila melanogaster/metabolismo , Calcanhar , Resistência a Inseticidas/genética , Insulina , Transdução de Sinais
6.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 171: 104729, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33357551

RESUMO

The melon aphid, Aphis gossypii is a globally distributed crop pest with a wide host range. The intensive use of insecticides against this insect over several years has led to develop resistance against many insecticides including acetamiprid. Understanding the relationship between acetamiprid resistance and fitness of A. gossypii is essential to limit the spread of the resistant population in the field. In this study, age-stage, two-sex life table approach was used to investigate these relationships in the lab. Results showed that resistant strain (Ace-R) had a reduced fitness (relative fitness = 0.909) along with significantly decreased adult longevity, fecundity, net reproductive (R0), mean generation time (T) and gross reproductive rate (GRR). Compared to the susceptible strain (Ace-S), the pre-adult period and total pre-oviposition period (TPOP) were also significantly shorter in Ace-R strain. Moreover, the expression profiles of EcR, JHBP, JHAMT, JHEH, USP and Vg genes supposed to be involved in insect reproduction and development were analyzed using Quantitative Real Time PCR. The EcR, JHBP, JHAMT and USP genes were up-regulated, Vg gene was down-regulated while the mRNA level of JHEH gene was statistically same in the Ace-R strain compared to the Ace-S strain. Collectively, this study provides the occurrence and magnitude of fitness costs of A. gossypii against acetamiprid resistance and could be helpful to manage the resistance evolution in field populations.


Assuntos
Afídeos , Cucurbitaceae , Inseticidas , Animais , Afídeos/genética , Feminino , Resistência a Inseticidas/genética , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Tábuas de Vida , Neonicotinoides
7.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 171: 104741, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33357563

RESUMO

Insecticide resistance in pest populations is an increasing problem in both urban and rural settings due to over-application of insecticides and lack of rotation among insecticidal chemical classes. The house fly (Musca domestica L.) is a cosmopolitan pest fly species implicated in the transmission of numerous pathogens. The evolution of insecticide resistance long has been documented in house flies, with resistance reported to all major insecticide classes. House fly resistance to imidacloprid, the most widely used neonicotinoid insecticide available for fly control, has evolved in field populations through both physiological and behavioral mechanisms. Previous studies have characterized and mapped the genetic changes that confer physiological resistance to imidacloprid, but no study have examined the genetics involved in behavioral resistance to imidacloprid to date. In the current study, several approaches were utilized to characterize the genetics and inheritance of behavioral resistance to imidacloprid in the house fly. These include behavioral observation analyses, preference assays, and the use of genetic techniques for the identification of house fly chromosome(s) carrying factors. Behavioral resistance was mapped to autosomes 1 and 4. Inheritance of resistance was shown to be neither fully dominant nor recessive. Factors on autosomes 1 and 4 independently conferred contact-dependent avoidance of imidacloprid and a feeding preference for sugar alone or for sugar with dinotefuran, another neonicotinoid insecticide, over imidacloprid. This study serves as the first linkage analysis of a behavioral trait in the house fly, and provides new avenues for research regarding inherited behavior in the house fly and other animals.


Assuntos
Moscas Domésticas , Inseticidas , Animais , Moscas Domésticas/genética , Resistência a Inseticidas/genética , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Neonicotinoides/farmacologia , Nitrocompostos
8.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 171: 104744, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33357566

RESUMO

The sweetpotato whitefly Bemisia tabaci is a polyphagous crop pest distributed worldwide and frequent exposure to many different defensive secondary metabolites in its host plants. To counteract these defensive plant secondary metabolites, B. tabaci elevate their production of detoxification enzymes, including cytochrome P450 monooxygenases. Besides their tolerance to phytotoxin, B. tabaci have quickly developed resistance to various insecticides in the field. However, the relationship between host plant secondary metabolites and insecticide resistance in B. tabaci is not fully understood. In this study, the influence of plant flavonoid ingestion on B. tabaci tolerance to thiamethoxam and flupyradifurone insecticides and its possible mechanism were examined. Eight plant flavonoids were screened to evaluate their effects on B. tabaci adult sensitivity to thiamethoxam and flupyradifurone. Of which rutin, quercetin, kaempferol, myricetin and catechin significantly reduced adult sensitivity to thiamethoxam and flupyradifurone. Application of cytochrome P450 inhibitor piperonyl butoxide significantly increased the mortality of B. tabaci adults treated with thiamethoxam and flupyradifurone. Moreover, flavonoid ingestion predominantly enhanced the activity of cytochrome P450 enzyme in B. tabaci adults. Meanwhile, the expression level of three cytochrome P450 genes, CYP6CM1, CYP6CX4 and CYP4C64 were induced by the flavonoids in B. tabaci adults. In conclusion, plant flavonoids enhanced the tolerance to thiamethoxam and flupyradifurone in B. tabaci and cytochrome P450s may contribute the flavonoid adaptation. The reduced sensitivity of thiamethoxam and flupyradifurone in flavonoid-fed B. tabaci adults suggested that previous exposure to the host plant-derived flavonoids is likely to compromise the efficacy of insecticides.


Assuntos
Hemípteros , Inseticidas , 4-Butirolactona/análogos & derivados , Animais , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Resistência a Inseticidas/genética , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Piridinas , Tiametoxam
9.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 171: 104717, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33357567

RESUMO

The rusty grain beetle, Cryptolestes ferrugineus, a major pest of stored commodities, has developed very high levels (>1000×) of resistance to the fumigant phosphine. Resistance in this species is remarkably stronger than reported in any other stored product pests demanding the need to understand the molecular basis of this trait. Previous genetic studies in other grain insect pests identified specific variants in two major genes, rph1 and rph2 in conferring the strong resistance trait. However, in C. ferrugineus, although the gene, rph1 was identified as cytochrome-b5-fatty acid desaturase, the rph2 gene has not been reported so far. We tested the candidate gene for rph2, dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (dld) using the recently published transcriptome of C. ferrugineus and identified three variants, L73N and A355G + D360H, a haplotype, conferring resistance in this species. Our sequence analysis in resistant strain and phosphine selected resistant survivors indicates that these variants occur either alone as a homozygote or a mixture of heterozygotes (i.e complex heterozygotes) both conferring strong resistance. We also found that one of the three variants, possibly L73N expressing "dominant" trait at low frequency in resistant insects. Comparison of dld sequences between Australian and Chinese resistant strain of this species confirmed that the identified variants are highly conserved. Our fitness analysis indicated that resistant insects may not incur significant biological costs in the absence of phosphine selection for 19 generations. Thus, we propose that the observed high levels of resistance in C. ferrugineus could be primarily due to the characteristics of three unique variants, L73N and A355G + D360H within dld.


Assuntos
Besouros , Inseticidas , Fosfinas , Animais , Austrália , Besouros/genética , Di-Hidrolipoamida Desidrogenase/genética , Resistência a Inseticidas/genética , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Fosfinas/farmacologia
10.
Pest Manag Sci ; 77(1): 64-76, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32926594

RESUMO

To guarantee sustainability and progress, the agrochemical industry is faced with several major challenges. Currently, loss of active ingredients due to consumer perception, changing grower needs and ever-changing regulatory requirements is far higher than the number being introduced into the market. Therefore, there is a need to develop new products that can provide improved efficacy, selectivity and favorable environmental profiles. Strategies to achieve these goals are the search for acaricides and insecticides with new modes of action, or the discovery of novel molecules with activity on the most attractive target sites having resistance breaking properties against pest species. In this context, the introduction of halogen atoms or asymmetric centers into an active ingredient remains an important tool to modulate their properties, but so too is the pro-pesticide concept. This review gives an overview of agrochemicals launched over the past 8 years, reflects new insights into known mechanisms of action, and describes the status and outlook for acaricide and insecticide discovery.


Assuntos
Acaricidas , Inseticidas , Praguicidas , Acaricidas/farmacologia , Agroquímicos , Halogênios , Resistência a Inseticidas
11.
Chemosphere ; 265: 129118, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33280850

RESUMO

Dysdercus koenigii, a serious cotton-staining insect pest in many countries, has shown high resistance to imidacloprid, a systemic neonicotinoid insecticide used to control sap-sucking pests. With the aim of creating an effective management strategy, the biological traits of susceptible (SS) and imidacloprid-resistant (Imida-RS) D. koenigii, as well as their reciprocal crosses (CR1 and CR2), were investigated here using a life table established on age, stage, and two-sex patterns. Compared with SS D. koenigii, Imida-RS and CR1 strains had lower relative fitness (0.80 and 0.47, respectively) and fecundity (eggs per female); prolonged egg duration and a prolonged adult preoviposition period; shorter nymphal duration, male/female total longevity, and oviposition days, and a shorter total preoviposition period. However, there were no differences among strains in nymphal survival rates and female ratio. The CR2 D. koenigii had similar relative fitness value (1.09), suggested no fitness cost in most of the parameters. Demographic parameters, including net reproductive rate, were lower in the Imida-RS strain than in SS and CR2 D. koenigii. Similarly, the Imida-RS and CR1 strains had shorter generation time and doubling time, lower reproductive value and life expectancy relative to the SS and CR2 D. koenigii. In addition, age-specific fecundity was negatively affected in the CR1 strain compared with the other strains. These findings could help facilitate the development of rational D. koenigii control strategies.


Assuntos
Inseticidas , Nitrocompostos , Animais , Feminino , Resistência a Inseticidas , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Masculino , Neonicotinoides , Coloração e Rotulagem
12.
GM Crops Food ; 12(1): 192-211, 2021 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33380258

RESUMO

Evolution of resistance to genetically modified Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) crops in pest populations is a major threat to the sustainability of the technology. Incidents of field resistance that have led to control problems of Bt crops or significantly reduced susceptibility of individual Bt proteins in pyramided plants have increased dramatically across the world, especially in recent years. Analysis of globally published data showed that 61.5% and 60.0% of the cases of resistance with major alleles that allowed homozygous resistant genotypes to survival on Bt crops were functionally non-recessive and did not involve fitness costs, respectively. Dominance levels (DFLs) measured on Bt plants ranged from -0.02 to 1.56 with a mean (± sem) of 0.35 ± 0.13 for the 13 cases of single-gene resistance to Bt plants that have been evaluated. Among these, all six cases with field control problems were functionally non-recessive with a mean DFL of 0.63 ± 0.24, which was significantly greater than the DFL (0.11 ± 0.07) of the seven cases without field resistance. In addition, index of fitness costs (IFC) of major resistance was calculated for each case based on the fitness of resistant (R'R') and heterozygous (R'S') genotypes on non-Bt plants divided by the fitness of their susceptible (S'S') counterparts. The estimated IFCs for 15 cases of single-gene resistance were similar for R'R' and R'S', and for the cases with and without field resistance; and the values averaged 1.10 ± 0.12 for R'R' and 1.20 ± 0.18 for R'S'. Limited published data suggest that resistance of insects to dual/multiple-gene Bt crops is likely to be more recessive than the related single-gene resistance, but their IFCs are similar. The quantitative analysis of the global data documents that the prevalence of non-recessive resistance has played an essential role in the widespread evolution of resistance to Bt crops, while the lack of fitness costs is apparently not as critical as the non-recessive resistance. The results suggest that planting of 'high dose' traits is an effective method for Bt crop IRM and more comprehensive management strategies that are also effective for functionally non-recessive resistance should be deployed.


Assuntos
Bacillus thuringiensis , Animais , Bacillus thuringiensis/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Endotoxinas , Proteínas Hemolisinas/genética , Insetos , Resistência a Inseticidas/genética , Controle Biológico de Vetores , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas
13.
Chemosphere ; 263: 128269, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33297213

RESUMO

Increasing evidence indicates that insect resistance to synthesized insecticides is regulated by the nuclear receptors. However, the underlying mechanisms of this regulation are not clear. Here, we demonstrate that inhibition of hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 (HNF4) confers imidacloprid resistance in the brown planthopper (BPH) Nilaparvata lugens by regulating cytochrome P450 and UDP-glycosyltransferase (UGT) genes. An imidacloprid-resistant strain (Res) exhibited a 251.69-fold resistance to imidacloprid in comparison to the susceptible counterpart (Sus) was obtained by successive selection with imidacloprid. The expression level of HNF4 in the Res strain was lower than that in Sus, and knockdown of HNF4 by RNA interference significantly enhanced the resistance of BPH to imidacloprid. Comparative transcriptomic analysis identified 1400 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the HNF4-silenced BPHs compared to controls. Functional enrichment analysis showed that cytochrome P450- and UGT-mediated metabolic detoxification pathways were enriched by the up-regulated DEGs after HNF4 knockdown. Among of them, UGT-1-7, UGT-2B10 and CYP6ER1 were found to be over-expressed in the Res strain, and knockdown of either gene significantly decreased the resistance of BPH to imidacloprid. This study increases our understanding of molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of insecticide resistance and also provides potential targets for pest management.


Assuntos
Hemípteros , Inseticidas , Animais , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/genética , Glicosiltransferases/genética , Hemípteros/genética , Fator 4 Nuclear de Hepatócito , Imidazóis , Resistência a Inseticidas/genética , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Neonicotinoides/toxicidade , Nitrocompostos/toxicidade , Difosfato de Uridina
14.
Pest Manag Sci ; 77(1): 273-284, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32696499

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Farmers around the world have used Bt maize for more than two decades, delaying resistance using a high-dose/refuge strategy. Nevertheless, field-evolved resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins has been documented. This paper describes a spatially explicit population genetics model of resistance to Bt toxins by the insect Ostrinia nubilalis and an agent-based model of farmer adoption of Bt maize incorporating social networks. The model was used to evaluate multiple resistance mitigation policies, including combinations of increased refuges for all farms, localized bans on Bt maize where resistance develops, area-wide sprays of insecticides on fields with resistance and taxes on Bt maize seed for all farms. Evaluation metrics included resistance allele frequency, pest population density, farmer adoption of Bt maize and economic surplus. RESULTS: The most effective mitigation policies for maintaining a low resistance allele frequency were 50% refuge and localized bans. Area-wide sprays were the most effective for maintaining low pest populations. Based on economic surplus, refuge requirements were the recommended policy for mitigating resistance to high-dose Bt maize. Social networks further enhanced the benefits of refuges relative to other mitigation policies but accelerated the emergence of resistance. CONCLUSION: These results support using refuges as the foundation of resistance mitigation for high-dose Bt maize, just as for resistance management. Other mitigation policies examined were more effective but more costly. Social factors had substantial effects on the recommended management and mitigation of insect resistance, suggesting that agent-based models can make useful contributions for policy analysis.


Assuntos
Bacillus thuringiensis , Zea mays , Animais , Bacillus thuringiensis/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Endotoxinas/genética , Proteínas Hemolisinas , Insetos , Resistência a Inseticidas/genética , Controle Biológico de Vetores , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Ciências Sociais , Zea mays/genética
15.
Pest Manag Sci ; 77(1): 335-342, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32729162

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The widespread adoption of genetically modified crops, including Bacillius thuringensis (Bt) crops that target chewing insects, has transformed agricultural pest management. This increased use of Bt has raised concerns about the onset of resistance amongst target pests. Recent studies have shown that for some caterpillars, nutritional foraging (e.g. the ratio of proteins and carbohydrates consumed) can affect the insect susceptibility to the Bt toxin Cry1Ac. However, studies on both nutritional foraging and Bt susceptibility tend to rely on laboratory colonies without specifically addressing physiological differences that may occur between populations of the same species. Here, we used choice assays, no choice assays and dose response assays to address two overarching questions: Do populations of Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) vary in their protein-carbohydrate foraging behavior? and Does protein-carbohydrate intake impact S. frugiperda's susceptibility to the Bt toxin Cry1F? RESULTS: All three of our S. frugiperda populations actively regulated their protein-carbohydrate intake, but we observed significant differences between populations with respect to their self-selected protein-carbohydrate intake. We also found that feeding at the protein-carbohydrate intake target slightly increased Cry1F susceptibility for one S. frugiperda population, but had no effect on the other two populations. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that inherent differences exist in the nutritional physiology of three S. frugiperda populations, possibly related to the time spent in culture. This suggests that population-level differences are an important consideration when drawing parallels between field-collected and laboratory-reared insects.


Assuntos
Bacillus thuringiensis , Proteínas Hemolisinas , Animais , Bacillus thuringiensis/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Carboidratos , Produtos Agrícolas , Endotoxinas , Proteínas Hemolisinas/genética , Resistência a Inseticidas , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Spodoptera , Zea mays/genética
16.
Pest Manag Sci ; 77(1): 482-491, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32812675

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The peach potato aphid, Myzus persicae, has developed resistance to many insecticides. In Belgium, M. persicae is one of the most common aphids in potato fields and one of the most effective virus vectors. We monitored resistance mutations to pyrethroids, carbamates and neonicotinoids and related these results to microsatellite genotyping to provide information to support the choice of management tactics. RESULTS: Most of the 254 aphids tested (97.6%) displayed at least one mutation conferring resistance to pyrethroids (L1014F, M918L and M918T) and 36.2% additionally carried the modified acetylcholinesterase (MACE) carbamates resistance making them resistant to two insecticide action modes. Ten mutation combinations were detected, two of which were frequent and a strong linkage was found between MACE and M918L mutations. The R81T mutation conferring resistance to neonicotinoids was not detected. Microsatellites highlighted a moderate genetic diversity [69 multilocus genotypes (MLG) detected], severe deviations from Hardy-Weinberg expectations, a highly significant excess of heterozygotes and linkage disequilibrium between all pairs of loci. A structuration of MLGs in association with the mutation combinations was observed. Genetic differentiation was mainly not significant between sampling locations and most MLGs were geographically widespread. These results suggest the likely coexistence of parthenogenesis (obligatory or facultative) and sexual reproduction, and the existence of 'old' parthenogenetic overwintering asexual lineages. CONCLUSION: The results of this monitoring at a regional scale provide useful information on insecticide resistance, genetic diversity and reproductive modes, and highlight the need to reduce the insecticide selection pressure and to implement mitigating techniques.


Assuntos
Afídeos , Inseticidas , Solanum tuberosum , Animais , Afídeos/genética , Bélgica , Genótipo , Resistência a Inseticidas/genética , Inseticidas/farmacologia
17.
Pest Manag Sci ; 77(1): 577-587, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32816378

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mythimna separata is a devastating agricultural pest that has recently developed insecticide resistance. Integument-specific cytochrome P450s were reported to participate in cuticle formation and could be potential targets for pesticide synthesis. RESULTS: The transcriptome of integuments of M. separata larvae was constructed, generating a total of 38 058 unigenes with an average length of 1243 bp. These unigenes are enriched in functional categories such as lipid transport and metabolism, and secondary metabolites biosynthesis, transport and catabolism. Amongst unigenes, cytochrome P450s were identified and 66 unique P450s with complete open reading frames were named. These P450s were divided into 17 families and 32 subfamilies, containing conserved motifs such as helix C, helix I, helix K, and the heme-binding region. RNA-Seq and RT-qPCR analyses showed different expression levels of P450s in integuments of M. separata larvae. Further RT-qPCR analysis of P450s among different tissues showed that five P450s, especially CYP4G199, were specifically highly expressed in integuments. Moreover, knockdown of CYP4G199 disturbed cuticle formation, leading to imperfection in larval cuticle, and prevented pupation of M. separata. CONCLUSION: Transcriptome of larval integuments provided sequence and expression of genes in M. separata. CYP4G199 is specifically highly expressed in larval integuments and is important for cuticle formation in M. separata.


Assuntos
Mariposas , Animais , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/genética , Humanos , Resistência a Inseticidas/genética , Larva/genética , Mariposas/genética , Spodoptera , Transcriptoma
18.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 31(10): 3282-3288, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33314816

RESUMO

Clothianidin, belonging to neonicotinoid insecticide with systemic and contact mechanisms, is used to control the invasive pest Frankliniella occidentalis. To identify the resistance risk, we examined the cross-resistance to multiple insecticides and mechanisms of clothianidin resistant population of F. occidentalis. The results showed that F. occidentalis developed a high level of resis-tance to clothianidin (56.8-fold) after selecting for 45 generations. The resistant population of F. occidentalis had medium level of cross-resistance to thiamethoxam, imidacloprid, chlorpyrifos, cyhalothrin and emamectin benzoate (18.6>RR50>11.3), and the low level of cross-resistance to phoxim and methomyl, but no cross-resistance to chlorfenapyr and spinosad. The synergists piperonyl butoxide (PBO) and triphenyl phosphate (TPP) had significant synergistic effects on clothianidin in killing the resistant population (CL), Yunnan wild population (YN) and susceptible population (S). Compared with the sensitive population, the CL populations had significantly increased activities of mixed-functional oxidases P450(3.6-fold), b5(2.9-fold) and O-demethylase (4.9-fold), and carboxylesterase (2.5-fold), with no significant difference in the activities of glutathione S-transferases among CL and S populations. The results highlight the role of increasing mixed-functional oxidases and carboxylesterase in the resistance of F. occidentalis to clothianidin.


Assuntos
Inseticidas , Animais , China , Guanidinas , Resistência a Inseticidas , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Neonicotinoides , Tiazóis
19.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 31(10): 3289-3295, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33314817

RESUMO

To effectively control the damage of Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), we evalutated the resistance risk and resistance stability of F. occidentalis to nitenpyram, clothianidin and thiamethoxam. With the method of dipping Phaseolus vuglaris, we selected the resistance populations from the susceptible population with nitenpyram, clothianidin and thiamethoxam, respectively. Both the resistance inheritance and resistance risk were analyzed with the resistance reality hereditary. After 30 generations' selections, the selected-populations showed high level of insecticide resistance to nitenpyram, clothianidin and thiamethoxam, with a resistance ratio of 44.7-fold, 45.5-fold, and 32.7-fold, respectively. The development rate of resistance to clothianidin, nitenpyram, and thiamethoxam reduced in turn, with a resistance reality heritability of 0.1503, 0.1336 and 0.1258, respectively. Stopping selection for 10 continuously generations, the resistance levels of selection resis-tance populations declined slowly, but could not regain the original susceptibility to nitenpyram, clothianidin and thiamethoxam. After resistance selection, the sensitivity of F. occidentalis nymphs to clothianidin, nitenpyram, and thiamethoxam was significantly higher than that of adults. F. occidentalis had the great potential to gain high level resistance to nitenpyram, clothianidin and thiamethoxam. Compared with other two insecticides, the resistance of F. occidentalis to thiamethoxam increased slower and decreased faster. Therefore, using thiamethoxam in nymph stage might be beneficial to effectively control F. occidentalis.


Assuntos
Guanidinas , Inseticidas , Animais , Resistência a Inseticidas , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Neonicotinoides , Tiametoxam , Tiazóis
20.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0242791, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33253273

RESUMO

The Western corn rootworm (WCR) Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte is one of the most economically important insect pests in North America. Since 2003, transgenic maize expressing WCR-active proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have been widely adopted as the main approach to controlling WCR in the U.S. However, the emergence of field resistance to the Bt proteins in current commercial products has been documented in recent years, highlighting the need to develop additional tools for controlling this devasting pest. Here we report the discovery of Vpb4Da2 (initially assigned as Vip4Da2), a new insecticidal protein highly selective against WCR, through high-throughput genome sequencing of a Bt strain sourced from grain dust samples collected in the eastern and central regions of the US. Vpb4Da2 contains a sequence and domain signature distinct from families of other WCR-active proteins. Under field conditions, transgenic maize expressing Vpb4Da2 demonstrates commercial-level (at or below NIS 0.25) root protection against WCR, and reduces WCR beetle emergence by ≥ 97%. Our studies also conclude that Vpb4Da2 controls WCR populations that are resistant to WCR-active transgenic maize expressing Cry3Bb1, Cry34Ab1/Cry35Ab1 (reassigned as Gpp34Ab1/Tpp35Ab1), or DvSnf7 RNA. Based on these findings, Vpb4Da2 represents a valuable new tool for protecting maize against WCR.


Assuntos
/genética , Besouros/genética , Controle Biológico de Vetores , Zea mays/genética , Animais , Bacillus thuringiensis/genética , Besouros/patogenicidade , Proteínas Hemolisinas/genética , Humanos , Resistência a Inseticidas/genética , Inseticidas/efeitos adversos , Inseticidas/química , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/parasitologia , Zea mays/parasitologia
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