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2.
J Environ Manage ; 257: 110005, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31989961

RESUMO

Soil improvement measures need to be ecologically credible, socially acceptable and economically affordable if they are to enter widespread use. However, in real world decision contexts not all measures can sufficiently meet these criteria. As such, developing, selecting and using appropriate tools to support more systematic appraisal of soil improvement measures in different decision-making contexts represents an important challenge. Tools differ in their aims, ranging from those focused on appraising issues of cost-effectiveness, wider ecosystem services impacts and adoption barriers/opportunities, to those seeking to foster participatory engagement and social learning. Despite the growing complexity of the decision-support tool landscape, comprehensive guidance for selecting tools that are best suited to appraise soil improvement measures, as well as those well-adapted to enable participatory deployment, has generally been lacking. We address this gap using the experience and survey data from an EU-funded project (RECARE: Preventing and REmediating degradation of soils in Europe through land CARE). RECARE applied different socio-cultural, biophysical and monetary appraisal tools to assess the costs, benefits and adoption of soil improvement measures across Europe. We focused on these appraisal tools and evaluated their performance against three broad attributes that gauge their differences and suitability for widespread deployment to aid stakeholder decision making in soil management. Data were collected using an online questionnaire administered to RECARE researchers. Although some tools worked better than others across case studies, the information collated was used to provide guiding strategies for choosing appropriate tools, considering resources and data availability, characterisation of uncertainty, and the purpose for which a specific soil improvement measure is being developed or promoted. This paper provides insights to others working in practical soil improvement contexts as to why getting the tools right matters. It demonstrates how use of the right tools can add value to decision-making in ameliorating soil threats, supporting the sustainable management of the services that our soil ecosystems provide.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Solo , Tomada de Decisões , Europa (Continente) , Resolução de Problemas
3.
J Clin Nurs ; 29(1-2): 75-84, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31512306

RESUMO

AIM: To develop a substantive theoretical explanation that makes sense of the decision-making process that clinical instructors use to place students on a learning contract. BACKGROUND: Clinical instructors are challenged with the task of objectively evaluating students using subjective tools such as anecdotal notes, diaries, unstructured observations and verbal feedback from other nurses. Clinical instructors' assessment decisions have a considerable impact on a variety of key stakeholders, not least of all students. DESIGN: Grounded theory method and its heuristic tools including the logic of constant comparison, continuous memoing and theoretical sampling to serve conceptualisation were used in the process of data collection and analysis. METHODS: Seventeen individual semi-structured interviews with clinical instructors in one university in Western Canada were conducted between May 2016-May 2017. Data were analysed using open, axial and selective coding consistent with grounded theory methodology. The study was checked for the Standards for Reporting Qualitative Research (SRQR) criteria (See Appendix S1). FINDINGS: Three subcategories, "brewing trouble," "unpacking thinking" and "benchmarking" led to the study's substantive theoretical explanation. "Gut feeling" demonstrates how clinical instructors reason in their decision-making process to place a student on a learning contract. CONCLUSION: Placing a student on a learning contract is impacted by personal, professional and institutional variables that together shift the process of evaluation towards subjectivity, thus influencing students' competency. A system-level approach, focusing on positive change through implementing innovative assessment strategies, such as using a smart phone application, is needed to provide some degree of consistency and objectivity. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: Making visible the objective assessments currently being done by clinical instructors has the potential to change organisational standards, which in turn impact patient and clinical outcomes.


Assuntos
Bacharelado em Enfermagem/métodos , Docentes de Enfermagem/psicologia , Estudantes de Enfermagem/psicologia , Canadá , Contratos , Avaliação Educacional/métodos , Teoria Fundamentada , Humanos , Intuição , Resolução de Problemas , Pesquisa Qualitativa
4.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1180: 233-265, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31784967

RESUMO

Depression is highly prevalent and causes unnecessary human suffering and economic loss. Therefore, its treatment and prevention are of utmost importance. There are several advantages of using psychotherapy either by itself or combined with pharmacological treatment methods in the treatment of depression. First, it is well known that combining biological treatment with psychosocial methods increases the chances of recovery. Second, in some individuals, psychotherapy continues to be the only solution. Third, the use of antidepressants contains some safety risks and side effects, but psychotherapy does not. Fourth, clinically, depressive patients prefer psychotherapy to drug therapy. Use of a depression-focused psychotherapy alone is recommended as an initial treatment choice for patients with mild to moderate depression, with clinical evidence supporting the use of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT), psychodynamic psychotherapy (PDP), and problem-solving therapy (PST) in individual and group formats. Important developments took place within the past 20 years in the psychotherapy of depression. In the present chapter, we introduced several key issues, such as, Are all psychotherapies equally effective? Who benefits from psychotherapies? Is telepsychotherapy effective? Finally, we introduce the psychotherapy for special populations.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo/terapia , Psicoterapia/métodos , Antidepressivos , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Humanos , Resolução de Problemas , Psicoterapia Psicodinâmica
5.
Behav Brain Sci ; 42: e262, 2019 12 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31826751

RESUMO

Hoerl & McCormack discuss the benefits of temporal reasoning mainly with respect to future planning and decision making. I point out that, for humans, the ability to represent particular past times has distinct benefits, which are independent from contributing to future-directed cognition. Hence, the evolution of the temporal reasoning system was not necessarily driven primarily by its benefits for future-directed cognition.


Assuntos
Cognição , Pensamento , Tomada de Decisões , Humanos , Resolução de Problemas
6.
Behav Brain Sci ; 42: e271, 2019 12 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31826753

RESUMO

Hoerl and McCormack demonstrate that although animals possess a sophisticated temporal updating system, there is no evidence that they also possess a temporal reasoning system. This important case study is directly related to the broader claim that although animals are manifestly capable of first-order (perceptually-based) relational reasoning, they lack the capacity for higher-order, role-based relational reasoning. We argue this distinction applies to all domains of cognition.


Assuntos
Cognição , Resolução de Problemas , Animais , Humanos
7.
Behav Brain Sci ; 42: e266, 2019 12 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31826754

RESUMO

A central claim by Hoerl & McCormack is that the temporal reasoning system is uniquely human. But why exactly? This commentary evaluates two possible options to justify the thesis that temporal reasoning is uniquely human, one based on considerations regarding agency and the other based on language. The commentary raises problems for both of these options.


Assuntos
Cognição , Resolução de Problemas , Humanos , Linguagem
8.
Behav Brain Sci ; 42: e267, 2019 12 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31826756

RESUMO

This commentary explores how emotion fits in the dual-systems model of temporal cognition proposed by Hoerl & McCormack. The updating system would be affected by emotion via the attentional/arousal effect according to the attentional gate model. The reasoning system would be disrupted by emotion, especially for traumatic events. Time discrepancies described in the dual-systems model are also explained.


Assuntos
Cognição , Emoções , Nível de Alerta , Atenção , Resolução de Problemas
9.
Behav Brain Sci ; 42: e263, 2019 12 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31826757

RESUMO

Evidence from our research on young children's temporal understanding supports Hoerl & McCormack's view that young children rely on a temporal updating system to change representations over time. We propose that the shift from temporal updating to temporal reasoning is enabled by children's expanding representations of event sequences, along with developments in language, memory, and other cognitive competencies.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , Resolução de Problemas , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cognição , Compreensão , Humanos , Memória
10.
Behav Brain Sci ; 42: e275, 2019 12 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31826759

RESUMO

Here I consider the possible role of the temporal updating system in the development of the temporal reasoning system. Using evidence from children's acquisition of time words, I argue that abstract temporal concepts are not built from primitive representations of time. Instead, I propose that language and cultural learning provide the primary sources of the temporal reasoning system.


Assuntos
Cognição , Resolução de Problemas , Criança , Humanos , Linguagem , Aprendizagem
11.
Behav Brain Sci ; 42: e261, 2019 12 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31826764

RESUMO

Based on the notion that time, space, and number are part of a generalized magnitude system, we assume that the dual-systems approach to temporal cognition also applies to numerical cognition. Referring to theoretical models of the development of numerical concepts, we propose that children's early skills in processing numbers can be described analogously to temporal updating and temporal reasoning.


Assuntos
Cognição , Resolução de Problemas , Criança , Humanos , Matemática , Análise de Sistemas
12.
Behav Brain Sci ; 42: e255, 2019 12 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31826766

RESUMO

This commentary construes the relation between the two systems of temporal updating and temporal reasoning as a bifurcation and tracks it across three time scales: phylogeny, ontogeny, and microgeny. In taking a dynamic systems approach, flexibility, as mentioned by Hoerl & McCormack, is revealed as the key characteristic of human temporal cognition.


Assuntos
Cognição , Teoria de Sistemas , Humanos , Resolução de Problemas
13.
Behav Brain Sci ; 42: e276, 2019 12 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31826768

RESUMO

Here we argue how Hoerl & McCormack's dual system proposal may change the current view about the neural correlates underlying temporal information processing. We also consider that the concept of the dual system may help characterize various timing disabilities in neuropsychiatric disorders from the new perspective.


Assuntos
Cognição , Resolução de Problemas
14.
Behav Brain Sci ; 42: e269, 2019 12 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31826773

RESUMO

People can imagine their future selves without taking future-focused action. Identity-based motivation theory explains why. Hoerl & McCormack outline how. Present-focused action prevails because future "me" feels irrelevant to the choices facing current "me" unless future "me" is experienced as occurring now or as linked to current "me" via if-then simulations. This entails reasoning in time and about time.


Assuntos
Cognição , Motivação , Emoções , Previsões , Resolução de Problemas
15.
Behav Brain Sci ; 42: e278, 2019 12 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31826775

RESUMO

We focus on three main sets of topics emerging from the commentaries on our target article. First, we discuss several types of animal behavior that commentators cite as evidence against our claim that animals are restricted to temporal updating and cannot engage in temporal reasoning. In doing so, we illustrate further how explanations of behavior in terms of temporal updating work. Second, we respond to commentators' queries about the developmental process through which children acquire a capacity for temporal reasoning and about the relation between our account and accounts drawing similar distinctions in other domains of cognition. Finally, we address some broader theoretical issues arising from the commentaries, concerning in particular the question as to how our account relates to the phenomenology of experience in time, and the question as to whether our dichotomy between temporal reasoning and temporal updating is exhaustive, or whether there might be other forms of cognition or representation related to time not captured by it.


Assuntos
Cognição , Resolução de Problemas , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Criança , Humanos
16.
Behav Brain Sci ; 42: e252, 2019 12 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31826784

RESUMO

Hoerl & McCormack suggest that saving tools does not require temporal reasoning. However, we identify a class of objects that are only possessed (i.e., saved) in anticipation of future needs. We propose that investigating these future-oriented objects may help identify temporal reasoning in populations where this ability is uncertain.


Assuntos
Cognição , Resolução de Problemas , Incerteza
17.
Behav Brain Sci ; 42: e249, 2019 12 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31826795

RESUMO

This commentary relates Hoerl & McCormack's dual systems perspective to models of cognitive development emphasizing representational redescription and the role of culturally constructed tools, including language, in providing flexible formats for thinking. We describe developmental processes that enable children to construct a mental time line, situate themselves in time, and overcome the primacy of the here and now.


Assuntos
Cognição , Resolução de Problemas , Criança , Humanos , Linguagem
18.
Behav Brain Sci ; 42: e258, 2019 12 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31826797

RESUMO

Two issues should be addressed to refine and extend the distinction between temporal updating and reasoning advocated by Hoerl & McCormack. First, do the mental representations constructed during updating differ from those used for reasoning? Second, are updating and reasoning the only two processes relevant to temporal thinking? If not, is a dual-systems framework sensible? We address both issues below.


Assuntos
Resolução de Problemas , Pensamento , Cognição
20.
Br J Radiol ; 92(1104): 20190672, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31603350

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This paper considers aspects of radiobiology and cell and tissue kinetics applicable to legal disputations concerned with diagnostic and treatment onset delays. METHODS: Various models for tumour volume changes with time are reviewed for estimating volume ranges at earlier times, using ranges of kinetic parameters. Statistical cure probability methods, using Poisson statistics with allowances for parameter heterogeneity, are also described to estimate the significance of treatment delays, as well as biological effective dose (BED) estimations of radiation effectiveness. RESULTS: The use of growth curves, based on parameters in the literature but with extended ranges, can identify a window of earlier times when such tumour volumes would be amenable to a cure based on the literature for curability with stage (and dimensions). Also, where tumour dimensions are not available in a post-operative setting, higher cure probabilities can be achieved if treatment had been given at earlier times. CONCLUSION: The use of radiobiological modelling can provide useful insights, with quantitative assessments of probable prior conditions and future outcomes, and thus be of assistance to a Court in deciding the most correct judgement. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: This study collates prior knowledge about aspects of radiobiology that can be useful in the accumulation of sufficient proof within medicolegal claims involving diagnostic and treatment days.


Assuntos
Diagnóstico Tardio/legislação & jurisprudência , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/radioterapia , Radiobiologia/legislação & jurisprudência , Tempo para o Tratamento/legislação & jurisprudência , Algoritmos , Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Ciclo Celular/fisiologia , Proliferação de Células/fisiologia , Humanos , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Neoplasias/patologia , Distribuição de Poisson , Resolução de Problemas , Prognóstico , Radioterapia (Especialidade)/legislação & jurisprudência , Radioterapia (Especialidade)/métodos , Radiobiologia/métodos , Eficiência Biológica Relativa , Fatores de Tempo , Carga Tumoral/fisiologia
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