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1.
Int J Infect Dis ; 102: 282-284, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33127502

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the detailed clinical course of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) who received invasive mechanical ventilation. METHODS: We conducted a case series of patients with COVID-19 who received invasive mechanical ventilation in Osaka, Japan, between January 29 and May 28, 2020. We describe the patient characteristics and clinical course from onset. Additionally, we fitted logistic regression models to investigate the associations between patient characteristics and the 30-day mortality rate. RESULTS: A total of 125 patients who received invasive mechanical ventilation (median age [interquartile range], 68 [57-73] years; male, 77.6%) were enrolled. Overall, the 30-day mortality was 24.0%, and the median (interquartile range) length of ICU stay and length of invasive mechanical ventilation use were 16 (12-29) days and 13 (9-26) days, respectively. From clinical onset, 121 patients (96.8%) were intubated within 14 days. In multivariable logistic regression analysis, age of 65 years or older (odds ratio, 3.56; 95% confidence interval, 1.21-10.49; P = 0.02) and male sex (odds ratio, 3.75; 95% confidence interval, 1.00-11.24, P = 0.04) were significantly associated with a higher 30-day mortality rate. CONCLUSIONS: In this case series of patients with COVID-19 who received invasive mechanical ventilation in Japan, the 30-day mortality rate was 24.0%, and age 65 years or older and male sex were associated with higher 30-day mortality rate.


Assuntos
/terapia , Respiração Artificial/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
2.
Am J Perinatol ; 38(1): 82-87, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33069171

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to describe two cases of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) secondary to novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in pregnant women requiring extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), and resulting in premature delivery. STUDY DESIGN: The clinical course of two women hospitalized with ARDS due to COVID-19 care in our intensive care (ICU) is summarized; both participants provided consent to be included in this case series. RESULTS: Both women recovered with no clinical sequelae. Neonatal outcomes were within the realm of expected for prematurity with the exception of coagulopathy. There was no vertical transmission to the neonates. CONCLUSION: This case series highlights that ECMO is a feasible treatment in the pregnant woman with severe COVID-19 and that delivery can be performed safely on ECMO with no additional risk to the fetus. While ECMO carries its natural risks, it should be considered a viable option during pregnancy and the postpartum period. KEY POINTS: · COVID-19 may present with a more severe course in pregnancy.. · ECMO may be used in pregnant woman with severe COVID-19.. · Delivery can be performed on ECMO without added fetal risk..


Assuntos
Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , Respiração Artificial/métodos , /isolamento & purificação , Adulto , /diagnóstico , /fisiopatologia , Cesárea/métodos , Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea/efeitos adversos , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/fisiopatologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/terapia , Resultado da Gravidez , /terapia , Risco Ajustado/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed ; 106(1): 25-30, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32546543

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: T-piece resuscitators (TPRs) are used for primary newborn resuscitation in birthing and emergency rooms worldwide. A recent study has shown spikes in peak inflation pressure (PIP) over set values with two brands of TPRs inbuilt into infant warmer/resuscitation platforms. We aimed to compare delivered ventilation between two TPR drivers with inflation pressure spikes to a standard handheld TPR in a low test lung compliance (Crs), leak-free bench test model. METHODS: A single operator provided positive pressure ventilation to a low compliance test lung model (Crs 0.2-1 mL/cmH2O) at set PIP of 15, 25, 35 and 40 cmH2O. Two TPR devices with known spikes (Draeger Resuscitaire, GE Panda) were compared with handheld Neopuff (NP). Recommended settings for positive end-expiratory pressure (5 cmH2O), inflation rate of 60/min and gas flow rate 10 L/min were used. RESULTS: 2293 inflations were analysed. Draeger and GE TPR drivers delivered higher mean PIP (Panda 18.9-49.5 cmH2O; Draeger 21.2-49.2 cmH2O and NP 14.8-39.9 cmH2O) compared with set PIP and tidal volumes (TVs) compared with the NP (Panda 2.9-7.8 mL; Draeger 3.8-8.1 mL; compared with NP 2.2-6.0 mL), outside the prespecified acceptable range (±10% of set PIP and ±10% TV compared with NP). CONCLUSION: The observed spike in PIP over set values with Draeger and GE Panda systems resulted in significantly higher delivered volumes compared with the NP with identical settings. Manufacturers need to address these differences. The effect on patient outcomes is unknown.


Assuntos
Complacência Pulmonar/fisiologia , Respiração Artificial/instrumentação , Respiração Artificial/métodos , Desenho de Equipamento , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Manequins
5.
Ann Am Thorac Soc ; 18(1): 122-129, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32915072

RESUMO

Rationale: Patients with severe coronavirus disease (COVID-19) have complex organ support needs that necessitate prolonged stays in the intensive care unit (ICU), likely to result in a high incidence of neuromuscular weakness and loss of well-being. Early and structured rehabilitation has been associated with improved outcomes for patients requiring prolonged periods of mechanical ventilation, but at present no data are available to describe similar interventions or outcomes in COVID-19 populations.Objectives: To describe the demographics, clinical status, level of rehabilitation, and mobility status at ICU discharge of patients with COVID-19.Methods: Adults admitted to the ICU with a confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19 and mechanically ventilated for >24 hours were included. Rehabilitation status was measured daily using the Manchester Mobility Score to identify the time taken to first mobilize (defined as sitting on the edge of the bed or higher) and highest level of mobility achieved at ICU discharge.Results: A total of n = 177 patients were identified, of whom n = 110 survived to ICU discharge and were included in the subsequent analysis. While on ICU, patients required prolonged periods of mechanical ventilation (mean 19 ± 10 d), most received neuromuscular blockade (90%) and 67% were placed in the prone position on at least one occasion. The mean ± standard deviation time to first mobilize was 14 ± 7 days, with a median Manchester Mobility Score at ICU discharge of 5 (interquartile range: 4-6), which represents participants able to stand and step around to a chair with or without assistance. Time to mobilize was significantly longer in those with higher body mass index (P < 0.001), and older patients (P = 0.012) and those with more comorbidities (P = 0.017) were more likely to require further rehabilitation after discharge.Conclusions: The early experience of the COVID-19 pandemic in the United Kingdom resembles the experience in other countries, with high acuity of illness and prolonged period of mechanical ventilation required for those patients admitted to the ICU. Although the time to commence rehabilitation was delayed owing to this severity of illness, rehabilitation was possible within the ICU and led to increased levels of mobility from waking before ICU discharge.Clinical trial registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT04396197).


Assuntos
/reabilitação , Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Pandemias , Respiração Artificial/métodos , /epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Tempo de Internação/tendências , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
6.
Med Intensiva ; 45(1): 27-34, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32919796

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Information from critically ill coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients is limited and in many cases coming from health systems approaches different from the national public systems existing in most countries in Europe. Besides, patient follow-up remains incomplete in many publications. Our aim is to characterize acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) patients admitted to a medical critical care unit (MCCU) in a referral hospital in Spain. DESIGN: Retrospective case series of consecutive ARDS COVID-19 patients admitted and treated in our MCCU. SETTING: 36-bed MCCU in referral tertiary hospital. PATIENTS AND PARTICIPANTS: SARS-CoV-2 infection confirmed by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay of nasal/pharyngeal swabs. INTERVENTIONS: None MAIN VARIABLES OF INTEREST: Demographic and clinical data were collected, including data on clinical management, respiratory failure, and patient mortality. RESULTS: Forty-four ARDS COVID-19 patients were included in the study. Median age was 61.50 (53.25 - 67) years and most of the patients were male (72.7%). Hypertension and dyslipidemia were the most frequent co-morbidities (52.3 and 36.4% respectively). Steroids (1mg/Kg/day) and tocilizumab were administered in almost all patients (95.5%). 77.3% of the patients needed invasive mechanical ventilation for a median of 16 days [11-28]. Prone position ventilation was performed in 33 patients (97%) for a median of 3 sessions [2-5] per patient. Nosocomial infection was diagnosed in 13 patients (29.5%). Tracheostomy was performed in ten patients (29.4%). At study closing all patients had been discharged from the CCU and only two (4.5%) remained in hospital ward. MCCU length of stay was 18 days [10-27]. Mortality at study closing was 20.5% (n 9); 26.5% among ventilated patients. CONCLUSIONS: The seven-week period in which our MCCU was exclusively dedicated to COVID-19 patients has been challenging. Despite the severity of the patients and the high need for invasive mechanical ventilation, mortality was 20.5%.


Assuntos
/complicações , /etiologia , Idoso , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , /mortalidade , Comorbidade , Estado Terminal , Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Dislipidemias/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Decúbito Ventral , Respiração Artificial/métodos , Respiração Artificial/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Espanha/epidemiologia , Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Traqueostomia/estatística & dados numéricos
8.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 203(1): 54-66, 2021 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33119402

RESUMO

Rationale: Initial reports of case fatality rates (CFRs) among adults with coronavirus disease (COVID-19) receiving invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) are highly variable.Objectives: To examine the CFR of patients with COVID-19 receiving IMV.Methods: Two authors independently searched PubMed, Embase, medRxiv, bioRxiv, the COVID-19 living systematic review, and national registry databases. The primary outcome was the "reported CFR" for patients with confirmed COVID-19 requiring IMV. "Definitive hospital CFR" for patients with outcomes at hospital discharge was also investigated. Finally, CFR was analyzed by patient age, geographic region, and study quality on the basis of the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale.Measurements and Results: Sixty-nine studies were included, describing 57,420 adult patients with COVID-19 who received IMV. Overall reported CFR was estimated as 45% (95% confidence interval [CI], 39-52%). Fifty-four of 69 studies stated whether hospital outcomes were available but provided a definitive hospital outcome on only 13,120 (22.8%) of the total IMV patient population. Among studies in which age-stratified CFR was available, pooled CFR estimates ranged from 47.9% (95% CI, 46.4-49.4%) in younger patients (age ≤40 yr) to 84.4% (95% CI, 83.3-85.4%) in older patients (age >80 yr). CFR was also higher in early COVID-19 epicenters. Overall heterogeneity is high (I2 >90%), with nonsignificant Egger's regression test suggesting no publication bias.Conclusions: Almost half of patients with COVID-19 receiving IMV died based on the reported CFR, but variable CFR reporting methods resulted in a wide range of CFRs between studies. The reported CFR was higher in older patients and in early pandemic epicenters, which may be influenced by limited ICU resources. Reporting of definitive outcomes on all patients would facilitate comparisons between studies.Systematic review registered with PROSPERO (CRD42020186997).


Assuntos
Pandemias , Respiração Artificial/métodos , /mortalidade , Saúde Global , Humanos , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências
9.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243966, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33318711

RESUMO

In this paper, we provide a retrospective cohort study with patients that have been hospitalized for general or intensive care unit admission due to COVID-19, between March 3 and July 29, 2020, in the state of Bahia, Brazil. We aim to correlate those patients' demographics, symptoms and comorbidities, with the risk of mortality from COVID-19, length of hospital stay, and time from diagnosis to definitive outcome. On the basis of a dataset provided by the Health Secretary of the State of Bahia, we selected 3,896 hospitalized patients from a total of 154,868 COVID-19 patients that included non-hospitalized patients and patients with invalid registration in the dataset. Then, we statistically analyzed whether there was a significant correlation between the patient record data and the COVID-19 pandemic, and our main findings reinforced by the use of a multivariable logistic regression were that older age (Odds Ratio [OR] = 1.03, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] = 1.03-1.04, p-value (p) <0.001), an initial symptom of shortness of breath (OR = 1.88, 95% CI = 1.60-2.20, p < 0.001), and the presence of comorbidities, mainly chronic kidney disease (OR = 2.41, 95% CI = 1.67-3.48, p < 0.001) are related to an increased risk of mortality from COVID-19. On the other hand, sore throat (OR = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.58-0.95, p = 0.02) and length of hospital stay (OR = 0.96, 95% CI = 0.58-0.95, p < 0.001) are more related to a reduced risk of mortality from COVID-19. Moreover, a multivariable linear regression conducted with statistically significant variables (p < 0.05) showed that age (OR = 0.97, 95% CI = 0.95-0.98, p < 0.001) and time from diagnosis to definitive outcome (OR = 1.67, 95% CI = 1.64-1.71, p < 0.001) are associated with the length of hospital stay.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Brasil/epidemiologia , /terapia , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Respiração Artificial/métodos , Fatores de Risco , /patogenicidade
10.
Tuberk Toraks ; 68(3): 331-336, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33295732

RESUMO

Prone positioning is a well-known supportive maneuver to improve oxygenation for patients with moderate to severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Although this technique is usually performed to sedated patients on invasive mechanical ventilation, it has been used in non-intubated patients frequently during the coronavirus diseases-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Favorable outcomes have been reported mainly in combining the prone positioning with high flow nasal cannula (HFNC) or non-invasive ventilation (NIV). Due to limited data, a standard approach for the awake prone positioning has not yet been defined. In this manuscript, we reviewed the literature data about prone positioning in non-intubated patients with COVID-19. According to available literature data, we concluded that prone positioning in non-intubated COVID-19 patients may improve oxygenation and prevent the need for invasive mechanical ventilation. But the efficacy is still controversial in the early stage of the disease due to pulmonary mechanics. Further studies are needed to the defined optimal approach of awake prone positioning in COVID-19 patients with hypoxemic respiratory failure.


Assuntos
/terapia , Hipóxia/prevenção & controle , Posicionamento do Paciente/métodos , Decúbito Ventral/fisiologia , /prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Ventilação não Invasiva , Respiração Artificial/métodos , Insuficiência Respiratória/prevenção & controle
11.
Trials ; 21(1): 1014, 2020 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33302976

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: SARS-Cov-2 virus preferentially binds to the Angiotensin Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2) on alveolar epithelial type II cells, initiating an inflammatory response and tissue damage which may impair surfactant synthesis contributing to alveolar collapse, worsening hypoxia and leading to respiratory failure. The objective of this study is to evaluate the feasibility, safety and efficacy of nebulised surfactant in COVID-19 adult patients requiring mechanical ventilation for respiratory failure. TRIAL DESIGN: This study is a dose-escalating randomized open-label clinical trial of 20 COVID-19 patients. PARTICIPANTS: This study is conducted in two centres: University Hospital Southampton and University College London Hospitals. Eligible participants are aged ≥18, hospitalised with COVID-19 (confirmed by PCR), who require endotracheal intubation and are enrolled within 24 hours of mechanical ventilation. For patients unable to consent, assent is obtained from a personal legal representative (PerLR) or professional legal representative (ProfLR) prior to enrolment. The following are exclusion criteria: imminent expected death within 24 hours; specific contraindications to surfactant administration (e.g. known allergy, pneumothorax, pulmonary hemorrhage); known or suspected pregnancy; stage 4 chronic kidney disease or requiring dialysis (i.e., eGFR < 30); liver failure (Child-Pugh Class C); anticipated transfer to another hospital, which is not a study site, within 72 hours; current or recent (within 1 month) participation in another study that, in the opinion of the investigator, would prevent enrollment for safety reasons; and declined consent or assent. INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: Intervention: The study is based on an investigational drug/device combination product. The surfactant product is Bovactant (Alveofact®), a natural animal derived (bovine) lung surfactant formulated as a lyophilized powder in 108 mg vials and reconstituted to 45 mg/mL in buffer supplied in a prefilled syringe. It is isolated by lung lavage and, by weight, is a mixture of: phospholipid (75% phosphatidylcholine, 13% phosphatidylglycerol, 3% phosphatidylethanolamine, 1% phosphatidylinositol and 1% sphingomyelin), 5% cholesterol, 1% lipid-soluble surfactant-associated proteins (SP-B and SP-C), very low levels of free fatty acid, lyso-phosphatidylcholine, water and 0.3% calcium. The Drug Delivery Device is the AeroFact-COVID™ nebulizer, an investigational device based on the Aerogen® Solo vibrating mesh nebulizer. The timing and escalation dosing plans for the surfactant are as follows. Cohort 1: Three patients will receive 10 vials (1080 mg) each of surfactant at dosing times of 0 hours, 8 hours and 24 hours. 2 controls with no placebo intervention. Cohort 2: Three patients will receive 10 vials (1080 mg) of surfactant at dosing times of 0 hours and 8 hours, and 30 vials (3240 mg) at a dosing time of 24 hours. 2 controls with no placebo intervention. Cohort 3: Three patients will receive 10 vials (1080 mg) of surfactant at a dosing time of 0 hours, and 30 vials (3240 mg) at dosing times of 8 hours and 24 hours. 2 controls with no placebo intervention. Cohort 4: Three patients will receive 30 (3240 mg) vials each of surfactant at dosing times of 0 hours, 8 hours and 24 hours. 2 controls. 2 controls with no placebo intervention. The trial steering committee, advised by the data monitoring committee, will review trial progression and dose escalation/maintenance/reduction after each cohort is completed (48-hour primary outcome timepoint reached) based on available feasibility, adverse event, safety and efficacy data. The trial will not be discontinued on the basis of lack of efficacy. The trial may be stopped early on the basis of safety or feasibility concerns. Comparator: No placebo intervention. All participants will receive usual standard of care in accordance with the local policies for mechanically ventilated patients and all other treatments will be left to the discretion of the attending physician. MAIN OUTCOMES: The co-primary outcome is the improvement in oxygenation (PaO2/FiO2 ratio) and pulmonary ventilation (Ventilation Index (VI), where VI = [RR x (PIP - PEEP) × PaCO2]/1000) at 48 hours after study initiation. The secondary outcomes include frequency and severity of adverse events (AEs), Adverse Device Effects (ADEs), Serious Adverse Events (SAEs) and Serious Adverse Device Events (SADEs), change in pulmonary compliance, change in positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) requirement of ventilatory support at 24 and 48 hours after study initiation, clinical improvement defined by time to one improvement point on the ordinal scale described in the WHO master protocol (2020) recorded while hospitalised, days of mechanical ventilation, mechanical ventilator free days (VFD) at day 21, length of intensive care unit stay, number of days hospitalised and mortality at day 28. Exploratory end points will include quantification of SARS-CoV-2 viral load from tracheal aspirates using PCR, surfactant dynamics (synthesis and turnover) and function (surface tension reduction) from deep tracheal aspirate samples (DTAS), surfactant phospholipid concentrations in plasma and DTAS, inflammatory markers (cellular and cytokine) in plasma and DTAS, and blood oxidative stress markers. RANDOMISATION: After informed assent, patients fulfilling inclusion criteria will be randomised to 3:2 for the treatment and control arms using an internet-based block randomization service (ALEA tool for clinical trials, FormsVision BV) in combination with electronic data collection. Randomisation will be done by the recruiting centre with a unique subject identifier specific to that centre. BLINDING (MASKING): This is an open-labelled unblinded study. NUMBERS TO BE RANDOMISED (SAMPLE SIZE): The total sample size is 20 COVID-19 mechanically ventilated patients (12 intervention; 8 control). TRIAL STATUS: Current protocol version is V2 dated 5th of June 2020. The recruitment is currently ongoing and started on the 14th of October 2020. The anticipated study completion date is November 2021. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT04362059 (Registered 24 April 2020), EUDAMED number: CIV-GB-20-06-033328, EudraCT number: 2020-001886-35 (Registered 11 May 2020) FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1). In the interest in expediting dissemination of this material, the familiar formatting has been eliminated; this Letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol. The study protocol has been reported in accordance with the Standard Protocol Items: Recommendations for Clinical Interventional Trials (SPIRIT) guidelines (Additional file 2).


Assuntos
/tratamento farmacológico , Nebulizadores e Vaporizadores/normas , Tensoativos/uso terapêutico , Adulto , /mortalidade , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Viabilidade , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Londres/epidemiologia , Mortalidade/tendências , Nebulizadores e Vaporizadores/estatística & dados numéricos , Respiração Artificial/métodos , Insuficiência Respiratória/metabolismo , Insuficiência Respiratória/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência Respiratória/terapia , Segurança , Tensoativos/administração & dosagem , Tensoativos/química , Resultado do Tratamento , Ventilação/estatística & dados numéricos
12.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 24(23): 12558-12574, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33336776

RESUMO

The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a viral infection caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which emerged in East Asia and spread around the world from December 2019. The most severe stage of COVID-19 pathology is characterized by respiratory distress requiring intubation. In specific cases, tracheostomy is indicated to ensure the safety of the procedure. The aim of our study was to analyze the scientific literature identifying the indications for tracheostomy and safety precautions to reduce contamination. We analyzed the literature from February 2003 to April 2020, including papers on pandemics of other coronaviruses, such As Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 1 and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus, to obtain a variety of relevant information. We focused on indications for tracheostomy in patients affected by COVID-19 or related viruses and the measures adopted to perform a safe procedure. We included 35 papers, of which 24 (68.57%) discussed guidelines for tracheostomy indications. All 35 studies discussed the procedures for performing tracheostomy safely. Data obtained indicated that the authors generally agreed on safety measures but expressed different opinions about indications. Therefore, we provided guidelines addressing safety recommendations. After the pandemic has been resolved, we plan to conduct an international retrospective study to identify the criteria for tracheostomy indications.


Assuntos
/terapia , Insuficiência Respiratória/terapia , Traqueostomia/métodos , Manuseio das Vias Aéreas/métodos , /transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus , Dispositivos de Proteção dos Olhos , Humanos , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Paciente para o Profissional/prevenção & controle , Isoladores de Pacientes , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Respiração Artificial/métodos , Dispositivos de Proteção Respiratória , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave , Fatores de Tempo
13.
BMJ Case Rep ; 13(11)2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33257396

RESUMO

COVID-19 is a novel disease best known to cause a cough, fever and respiratory failure. Recently, it has been recognised that COVID-19 may present in multi-systemic ways which can cause diagnostic uncertainty or error.We present a patient who attended hospital with features of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) before developing clinical and radiological findings of COVID-19. While the authors recognise that neurological complications have been reported following COVID-19 infection, to their knowledge this report describes a unique presentation of GBS without preceding COVID-19 symptoms.Since these conditions may have considerable overlapping features including respiratory failure and (following prolonged critical care admission) profound weakness, it is possible that one diagnosis may be overlooked. Raising awareness of a possible association between these conditions is important so both are considered allowing appropriate investigations to be arranged to optimise the chance of neurological recovery and survival, while also protecting staff from potentially unrecognised COVID-19.


Assuntos
Estado Terminal , Síndrome de Guillain-Barré , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Administração dos Cuidados ao Paciente/métodos , Insuficiência Respiratória , /isolamento & purificação , /diagnóstico , /prevenção & controle , Comorbidade , Estado Terminal/reabilitação , Estado Terminal/terapia , Erros de Diagnóstico/prevenção & controle , Síndrome de Guillain-Barré/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Guillain-Barré/fisiopatologia , Síndrome de Guillain-Barré/terapia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Exame Neurológico/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Respiração Artificial/métodos , Insuficiência Respiratória/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Respiratória/etiologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Acta otorrinolaringol. esp ; 71(6): 386-392, nov.-dic. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-188375

RESUMO

La alta incidencia de insuficiencia respiratoria aguda en el contexto de la pandemia por COVID-19 ha conllevado el uso de ventilación mecánica hasta en un 15%. Dado que la traqueotomía es un procedimiento quirúrgico frecuente, este documento de consenso, elaborado por tres Sociedades Científicas, la SEMICYUC, la SEDAR y la SEORL-CCC, tiene como objetivo ofrecer una revisión de las indicaciones y contraindicaciones de traqueotomía, ya sea por punción o abierta, esclarecer las posibles ventajas y exponer las condiciones ideales en que deben realizarse y los pasos que considerar en su ejecución. Se abordan situaciones regladas y urgentes, así como los cuidados posoperatorios


The current COVID-19 pandemic has rendered up to 15% of patients under mechanical ventilation. Because the subsequent tracheotomy is a frequent procedure,the three societies mostly involved (SEMICYUC, SEDAR and SEORL-CCC) have setup a consensus paper that offers an overview about indications and contraindications of tracheotomy, be it by puncture or open, clarifying its respective advantages and enumerating the ideal conditions under which they should be performed, as well as the necessary steps. Regular and emergency situations are displayed together with the postoperative measures


Assuntos
Humanos , Sociedades Médicas , Traqueotomia/métodos , Traqueotomia/normas , Infecções por Coronavirus/cirurgia , Pneumonia Viral/cirurgia , Betacoronavirus , Pandemias , Insuficiência Respiratória/cirurgia , Insuficiência Respiratória/virologia , Respiração Artificial/métodos
16.
Isr Med Assoc J ; 22(12): 733-735, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33381942

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients diagnosed with coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) who deteriorate to respiratory failure and require mechanical ventilation may later need to be weaned from the ventilator and undergo a rehabilitation process. The rate of weaning COVID-19 patients from mechanical ventilation is unknown. OBJECTIVES: To present our experience with ventilator weaning of COVID-19 patients in a dedicated facility. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted of 18 patients hospitalized in a COVID-19 dedicated ventilator weaning unit. RESULTS: Eighteen patients were hospitalized in the dedicated unit between 6 April and 19 May 2020. Of these, 88% (16/18) were weaned and underwent decannulation, while two patients deteriorated and were re-admitted to the intensive care unit. The average number of days spent in our department was 12. There was no statistically significant correlation between patient characteristics and time to weaning from ventilation or with the time to decannulation. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the high mortality of COVID-19 patients who require mechanical ventilation, most of the patients in our cohort were weaned in a relatively short period of time. Further large-scale studies are necessary to assess the cost effectiveness of dedicated COVID-19 departments for ventilator weaning.


Assuntos
/terapia , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Pandemias , Respiração Artificial/métodos , Desmame do Respirador/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Israel/epidemiologia , Tempo de Internação/tendências , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
17.
BMJ Case Rep ; 13(12)2020 Dec 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33376089

RESUMO

Altered mental status can have many causes ranging from emergent intracranial pathologies to more insidious, systemic toxic aetiologies. We report a rare case of dermato-neuro syndrome in a 71-year-old man with a known history of scleromyxoedema. The patient initially presented with encephalopathy which quickly progressed to generalised tonic-clonic seizures and coma. While his presentation fits with other, although rare, cases of dermato-neuro syndrome, it is imperative to rule out lethal, more common causes of altered mentation. Due to the rarity and difficulty in diagnosis of dermato-neuro syndrome, there is a significant debate regarding the optimal management as there are no standardised treatment protocols. In our case, the patient was successfully treated with plasmapheresis resulting in improved neurologic function.


Assuntos
Coma , Plasmaferese/métodos , Escleromixedema , Convulsões , Idoso , Encefalopatias/diagnóstico , Encefalopatias/etiologia , Deterioração Clínica , Coma/diagnóstico , Coma/etiologia , Coma/terapia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Humanos , Masculino , Exame Neurológico/métodos , Administração dos Cuidados ao Paciente/métodos , Respiração Artificial/métodos , Escleromixedema/complicações , Escleromixedema/fisiopatologia , Convulsões/diagnóstico , Convulsões/etiologia , Convulsões/terapia , Síndrome , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0244963, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33378363

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic disrupted the world in 2020 by spreading at unprecedented rates and causing tens of thousands of fatalities within a few months. The number of deaths dramatically increased in regions where the number of patients in need of hospital care exceeded the availability of care. Many COVID-19 patients experience Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS), a condition that can be treated with mechanical ventilation. In response to the need for mechanical ventilators, designed and tested an emergency ventilator (EV) that can control a patient's peak inspiratory pressure (PIP) and breathing rate, while keeping a positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP). This article describes the rapid design, prototyping, and testing of the EV. The development process was enabled by rapid design iterations using additive manufacturing (AM). In the initial design phase, iterations between design, AM, and testing enabled a working prototype within one week. The designs of the 16 different components of the ventilator were locked by additively manufacturing and testing a total of 283 parts having parametrically varied dimensions. In the second stage, AM was used to produce 75 functional prototypes to support engineering evaluation and animal testing. The devices were tested over more than two million cycles. We also developed an electronic monitoring system and with automatic alarm to provide for safe operation, along with training materials and user guides. The final designs are available online under a free license. The designs have been transferred to more than 70 organizations in 15 countries. This project demonstrates the potential for ultra-fast product design, engineering, and testing of medical devices needed for COVID-19 emergency response.


Assuntos
/terapia , Desenho de Equipamento/métodos , Respiração Artificial/instrumentação , Ventiladores Mecânicos/efeitos adversos , Animais , Humanos , Respiração Artificial/métodos , Mecânica Respiratória/fisiologia , Taxa Respiratória/fisiologia , Suínos
19.
Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd ; 1642020 10 29.
Artigo em Holandês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33331718

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To safely and effectively train the exercise capacity of post-COVID-19 patients it is important to test for cardiopulmonary risk factors and to assess exercise limitations. The goal of this study was to describe the exercise capacity and underlying exercise limitations of mechanically ventilated post-COVID-19 patients in clinical rehabilitation. DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study. METHOD: Twenty-four post-COVID-19patients that were mechanically ventilated at ICU and thereafter admitted for clinical rehabilitation performed a symptom-limited cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) with breath-by-breath gas-exchange monitoring, ECG-registration, blood pressure- and saturation monitoring. In absence of a primary cardiac or ventilatory exercise limitation patients were considered to be limited primarily by decreased peripheral muscle mass. RESULTS: Twenty-three patients could perform a maximal exercise test and no adverse events occurred. Cardiorespiratory fitness was very poor with a median peak oxygen uptake of 15.0 [10.1-21.4] mlO2/kg/min (57% of predicted values). However, we observed large differences within the group in both exercise capacity and exercise limitations. While 7/23 patients were primarily limited by ventilatory function, the majority (70%) was limited primarily by the decreased peripheral muscle mass. CONCLUSION: Cardiorespiratory fitness of post-COVID-19 patients in clinical rehabilitation is strongly deteriorated. The majority of patients seemed primarily limited for exercise by the decreased peripheral muscle mass.


Assuntos
Teste de Esforço/métodos , Tolerância ao Exercício , Hospitais de Reabilitação/métodos , /reabilitação , Adulto , /reabilitação , Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Músculo Esquelético/patologia , Seleção de Pacientes , Respiração Artificial/métodos , /virologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
20.
Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd ; 1642020 09 24.
Artigo em Holandês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33331722

RESUMO

COVID-19 patients admitted to the Intensive Care Unit may develop painful range of motion restrictions of the large joints due to heterotopic ossifications. Here we describe two patients who developed restricted and painful passive and active mobility of the hips, shoulders and elbows after mechanical ventilation because of respiratory failure due to COVID-19 pneumonia. Conventional radiography showed extensive heterotopic ossifications. Retrospectively, alkaline phosphatase levels were elevated. It is likely that local and systemic factors contribute to the development of heterotopic ossifications. Early diagnosis is important to provide complementary non-pharmacological interventions (gentle passive mobilization) and medication (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, such as indomethacin). If pain and limited joint mobility remain present, surgical removal of ectopic bone could be considered. Future trials are needed to systematically map the prevalence of heterotopic ossifications in COVID-19 patients who were admitted to the Intensive Care Unit, andto evaluate whether prophylactic treatment with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug is of relevance.


Assuntos
Articulações , Ossificação Heterotópica , Pneumonia Viral , Respiração Artificial/efeitos adversos , Insuficiência Respiratória , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , /terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Articulações/diagnóstico por imagem , Articulações/patologia , Articulações/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapia Passiva Contínua de Movimento/métodos , Ossificação Heterotópica/etiologia , Ossificação Heterotópica/fisiopatologia , Ossificação Heterotópica/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/etiologia , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Radiografia/métodos , Amplitude de Movimento Articular , Respiração Artificial/métodos , Insuficiência Respiratória/terapia , Insuficiência Respiratória/virologia , /isolamento & purificação
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