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1.
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e200303, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33146255

RESUMO

Giardiasis is an infectious disease caused by Giardia duodenalis. The pro-drug metronidazole (MTZ) is the first-line treatment for giardiasis. Parasite's proteins as pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFOR), ferredoxin (Fd), nitroreductase-1 (NR-1) and thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) participate in MTZ activation. Here, we showed Giardia trophozoites long-term exposed to MTZ presented higher IC50 than controls, showing the drug influenced the parasite survival. That reduction in MTZ's susceptibility does not seem to be related to mutations in the genes pfor, fd, nr-1 or trxr. It points that different mechanism as alterations in other metabolic pathways can account for Giardia resistance to MTZ therapy.


Assuntos
Antiprotozoários , Resistência a Medicamentos/genética , Giardia lamblia , Metronidazol/farmacologia , Pró-Fármacos , Ativação Metabólica , Antiprotozoários/farmacologia , Giardia lamblia/efeitos dos fármacos , Giardia lamblia/genética , Nucleotídeos
2.
BMC Res Notes ; 13(1): 497, 2020 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33109270

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Nigeria bears 25% of global malaria burden despite concerted efforts towards its control and elimination. The emergence of drug resistance to first line drugs, artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs), indicates an urgent need for continuous molecular surveillance of drug resistance especially in high burden countries where drug interventions are heavily relied on. This study describes mutations in Plasmodium falciparum genes associated with drug resistance in malaria; Pfk13, Pfmdr1, PfATPase6 and Pfcrt in isolates obtained from 83 symptomatic malaria patients collected in August 2014, aged 1-61 years old from South-west Nigeria. RESULTS: Two Pfmdr1, N86 and Y184 variants were present at a prevalence of 56% and 13.25% of isolates respectively. There was one synonymous (S679S) and two non-synonymous (M699V, S769M) mutations in the PATPase6 gene, while Pfcrt genotype (CVIET), had a prevalence of 45%. The Pfk13 C580Y mutant allele was suspected by allelic discrimination in two samples with mixed genotypes although this could not be validated with independent isolation or additional methods. Our findings call for robust molecular surveillance of antimalarial drug resistance markers in west Africa especially with increased use of antimalarial drugs as prophylaxis for Covid-19.


Assuntos
Combinação Arteméter e Lumefantrina/uso terapêutico , ATPases Transportadoras de Cálcio/genética , Malária Falciparum/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/genética , Proteínas Associadas à Resistência a Múltiplos Medicamentos/genética , Mutação , Plasmodium falciparum/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Protozoários/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Antimaláricos/uso terapêutico , Artemisininas/uso terapêutico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Resistência a Medicamentos/genética , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Genótipo , Humanos , Lactente , Malária Falciparum/epidemiologia , Malária Falciparum/parasitologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Epidemiologia Molecular , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Plasmodium falciparum/genética , Plasmodium falciparum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle
3.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4813, 2020 09 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32968076

RESUMO

Artemisinins have revolutionized the treatment of Plasmodium falciparum malaria; however, resistance threatens to undermine global control efforts. To broadly explore artemisinin susceptibility in apicomplexan parasites, we employ genome-scale CRISPR screens recently developed for Toxoplasma gondii to discover sensitizing and desensitizing mutations. Using a sublethal concentration of dihydroartemisinin (DHA), we uncover the putative transporter Tmem14c whose disruption increases DHA susceptibility. Screens performed under high doses of DHA provide evidence that mitochondrial metabolism can modulate resistance. We show that disrupting a top candidate from the screens, the mitochondrial protease DegP2, lowers porphyrin levels and decreases DHA susceptibility, without significantly altering parasite fitness in culture. Deleting the homologous gene in P. falciparum, PfDegP, similarly lowers heme levels and DHA susceptibility. These results expose the vulnerability of heme metabolism to genetic perturbations that can lead to increased survival in the presence of DHA.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos/farmacologia , Artemisininas/farmacologia , Resistência a Medicamentos/genética , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Heme/genética , Heme/metabolismo , Repetições Palindrômicas Curtas Agrupadas e Regularmente Espaçadas , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Humanos , Malária Falciparum/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/metabolismo , Mutação , Plasmodium falciparum/efeitos dos fármacos , Plasmodium falciparum/genética , Proteínas de Protozoários/genética , Toxoplasma/efeitos dos fármacos , Toxoplasma/genética
4.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 671, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32933490

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The increasing antimalarial drug resistance is a significant hindrance to malaria control and elimination programs. For the last six decades, chloroquine (CQ) plus pyrimethamine remains the first-line treatment for P. vivax malaria. Regions where both P. falciparum and P. vivax co-exist, P. vivax is exposed to antifolate drugs due to either misdiagnosis or improper treatment that causes selective drug pressure to evolve. Therefore, the present study aims to estimate antimalarial drug resistance among the complicated and uncomplicated P. vivax patients. METHODS: A total of 143 P. vivax malaria positive patients were enrolled in this study, and DNA was isolated from their blood samples. Pvcrt-o, Pvmdr-1, Pvdhps, and Pvdhfr genes were PCRs amplified, and drug resistance-associated gene mutations were analyzed. Statistical analysis of the drug resistance genes and population diversity was performed using MEGA vs. 7.0.21 and DnaSP v software. RESULTS: Among the CQ resistance marker gene Pvcrt-o, the prevalence of K10 insertion was 17.5% (7/40) and 9.5% (7/73) of complicated and uncomplicated P vivax group isolates respectively. In Pvmdr-1, double mutant haplotype (M958/L1076) was found in 99% of the clinical isolates. Among the pyrimethamine resistance-associated gene Pvdhfr, the double mutant haplotype I13P33F57R58T61N117I173 was detected in 23% (11/48) in complicated and 20% (17/85) in uncomplicated group isolates. In the sulphadoxine resistance-associated Pvdhps gene, limited polymorphism was observed with the presence of a single mutant (D459A) among 16 and 5% of the clinical isolates in the complicated and uncomplicated group respectively. CONCLUSION: The study presents the situations of polymorphism in the antimalarial drug resistance-associated genes and emphasizes the need for regular surveillance. It is imperative for the development of suitable antimalarial drug policy in India.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos/uso terapêutico , Resistência a Medicamentos/genética , Malária Vivax/tratamento farmacológico , Plasmodium vivax/genética , Proteínas de Protozoários/genética , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cloroquina/uso terapêutico , DNA de Protozoário/genética , DNA de Protozoário/metabolismo , Feminino , Antagonistas do Ácido Fólico/uso terapêutico , Haplótipos , Humanos , Índia , Masculino , Proteínas Associadas à Resistência a Múltiplos Medicamentos/genética , Plasmodium vivax/isolamento & purificação , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto Jovem
5.
Mikrobiyol Bul ; 54(3): 444-462, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Turco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32755520

RESUMO

World Health Organization reported that approximately one billion people are at risk in endemic areas, one million cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) and approximately 300,000 cases of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) were reported per year in the last five years. The number of deaths due to VL is reported to be approximately 20,000 per year. Approximately 2500 cases/year have been reported as CL, caused by Leishmania tropica and Leishmania infantum, in Turkey. The significant increase observed in many cities mainly in the provinces of Mediterranean and Aegean regions in cases and foci in recent years, suggests that there may be an increase in this infections in the following years as well. In Turkey, the causative agent of CL is L.tropica and meglumine antimoniate is used in the treatment of CL. We aimed to determine antimony resistance genes specific for L.tropica by comparing the gene and protein expressions of antimony-resistant and non-resistant L.tropica strains. L.tropica isolates obtained from 3 CL patients without antimonate resistance from Aegean, Mediterranean and Southeastern regions of Turkey were provided to transform into 3 resistant isolates against meglumine antimony in the laboratory conditions. Gene expression alterations by microarray method; protein profiles by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) and relevant proteins by MALDI-TOF/TOF MS of these isolates were accomplished and compared. L.tropica isolates from 10 CL patients who did not respond to antimony therapy were analyzed for resistance to antimonial compounds and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed to detect the expression of genes responsible for resistance development. Moreover, differences in protein expression levels in isolates with and without antimony resistance were determined by comparing protein profiles and identification of proteins with different expression levels was carried out. Enolase, elongation factor-2, heat shock protein 70, tripanthione reductase, protein kinase C and metallo-peptidase proteins have been shown to play roles in L.tropica isolates developing resistance to antimonial compounds and similar expression changes have also been demonstrated in naturally resistant isolates from patients. In conclusion, it was revealed that L.tropica strains in our country may gain resistance to meglumine antimoniate in a short time. It is foreseen that if the patients living in our country or entering the country are treated inadequately and incompletely, there may be new, resistant leishmaniasis foci that may increase the number of resistant strains and cases rapidly.


Assuntos
Resistência a Medicamentos , Leishmania tropica , Leishmaniose Cutânea , Antimoniato de Meglumina , Resistência a Medicamentos/genética , Humanos , Leishmania tropica/efeitos dos fármacos , Leishmaniose Cutânea/tratamento farmacológico , Antimoniato de Meglumina/farmacologia , Antimoniato de Meglumina/uso terapêutico , Turquia
6.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(8): e0008506, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32745103

RESUMO

Plasmodium vivax has become the predominant malaria parasite and a major challenge for malaria elimination in the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS). Yet, our knowledge about the evolution of P. vivax populations in the GMS is fragmental. We performed whole genome sequencing on 23 P. vivax samples from the China-Myanmar border (CMB) and used 21 high-coverage samples to compare to over 200 samples from the rest of the GMS. Using genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), we analyzed population differentiation, genetic structure, migration and potential selection using an array of methods. The CMB parasites displayed a higher proportion of monoclonal infections, and 52% shared over 90% of their genomes in identity-by-descent segments with at least one other sample from the CMB, suggesting preferential expansion of certain parasite strains in this region, likely resulting from the P. vivax outbreaks occurring during this study period. Principal component, admixture, fixation index and phylogenetic analyses all identified that parasites from the CMB were genetically distinct from parasites from eastern parts of the GMS (Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, and Thailand), whereas the eastern GMS parasite populations were largely undifferentiated. Such a genetic differentiation pattern of the P. vivax populations from the GMS parasite was largely explainable through geographic distance. Using the genome-wide SNPs, we narrowed down to a set of 36 SNPs for differentiating parasites from different areas of the GMS. Genome-wide scans to determine selection in the genome with two statistical methods identified genes potentially under drug selection, including genes associated with antifolate resistance and genes linked to chloroquine resistance in Plasmodium falciparum.


Assuntos
Malária Vivax/epidemiologia , Malária Vivax/parasitologia , Plasmodium vivax/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Antimaláricos/farmacologia , China , Surtos de Doenças , Resistência a Medicamentos/genética , Antagonistas do Ácido Fólico/farmacologia , Genômica , Humanos , Mianmar , Filogenia , Plasmodium vivax/efeitos dos fármacos
7.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0235401, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32817665

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Current malaria control and elimination strategies rely mainly on efficacious antimalarial drugs. However, drug resistance is a major threat facing malaria control programs. Determination of drug resistance molecular markers is useful in the monitoring and surveillance of malaria drug efficacy. This study aimed to determine the mutations and haplotypes frequencies of different genes linked with antimalarial drug resistance in certain areas in Sudan. METHODS: A total of 226 dried blood spots (DBS) of microscopically diagnosed P. falciparum isolates were collected from Khartoum and three other areas in Sudan during 2015-2017. Plasmodium falciparum confirmation and multiplicity of infection was assessed using the Sanger's 101 SNPs-barcode and speciation was confirmed using regions of the parasite mitochondria. Molecular genotyping of drug resistance genes (Pfcrt, Pfmdr1, Pfdhfr, Pfdhps, exonuclease, Pfk13, parasite genetic background (PGB) (Pfarps10, ferredoxin, Pfcrt, Pfmdr2)) was also performed. All genotypes were generated by selective regions amplicon sequencing of the parasite genome using the Illumina MiSeq platform at the Wellcome Sanger Institute, UK then genotypes were translated into drug resistance haplotypes and species determination. FINDINGS: In total 225 samples were confirmed to be P. falciparum. A higher proportion of multiplicity of infection was observed in Gezira (P<0.001) based on the Sanger 101 SNPs -barcode. The overall frequency of mutant haplotype Pfcrt 72-76 CVIET was 71.8%. For Pfmdr1, N86Y was detected in 53.6%, Y184F was observed in 88.1% and D1246Y was detected in 1.5% of the samples. The most frequently observed haplotype was YFD 47.4%. For Pfdhfr (codons 51, 59,108,164), the ICNI haplotype was the most frequent (80.7%) while for Pfdhps (codons 436, 437, 540, 581, 613) the (SGEAA) was most frequent haplotype (41%). The Quadruple mutation (dhfr N51I, S108N + dhps A437G, K540E) was the highest frequent combined mutation (33.9%). In Pfkelch13 gene, 18 non-synonymous mutations were detected, 7 of them were detected in other African countries. The most frequent Pfk13 mutation was E433D detected in four samples. All of the Pfk13 mutant alleles have not been reported to belong to mutations associated with delayed parasite clearance in Southeast Asia. PGB mutations were detected only in Pfcrt N326S\I (46.3%) and Pfcrt I356T (8.2%). The exonuclease mutation was not detected. There was no significant variation in mutant haplotypes between study areas. CONCLUSIONS: There was high frequency of mutations in Pfcrt, Pfdhfr and Pfdhps in this study. These mutations are associated with chloroquine and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) resistance. Many SNPs in Pfk13 not linked with delayed parasite clearance were observed. The exonuclease E415G mutation which is linked with piperaquine resistance was not reported.


Assuntos
Resistência a Medicamentos/genética , Malária/parasitologia , Mutação , Plasmodium falciparum/genética , Adolescente , Antimaláricos/farmacologia , Criança , Cloroquina/farmacologia , Feminino , Humanos , Malária/epidemiologia , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/genética , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/metabolismo , Plasmodium falciparum/efeitos dos fármacos , Plasmodium falciparum/patogenicidade , Proteínas de Protozoários/genética , Proteínas de Protozoários/metabolismo , Pirimetamina/farmacologia , Sudão , Sulfadoxina/farmacologia , Tetra-Hidrofolato Desidrogenase/genética , Tetra-Hidrofolato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
8.
Mol Cell ; 79(5): 846-856.e8, 2020 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32755594

RESUMO

Resveratrol is a natural product associated with wide-ranging effects in animal and cellular models, including lifespan extension. To identify the genetic target of resveratrol in human cells, we conducted genome-wide CRISPR-Cas9 screens to pinpoint genes that confer sensitivity or resistance to resveratrol. An extensive network of DNA damage response and replicative stress genes exhibited genetic interactions with resveratrol and its analog pterostilbene. These genetic profiles showed similarity to the response to hydroxyurea, an inhibitor of ribonucleotide reductase that causes replicative stress. Resveratrol, pterostilbene, and hydroxyurea caused similar depletion of nucleotide pools, inhibition of replication fork progression, and induction of replicative stress. The ability of resveratrol to inhibit cell proliferation and S phase transit was independent of the histone deacetylase sirtuin 1, which has been implicated in lifespan extension by resveratrol. These results establish that a primary impact of resveratrol on human cell proliferation is the induction of low-level replicative stress.


Assuntos
Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Replicação do DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Resveratrol/farmacologia , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Linhagem Celular , Resistência a Medicamentos/genética , Humanos , Hidroxiureia/farmacologia , Células Jurkat , Nucleotídeos/metabolismo , Pontos de Checagem da Fase S do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sirtuína 1/metabolismo , Estilbenos/farmacologia
9.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3922, 2020 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764664

RESUMO

The Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter (PfCRT) is a key contributor to multidrug resistance and is also essential for the survival of the malaria parasite, yet its natural function remains unresolved. We identify host-derived peptides of 4-11 residues, varying in both charge and composition, as the substrates of PfCRT in vitro and in situ, and show that PfCRT does not mediate the non-specific transport of other metabolites and/or ions. We find that drug-resistance-conferring mutations reduce both the peptide transport capacity and substrate range of PfCRT, explaining the impaired fitness of drug-resistant parasites. Our results indicate that PfCRT transports peptides from the lumen of the parasite's digestive vacuole to the cytosol, thereby providing a source of amino acids for parasite metabolism and preventing osmotic stress of this organelle. The resolution of PfCRT's native substrates will aid the development of drugs that target PfCRT and/or restore the efficacy of existing antimalarials.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos/farmacologia , Cloroquina/farmacologia , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/metabolismo , Plasmodium falciparum/efeitos dos fármacos , Plasmodium falciparum/metabolismo , Proteínas de Protozoários/metabolismo , Animais , Transporte Biológico Ativo , Resistência a Medicamentos/genética , Feminino , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita/genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita/fisiologia , Humanos , Malária Falciparum/tratamento farmacológico , Malária Falciparum/metabolismo , Malária Falciparum/parasitologia , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/genética , Modelos Biológicos , Proteínas Mutantes/genética , Proteínas Mutantes/metabolismo , Oligopeptídeos/metabolismo , Oócitos/metabolismo , Plasmodium falciparum/genética , Transporte Proteico , Proteínas de Protozoários/genética , Xenopus laevis
10.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 513, 2020 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32677899

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Imported falciparum malaria from Africa has become a key public health challenge in Guizhou Province since 2012. Understanding the polymorphisms of molecular markers of drug resistance can guide selection of antimalarial drugs for the treatment of malaria. This study was aimed to analyze the polymorphisms of pfcrt, pfmdr1, and K13-propeller among imported falciparum malaria cases in Guizhou Province, China. METHOD: Fifty-five imported falciparum malaria cases in Guizhou Province during 2012-2016 were included in this study. Their demographic information and filter paper blood samples were collected. Genomic DNA of Plasmodium falciparum was extracted from the blood samples, and polymorphisms of pfcrt, pfmdr1, and K13-propeller were analyzed with nested PCR amplification followed by sequencing. Data were analyzed with the SPSS17.0 software. RESULTS: The prevalence of pfcrt K76T, pfmdr1 N86Y, and pfmdr1 Y184F mutation was 56.6, 22.2, and 72.2%, respectively, in imported falciparum malaria cases in Guizhou Province. We detected two mutant haplotypes of pfcrt, IET and MNT, with IET being more commonly found (54.7%), and five mutant haplotypes of pfmdr1, of which NFD was the most frequent (53.7%). There were totally 10 combined haplotypes of pfcrt and pfmdr1, of which the haplotype IETNFD possessed a predominance of 28.8%. In addition, three nonsynonymous mutations (S459T, C469F, and V692L) and two synonymous mutations (R471R and V589V) were detected in K13-propeller, all having prevalence less than 6.0%. In particular, a candidate K13 resistance mutation, C469F, was identified for the first time from Democratic Republic of the Congo with the prevalence of 2.0%. CONCLUSIONS: The high prevalence of IET haplotype of pfcrt and NFD haplotype of pfmdr1 suggests the presence of chloroquine, artemether/lumefantrine, and dihydroartemisinin/piperaquine resistance in these cases. Therefore cautions should be made to artemisinin therapy for P. falciparum in Africa. Continuous monitoring of anti-malarial drug efficacy in imported malaria cases is helpful for optimizing antimalarial drug therapy in Guizhou Province, China.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis Importadas/parasitologia , Resistência a Medicamentos/genética , Malária Falciparum/parasitologia , Plasmodium falciparum/genética , Polimorfismo Genético , Proteínas de Protozoários/genética , Adulto , África/epidemiologia , Substituição de Aminoácidos/genética , Antimaláricos/uso terapêutico , China/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Malária Falciparum/tratamento farmacológico , Malária Falciparum/epidemiologia , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas Associadas à Resistência a Múltiplos Medicamentos/genética , Mutação , Plasmodium falciparum/isolamento & purificação , Doença Relacionada a Viagens
11.
Exp Parasitol ; 217: 107957, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32687847

RESUMO

The ruminant livestock production sector is under threat due to the infections with gastrointestinal nematode parasites and the subsequent development of anthelmintic resistance. One of most common and pathogenic species in small ruminants is Haemonchus contortus. The ability to control the infections with this and other gastrointestinal nematodes relies heavily on the use of anthelmintic drugs. Although resistance to all major classes of anthelmintics has been shown in H. contortus, the precise mechanism of resistance acquisition is only known for benzimidazoles. F200Y (TAC) is a common point mutation in the isotype 1 ß tubulin gene which is associated with an effective increase in the resistance towards benzimidazole drugs. Here, we show the utility of using this mutation as a marker in a droplet digital PCR assay to track how two H. contortus laboratory strains, characterized by different resistance levels, change with respect to this mutation, when subjected to increasing concentrations of thiabendazole. Additionally, we wanted to investigate whether exposure to a discriminating dose of thiabendazole in the egg hatch test resulted in the death of all H. contortus eggs with a susceptible genotype. We found the MHco5 strain to maintain an overall higher frequency of the F200Y mutation (80-100%) over all drug concentrations, whilst a steady, gradual increase from around 30%-60% was observed in the case of the MHco4 strain. This is further supported by the dose-response curves, displaying a much higher tolerance of the MHco5 strain (LD50 = 0.38 µg/ml) in comparison to the MHco4 strain (LD50 = 0.07 µg/ml) to the effects of thiabendazole. All things considered, we show that the F200Y mutation is still a viable and reliable marker for the detection and surveillance of benzimidazole drug resistance in H. contortus in Europe.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos/farmacologia , Haemonchus/genética , Taxa de Mutação , Tiabendazol/farmacologia , Tubulina (Proteína)/genética , Animais , DNA de Helmintos/isolamento & purificação , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Resistência a Medicamentos/genética , Frequência do Gene , Marcadores Genéticos , Genótipo , Hemoncose/parasitologia , Hemoncose/veterinária , Haemonchus/classificação , Haemonchus/efeitos dos fármacos , Dose Letal Mediana , Óvulo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenótipo , Mutação Puntual , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia
12.
Parasitol Res ; 119(9): 2851-2862, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32651637

RESUMO

The field strain of Haemonchus contortus has a long history of anthelmintic resistance. To understand this phenomenon, the benzimidazole resistance profile was characterized from the Malaysian field-resistant strain by integrating phenotypic, genotypic and proteomic approaches. The faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) demonstrated that benzimidazole resistance was at a critical level in the studied strain. The primary resistance mechanism was attributed to F200Y mutation in the isotype 1 ß-tubulin gene as revealed by AS-PCR and direct sequencing. Furthermore, the protein response of the resistant strain towards benzimidazole (i.e., albendazole) treatment was investigated via two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) and tandem liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). These investigations illustrated an up-regulation of antioxidant (i.e., ATP-binding region and heat-shock protein 90, superoxide dismutase) and metabolic (i.e., glutamate dehydrogenase) enzymes and down-regulation of glutathione S-transferase, malate dehydrogenase, and other structural and cytoskeletal proteins (i.e., actin, troponin T). Findings from this study are pivotal in updating the current knowledge on anthelmintic resistance and providing new insights into the defence mechanisms of resistant nematodes towards drug treatment.


Assuntos
Albendazol/farmacologia , Anti-Helmínticos/farmacologia , Benzimidazóis/farmacologia , Resistência a Medicamentos/genética , Haemonchus/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida , Glutamato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Hemoncose/tratamento farmacológico , Haemonchus/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Proteômica , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Tubulina (Proteína)/genética
13.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(3): 1100-1106, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32588794

RESUMO

The emergence and spread of resistance in Plasmodium falciparum to the frontline treatment artemisinin-based combination therapies in Southeast Asia require close monitoring of the situation. Here, we collected 36 clinical samples of P. falciparum from the China-Myanmar border in 2014-2016, adapted these parasites to continuous culture, and performed in vitro drug assays on seven antimalarial drugs. Data for 23 parasites collected in 2010 and 2012 from the same area reported in an early study were used to assess longitudinal changes in drug sensitivity. Parasites remained highly resistant to chloroquine (CQ) and pyrimethamine, whereas they were generally sensitive to mefloquine (MFQ), lumefantrine (LMF), naphthoquine (NQ), and pyronaridine (PND). Parasites showed a similar temporal trend in sensitivity to CQ, NQ, and PND, with gradual reduction in the half-maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) after 2012. The IC50s to the aminoalcohol drugs MFQ, LMF, and quinine (QN) all significantly declined in 2014, followed by various degrees of increase in 2016. Pyrimethamine displayed a continuous increase in IC50 over the years. The Dd2-like P. falciparum chloroquine-resistant transporter mutations were fixed or nearly fixed in the parasite population. The P. falciparum multidrug resistance 1 F1226Y mutation was detected in 80% parasites in 2016 and associated with reduced sensitivity to LMF and QN (P < 0.05). The N51I in P. falciparum dihydrofolate reductase and K540E/N and A581G in P. falciparum dihydropteroate synthase that are associated with antifolate resistance were either fixed or were approaching fixation in recent years. This study provides an updated picture and temporal trend of antimalarial drug resistance in the China-Myanmar border region, which will serve as a reference for antimalarial treatment.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos/farmacologia , Resistência a Medicamentos/genética , Malária Falciparum/parasitologia , Plasmodium falciparum/genética , Artemisininas/farmacologia , China/epidemiologia , Cloroquina/farmacologia , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Humanos , Lumefantrina/farmacologia , Malária Falciparum/tratamento farmacológico , Malária Falciparum/epidemiologia , Mefloquina/farmacologia , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/genética , Mianmar/epidemiologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Parasitária , Plasmodium falciparum/efeitos dos fármacos , Pirimetamina/farmacologia , Quinina/farmacologia
14.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 413, 2020 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32539801

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Successful control programs have impeded local malaria transmission in almost all Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries: Qatar, Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and Saudi Arabia. Nevertheless, a prodigious influx of imported malaria via migrant workers sustains the threat of local transmission. Here we examine the origin of imported malaria in Qatar, assess genetic diversity and the prevalence of drug resistance genes in imported Plasmodium falciparum, and finally, address the potential for the reintroduction of local transmission. METHODS: This study examined imported malaria cases reported in Qatar, between 2013 and 2016. We focused on P. falciparum infections and estimated both total parasite and gametocyte density, using qPCR and qRT-PCR, respectively. We also examined ten neutral microsatellites and four genes associated with drug resistance, Pfmrp1, Pfcrt, Pfmdr1, and Pfkelch13, to assess the genetic diversity of imported P. falciparum strains, and the potential for propagating drug resistance genotypes respectively. RESULTS: The majority of imported malaria cases were P. vivax, while P. falciparum and mixed species infections (P. falciparum / P. vivax) were less frequent. The primary origin of P. vivax infection was the Indian subcontinent, while P. falciparum was mostly presented by African expatriates. Imported P. falciparum strains were highly diverse, carrying multiple genotypes, and infections also presented with early- and late-stage gametocytes. We observed a high prevalence of mutations implicated in drug resistance among these strains, including novel SNPs in Pfkelch13. CONCLUSIONS: The influx of genetically diverse P. falciparum, with multiple drug resistance markers and a high capacity for gametocyte production, represents a threat for the reestablishment of drug-resistant malaria into GCC countries. This scenario highlights the impact of mass international migration on the reintroduction of malaria to areas with absent or limited local transmission.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis Importadas/transmissão , Resistência a Medicamentos/genética , Malária/transmissão , Plasmodium falciparum/genética , Doenças Transmissíveis Importadas/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Importadas/parasitologia , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Malária/epidemiologia , Malária/parasitologia , Carga Parasitária , Plasmodium falciparum/isolamento & purificação , Plasmodium vivax/genética , Plasmodium vivax/isolamento & purificação , Prevalência , Catar/epidemiologia
15.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 32(2): 174-180, 2020 Mar 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32458607

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To detect the chloroquine-resistant molecular marker polymorphisms in Plasmodium falciparum imported into China, investigate the mutation types of P. falciparum chloroquine resistant transporter (Pfcrt) gene at positions 72 to 76, and analyze the specificity of the P. falciparum specimens with different origins. METHODS: A total of 674 filter paper blood samples were collected from the National Malaria Diagnosis Reference Laboratory of China in 2012 and 2018. The amino acid po- sitions 72 to 76 of the Pfcrt gene on chromosome 7 were amplified using nested PCR assay and sequenced, and the sequencing results of the target gene fragment and the geographical region-specific prevalence of the mutations in the Pfcrt gene were analyzed. RESULTS: Among the 674 imported P. falciparum malaria cases in China in 2012 and 2018, 99.5% (644/674) were from Africa, which were predominantly from western and central Africa (80.4%, 518/644), and 4.5% (30/674) from Southeast Asia and Oceania (Papua New Guinea). A total of 4 site mutations (C72S, M74I, N75E and K76T) and 5 haplotypes (CVMNK, CVIET and SVMNT and two mixed types) were identified, with haplotypes CVMNK and CVIET present in parasites of both African and Southeast Asian origins, SVMNT detected in Southeast Asia (Myanmar) and Papua New Guinea isolates, the mixed type of haplo- types CVMNK/CVIET detected in P. falciparum of African and Southeast Asian origins, and the mixed type of haplotypes CVMNK/SVMNT detected only in the Myanmar isolate. Most P. falciparum parasites of the African origin carried the wild-type Pfcrt allele (77.7%, 478/615), and 68.0% (17/25) of the P. falciparum parasites of the Southeast Asian and Papua New Guinea or- igins harbored chloroquine resistant molecular markers (χ2 = 28.5, P < 0.05). The constituent ratio of the wild- and mutant-type Pfcrt allele varied in different geographical regions of Africa (P < 0.01), and the lowest prevalence of the wild-type Pfcrt allele was seen in western Africa. CONCLUSIONS: Among the 674 imported malaria cases in China in 2012 and 2018, the P. falciparum imported from Sotheast Asia habors a higher proportion of resistance to chloroquine and a higher molecular polymophism at ami- no acid positions 72 to 76 of the Pfcrt gene than the parasite of the African origin.


Assuntos
Cloroquina , Doenças Transmissíveis Importadas , Malária Falciparum , Plasmodium falciparum , Polimorfismo Genético , Proteínas de Protozoários , África , Antimaláricos/farmacologia , Ásia , China , Cloroquina/farmacologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Importadas/parasitologia , Resistência a Medicamentos/genética , Haplótipos , Humanos , Malária Falciparum/parasitologia , Plasmodium falciparum/efeitos dos fármacos , Plasmodium falciparum/genética , Proteínas de Protozoários/genética
16.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2107, 2020 04 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32355199

RESUMO

The Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) harbors 11% of global malaria cases, yet little is known about the spatial and genetic structure of the parasite population in that country. We sequence 2537 Plasmodium falciparum infections, including a nationally representative population sample from DRC and samples from surrounding countries, using molecular inversion probes - a high-throughput genotyping tool. We identify an east-west divide in haplotypes known to confer resistance to chloroquine and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine. Furthermore, we identify highly related parasites over large geographic distances, indicative of gene flow and migration. Our results are consistent with a background of isolation by distance combined with the effects of selection for antimalarial drug resistance. This study provides a high-resolution view of parasite genetic structure across a large country in Africa and provides a baseline to study how implementation programs may impact parasite populations.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos/farmacologia , Resistência a Medicamentos/genética , Plasmodium falciparum/efeitos dos fármacos , Plasmodium falciparum/genética , Cloroquina/farmacologia , República Democrática do Congo , Combinação de Medicamentos , Genoma de Protozoário , Genótipo , Geografia , Haplótipos , Humanos , Malária Falciparum/parasitologia , Malária Falciparum/prevenção & controle , Mutação , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Análise de Componente Principal , Pirimetamina/farmacologia , Sulfadoxina/farmacologia
17.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(7): 104877, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32414579

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess the prevalence of high on-clopidogrel platelet reactivity (HCPR) in patients with ischaemic stroke or transient ischaemic attack (IS/TIA), their outcome and genetic basis of on-treatment response variability in IS/TIA patients. METHODS: We conducted a comprehensive search of PubMed and EMBASE from their inceptions to March 9, 2019. Studies that reported absolute numbers/percentages of HCRP at any time point after IS/TIA onset evaluated with any type of platelet function tests, clinical outcomes and genotyping data were included. RESULTS: Among 21 studies of 4312 IS/TIA patients treated with clopidogrel, the pooled prevalence of HCPR was 28% (95%CI: 24-32%; high heterogeneity: I2 = 88.2%, p < 0.001). Heterogeneity degree diminished across groups defined by the HCPR testing method. Clopidogrel non-responder IS/TIA patients had poorer outcome compared to responders (RR = 2.09, 95%CI: 1.61-2.70; p = 0.036; low heterogeneity across studies: I2 = 27.4%, p = 0.210). IS/TIA carriers of CYP2C19*2 or CYP2C19*3 loss of function alleles had a higher risk of HCPR compared to wild type (RR = 1.69, 95%CI: 1.47-1.95; p < 0.001; I2 = 0.01%, p = 0.475). CONCLUSIONS: This systematic review shows a high prevalence of clopidogrel resistance in IS/TIA and poor outcome in these patients. CYP2C19 polymorphisms may potentially influence clopidogrel resistance.


Assuntos
Plaquetas/efeitos dos fármacos , Clopidogrel/uso terapêutico , Resistência a Medicamentos , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Agregação Plaquetária/efeitos dos fármacos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Plaquetas/metabolismo , Clopidogrel/efeitos adversos , Clopidogrel/farmacocinética , Citocromo P-450 CYP2C19/genética , Citocromo P-450 CYP2C19/metabolismo , Resistência a Medicamentos/genética , Humanos , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/sangue , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/diagnóstico , Variantes Farmacogenômicos , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/farmacocinética , Polimorfismo Genético , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/sangue , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 36(3): 541-548, 2020 Mar 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32237547

RESUMO

Hyperaccumulators can hyper-accumulate and -tolerate heavy metals, thus are not only an ideal model to explore the mechanisms of ion transport and toxicity tolerance, but also play an irreplaceable role in the development and application of phytoremediation. Sedum plumbizincicola is a recently identified cadmium (Cd)/zinc (Zn) hyperaccumulator in the Crassulaceae family in China. Here we report the construction and screening of its yeast-expressing cDNA library. We identified a metallothionein protein encoding gene SpMT2. SpMT2 is localized in yeast cytoplasm and expression of it in yeast specifically enhanced resistance to Cd. Further analysis showed that SpMT2 did not affect Cd absorption in yeast, but greatly inhibited Cd transport into vacuoles, indicating that SpMT2 may reduce Cd toxicity via chelation in cytoplasm. qRT-PCR analyses indicated that SpMT2 was highly expressed both in roots and shoots, and did not respond to Cd treatment. Taking together the results that SpMT2 was also cytoplasm-localized in plants, we proposed that SpMT2 may chelate/detoxify Cd and retain the complex in cytosol, which renders higher mobility of Cd thus promoting long-distance Cd transport in S. plumbizincicola.


Assuntos
Cádmio , Resistência a Medicamentos , Metaloproteinase 15 da Matriz , Sedum , Poluentes do Solo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Cádmio/toxicidade , China , Resistência a Medicamentos/genética , Metaloproteinase 15 da Matriz/genética , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Sedum/efeitos dos fármacos , Sedum/genética , Zinco/toxicidade
19.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(4): e1008482, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32310999

RESUMO

The emergence of artemisinin (ART) resistance in Plasmodium falciparum intra-erythrocytic parasites has led to increasing treatment failure rates with first-line ART-based combination therapies in Southeast Asia. Decreased parasite susceptibility is caused by K13 mutations, which are associated clinically with delayed parasite clearance in patients and in vitro with an enhanced ability of ring-stage parasites to survive brief exposure to the active ART metabolite dihydroartemisinin. Herein, we describe a panel of K13-specific monoclonal antibodies and gene-edited parasite lines co-expressing epitope-tagged versions of K13 in trans. By applying an analytical quantitative imaging pipeline, we localize K13 to the parasite endoplasmic reticulum, Rab-positive vesicles, and sites adjacent to cytostomes. These latter structures form at the parasite plasma membrane and traffic hemoglobin to the digestive vacuole wherein artemisinin-activating heme moieties are released. We also provide evidence of K13 partially localizing near the parasite mitochondria upon treatment with dihydroartemisinin. Immunoprecipitation data generated with K13-specific monoclonal antibodies identify multiple putative K13-associated proteins, including endoplasmic reticulum-resident molecules, mitochondrial proteins, and Rab GTPases, in both K13 mutant and wild-type isogenic lines. We also find that mutant K13-mediated resistance is reversed upon co-expression of wild-type or mutant K13. These data help define the biological properties of K13 and its role in mediating P. falciparum resistance to ART treatment.


Assuntos
Resistência a Medicamentos/genética , Plasmodium falciparum/genética , Antimaláricos/farmacologia , Artemisininas/farmacologia , Resistência a Medicamentos/fisiologia , Humanos , Malária Falciparum/parasitologia , Mutação , Plasmodium falciparum/metabolismo , Proteínas de Protozoários/metabolismo
20.
Cardiovasc Ther ; 2020: 3568608, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32256707

RESUMO

Children with Kawasaki disease (KD) resistant to intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) have a higher incidence of coronary artery lesions (CAL). Despite the association between Purinergic receptor P2Y12 (P2RY12) polymorphism, KD genetic susceptibility, and CAL complications being proved, few studies have assessed the relationship between P2RY12 polymorphisms and IVIG resistance in patients with KD. We recruited 148 KD patients with IVIG resistance and 611 with IVIG sensitivity and selected five P2RY12 polymorphisms: rs9859538, rs1491974, rs7637803, rs6809699, and rs2046934. A significant difference in the genotype distributions between patients was only observed for the rs6809699 A > C polymorphism (AC vs. AA: adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 0.48, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.27-0.84, P=0.011; AC/CC vs. AA: adjusted OR = 0.47, 95% CI = 0.27-0.83, P=0.0084). After adjusting for age and gender, the carriers of the rs6809699 C allele had OR of 0.44 to 0.49 for IVIG sensitivity (AC vs. AA: adjusted OR = 0.48, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.27-0.84, P=0.011; AC/CC vs. AA: adjusted OR = 0.47, 95% CI = 0.27-0.83, P=0.0084) compared to the carriers of a rs6809699 AA genotype, suggesting the protective effect of this SNP against IVIG resistance. Moreover, individuals with all five protective polymorphisms experienced a significantly decreased IVIG resistance compared to that of individuals with up to three protective polymorphisms (adjusted OR = 0.27, 95% CI = 0.13-0.57, P=0.0006). Our results suggest that the P2RY12 rs6809699 polymorphism could be used as a biomarker to predict IVIG resistance in KD patients.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana/genética , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/prevenção & controle , Resistência a Medicamentos/genética , Imunoglobulinas Intravenosas/uso terapêutico , Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Síndrome de Linfonodos Mucocutâneos/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome de Linfonodos Mucocutâneos/genética , Variantes Farmacogenômicos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Receptores Purinérgicos P2Y12/genética , Adolescente , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/imunologia , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Heterozigoto , Homozigoto , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Síndrome de Linfonodos Mucocutâneos/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Linfonodos Mucocutâneos/imunologia , Seleção de Pacientes , Testes Farmacogenômicos , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Fatores de Risco
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