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1.
Anticancer Res ; 41(9): 4215-4228, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34475041

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are used for the treatment of both wild type and mutant non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC); however, acquired resistance is a major clinical challenge. Herein, we aimed to investigate the effects of telmisartan (Tel), CFM 4.16 and sorafenib combination in rociletinib resistant NSCLC tumors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 3D spheroid cultures and western blotting were used for evaluating cytotoxic effects and protein expression. An in vivo rociletinib resistant H1975 xenograft model of NSCLC was developed by subcutaneous injection of rociletinib resistant H1975 cells into nude mice. RESULTS: Tel, CFM 4.16 and sorafenib combination displayed superior anti-cancer effects in 3D spheroid cultures and a rociletinib resistant H1975 xenograft model of NSCLC by decreasing the protein expression of oncogenic and cancer stem cell markers (Nanog, Sox2 and Oct4). CONCLUSION: Tel facilitates effective penetration of CFM 4.16 and sorafenib in rociletinib resistant H1975 models of NSCLC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Esferoides Celulares/citologia , Compostos de Espiro/administração & dosagem , Telmisartan/administração & dosagem , Tiadiazóis/administração & dosagem , Acrilamidas/farmacologia , Acrilamidas/uso terapêutico , Animais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação para Baixo , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Pirimidinas/farmacologia , Pirimidinas/uso terapêutico , Sorafenibe/farmacologia , Sorafenibe/uso terapêutico , Esferoides Celulares/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos de Espiro/farmacologia , Telmisartan/farmacologia , Tiadiazóis/farmacologia , Células Tumorais Cultivadas , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
2.
Anticancer Res ; 41(9): 4277-4285, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34475047

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: To evaluate the antitumor effects of Plitidepsin against clear cell carcinoma (CCC) of the ovary. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The expression of eEF1A2 in ovarian cancer was assessed by immunohistochemistry. Using ovarian CCC cell lines, the antitumor effect of Plitidepsin was assessed both in vitro and in vivo. By over-expressing or knocking down the eEF1A2 expression, we investigated the role of eEF1A2 in the sensitivity of CCC cells to Plitidepsin. RESULTS: Immunoreactivity to eEF1A2 was observed in 76.2% of CCC, which was significantly higher than other histological subtypes of ovarian cancer. Plitidepsin exhibited significant antitumor activity toward chemonaive and chemoresistant CCC cells both in vitro and in vivo. Ectopic expression of eEF1A2 in CCC cells resulted in increased sensitivity to Plitidepsin. In contrast, eEF1A2 knockdown decreased sensitivity of CCC cells to plitidepsin. CONCLUSION: Plitidepsin, a novel anti-cancer agent that targets eEF1A2, may be a promising agent for treating ovarian CCC.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma de Células Claras/tratamento farmacológico , Depsipeptídeos/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Ovarianas/tratamento farmacológico , Fator 1 de Elongação de Peptídeos/metabolismo , Peptídeos Cíclicos/administração & dosagem , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos , Adenocarcinoma de Células Claras/genética , Adenocarcinoma de Células Claras/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Cisplatino , Depsipeptídeos/farmacologia , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Humanos , Camundongos , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/metabolismo , Fator 1 de Elongação de Peptídeos/genética , Peptídeos Cíclicos/farmacologia , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
3.
Anticancer Res ; 41(9): 4321-4331, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34475052

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) are key drugs in cancer treatment due to their minor adverse effects and outstanding anticancer effects. However, drugs for overcoming EGFR-TKI resistance are not in clinical use so far. Therefore, to overcome resistance, we focused on lurasidone, a new antipsychotic drug, due to its mild adverse effect profile from the viewpoint of drug repositioning. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We explored the effects of lurasidone alone or in combination with EGFR-TKI on the growth of osimertinib-resistant cancer cells the anti-apoptotic marker expression such as survivin, and autophagy levels by LC-3B expression. RESULTS: Within a non-toxic concentration range in normal cells, lurasidone and osimertinib combination therapy showed a growth-inhibitory effect in osimertinib-resistant cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, lurasidone decreased survivin expression and mildly induced autophagy. CONCLUSION: Lurasidone may increase the sensitivity to osimertinib in osimertinib-resistant cancer cells in drug repurposing.


Assuntos
Acrilamidas/administração & dosagem , Compostos de Anilina/administração & dosagem , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Cloridrato de Lurasidona/administração & dosagem , Survivina/metabolismo , Células A549 , Acrilamidas/farmacologia , Compostos de Anilina/farmacologia , Animais , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação para Baixo , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Cloridrato de Lurasidona/farmacologia , Camundongos , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
4.
Cancer Genomics Proteomics ; 18(5): 661-673, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34479918

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) poses a great challenge for the treatment of cancer patients. It presents as a severe respiratory infection in aged individuals, including some lung cancer patients. COVID-19 may be linked to the progression of aggressive lung cancer. In addition, the side effects of chemotherapy, such as chemotherapy resistance and the acceleration of cellular senescence, can worsen COVID-19. Given this situation, we investigated the role of paclitaxel (a chemotherapy drug) in the cell proliferation, apoptosis, and cellular senescence of gefitinib-resistant non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells (PC9-MET) to clarify the underlying mechanisms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: PC9-MET cells were treated with paclitaxel for 72 h and then evaluated by a cell viability assay, DAPI staining, Giemsa staining, apoptosis assay, a reactive oxygen species (ROS) assay, SA-ß-Gal staining, a terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling assay and Western blotting. RESULTS: Paclitaxel significantly reduced the viability of PC9-MET cells and induced morphological signs of apoptosis. The apoptotic effects of paclitaxel were observed by increased levels of cleaved caspase-3 (Asp 175), cleaved caspase-9 (Asp 330) and cleaved PARP (Asp 214). In addition, paclitaxel increased ROS production, leading to DNA damage. Inhibition of ROS production by N-acetylcysteine attenuates paclitaxel-induced DNA damage. Importantly, paclitaxel eliminated cellular senescence, as observed by SA-ß-Gal staining. Cellular senescence elimination was associated with p53/p21 and p16/pRb signaling inactivation. CONCLUSION: Paclitaxel may be a promising anticancer drug and offer a new therapeutic strategy for managing gefitinib-resistant NSCLC during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Gefitinibe/farmacologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Paclitaxel/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Senescência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445264

RESUMO

The multidrug efflux transporter ABCB1 is clinically important for drug absorption and distribution and can be a determinant of chemotherapy failure. Recent structure data shows that three glutamines donate hydrogen bonds to coordinate taxol in the drug binding pocket. This is consistent with earlier drug structure-activity relationships that implicated the importance of hydrogen bonds in drug recognition by ABCB1. By replacing the glutamines with alanines we have tested whether any, or all, of Gln347, Gln725, and Gln990 are important for the transport of three different drug classes. Flow cytometric transport assays show that Q347A and Q990A act synergistically to reduce transport of Calcein-AM, BODIPY-verapamil, and OREGON GREEN-taxol bisacetate but the magnitude of the effect was dependent on the test drug and no combination of mutations completely abrogated function. Surprisingly, Q725A mutants generally improved transport of Calcein-AM and BODIPY-verapamil, suggesting that engagement of the wild-type Gln725 in a hydrogen bond is inhibitory for the transport mechanism. To test transport of unmodified taxol, stable expression of Q347/725A and the triple mutant was engineered and shown to confer equivalent resistance to the drug as the wild-type transporter, further indicating that none of these potential hydrogen bonds between transporter and transport substrate are critical for the function of ABCB1. The implications of the data for plasticity of the drug binding pocket are discussed.


Assuntos
Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Paclitaxel/farmacologia , Subfamília B de Transportador de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Subfamília B de Transportador de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Glutamina/genética , Glutamina/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto
6.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4960, 2021 08 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34400618

RESUMO

Agonists of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) are frequently given to cancer patients with platinum-containing chemotherapy to reduce inflammation, but how GR influences tumor growth in response to platinum-based chemotherapy such as cisplatin through inflammation-independent signaling remains largely unclear. Combined genomics and transcription factor profiling reveal that MAST1, a critical platinum resistance factor that reprograms the MAPK pathway, is upregulated upon cisplatin exposure through activated transcription factor GR. Mechanistically, cisplatin binds to C622 in GR and recruits GR to the nucleus for its activation, which induces MAST1 expression and consequently reactivates MEK signaling. GR nuclear translocation and MAST1 upregulation coordinately occur in patient tumors collected after platinum treatment, and align with patient treatment resistance. Co-treatment with dexamethasone and cisplatin restores cisplatin-resistant tumor growth, whereas addition of the MAST1 inhibitor lestaurtinib abrogates tumor growth while preserving the inhibitory effect of dexamethasone on inflammation in vivo. These findings not only provide insights into the underlying mechanism of GR in cisplatin resistance but also offer an effective alternative therapeutic strategy to improve the clinical outcome of patients receiving platinum-based chemotherapy with GR agonists.


Assuntos
Cisplatino/farmacologia , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Platina/farmacologia , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Receptores de Glucocorticoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores de Glucocorticoides/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Núcleo Celular , Sobrevivência Celular , Citocinas , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Feminino , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/genética , Receptores de Glucocorticoides/genética , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores de Transcrição , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
7.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4671, 2021 08 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34344863

RESUMO

Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) remains challenging because of heterogeneous responses to chemotherapy. Incomplete response is associated with a greater risk of metastatic progression. Therefore, treatments that target chemotherapy-resistant TNBC and enhance chemosensitivity would improve outcomes for these high-risk patients. Breast cancer stem cell-like cells (BCSCs) have been proposed to represent a chemotherapy-resistant subpopulation responsible for tumor initiation, progression and metastases. Targeting this population could lead to improved TNBC disease control. Here, we describe a novel multi-kinase inhibitor, 108600, that targets the TNBC BCSC population. 108600 treatment suppresses growth, colony and mammosphere forming capacity of BCSCs and induces G2M arrest and apoptosis of TNBC cells. In vivo, 108600 treatment of mice bearing triple negative tumors results in the induction of apoptosis and overcomes chemotherapy resistance. Finally, treatment with 108600 and chemotherapy suppresses growth of pre-established TNBC metastases, providing additional support for the clinical translation of this agent to clinical trials.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Caseína Quinase II/antagonistas & inibidores , Caseína Quinase II/química , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Camundongos , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/patologia , Paclitaxel/farmacologia , Paclitaxel/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/química , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/química , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/química , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
8.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443536

RESUMO

A common method of three-dimensional (3D) cell cultures is embedding single cells in Matrigel. Separated cells in Matrigel migrate or grow to form spheroids but lack cell-to-cell interaction, which causes difficulty or delay in forming mature spheroids. To address this issue, we proposed a 3D aggregated spheroid model (ASM) to create large single spheroids by aggregating cells in Matrigel attached to the surface of 96-pillar plates. Before gelling the Matrigel, we placed the pillar inserts into blank wells where gravity allowed the cells to gather at the curved end. In a drug screening assay, the ASM with Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines showed higher drug resistance compared to both a conventional spheroid model (CSM) and a two-dimensional (2D) cell culture model. With protein expression, cytokine activation, and penetration analysis, the ASM showed higher expression of cancer markers associated with proliferation (p-AKT, p-Erk), tight junction formation (Fibronectin, ZO-1, Occludin), and epithelial cell identity (E-cadherin) in HCC cells. Furthermore, cytokine factors were increased, which were associated with immune cell recruitment/activation (MIF-3α), extracellular matrix regulation (TIMP-2), cancer interaction (IL-8, TGF-ß2), and angiogenesis regulation (VEGF-A). Compared to CSM, the ASM also showed limited drug penetration in doxorubicin, which appears in tissues in vivo. Thus, the proposed ASM better recapitulated the tumor microenvironment and can provide for more instructive data during in vitro drug screening assays of tumor cells and improved prediction of efficacious drugs in HCC patients.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Imageamento Tridimensional , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Modelos Biológicos , Esferoides Celulares/patologia , Antineoplásicos/análise , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Agregação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Citocinas/metabolismo , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Matriz Extracelular/efeitos dos fármacos , Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Fluorescência , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Esferoides Celulares/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Junções Íntimas/metabolismo
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360846

RESUMO

ATC is a very rare, but extremely aggressive form of thyroid malignancy, responsible for the highest mortality rate registered for thyroid cancer. In patients without known genetic aberrations, the current treatment is still represented by palliative surgery and systemic mono- or combined chemotherapy, which is often not fully effective for the appearance of drug resistance. Comprehension of the mechanisms involved in the development of the resistance is therefore an urgent issue to suggest novel therapeutic approaches for this very aggressive malignancy. In this study, we created a model of anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) cells resistant to paclitaxel and investigated the characteristics of these cells by analyzing the profile of gene expression and comparing it with that of paclitaxel-sensitive original ATC cell lines. In addition, we evaluated the effects of Dihydrotanshinone I (DHT) on the viability and invasiveness of paclitaxel-resistant cells. ATC paclitaxel-resistant cells highlighted an overexpression of ABCB1 and a hyper-activation of the NF-κB compared to sensitive cells. DHT treatment resulted in a reduction of viability and clonogenic ability of resistant cells. Moreover, DHT induces a decrement of NF-κB activity in SW1736-PTX and 8505C-PTX cells. In conclusion, to the best of our knowledge, the results of the present study are the first to demonstrate the antitumor effects of DHT on ATC cells resistant to Paclitaxel in vitro.


Assuntos
Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Furanos/farmacologia , Fenantrenos/farmacologia , Quinonas/farmacologia , Carcinoma Anaplásico da Tireoide/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/tratamento farmacológico , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Paclitaxel/farmacologia
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445656

RESUMO

Neuroblastoma (Nb), the most common extracranial tumor in children, exhibited remarkable phenotypic diversity and heterogeneous clinical behavior. Tumors with MYCN overexpression have a worse prognosis. MYCN promotes tumor progression by inducing cell proliferation, de-differentiation, and dysregulated mitochondrial metabolism. Cyclophosphamide (CFF) at minimum effective oral doses (metronomic therapy) exerts beneficial actions on chemoresistant cancers. Molecular iodine (I2) in coadministration with all-trans retinoic acid synergizes apoptosis and cell differentiation in Nb cells. This work analyzes the impact of I2 and CFF on the viability (culture) and tumor progression (xenografts) of Nb chemoresistant SK-N-BE(2) cells. Results showed that both molecules induce dose-response antiproliferative effects, and I2 increases the sensibility of Nb cells to CFF, triggering PPARγ expression and acting as a mitocan in mitochondrial metabolism. In vivo oral I2/metronomic CFF treatments showed significant inhibition in xenograft growth, decreasing proliferation (Survivin) and activating apoptosis signaling (P53, Bax/Bcl-2). In addition, I2 decreased the expression of master markers of malignancy (MYCN, TrkB), vasculature remodeling, and increased differentiation signaling (PPARγ and TrkA). Furthermore, I2 supplementation prevented loss of body weight and hemorrhagic cystitis secondary to CFF in nude mice. These results allow us to propose the I2 supplement in metronomic CFF treatments to increase the effectiveness of chemotherapy and reduce side effects.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Ciclofosfamida/farmacologia , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Iodo/farmacologia , Neuroblastoma/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos Alquilantes/farmacologia , Apoptose , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Diferenciação Celular , Proliferação de Células , Quimioterapia Combinada , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Neuroblastoma/metabolismo , Neuroblastoma/patologia , Células Tumorais Cultivadas , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
11.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443413

RESUMO

Breast cancer is one of the most prevalent cancers worldwide usually treated with Tamoxifen. Tamoxifen resistance development is the most challenging issue in an initially responsive breast tumor, and mechanisms of resistance are still under investigation. The objective of this study is to develop and validate a selective, sensitive, and simultaneous high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method to explore the changes in substrates and metabolites in supernatant media of developed Tamoxifen resistance MCF-7 cells. We focus on the determination of lactate, pyruvate, and L-glutamine which enables the tracking of changes in metabolic pathways as a result of the resistance process. Chromatographic separation was achieved within 3.5 min. using a HILIC column (4.6 × 100 mm, 3.5 µm particle size) and mobile phase of 0.05 M acetic acid-ammonium acetate buffer solution pH 3.0: Acetonitrile (40:60 v/v). The linear range was 0.11-2.25, 0.012-0.227, and 0.02-0.20 mM for lactate, pyruvate, and L-glutamine, respectively. Within- and between-run accuracy was in the range 98.94-105.50% with precision (CV, %) of ≤0.86%. The results revealed a significant increase in both lactate and pyruvate production after acquiring the resistant. An increase in L-glutamine levels was also observed and could be attributed to its over production or decline in its consumption. Therefore, further tracking of genes responsible of lactate, pyruvate, and glutamine metabolic pathways should be performed in parallel to provide in-depth explanation of resistance mechanism.


Assuntos
Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Glutamina/metabolismo , Ácido Láctico/metabolismo , Tamoxifeno/farmacologia , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Calibragem , Contagem de Células , Forma Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , Ácido Pirúvico/metabolismo , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360933

RESUMO

Cisplatin is among the most widely used anticancer drugs used in the treatment of several malignancies, including oral cancer. However, cisplatin treatment often promotes chemical resistance, subsequently causing treatment failure. Several studies have shown that epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFRs) play a variety of roles in cancer progression and overcoming cisplatin resistance. Therefore, this study focused on EGFR inhibitors used in novel targeted therapies as a method to overcome this resistance. We herein aimed to determine whether the combined effects of cisplatin and cetuximab could enhance cisplatin sensitivity by inhibiting the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process in cisplatin-resistant cells. In vitro analyses of three cisplatin-resistant oral squamous cell carcinoma cells, which included cell proliferation assay, combination index calculation, cell cytotoxicity assay, live/dead cell count assay, Western blot assay, propidium iodide staining assay, scratch assay, and qRT-PCR assay were then conducted. Our results showed that a cisplatin/cetuximab combination treatment inhibited cell proliferation, cell motility, and N-cadherin protein expression but induced E-cadherin and claudin-1 protein expression. Although the combination of cisplatin and cetuximab did not induce apoptosis of cisplatin-resistant cells, it may be useful in treating oral cancer patients with cisplatin resistance given that it controls cell motility and EMT-related proteins.


Assuntos
Cetuximab/farmacologia , Cisplatino/farmacologia , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores ErbB/antagonistas & inibidores , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/tratamento farmacológico , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Combinação de Medicamentos , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos
13.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361789

RESUMO

Isobavachalcone (IBC) is an active substance from the medicinal plant Psoralea corylifolia. This prenylated chalcone was reported to possess antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and anticancer activities. Multidrug resistance (MDR) associated with the over-expression of the transporters of vast substrate specificity such as ABCB1 (P-glycoprotein) belongs to the main causes of cancer chemotherapy failure. The cytotoxic, MDR reversing, and ABCB1-inhibiting potency of isobavachalcone was studied in two cellular models: human colorectal adenocarcinoma HT29 cell line and its resistant counterpart HT29/Dx in which doxorubicin resistance was induced by prolonged drug treatment, and the variant of MDCK cells transfected with the human gene encoding ABCB1. Because MDR modulators are frequently membrane-active substances, the interaction of isobavachalcone with model phosphatidylcholine bilayers was studied by means of differential scanning calorimetry. Molecular modeling was employed to characterize the process of membrane permeation by isobavachalcone. IBC interacted with ABCB1 transporter, being a substrate and/or competitive inhibitor of ABCB1. Moreover, IBC intercalated into model membranes, significantly affecting the parameters of their main phospholipid phase transition. It was concluded that isobavachalcone interfered both with the lipid phase of cellular membrane and with ABCB1 transporter, and for this reason, its activity in MDR cancer cells was presumptively beneficial.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Chalconas/farmacologia , Doxorrubicina/farmacologia , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Psoralea/química , Subfamília B de Transportador de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/antagonistas & inibidores , Subfamília B de Transportador de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Subfamília B de Transportador de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Animais , Antibióticos Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/isolamento & purificação , Ligação Competitiva , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Chalconas/química , Chalconas/isolamento & purificação , Cães , Combinação de Medicamentos , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Expressão Gênica , Células HT29 , Humanos , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Bicamadas Lipídicas/química , Bicamadas Lipídicas/metabolismo , Células Madin Darby de Rim Canino , Membranas Artificiais , Modelos Moleculares , Fosfatidilcolinas/química , Fosfatidilcolinas/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/química , Plantas Medicinais , Ligação Proteica , Transgenes , Verapamil/farmacologia
14.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(33): 38959-38968, 2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34379404

RESUMO

Chemotherapy continues to be the most commonly applied strategy for cancer. Despite the impressive clinical success obtained with several drugs, increasing numbers of (multi)drug-resistant tumors are reported. To overcome this shortcoming, novel drug candidates and delivery systems are urgently needed. Herein, a therapeutic copper polypyridine complex encapsulated in natural nanocarrier apoferritin is reported. The generated nanoparticles showed higher cytotoxicity toward various (drug-resistant) cancer cell lines than noncancerous cells. The study of the mechanism revealed that the compound triggers cell autophagy-dependent apoptosis. Promisingly, upon injection of the nanodrug conjugate into the bloodstream of a mouse model bearing a multidrug-resistant colon tumor, a strong tumor growth inhibition effect was observed. To date, this is the first study describing the encapsulation of a copper complex in apoferritin that acts by autophagy-dependent apoptosis.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/química , Apoferritinas/química , Neoplasias do Colo/tratamento farmacológico , Complexos de Coordenação/química , Cobre/química , Nanocápsulas/química , Animais , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoferritinas/metabolismo , Morte Celular Autofágica/efeitos dos fármacos , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Permeabilidade da Membrana Celular , Complexos de Coordenação/farmacologia , Composição de Medicamentos , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Resistência a Múltiplos Medicamentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Neoplasias Experimentais
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360802

RESUMO

The introduction of immune checkpoint inhibitors has constituted a major revolution in the treatment of patients with cancer. In contrast with the traditional cytotoxic therapies that directly kill tumor cells, this treatment modality enhances the ability of the host's immune system to recognize and target cancerous cells. While immune checkpoint inhibitors have been effective across multiple cancer types, overcoming resistance remains a key area of ongoing research. The gut microbiota and its role in cancer immunosurveillance have recently become a major field of study. Gut microbiota has been shown to have direct and systemic effects on cancer pathogenesis and hosts anti-tumor immune response. Many studies have also shown that the host microbiota profile plays an essential role in the response to immunotherapy, especially immune checkpoint inhibitors. As such, modulating this microbial environment has offered a potential path to overcome the resistance to immune checkpoint inhibitors. In this review, we will talk about the role of microbiota in cancer pathogenesis and immune-system activity. We will also discuss preclinical and clinical studies that have increased our understanding about the roles and the mechanisms through which microbiota influences the response to treatment with immune checkpoint inhibitors.


Assuntos
Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/imunologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/imunologia , Neoplasias/microbiologia
16.
Anticancer Res ; 41(7): 3271-3279, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34230121

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Androgen receptor (AR) degradation is the primary regulator of androgen receptor activity. This study was designed to investigate the influence of the proteasome on AR protein stability after enzalutamide (Enz) treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cell counting after treatment was utilized to assess the effect of Enz on cell proliferation. Changes in mRNA levels were evaluated using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Proteasome activity was assessed by measurement of the chymotrypsin-like activity of the beta-5 subunit of the proteasome. Changes in protein levels after treatment with Enz, MG132 (MG), bortezomib (Bor), or their combination were assessed using western blot analysis. RESULTS: Treatment with Enz led to a significant reduction of cell proliferation and AR protein levels. However, AR mRNA levels were unchanged. Inhibition of proteasome activity by MG counteracts the Enz-mediated AR degradation transiently, whereas Bor showed no inhibition of the Enz-mediated AR degradation. CONCLUSION: Enz-mediated change in AR stability as an early and essential event after treatment was shown. However, investigations of the ubiquitin/proteasome system indicate involvement of several proteases in the Enz-mediated AR degradation process.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Benzamidas/farmacologia , Nitrilas/farmacologia , Feniltioidantoína/farmacologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/metabolismo , Proteólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores Androgênicos/metabolismo , Bortezomib/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Leupeptinas/farmacologia , Masculino , Próstata/efeitos dos fármacos , Próstata/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Próstata/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo
17.
Anticancer Res ; 41(7): 3287-3292, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34230123

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Osteosarcoma is the most frequent malignant bone neoplasm. The efficacy of combination therapy of a cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6 (CDK4/6) inhibitor and a mammalian-target-of-rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor was previously reported in several cancer types. In the present study, we evaluated the efficacy of a combination of palbociclib (CDK 4/6 inhibitor) and everolimus (mTOR inhibitor) on an osteosarcoma patient-derived orthotopic xenograft (PDOX) mouse model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: osteosarcoma PDOX mouse models were randomized into five treatment groups of seven mice each: Group 1, untreated control; group 2, doxorubicin treatment; group 3, palbociclib treatment; group 4, everolimus treatment; group 5, palbociclib-everolimus combination treatment. Treatment duration was 2 weeks. RESULTS: The palbociclib-everolimus combination reduced the tumor-volume ratio in the osteosarcoma PDOX mouse model compared with the control and doxorubicin (p=0.018). Everolimus alone also inhibited osteosarcoma PDOX growth compared to the control (p=0.04), but less than the combination. Palbociclib alone and doxorubicin were ineffective. There were no significant body-weight losses in any group. Only the palbociclib-everolimus combination induced extensive tumor necrosis observed histopathologically. CONCLUSION: The present study demonstrated that the combination of CDK4/6 and mTOR inhibitors can be a translatable approach for doxorubicin-resistant osteosarcoma in the clinic.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Neoplasias Ósseas/tratamento farmacológico , Quinase 4 Dependente de Ciclina/antagonistas & inibidores , Quinase 6 Dependente de Ciclina/antagonistas & inibidores , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteossarcoma/tratamento farmacológico , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/antagonistas & inibidores , Adolescente , Animais , Neoplasias Ósseas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Doxorrubicina/farmacologia , Everolimo/farmacologia , Feminino , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Osteossarcoma/metabolismo , Piperazinas/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Piridinas/farmacologia , Carga Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34201614

RESUMO

The use of MEK inhibitors in the therapy of uveal melanoma (UM) has been investigated widely but has failed to show benefits in clinical trials due to fast acquisition of resistance. In this study, we investigated a variety of therapeutic compounds in primary-derived uveal melanoma cell lines and found monosomy of chromosome 3 (M3) and mutations in BAP1 to be associated with higher resistance to MEK inhibition. However, reconstitution of BAP1 in a BAP1-deficient UM cell line was unable to restore sensitivity to MEK inhibition. We then compared UM tumors from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) with mutations in BAP1 with tumors with wild-type BAP1. Principal component analysis (PCA) clearly differentiated both groups of tumors, which displayed disparate overall and progression-free survival data. Further analysis provided insight into differential expression of genes involved in signaling pathways, suggesting that the downregulation of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2A (EIF2A) observed in UM tumors with BAP1 mutations and M3 UM cell lines might lead to a decrease in ribosome biogenesis while inducing an adaptive response to stress. Taken together, our study links loss of chromosome 3 with decreased sensitivity to MEK inhibition and gives insight into possible related mechanisms, whose understanding is fundamental to overcome resistance in this aggressive tumor.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos Par 3/genética , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Melanoma/genética , Monossomia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Neoplasias Uveais/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Difenilamina/análogos & derivados , Difenilamina/farmacologia , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator de Iniciação 2 em Eucariotos/genética , Fator de Iniciação 2 em Eucariotos/metabolismo , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/genética , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Melanoma/mortalidade , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/antagonistas & inibidores , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Piridonas/farmacologia , Pirimidinonas/farmacologia , Sulfonamidas/farmacologia , Análise de Sobrevida , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , Ubiquitina Tiolesterase/genética , Neoplasias Uveais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Uveais/mortalidade
19.
Mol Med Rep ; 24(4)2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34328195

RESUMO

Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a cancer associated with high mortality (accounting for 3.1/100,000 deaths per year in Brazil in 2013) and a high frequency of amplification in the expression of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Treatment with the EGFR inhibitor cetuximab leads to drug resistance in patients with OSCC due to unknown mechanisms. Galectin­3 (Gal­3) is a ß­galactoside binding lectin that regulates multiple signaling pathways in cells. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of Gal­3 in cetuximab­resistant (cet­R) OSCC. The OSCC HSC3 cell line was selected to establish a mouse xenograft model, which was treated with cetuximab to induce resistance. Subsequently, a Gal­3 inhibitor was used to treat cet­R tumors, and the tumor volume was monitored. The expression of Gal­3, phosphorylated (p)­ERK1/2 and p­Akt was assessed using immunohistochemistry. The combined effect of cetuximab and the Gal­3 inhibitor on HSC3 tumor xenografts was also investigated. HSC3 cells were cultured in vitro to investigate the regulatory effects of Gal­3 on ERK1/2 and Akt via western blotting. In addition, the effects of the Gal­3 inhibitor on the proliferation, colony formation, invasion and apoptosis of HSC3 cells were investigated by performing Cell Counting Kit­8, colony formation, Transwell and apoptosis assays, respectively. In cet­R OSCC tumors, increased expression of Gal­3, p­ERK1/2 and p­Akt was observed. Further research demonstrated that Gal­3 regulated the expression of both ERK1/2 and Akt in HSC3 cells by promoting phosphorylation. Moreover, the Gal­3 inhibitor decreased the proliferation and invasion, but increased the apoptosis of cet­R HSC3 cells. In addition, the Gal­3 inhibitor suppressed the growth of cet­R tumors. Collectively, the results indicated that the Gal­3 inhibitor and cetuximab displayed a synergistic inhibitory effect on OSCC tumors. In summary, the present study demonstrated that Gal­3 may serve an important role in cet­R OSCC. The combination of cetuximab and the Gal­3 inhibitor may display a synergistic antitumor effect, thereby inhibiting the development of cetuximab resistance in OSCC.


Assuntos
Proteínas Sanguíneas/antagonistas & inibidores , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/tratamento farmacológico , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Galectinas/antagonistas & inibidores , Neoplasias Bucais/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Sanguíneas/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Cetuximab/farmacologia , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Galectinas/genética , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Humanos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Proteína Quinase 1 Ativada por Mitógeno/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteína Quinase 3 Ativada por Mitógeno/antagonistas & inibidores , Neoplasias Bucais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Bucais/patologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/antagonistas & inibidores , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
20.
Mol Cell ; 81(15): 3128-3144.e7, 2021 08 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34216544

RESUMO

Mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2 (BRCA) is synthetic lethal with poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors (PARPi). Lethality is thought to derive from DNA double-stranded breaks (DSBs) necessitating BRCA function in homologous recombination (HR) and/or fork protection (FP). Here, we report instead that toxicity derives from replication gaps. BRCA1- or FANCJ-deficient cells, with common repair defects but distinct PARPi responses, reveal gaps as a distinguishing factor. We further uncouple HR, FP, and fork speed from PARPi response. Instead, gaps characterize BRCA-deficient cells, are diminished upon resistance, restored upon resensitization, and, when exposed, augment PARPi toxicity. Unchallenged BRCA1-deficient cells have elevated poly(ADP-ribose) and chromatin-associated PARP1, but aberrantly low XRCC1 consistent with defects in backup Okazaki fragment processing (OFP). 53BP1 loss resuscitates OFP by restoring XRCC1-LIG3 that suppresses the sensitivity of BRCA1-deficient cells to drugs targeting OFP or generating gaps. We highlight gaps as a determinant of PARPi toxicity changing the paradigm for synthetic lethal interactions.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Replicação do DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/farmacologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Cisplatino/farmacologia , DNA/genética , DNA/metabolismo , DNA de Cadeia Simples/genética , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Proteínas de Grupos de Complementação da Anemia de Fanconi/genética , Recombinação Homóloga/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , RNA Helicases/genética , Rad51 Recombinase/genética , Proteína de Replicação A/genética , Proteína 1 de Ligação à Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética
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