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2.
Ugeskr Laeger ; 182(41)2020 10 05.
Artigo em Dinamarquês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33046185

RESUMO

Transparency in modelling of the COVID-19 spread is necessary for enhanced understanding of the underlying logic and assumptions. In Denmark, the government relies on the expert advice given by Statens Serum Institut, whose model logic requires programming capabilities. This review demonstrates the importance in model transparency by setting up a system dynamics simulation model of the COVID-19 spread. The developed model can be applied to test intended interventions' effects and is promoted as a suitable approach for other equally complex problem solving in healthcare.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Resolução de Problemas , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Assistência à Saúde , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão
5.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0236030, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32915801

RESUMO

Previous experimental studies have regarded distraction, an emotional regulation strategy, as an attentional disengagement strategy and considered it to be maladaptive in the long term. This study intends to further examine the relationship between distraction and negative emotions by using a questionnaire and a multiple mediation model. A total of 723 college students completed the distraction, cognitive reappraisal and problem-solving subscales of the Measurement of Affect Regulation Styles, the Needs Satisfaction Questionnaire, the Meaningful Life Measure, and the Emotional Experience Questionnaire of Well-being. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was performed, and mediation effects were tested. The results showed that (1) distraction was used significantly more frequently than problem-solving and cognitive reappraisal, with a large effect size (partial η2 = 0.321 > 0.138), and (2) distraction had an effect on negative emotions through two multiple mediation paths, i.e., positive emotion-cognitive reappraisal-meaning in life, and positive emotion-problem-solving-needs satisfaction. Distraction reduces negative emotions by enhancing positive emotions and facilitating cognitive reappraisal, problem-solving, meaning in life and needs satisfaction. It is not a kind of avoidance but a temporary rest to strive for a better life.


Assuntos
Regulação Emocional , Resolução de Problemas , Estudantes , Adulto , Atenção , China , Cognição , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
6.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238463, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32881919

RESUMO

In a clinical decision support system, the purpose of case-based reasoning is to help clinicians make convenient decisions for diagnoses or interventional gestures. Past experience, which is represented by a case-base of previous patients, is exploited to solve similar current problems using four steps-retrieve, reuse, revise, and retain. The proposed case-based reasoning has been focused on transcatheter aortic valve implantation to respond to clinical issues pertaining vascular access and prosthesis choices. The computation of a relevant similarity measure is an essential processing step employed to obtain a set of retrieved cases from a case-base. A hierarchical similarity measure that is based on a clinical decision tree is proposed to better integrate the clinical knowledge, especially in terms of case representation, case selection and attributes weighting. A case-base of 138 patients is used to evaluate the case-based reasoning performance, and retrieve- and reuse-based criteria have been considered. The sensitivity for the vascular access and the prosthesis choice is found to 0.88 and 0.94, respectively, with the use of the hierarchical similarity measure as opposed to 0.53 and 0.79 for the standard similarity measure. Ninety percent of the suggested solutions are correctly classified for the proposed metric when four cases are retrieved. Using a dedicated similarity measure, with relevant and weighted attributes selected through a clinical decision tree, the set of retrieved cases, and consequently, the decision suggested by the case-based reasoning are substantially improved over state-of-the-art similarity measures.


Assuntos
Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter/métodos , Algoritmos , Valva Aórtica/fisiologia , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Sistemas de Apoio a Decisões Clínicas , Próteses Valvulares Cardíacas/tendências , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/métodos , Humanos , Seleção de Pacientes , Resolução de Problemas , Desenho de Prótese , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
J Interprof Care ; 34(5): 711-715, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32990108

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has instigated significant changes for health care systems. With clinician burnout rising, efforts to promote clinician resilience are essential. Within this quality improvement project, an interprofessional debriefing program (Brigham Resilience in COVID-19-pandemic Emergency Forum-BRIEF) was developed within two emergency departments (EDs). An interprofessional group of ED providers led optional, nightly debriefings using a web-based portal to connect with ED clinicians for six weeks. In total, 81 interprofessional staff participated in nightly debriefings with a 47% attendance rate. On average, three participants attended the BRIEF nightly (range = 2-8) to discuss the challenges of social distancing, scarce resources, high acuity, clinician burnout and mental health. Participation increased as rates of COVID-19 positive patients rose. Debriefing leaders provided ED leadership with summaries of clinician experiences and suggestions for improvements. Feedback supported quality improvement initiatives within the ED and greater mental health support for staff. Clinicians and administrators provided positive feedback regarding the program's impact on clinician morale, and clinical processes that promoted the safety and quality of patient care. Optional debriefing with receptive departmental leadership may be a successful tool to support clinicians and hospitals during critical events.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Processos Grupais , Internet , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Resiliência Psicológica , Esgotamento Profissional/prevenção & controle , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Humanos , Liderança , Resolução de Problemas
10.
Behav Brain Sci ; 43: e172, 2020 08 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32772974

RESUMO

Osiurak and Reynaud argue that cumulative technological culture is made possible by a "non-social cognitive structure" (sect. 1, para. 1) and they offer an account that aims "to escape from the social dimension" (sect. 1, para. 2) of human cognition. We challenge their position by arguing that human technical rationality is unintelligible outside of our species' uniquely social form of life, which is defined by shared intentionality (Kern & Moll 2017, Philosophical Psychology30(3):319-37; Tomasello 2019a, Becoming human: A theory of ontogeny. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press).


Assuntos
Cognição , Resolução de Problemas , China , Humanos
11.
Behav Brain Sci ; 43: e180, 2020 08 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32772967

RESUMO

Osiurak and Reynaud highlight a major omission of models of cumulative technological culture. I propose an additional problematic omission: pride. By taking this emotion into account, we can address the question of why humans seek to learn, teach, and innovate - three processes essential to cumulative technological culture (CTC). By fostering achievement, prestige, and social learning, pride provides a pivotal piece of the puzzle.


Assuntos
Logro , Emoções , China , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Resolução de Problemas
12.
Behav Brain Sci ; 43: e175, 2020 08 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32772989

RESUMO

Innovation is fundamental to cumulative culture, allowing progressive modification of existing technology. The authors define innovation as an asocial process, uninfluenced by social information. We argue that innovation is inherently social - innovation is frequently the product of modifying others' outputs, and successful innovations are acquired by others. Research should target examination of the cognitive underpinnings of socially-mediated innovations.


Assuntos
Criatividade , Resolução de Problemas , China
13.
Behav Brain Sci ; 43: e176, 2020 08 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32772995

RESUMO

Osiurak and Reynaud (O&R) claim that research into the origin of cumulative technological culture has been too focused on social cognition and has consequently neglected the importance of uniquely human reasoning capacities. This commentary raises two interrelated theoretical concerns about O&R's notion of technical-reasoning capacities, and suggests how these concerns might be met.


Assuntos
Resolução de Problemas , Comportamento Social , China , Humanos
14.
Behav Brain Sci ; 43: e179, 2020 08 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32772996

RESUMO

We consider the evolutionary plausibility of Osiurak and Reynaud's (O&R) arguments. We argue that technical reasoning is not quite the magic bullet that O&R assume, and instead propose a co-evolutionary account of the interplay between technical reasoning and social learning, with language emerging as a vital issue neglected in O&R's account.


Assuntos
Inteligência , Idioma , China , Cognição , Resolução de Problemas
15.
Behav Brain Sci ; 43: e181, 2020 08 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32773002

RESUMO

Osiurak and Reynaud highlight the critical role of technical-reasoning skills in the emergence of human cumulative technological culture (CTC), in contrast to previous accounts foregrounding social-reasoning skills as key to CTC. We question their analysis of the available evidence, yet for other reasons applaud the emphasis on causal understanding as central to the adaptive and collaborative dynamics of CTC.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem , Resolução de Problemas , China , Compreensão , Humanos , Comportamento Social
16.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 8: CD013461, 2020 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32841367

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Depression is common in people with non-communicable diseases (NCDs) such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer, and chronic respiratory conditions. The co-existence of depression and NCDs may affect health behaviours, compliance with treatment, physiological factors, and quality of life. This in turn is associated with worse outcomes for both conditions. Behavioural activation is not currently indicated for the treatment of depression in this population in the UK, but is increasingly being used to treat depression in adults. OBJECTIVES: To examine the effects of behavioural activation compared with any control group for the treatment of depression in adults with NCDs. To examine the effects of behavioural activation compared with each control group separately (no treatment, waiting list, other psychological therapy, pharmacological treatment, or any other type of treatment as usual) for the treatment of depression in adults with NCDs. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CCMD-CTR, CENTRAL, Ovid MEDLINE, Embase, four other databases, and two trial registers on 4 October 2019 to identify randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of behavioural activation for depression in participants with NCDs, together with grey literature and reference checking. We applied no restrictions on date, language, or publication status to the searches. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included RCTs of behavioural activation for the treatment of depression in adults with one of four NCDs: cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer, and chronic respiratory conditions. Only participants with a formal diagnosis of both depression and an NCD were eligible. Studies were included if behavioural activation was the main component of the intervention. We included studies with any comparator that was not behavioural activation, and regardless of reported outcomes. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane, including independent screening of titles/abstracts and full-text manuscripts, data extraction, and risk of bias assessments in duplicate. Where necessary, we contacted study authors for more information. MAIN RESULTS: We included two studies, contributing data from 181 participants to the analyses. Both studies recruited participants from US hospital clinics; one included people who were recovering from a stroke and the other women with breast cancer. For both studies, the intervention consisted of eight weeks of face-to-face behavioural therapy, with one study comparing to poststroke treatment as usual and the other comparing to problem-solving therapy. Both studies were at risk of performance bias and potential conflict of interest arising from author involvement in the development of the intervention. For one study, risks of selection bias and reporting bias were unclear and the study was judged at high risk of attrition bias. Treatment efficacy (remission) was greater for behavioural activation than for comparators in the short term (risk ratio (RR) 1.53, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.98 to 2.38; low-certainty evidence) and medium term (RR 1.76, 95% CI 1.01 to 3.08; moderate-certainty evidence), but these estimates lacked precision and effects were reduced in the long term (RR 1.42, 95% CI 0.91 to 2.23; moderate-certainty evidence). We found no evidence of a difference in treatment acceptability in the short term (RR 1.81, 95% CI 0.68 to 4.82) and medium term (RR 0.88, 95% CI 0.25 to 3.10) (low-certainty evidence). There was no evidence of a difference in depression symptoms between behavioural activation and comparators (short term: MD -1.15, 95% CI -2.71 to 0.41; low-certainty evidence). One study found no difference for quality of life (short term: MD 0.40, 95% CI -0.16 to 0.96; low-certainty evidence), functioning (short term: MD 2.70, 95% CI -6.99 to 12.39; low-certainty evidence), and anxiety symptoms (short term: MD -1.70, 95% CI -4.50 to 1.10; low-certainty evidence). Neither study reported data on adverse effects. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Evidence from this review was not sufficient to draw conclusions on the efficacy and acceptability of behavioural activation for the treatment of depression in adults with NCDs. A future review may wish to include, or focus on, studies of people with subthreshold depression or depression symptoms without a formal diagnosis, as this may inform whether behavioural activation could be used to treat mild or undiagnosed (or both) depressive symptoms in people with NCDs. Evidence from low-resource settings including low- and middle-income countries, for which behavioural activation may offer a feasible alternative to other treatments for depression, would be of interest.


Assuntos
Terapia Comportamental/métodos , Neoplasias da Mama/psicologia , Depressão/terapia , Doenças não Transmissíveis/psicologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/psicologia , Adulto , Viés , Conflito de Interesses , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Resolução de Problemas , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Proc Biol Sci ; 287(1932): 20201262, 2020 08 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32781947

RESUMO

We humans sort the world around us into conceptual groups, such as 'the same' or 'different', which facilitates many cognitive tasks. Applying such abstract concepts can improve problem-solving success and is therefore worth the cognitive investment. In this study, we investigated whether ants (Lasius niger) can learn the relational rule of 'the same' or 'different' by training them in an odour match-to-sample test over 48 visits. While ants in the 'different' treatment improved significantly over time, reaching around 65% correct decisions, ants in the 'same' treatment did not. Ants did not seem able to learn such abstract relational concepts, but instead created their own individual strategy to try to solve the problem: some ants decided to 'always go left', others preferred a 'go to the more salient cue' heuristic which systematically biased their decisions. These heuristics even occasionally lowered the success rate in the experiment below chance, indicating that following any rule may be more desirable then making truly random decisions. As the finding that ants resort to heuristics when facing hard-to-solve decisions was discovered post-hoc, we strongly encourage other researchers to ask whether employing heuristics in the face of challenging tasks is a widespread phenomenon in insects.


Assuntos
Formigas/fisiologia , Heurística , Aprendizagem , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Odorantes , Resolução de Problemas
18.
Cuad. bioét ; 31(102): 151-156, mayo-ago. 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-194275

RESUMO

La crisis de salud pública provocada por la enfermedad de Covid-19 ha recobrado el viejo debate del papel que en la toma de decisiones en nuestras democracias le corresponde a la política y a la ciencia. En este trabajo analizamos cómo, en el contexto de la pandemia, se aprecia que la política ha dejado un papel estelar a la ciencia, bien por anticiparse en ocasiones ésta a aquélla en la propuesta de soluciones, o bien por propia estrategia premeditada ante la opinión pública, habiendo sido frecuente la referencia a la opinión de los científicos como criterio decisor o, más allá, la presencia de éstos como verdaderos portavoces de la autoridad. Ello supone redescubrir la ciencia y la salud como instrumentos de poder, en términos que nos recuerdan a lo que denunciara hace casi cincuenta años Foucault con su Biopolítica


The public health crisis caused by Covid-19 disease has bring again to the public arena the old debate of the role in decision-making process of politics and science. In this paper we analyze, in the context of the current pandemics, how politics has left a stellar role for science, either because science has anticipated in its proposals to politics, or because politics has opted for it as a premeditated strategy. The references to the opinion of scientists as a decision-making criterion or, furthermore, their presence as true spokesmen for authority have been so frequent. This means rediscovering science and health as instruments of power, in terms that remind us of what Foucault denounced almost fifty years ago with his Biopolitics


Assuntos
Humanos , Pandemias/ética , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Políticas Públicas de Saúde , Tomada de Decisões/ética , Infectologia/ética , Bioética/tendências , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/organização & administração , Resolução de Problemas/ética , Democracia , Ministério Público/organização & administração
19.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236558, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32785258

RESUMO

Active learning pedagogies decrease failure rates in undergraduate introductory biology courses, but these practices also cause anxiety for some students. Classroom anxiety can impact student learning and has been associated with decreased student retention in the major, but little is known about how students cope with anxiety caused by active learning practices. In this study, we investigated student coping strategies for various types of active learning (clickers, volunteering to answer a question, cold calling, and group work) that were used in 13 introductory Biology courses at a large public university in 2016-2017. A survey asked students to rate their anxiety regarding the four active learning practices and over half of the students explained the coping strategies they used to manage their active learning anxieties. Coping responses from 880 students were sorted into pre-defined categories of coping strategies: problem solving, information seeking, self-reliance, support seeking, accommodation, helplessness, escape, delegation, and isolation. We found that a different category of coping was dominant for each type of active learning. The dominant coping strategies for anxiety associated with clickers, cold calling, and group work were adaptive coping strategies of information seeking, self-reliance, and support-seeking, respectively. The dominant coping strategy for volunteering to answer a question was escape, which is a maladaptive strategy. This study provides a detailed exploration of student self-reported coping in response to active learning practices and suggests several areas that could be foci for future psychosocial interventions to bolster student regulation of their emotions in response to these new classroom practices.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Educação de Graduação em Medicina , Emoções/fisiologia , Adulto , Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Biologia/normas , Avaliação Educacional , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Resolução de Problemas , Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas , Estudantes/psicologia , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
20.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237568, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32797063

RESUMO

Planning and execution are two important parts of the problem-solving process. Based on related research, it is expected that planning speed and execution speed are positively correlated because of underlying individual differences in general mental speed. While there could also be a direct negative dependency of execution time on planning time, given the hypothesis that an investment in planning contributes to more efficient execution. The positive correlation and negative dependency are not contradictory since the former is a relationship across individuals (at the latent variable level) and the latter is a relationship within individuals (at the manifest variable level) after controlling for across-individual relationships. With two linear mixed model analyses and a factor model analysis, these two different kinds of relationships were examined using dependency analysis. The results supported the above hypotheses. The correlation between the latent variables of planning and execution was found to be positive and the dependency of execution time on planning time was found to be negative in all analyses. Moreover, the negative dependency varied among items and to some extent among persons as well. In summary, this study provides a clearer picture of the relationship between planning and execution and suggests that analyses at different levels may reveal different relationships.


Assuntos
Resolução de Problemas , Estudantes/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Teóricos , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Adulto Jovem
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