Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 10.802
Filtrar
1.
JAMA ; 323(5): 455-465, 2020 02 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32016309

RESUMO

Importance: The association of home noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) with outcomes in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and hypercapnia is uncertain. Objective: To evaluate the association of home NIPPV via bilevel positive airway pressure (BPAP) devices and noninvasive home mechanical ventilator (HMV) devices with clinical outcomes and adverse events in patients with COPD and hypercapnia. Data Sources: Search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, SCOPUS, Cochrane Central Registrar of Controlled Trials, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, National Guideline Clearinghouse, and Scopus for English-language articles published from January 1, 1995, to November 6, 2019. Study Selection: Randomized clinical trials (RCTs) and comparative observational studies that enrolled adults with COPD with hypercapnia who used home NIPPV for more than 1 month were included. Data Extraction and Synthesis: Data extraction was completed by independent pairs of reviewers. Risk of bias was evaluated using the Cochrane Collaboration risk of bias tool for RCTs and select items from the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale for nonrandomized studies. Main Outcomes and Measures: Primary outcomes were mortality, all-cause hospital admissions, need for intubation, and quality of life at the longest follow-up. Results: A total of 21 RCTs and 12 observational studies evaluating 51 085 patients (mean [SD] age, 65.7 [2.1] years; 43% women) were included, among whom there were 434 deaths and 27 patients who underwent intubation. BPAP compared with no device was significantly associated with lower risk of mortality (22.31% vs 28.57%; risk difference [RD], -5.53% [95% CI, -10.29% to -0.76%]; odds ratio [OR], 0.66 [95% CI, 0.51-0.87]; P = .003; 13 studies; 1423 patients; strength of evidence [SOE], moderate), fewer patients with all-cause hospital admissions (39.74% vs 75.00%; RD, -35.26% [95% CI, -49.39% to -21.12%]; OR, 0.22 [95% CI, 0.11-0.43]; P < .001; 1 study; 166 patients; SOE, low), and lower need for intubation (5.34% vs 14.71%; RD, -8.02% [95% CI, -14.77% to -1.28%]; OR, 0.34 [95% CI, 0.14-0.83]; P = .02; 3 studies; 267 patients; SOE, moderate). There was no significant difference in the total number of all-cause hospital admissions (rate ratio, 0.91 [95% CI, 0.71-1.17]; P = .47; 5 studies; 326 patients; SOE, low) or quality of life (standardized mean difference, 0.16 [95% CI, -0.06 to 0.39]; P = .15; 9 studies; 833 patients; SOE, insufficient). Noninvasive HMV use compared with no device was significantly associated with fewer all-cause hospital admissions (rate ratio, 0.50 [95% CI, 0.35-0.71]; P < .001; 1 study; 93 patients; SOE, low), but not mortality (21.84% vs 34.09%; RD, -11.99% [95% CI, -24.77% to 0.79%]; OR, 0.56 [95% CI, 0.29-1.08]; P = .49; 2 studies; 175 patients; SOE, insufficient). There was no statistically significant difference in the total number of adverse events in patients using NIPPV compared with no device (0.18 vs 0.17 per patient; P = .84; 6 studies; 414 patients). Conclusions and Relevance: In this meta-analysis of patients with COPD and hypercapnia, home BPAP, compared with no device, was associated with lower risk of mortality, all-cause hospital admission, and intubation, but no significant difference in quality of life. Noninvasive HMV, compared with no device, was significantly associated with lower risk of hospital admission, but there was no significant difference in mortality risk. However, the evidence was low to moderate in quality, the evidence on quality of life was insufficient, and the analyses for some outcomes were based on small numbers of studies.


Assuntos
Respiração com Pressão Positiva/métodos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/terapia , Respiração Artificial/métodos , Serviços de Assistência Domiciliar , Hospitalização , Humanos , Hipercapnia/etiologia , Ventilação não Invasiva/instrumentação , Respiração com Pressão Positiva/instrumentação , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/complicações , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/mortalidade , Qualidade de Vida , Respiração Artificial/instrumentação , Resultado do Tratamento
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(5): e18999, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32000439

RESUMO

The intraoperative lung protective ventilation with low tidal volume, positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP) and intermittent lungs recruitment was found to decrease postoperative pulmonary complications. In this retrospective medical records study, we investigated the effects of lung protective ventilation on postoperative pulmonary outcomes among the patients received prolonged oral cancer combined with free flap surgery.We collected the medical records of the patients received oral cancer surgery with the operation time more than 12 hours from January 2011 to December 2015. We recordedFifty nine cases were included. Thirty cases received the lung protective ventilation and 29 cases received conventional ventilation. Compared to the patients received conventional ventilation, the patients received intraoperative lung protective ventilation showedIn conclusion, for the prolonged oral cancer combined with free flap surgery, the intraoperative lung protective ventilation improves postoperative pulmonary outcomes and decreases the duration of ICU stay.


Assuntos
Retalhos de Tecido Biológico , Neoplasias Bucais/cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Respiração Artificial/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Respiração com Pressão Positiva , Estudos Retrospectivos , Volume de Ventilação Pulmonar
3.
Pneumologie ; 74(1): 46-49, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31958870

RESUMO

In 2017 the German Clinical Guideline for Treating Acute Respiratory Insufficiency with Invasive Ventilation and Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation: Evidence-Based Recommendations were released. This article highlights emerging data and new concepts which were introduced since 2017. Among others it summarizes the current progress made in evidence-based recommendations of mechanical ventilation and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). In detail, the new evidence for treating severe ARDS with ECMO, phenotyping of ARDS, early neuromuscular blockade and the application of non-invasive ventilation and high-flow oxygen therapy are discussed.


Assuntos
Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea/métodos , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Respiração Artificial/métodos , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/terapia , Insuficiência Respiratória/diagnóstico , Doença Aguda , Humanos , Pulmão , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Respiratória/fisiopatologia
4.
Br J Anaesth ; 124(1): 110-120, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31767144

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We aimed to examine whether using a high fraction of inspired oxygen (FIO2) in the context of an individualised intra- and postoperative open-lung ventilation approach could decrease surgical site infection (SSI) in patients scheduled for abdominal surgery. METHODS: We performed a multicentre, randomised controlled clinical trial in a network of 21 university hospitals from June 6, 2017 to July 19, 2018. Patients undergoing abdominal surgery were randomly assigned to receive a high (0.80) or conventional (0.3) FIO2 during the intraoperative period and during the first 3 postoperative hours. All patients were mechanically ventilated with an open-lung strategy, which included recruitment manoeuvres and individualised positive end-expiratory pressure for the best respiratory-system compliance, and individualised continuous postoperative airway pressure for adequate peripheral oxyhaemoglobin saturation. The primary outcome was the prevalence of SSI within the first 7 postoperative days. The secondary outcomes were composites of systemic complications, length of intensive care and hospital stay, and 6-month mortality. RESULTS: We enrolled 740 subjects: 371 in the high FIO2 group and 369 in the low FIO2 group. Data from 717 subjects were available for final analysis. The rate of SSI during the first postoperative week did not differ between high (8.9%) and low (9.4%) FIO2 groups (relative risk [RR]: 0.94; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.59-1.50; P=0.90]). Secondary outcomes, such as atelectasis (7.7% vs 9.8%; RR: 0.77; 95% CI: 0.48-1.25; P=0.38) and myocardial ischaemia (0.6% [n=2] vs 0% [n=0]; P=0.47) did not differ between groups. CONCLUSIONS: An oxygenation strategy using high FIO2 compared with conventional FIO2 did not reduce postoperative SSIs in abdominal surgery. No differences in secondary outcomes or adverse events were found. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT02776046.


Assuntos
Oxigênio/uso terapêutico , Respiração Artificial/métodos , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle , Abdome/cirurgia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oxigênio/sangue , Oxiemoglobinas/análise , Oxiemoglobinas/metabolismo , Assistência Perioperatória , Respiração com Pressão Positiva , Medicina de Precisão , Atelectasia Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Atelectasia Pulmonar/etiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
Pneumologie ; 73(12): 723-814, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31816642

RESUMO

Mechanical ventilation (MV) is an essential part of modern intensive care medicine. MV is performed in patients with severe respiratory failure caused by insufficiency of respiratory muscles and/or lung parenchymal disease when/after other treatments, (i. e. medication, oxygen, secretion management, continuous positive airway pressure or nasal highflow) have failed.MV is required to maintain gas exchange and to buy time for curative therapy of the underlying cause of respiratory failure. In the majority of patients weaning from MV is routine and causes no special problems. However, about 20 % of patients need ongoing MV despite resolution of the conditions which precipitated the need for MV. Approximately 40 - 50 % of time spent on MV is required to liberate the patient from the ventilator, a process called "weaning."There are numberous factors besides the acute respiratory failure that have an impact on duration and success rate of the weaning process such as age, comorbidities and conditions and complications acquired in the ICU. According to an international consensus conference "prolonged weaning" is defined as weaning process of patients who have failed at least three weaning attempts or require more than 7 days of weaning after the first spontaneous breathing trial (SBT). Prolonged weaning is a challenge, therefore, an inter- and multi-disciplinary approach is essential for a weaning success.In specialised weaning centers about 50 % of patients with initial weaning failure can be liberated from MV after prolonged weaning. However, heterogeneity of patients with prolonged weaning precludes direct comparisons of individual centers. Patients with persistant weaning failure either die during the weaning process or are discharged home or to a long term care facility with ongoing MV.Urged by the growing importance of prolonged weaning, this Sk2-guideline was first published in 2014 on the initiative of the German Respiratory Society (DGP) together with other scientific societies involved in prolonged weaning. Current research and study results, registry data and experience in daily practice made the revision of this guideline necessary.The following topics are dealt with in the guideline: Definitions, epidemiology, weaning categories, the underlying pathophysiology, prevention of prolonged weaning, treatment strategies in prolonged weaning, the weaning unit, discharge from hospital on MV and recommendations for end of life decisions.Special emphasis in the revision of the guideline was laid on the following topics:- A new classification of subgroups of patients in prolonged weaning- Important aspects of pneumological rehabilitation and neurorehabilitation in prolonged weaning- Infrastructure and process organization in the care of patients in prolonged weaning in the sense of a continuous treatment concept- Therapeutic goal change and communication with relativesAspects of pediatric weaning are given separately within the individual chapters.The main aim of the revised guideline is to summarize current evidence and also expert based- knowledge on the topic of "prolonged weaning" and, based on the evidence and the experience of experts, make recommendations with regard to "prolonged weaning" not only in the field of acute medicine but also for chronic critical care.Important addressees of this guideline are Intensivists, Pneumologists, Anesthesiologists, Internists, Cardiologists, Surgeons, Neurologists, Pediatricians, Geriatricians, Palliative care clinicians, Rehabilitation physicians, Nurses in intensive and chronic care, Physiotherapists, Respiratory therapists, Speech therapists, Medical service of health insurance and associated ventilator manufacturers.


Assuntos
Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Pneumologia/normas , Respiração Artificial/métodos , Insuficiência Respiratória/terapia , Desmame do Respirador/métodos , Desmame do Respirador/normas , Criança , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Alemanha , Serviços de Assistência Domiciliar , Humanos , Insuficiência Respiratória/diagnóstico , Sociedades Médicas
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(50): e18262, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31852095

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Attaining lung isolation in the infant is a challenge for anesthesia care providers. Pulmonary lobe isolation is more challenging. We describe an approach to performing selective pulmonary lobe isolation using the pediatric endobronchial blocker in an infant in the absence of appropriate auxiliary guidance tool. PATIENT CONCERNS: An 8-month-old and 9.5 kg male infant was admitted because of repeated cough with fever for 3 months and a large cyst of his right lung for 2 weeks. He had been living in a pastoral area with his parents. DIAGNOSIS: Based on the chest computed tomography (CT) and his history about long-term residence in the pastoral area, this patient's diagnosis was considered as right middle lobe hydatid cyst. INTERVENTIONS: Guided by a fiberoptic bronchoscope, a cuffed 4.0-mm inside diameter (ID) endotracheal tube was successfully placed into the right main bronchus of this infant. Then, pediatric 5-French (Fr) endobronchial blocker was placed into the right middle and lower lobes through the endotracheal tube without navigation of fiberoptic bronchoscope. OUTCOMES: Lobe isolation was successfully achieved for right middle lobectomy. This approach allows clinicians to perform lobe isolation in the absence of fiberoptic bronchoscope with very small outer diameter. CONCLUSION: This technique is relatively easy to use and less dependent on equipment with small outer diameter in the selective pulmonary lobe isolation in infants and small children.


Assuntos
Anestesia/métodos , Broncoscopia/métodos , Cistos/cirurgia , Intubação Intratraqueal/instrumentação , Pneumopatias/cirurgia , Pneumonectomia/métodos , Respiração Artificial/métodos , Cistos/diagnóstico , Desenho de Equipamento , Tecnologia de Fibra Óptica , Humanos , Lactente , Pneumopatias/diagnóstico , Masculino , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
7.
Pneumologie ; 73(11): 670-676, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715635

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Home mechanical ventilation is dramatically evolving in Germany. Patients with non-invasive and invasive ventilation are increasingly treated at home. In-hospital treatment of these patients is also necessary either for control visits or the management of acute medical problems. However, the development of in-hospital patient care, morbidity and mortality of these patients is unknown. METHODS: All patients with long-term dependence on mechanical ventilation for more than three months requiring hospitalisation between 2006 and 2016 were analysed (data obtained from the Federal Statistical Office of Germany). RESULTS: There was an exponential increase in the number of in-patients with long-term dependence of mechanical ventilation. While 24 845 patients were treated in-hospital in 2006, 86 117 patients were treated in 2016. Correspondingly, mortality decreased from 13.2 % (2006) to 5.7 % (2016). In addition, in 2016 47 % of all patients were treated on the intensive care or high dependency care unit. Overall, patients had been severely ill, as there were plenty of medical and neurological co-morbidities. The most common diagnosis was COPD with 58 % of all cases, followed by several cardiology diagnosis. A high number of patients had an impairment of renal function (24 %), in part requiring dialysis. CONCLUSIONS: The rapid development of home mechanical ventilation substantially impacts on the development of the hospital landscape in Germany. The exponential increase of these care-intensive patients is challenging for the health care system and requires a discussion about its limits.


Assuntos
Cuidados Críticos , Serviços de Assistência Domiciliar , Assistência ao Paciente/tendências , Respiração Artificial , Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Cuidados Críticos/tendências , Alemanha , Serviços de Assistência Domiciliar/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Assistência Domiciliar/tendências , Hospitalização , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Respiração Artificial/métodos , Respiração Artificial/estatística & dados numéricos
8.
Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med ; 27(1): 93, 2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31640797

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies have shown that providing adequate ventilation during CPR is essential. While hypoventilation is often feared by most caregivers on the scene, the most critical problem remains hyperventilation. We developed a Ventilation Feedback Device (VFD) for manual ventilation which monitors ventilatory parameters and provides direct feedback about ventilation quality to the rescuer. This study aims to compare the quality of conventional manual ventilation to ventilation with VFD on a simulated respiratory arrest patient. METHODS: Forty healthcare providers were enrolled and instructed to ventilate a manikin simulating respiratory arrest. Participants were instructed to ventilate the manikin for 5 min with and without the VFD in random order. They were divided in two groups of 20 people, one group ventilating through a mask and the other through an endotracheal tube. RESULTS: Ventilation with the VFD improved from 15 to 90% (p < 0.001) with the mask and from 15 to 85% (p < 0.001) with the endotracheal tube (ETT) by significantly reducing the proportion of hyperventilation. The mean ventilation rates and tidal volumes were in the recommended ranges in respectively 100% with the mask and 97.5% of participants with the ETT when using the VFD. CONCLUSION: VFD improves the performance of manual ventilation by over 70% in different simulated scenarios. By providing the rescuer direct feedback and analysis of ventilatory parameters, this device can significantly improve ventilation while performing CPR and thus save lives.


Assuntos
Parada Cardíaca/terapia , Respiração Artificial/instrumentação , Respiração Artificial/métodos , Adulto , Estudos Cross-Over , Retroalimentação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Manequins , Volume de Ventilação Pulmonar
9.
Br J Anaesth ; 123(6): 898-913, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31587835

RESUMO

Postoperative pulmonary complications (PPCs) occur frequently and are associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. Evidence suggests that reduction of PPCs can be accomplished by using lung-protective ventilation strategies intraoperatively, but a consensus on perioperative management has not been established. We sought to determine recommendations for lung protection for the surgical patient at an international consensus development conference. Seven experts produced 24 questions concerning preoperative assessment and intraoperative mechanical ventilation for patients at risk of developing PPCs. Six researchers assessed the literature using questions as a framework for their review. The modified Delphi method was utilised by a team of experts to produce recommendations and statements from study questions. An expert consensus was reached for 22 recommendations and four statements. The following are the highlights: (i) a dedicated score should be used for preoperative pulmonary risk evaluation; and (ii) an individualised mechanical ventilation may improve the mechanics of breathing and respiratory function, and prevent PPCs. The ventilator should initially be set to a tidal volume of 6-8 ml kg-1 predicted body weight and positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) 5 cm H2O. PEEP should be individualised thereafter. When recruitment manoeuvres are performed, the lowest effective pressure and shortest effective time or fewest number of breaths should be used.


Assuntos
Cooperação Internacional , Pneumopatias/prevenção & controle , Assistência Perioperatória/métodos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Respiração Artificial/métodos , Humanos , Cuidados Intraoperatórios/métodos
10.
Thorac Surg Clin ; 29(4): 447-455, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31564402

RESUMO

Paraesophageal hernia repairs are complex surgical cases frequently performed on patients of advanced age with multiple comorbidities, both of which create difficulties in the anesthetic management. Preoperative evaluation is challenging because of overlapping cardiopulmonary symptoms. The patient's symptoms and anatomy lead to an increased aspiration risk and the potential need for a rapid sequence induction. Depending on the surgical approach, lung isolation may be required. Communication with the surgeon is vital throughout the case, especially when placing gastric tube and bougies. Multimodal analgesia should include regional and/or neuraxial techniques, in addition to the standard intravenous and oral pain medications.


Assuntos
Anestesia Geral/métodos , Hérnia Hiatal/cirurgia , Herniorrafia/métodos , Manuseio das Vias Aéreas/métodos , Hidratação/métodos , Humanos , Intubação Gastrointestinal/métodos , Laparoscopia , Bloqueadores Neuromusculares/uso terapêutico , Dor Pós-Operatória/terapia , Respiração Artificial/métodos , Medição de Risco
11.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(38): e17254, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31567997

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bleeding modifies the surgeon's view of the field during transsphenoidal endoscopic pituitary surgery. Since ventilation can alter venous return, we compared the effect of volume-controlled ventilation (VCV) and pressure-controlled ventilation (PCV) on intraoperative bleeding. METHODS: Eighty-six patients were randomized to VCV or PCV in this single blinded study; comparisons concerned 42 in the PCV group and 43 in the VCV group. RESULTS: Intraoperative bleeding, the primary endpoint, did not differ between groups whether analysis focused on 7 levels of the score, from minimal bleeding to bleeding with significant change in the conduct of surgical procedure (P = .89) or on a stratification into 3 categories, mild, moderate, and major (P = .47). Median [interquartile range] peak airway pressure was lower in the PCV group (13.5 [12.5-15] vs 16.3 [14.4-19.1] cm H2O, P < .001) while mean airway pressures were similar (P = .08). Means ±â€ŠSD of tidal volumes were lower in the VCV group when expressed as absolute values (470.6 ±â€Š84 vs 434.7 ±â€Š71.7 ml, P = .05) or as tidal volume/theoretical ideal weight ratio (6.7 [6.5-7] vs 7.2 [6.9-7.9], P < .001). The 2 groups were similar for postoperative complications and number of patients cured. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, ventilation mode does not influence intraoperative bleeding during transsphenoidal pituitary surgery. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01891838; July 3, 2013.


Assuntos
Hipófise/cirurgia , Respiração Artificial , Adulto , Idoso , Perda Sanguínea Cirúrgica , Endoscopia/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Respiração com Pressão Positiva , Respiração Artificial/efeitos adversos , Respiração Artificial/métodos , Método Simples-Cego , Seio Esfenoidal , Adulto Jovem
13.
Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed ; 104(6): F587-F593, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31498776

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The influence of pressure strategies to promote lung aeration at birth on the subsequent physiological response to exogenous surfactant therapy has not been investigated. OBJECTIVES: To compare the effect of sustained inflation (SI) and a dynamic positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) manoeuvre at birth on the subsequent physiological response to exogenous surfactant therapy in preterm lambs. METHODS: Steroid-exposed preterm lambs (124-127 days' gestation; n=71) were randomly assigned from birth to either (1) positive-pressure ventilation (PPV) with no recruitment manoeuvre; (2) SI until stable aeration; or (3) 3 min dynamic stepwise PEEP strategy (maximum 14-20 cmH2O; dynamic PEEP (DynPEEP)), followed by PPV for 60 min using a standardised protocol. Surfactant (200 mg/kg poractant alfa) was administered at 10 min. Dynamic compliance, gas exchange and regional ventilation and aeration characteristics (electrical impedance tomography) were measured throughout and compared between groups, and with a historical group (n=38) managed using the same strategies without surfactant. RESULTS: Compliance increased after surfactant only in the DynPEEP group (p<0.0001, repeated measures analysis of variance), being 0.17 (0.10, 0.23) mL/kg/cmH2O higher at 60 min than the SI group. An SI resulted in the least uniform aeration, and unlike the no-recruitment and DynPEEP groups, the distribution of aeration and tidal ventilation did not improve with surfactant. All groups had similar improvements in oxygenation post-surfactant compared with the corresponding groups not treated with surfactant. CONCLUSIONS: A DynPEEP strategy at birth may improve the response to early surfactant therapy, whereas rapid lung inflation with SI creates non-uniform aeration that appears to inhibit surfactant efficacy.


Assuntos
Surfactantes Pulmonares/farmacologia , Respiração Artificial/métodos , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Impedância Elétrica , Respiração com Pressão Positiva , Troca Gasosa Pulmonar , Surfactantes Pulmonares/administração & dosagem , Distribuição Aleatória , Mecânica Respiratória , Ovinos
14.
Med. intensiva (Madr., Ed. impr.) ; 43(6): 337-345, ago.-sept. 2019. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-183252

RESUMO

Objetivo: La cardioprotección es esencial en la revascularización coronaria quirúrgica. En este estudio exploramos la relación existente entre el tiempo que una masa miocárdica permanece en situación de isquemia y la dosis de cardioplejía utilizada para su preservación, reflejada a través del índice de cardioplejía infundida, con el desarrollo de bajo gasto cardiaco postoperatorio. Diseño: Se incluyeron todos los pacientes sometidos a revascularización coronaria quirúrgica entre enero de 2013 y diciembre de 2015. El síndrome de bajo gasto cardiaco postoperatorio se definió siguiendo los criterios del documento de consenso de la SEMYCIUC. Se analizaron los factores perioperatorios asociados al síndrome de bajo gasto cardiaco y, mediante la curva ROC, se determinó el punto de corte del índice de cardioplejía infundida para predecir la ausencia del mismo. Resultados: De los 360 pacientes incluidos, 116 (32%) presentaron bajo gasto postoperatorio. Los factores de riesgo independientes fueron: clasificación funcional de la New York Heart Association (OR 1,8 [IC 95%=1,18-2,55]), la fracción de eyección del ventrículo izquierdo (OR 0,95 [IC 95%=0,93-0,98]), el empleo de cardioplejía retrógrada (OR 1,2 [IC 95%=1,03-1,50]) y el índice de cardioplejía infundida (OR 0,99 [IC 95%=0,991-0,996]), que mostró un área bajo la curva ROC de 0,77 (0,70-0,83; p<0,001) para la ausencia de síndrome de bajo gasto cardiaco postoperatorio, usando como punto de corte óptimo 23,6ml·min-1(100g/m2 de VI)-1. Conclusiones: El índice de cardioplejía infundido es inversamente proporcional a los requerimientos postoperatorios de inotropos, pudiendo constituir una estrategia para optimizar la cardioprotección. El volumen total de cardioplejía intermitente debería calcularse, de forma individualizada, en base al índice de masa del ventrículo izquierdo y el tiempo de isquemia


Background: Strategies for cardio-protection are essential in coronary artery bypass graft surgery. The authors explored the relationship between cardioplegia volume, left ventricular mass index and ischemia time by means of the infused cardioplegia index and its relationship with post-operative low cardiac output syndrome. Design: All patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery between January 2013 and December 2015 were included. Low cardiac output syndrome was defined according to criteria of the SEMICYUC's consensus document. The perioperative factors associated with low cardiac output syndrome were estimated, and using a ROC curve, the optimum cut-off point for the infused cardioplegia index to predict the absence of low cardiac output syndrome was calculated. Results: Of 360 patients included, 116 (32%) developed low cardiac output syndrome. The independent risk predictors were: New York Heart Association Functional Classification (OR 1.8 [95% CI=1.18-2.55]), left ventricle ejection fraction (OR 0.95 (95% CI=0.93-0.98]), ICI (OR 0.99 [95% CI=0.991-0.996]) and retrograde cardioplegia (OR 1.2 [95% CI=1.03-1.50]). The infused cardioplegia index showed an area under the ROC curve of 0.77 (0.70-0.83; P<.001) for the absence of postoperative low cardiac output syndrome using the optimum cut-off point of 23.6ml·min-1(100g/m2 of LV)-1. Conclusions: The infused cardioplegia index presents an inverse relationship with the development of post-operative low cardiac output syndrome. This index could form part of new strategies aimed at optimising cardio-protection. The total volume of intermittent cardioplegia, especially that of maintenance, should probably be individualised, adjusting for ischemia time and left ventricle mass index


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Parada Cardíaca Induzida/métodos , Estudos de Coortes , Revascularização Miocárdica , Biomarcadores , Curva ROC , Fatores de Risco , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Estudos Prospectivos , Respiração Artificial/métodos , Análise Estatística , Hemodinâmica
15.
Clin Interv Aging ; 14: 1319-1329, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31409981

RESUMO

Purpose: Recent studies have shown the potential benefits of pressure-controlled ventilation-volume guaranteed (PCV-VG) compared to volume-controlled ventilation (VCV), but the results were not impressive. We assessed the effects of PCV-VG versus VCV in elderly patients by using lung ultrasound score (LUS). Patients and methods: Elderly patients (aged 65-90 years) scheduled for hip joint surgery were randomly assigned to either the PCV-VG or VCV group during general anesthesia. LUS and mechanical ventilator parameters were evaluated before induction, 30 mins after a semi-lateral position change, during supine repositioning before awakening, and 15 mins after arrival to the post-anesthesia care unit (PACU). Pulmonary function tests were performed before and after surgery. Other recovery indicators were also assessed in the PACU. Results: A total of 76 patients (40 for PCV-VG and 36 for VCV) were included this study. Demographic data showed no significant difference between the two groups. In both groups, LUSs before induction were significantly lower than those at other time points. LUSs of the VCV group were significantly increased during perioperative periods compared with the PCV-VG group (p=0.049). Visualized LUS modeling suggested an intuitive difference in the two groups and unequal distribution in lung aeration. Higher dynamic compliance and lower inspiratory peak pressure were observed in the PVC-VG group compared to the VCV group (33.54 vs 27.36, p<0.001; 18.93 vs 21.19, p<0.001, respectively). Postoperative forced vital capacity of the VCV group was lower than that of PCV-VG group, but this result was not significant (2.06 vs 1.79, respectively; p=0.091). The other respiratory data are comparable between the two groups. Conclusion: The PCV-VG group showed better LUS compared with the VCV group. Moreover, LUS modeling in both groups suggests non-homogeneous and positional change in lung aerations during surgery. Clinical trial registration: This study was registered at the UMIN clinical trials registry (unique trial number: UMIN000029355; registration number: R000033510).


Assuntos
Anestesia Geral/métodos , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Respiração Artificial/métodos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Geriatria , Articulação do Quadril/cirurgia , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Testes de Função Respiratória , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Volume de Ventilação Pulmonar , Ultrassonografia
16.
Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract ; 22(3): 419-439, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31395323

RESUMO

Even when performed by skilled operators, locating the nerves can be challenging in small exotic pets; in such cases, the use of an electrical nerve stimulator may be useful to confirm the correct identification of the target nerve. Exotic animal anesthesia and analgesia have dramatically progressed over the past decade and continue to do so as more research and technologies develop. Technological advancements such as airway devices, endoscopic intubation techniques, positive intermittent pressure ventilators, and invasive and noninvasive blood pressure monitors have played a significant role in improving patient safety and the anesthetic outcomes of exotic animals.


Assuntos
Analgesia/veterinária , Anestesia/veterinária , Animais Exóticos/fisiologia , Manuseio das Vias Aéreas/instrumentação , Manuseio das Vias Aéreas/métodos , Manuseio das Vias Aéreas/normas , Manuseio das Vias Aéreas/veterinária , Analgesia/tendências , Anestesia/tendências , Anestésicos/administração & dosagem , Animais , Aves/fisiologia , Determinação da Pressão Arterial/métodos , Determinação da Pressão Arterial/normas , Determinação da Pressão Arterial/veterinária , Endoscopia/instrumentação , Endoscopia/métodos , Endoscopia/tendências , Endoscopia/veterinária , Humanos , Mamíferos/fisiologia , Bloqueio Nervoso/instrumentação , Bloqueio Nervoso/métodos , Bloqueio Nervoso/tendências , Bloqueio Nervoso/veterinária , Manejo da Dor , Respiração Artificial/instrumentação , Respiração Artificial/métodos , Respiração Artificial/tendências , Respiração Artificial/veterinária
17.
World Neurosurg ; 131: e606-e613, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31408751

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In the present study, we sought to evaluate the timing and outcomes in patients with hemorrhagic stroke who received tracheostomy. METHODS: A retrospective database search was undertaken to identify patients with hemorrhagic stroke between January 2010 and December 2018. Clinical data on basic demographics, clinical features, and outcomes were extracted. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality and secondary outcomes were hospital stays and hospital costs. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to compare the characteristics and outcomes between patients with hemorrhagic stroke who underwent tracheostomy early (days 1-6) and late (days 7 or later). RESULTS: A total of 425 patients were identified, 74.4% (n = 316) received an early tracheostomy during the hospitalization. Patients with hemorrhagic stroke who received early tracheostomy had a higher rate of neurosurgical operation (odds ratio, 2.77; 95% confidence interval, 1.54-4.99; P = 0.001) and different types of hemorrhagic stroke (P = 0.001) in comparison with the late tracheostomy patients. In addition, early tracheostomy was associated with shorter hospital stays (odds ratio, 1.02; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.03; P = 0.003) and reduced hospital costs (P < 0.001) than with late tracheostomy. However, no significant difference was observed with regard to in-hospital mortality between early and late tracheostomy groups (P = 0.744). CONCLUSIONS: In our cohort, early tracheostomy in patients with hemorrhagic stroke may help reduce hospital stays and hospital costs, but not in-hospital mortality. Future prospective multicenter studies are warranted to validate these findings.


Assuntos
Mortalidade Hospitalar , Hemorragias Intracranianas/terapia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Traqueostomia/métodos , Idoso , Feminino , Custos Hospitalares/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Hemorragias Intracranianas/economia , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos , Respiração Artificial/economia , Respiração Artificial/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/economia , Fatores de Tempo , Traqueostomia/economia , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Crit Care ; 23(1): 254, 2019 07 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31300012

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although low tidal volume is strongly recommended for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), whether or not the benefit varies according to the severity of ARDS remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate whether or not there is an interaction between low tidal volume and severity of ARDS. METHODS: This was a secondary analysis from a randomized controlled trial. The patients were subgrouped according to whether the PaO2/FiO2 (P/F) was > 150 or ≤ 150 mmHg on day 0. The interaction between a tidal volume of 6 mL/kg and the P/F was investigated in hierarchical chi-square analysis and logistic regression models. RESULTS: Eight hundred and thirty-six patients with ARDS were enrolled (345 in the high P/F subgroup [> 150 mmHg] and 491 in the low P/F subgroup [≤ 150 mmHg]). Compared to the traditional tidal volume group, the mortality of patients with low tidal volume was significantly lower in the high P/F subgroup (41/183 (22.4%) vs. 64/162 (39.5%), p = 0.001) but not in the low P/F subgroup (95/256 (37.1%) vs. 96/235 (40.8%), p = 0.414). In the hierarchical chi-square analysis, the test of homogeneity was significant (risk ratio of mortality 0.56 [0.40-0.79] vs. 0.91 [0.73-1.13], p = 0.018). In the multivariable logistic model, the odds ratio of mortality for the interacted item was significant (2.02, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.06-3.86, p = 0.033). The odds ratio of mortality for low tidal volume was significant in the high P/F subgroup (0.42, 95% CI 0.24-0.72, p = 0.002) but not in the low P/F subgroup (0.89, 95% CI 0.60-1.31, p = 0.554). CONCLUSIONS: The benefits of low tidal volume ventilation remain uncertain in patients with severe ARDS. Further studies are needed to validate this significant interaction.


Assuntos
Respiração Artificial/métodos , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/terapia , Volume de Ventilação Pulmonar/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Respiração Artificial/normas , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/fisiopatologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
19.
Dtsch Med Wochenschr ; 144(14): 978-981, 2019 07.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31311048

RESUMO

The Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome is still a very severe condition in intensive care patients. Prone positioning is known to improve outcome in patients with moderate to severe ARDS. Therefore proning in these patients is nowadays to be regarded as a standard of care. The risks of proning are reasonably low - if proning is done correctly. Therefore a method of proning in a step-by-step-approach is shown in this article.


Assuntos
Posicionamento do Paciente/métodos , Decúbito Ventral/fisiologia , Respiração Artificial/métodos , Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Humanos , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/terapia
20.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 55(7)2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31311172

RESUMO

Background and objectives: Myasthenia gravis (MG) and Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS) are autoimmune neuromuscular disorders that may present as neuromuscular emergencies requiring mechanical ventilation and critical care. Comparative outcomes of these disease processes, once severe enough to require mechanical ventilation, are not known. In this study, we compared the patients requiring mechanical ventilation in terms of in-hospital complications, length of stay, disability, and mortality between these two disease entities at a national level. Materials and Methods: Mechanically ventilated patients with primary diagnosis of MG (n = 6684) and GBS (n = 5834) were identified through retrospective analysis of Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) database for the years 2006 to 2014. Results: Even though mechanically ventilated MG patients were older (61.0 ± 19.1 versus 54.9 ± 20.1 years) and presented with more medical comorbidities, they had lower disease severity on admission, as well as lower in-hospital complications sepsis, pneumonia, and urinary tract infections as compared with GBS patients. In the multivariate analysis, after adjusting for confounders including treatment, GBS patients had significantly higher disability (odds ratio (OR) 15.6, 95% confidence interval (CI) 10.9-22.2) and a longer length of stay (OR 3.48, 95% CI 2.22-5.48). There was no significant difference in mortality between the groups (8.45% MG vs. 10.0% GBS, p = 0.16). Conclusion: Mechanically ventilated GBS patients have higher disease severity at admission along with more in-hospital complications, length of stay, and disability compared with MG patients. Potential explanations for these findings include delay in the diagnosis, poor response to immunotherapy particularly in patients with axonal GBS variant, or longer recovery time after nerve damage.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Guillain-Barré/complicações , Miastenia Gravis/complicações , Insuficiência Respiratória/etiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Doenças Autoimunes/complicações , Doenças Autoimunes/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Síndrome de Guillain-Barré/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Miastenia Gravis/fisiopatologia , Doenças Neuromusculares/complicações , Doenças Neuromusculares/fisiopatologia , Razão de Chances , Respiração Artificial/métodos , Respiração Artificial/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA