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Clin Oral Investig ; 24(3): 1259-1267, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31302770


OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to compare the palatal total support tissues (TSTs) and bone support tissues (BSTs) at 5-mm paramedian section to the midsagittal suture between mouth breathers with high-narrow palates and nose breathers with normal palates and confirm the practicability and limitation on superimposition of lateral cephalograms and plaster models for orthodontic mini-implant (OMI) implantation in these patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The sample consisted of 27 mouth breathers with high-narrow palates (study group (SG)) and 27 nose breathers with normal palates (control group (CG)). Upper digital dental models were superimposed with corresponding cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images; then, TSTs and BSTs vertical to the curvature of the palatal mucosa were measured on the 5-mm paramedian section to the midsagittal suture. The measuring sites were the third ruga (R) and the sites anterior and posterior to R at 2-mm interval (A2, A4, A6, and A8; P2, P4, P6, and P8) along the palatal mucosa outline. TSTs and BSTs were also measured on the superimposition of lateral cephalograms and plaster models, and the site with the largest TST value in each patient was recorded. Descriptive statistics, independent-samples t test, and hierarchical clustering heat map were used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: The greatest average values of TSTs and BSTs in SG were 12.24 ± 2.63 mm and 9.59 ± 2.36 mm at P2 site, and those in CG were 12.96 ± 2.39 mm and 10.56 ± 2.38 mm at R site, respectively. The average values of both TSTs and BSTs in SG were less than those in CG at all insertion sites. Significant differences (P < 0.05) were found at A4, A6, and R for TSTs and at R and P4 for BSTs. P2 and R were clustered together for both TSTs and BSTs by the cluster analysis on heat map in both SG and CG. In both groups, only one patient from SG was found to have the insertion site with the largest TST value on 2D superimposition located in the blue area on the heat map, where the measurement values of TSTs were less than 8.5 mm and those of BSTs were less than 5 mm. CONCLUSIONS: Mouth breathers with high-narrow palates may have less palatal support tissues than nose breathers with normal palates at 5-mm paramedian section to the midsagittal suture of palate. The site a little posterior to R is more suitable for OMI implantation in mouth breathers. Two-dimensional superimposition of lateral cephalograms and plaster models can provide relatively effective assessment for the site choice of OMI implantation in both mouth breathers with high-narrow palates and nose breathers with normal palates. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Three-dimensional superimposition of CBCT data and digital dental model can provide accurate information for palatal OMI implantation. Meanwhile, 2D superimposition of lateral cephalograms and plaster models can be used for assessing the implantation sites at 5-mm paramedian section to the midsagittal suture of palates in mouth breathers under most conditions even those who have less palatal support tissues.

Implantes Dentários , Respiração Bucal , Procedimentos de Ancoragem Ortodôntica , Palato/anatomia & histologia , Adolescente , Criança , Tomografia Computadorizada de Feixe Cônico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Nariz , Estudos Retrospectivos
Eur J Paediatr Dent ; 20(4): 274-279, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31850768


AIM: The relationship between mouth breathing and dental caries, gingival inflammation, and halitosis in children is contentious with studies reporting positive and negative associations; this study aimed at investigating the effect of mouth breathing on dental, gingival health status, and halitosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An observational cross-sectional study was carried out involving 785 randomly selected children and adolescents between the ages of 10 and 15 in the city of Leipzig, Germany (LIFE Child cohort). Caries levels and gingival health status for the upper-right and the lower-left central incisors were assessed by evaluating ICDAS scores and CPI scores, respectively. A standardised questionnaire was used to assess self-reported mouth-breathing habit and halitosis. RESULTS: This study showed a statistically significant association between halitosis and mouth breathing (OR=3.0; 95% CI: 1.5-6.2), and a significant increase in mouth breathing habit in males compared to females (59.7% vs. 40.3%; p<0.05). There were no statistically significant differences in ICDAS scores, orthodontic treatment, CPI scores, or socioeconomic status between the mouth and nasal-breathing groups. CONCLUSION: Mouth breathing habit has no effect on the prevalence of caries or gingivitis based on examining the upper-right central incisor (11) and the lower-left central incisor. However, mouth breathers showed a significant increase in halitosis compared to nasal-breathing individuals.

Cárie Dentária , Halitose , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Respiração Bucal , Saúde Bucal
J Nepal Health Res Counc ; 17(3): 376-381, 2019 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31735935


BACKGROUND: Temporo-mandibular disorders is a collective term used to describe problems involving muscles of mastication and temporomandibular joint. The study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of temporo-mandibular disorders and its association with parafunctional habits in patients visiting department of dentistry, Patan Academy of Health Sciences. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out among 213 patients coming to Patan Academy of Health Sciences. A screening questionnaire recommended by American Association of Orofacial Pain was used to determine the signs and symptoms of temporo-mandibular disorders. RESULTS: The prevalence of temporomandibular disorders was 31.9 %. The three most common parafunctional habits were chewing gums (32.4 %), mouth breathing (19.7 %) and biting of objects (14.6 %) respectively. Statistically significant association was found between nail biting, grinding of teeth, biting of lips and objects and mouth breathing with signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders (p<0.05). Among the signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders, getting headaches, neck pain or toothaches often was the most frequent signs of temporomandibular disorders (n=105, 49.3 %). Feeling of recent change in bite was the second most frequent sign reported by 82 participants (38.5 %). CONCLUSIONS: The parafunctional habits between nail biting, grinding of teeth, biting of lips and objects and mouth breathing have statistically significant association with signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders.

Transtornos da Articulação Temporomandibular/epidemiologia , Adulto , Goma de Mascar/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hábitos , Humanos , Masculino , Respiração Bucal/epidemiologia , Nepal/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Inquéritos e Questionários , Centros de Atenção Terciária/estatística & dados numéricos
Eur J Paediatr Dent ; 20(3): 204-208, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31489819


AIM: This cross-sectional study was carried out to evaluate the prevalence of malocclusion and associated factors in preschoolers with the aim of assessing the existence of an association between bad habits and mouth breathing with the most severe malocclusions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A sample of 1616 children aged 3-6 years was visited by applying the Baby ROMA index, an orthodontic treatment need index for preschool age. The following were searched: the prevalence of malocclusion, the association of bad habits and mouth breathing with malocclusion, how often are found in association and how this association is statistically significant. Chi-square and Fischer test were applied to verify the statistical significance of the association between the variables. RESULTS: The data show that 38% of the sample need orthodontic treatment and 46% have signs of malocclusion of less severe degree that require a close monitoring and the elimination of risk factors so that they can improve spontaneously with growth. Moreover the prevalence of bad habits and oral breathing increases with increasing severity of the malocclusion, and sucking habits and oral breathing are both closely related to anterior open bite, posterior crossbite and increased overjet. CONCLUSIONS: In the context of prevention and early treatment of disorders of the craniofacial growth, bad habits and mouth breathing, being risk factors of malocclusion, should be intercepted and corrected early on to prevent the development of malocclusion, or the worsening of existing ones. From this point of view it is important to follow the patients with a multidisciplinary approach.

Má Oclusão , Respiração Bucal , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Sucção de Dedo , Hábitos , Humanos , Lactente , Itália , Prevalência
Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 37(4): 389-393, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31512831


OBJECTIVE: To study the effects of mouth-breathing on maxillary arch development by comparing the palatal morphology of mouth- and nose-breathing children in mixed dentition. METHODS: Children in mixed dentition were enrolled and categorized into mouth-breathing (test group) and nose-breathing groups (control group) according to their breathing patterns. Children's plaster models were scanned with 3D laser scanner, and the 3D data were reconstructed and measured using Minics 15.0 and Geomagic 12.0 software. Measurement data (inter-molar width, palatal height, palatal volume, and palatal surface area) of the two groups were compared, and the correlation among the four measurement items was analyzed. RESULTS: The participants were 73 children (37 in test group and 36 in control group) with a mean age of (8.63±0.78) years old. The test group had significantly smaller inter-molar width, palatal volume, and palatal surface area but significantly higher palatal height than the control group (P<0.05). Inter-molar width and palatal volume were positively correlated with the palatal surface area in the test group (P<0.05). Inter-molar width and palatal height were positively correlated with the palatal surface area in the control group (P<0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Mouth-breathing children have significantly reduced inter-molar width, palatal volume, and surface, and substantially increased palatal height, leading to different developmental patterns of the palatal morphology.

Arco Dental , Dentição Mista , Criança , Humanos , Maxila , Respiração Bucal , Palato
Av. enferm ; 37(2): 149-157, mai.-ago. 2019. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1038771


Resumo Objetivo: analisar a qualidade do sono das crianças internadas em hospital com síndrome de respiração bucal. Método: pesquisa descritiva, com componente analítico e abordagem quantitativa, desenvolvido com 80 crianças na faixa etária de 5 a 12 anos, internadas em hospital da região Nordeste do Brasil. Realizada a partir de entrevista com pais e/ou responsáveis pelas crianças participantes e questionário Índice da qualidade do sono de Pittsburgh. Resultados: 30 % das crianças respiradoras bucais apresentaram qualidade do sono muito boa e 43,8 % boa. Os componentes que mais interferiram para qualidade do sono boa foram: qualidade do sono (p < 0,001), latência (p < 0,000) e disfunção diurna (p < 0,000), assim como duração do sono, eficiência habitual do sono e uso de medicação para dormir, com valor de p sem significância. Conclusão: as crianças respiradoras bucais apresentaram boa qualidade do sono, segundo percepções de pais e/ou cuidadores.

Resumen Objetivo: analizar la calidad del sueño en niños hospitalizados con síndrome del respirador bucal. Método: investigación descriptiva, con componente analítico y abordaje cuantitativo, con 80 niños en el grupo de edad de 5 a 12 años, internados en hospital del nordeste de Brasil. Se realizó una entrevista con los padres o los responsables de los menores y se aplicó el cuestionario Índice de calidad del sueño de Pittsburgh. Resultados: 30 % de los niños con respiradores bucales presentó calidad del sueño muy buena y 43,8 % buena. Los componentes que más interfirieron en la buena calidad del sueño fueron: calidad del sueño (p < 0,001), latencia (p < 0,000) y disfunción diurna (p < 0,000), así como duración del sueño, eficiencia habitual del sueño y uso de medicación para dormir, con valor de p sin significancia. Conclusión: los niños con respiradores bucales presentaron buena calidad del sueño según las percepciones de padres o cuidadores.

Abstract Objective: to analyze the sleep quality in hospitalized children with syndrome of the oral respirator. Method: descriptive research with analytical component and quantitative approach, with 80 children in the age group between 5 to 12 years, being in a hospital in the northeast of Brazil. An interview was conducted with parents or guardians of children and the Pittsburgh Index of Sleep Quality questionnaire was applied. Results: 30 % of children with oral respirators presented very good sleep quality and 43.8 %, good. The components that most interfered in the good sleep quality were: sleep quality (p < 0.001), latency (p < 0.000) and daytime dysfunction (p < 0.000), as well as duration of sleep, habitual efficiency of sleep and use of medication for sleep, with p-value without significance. Conclusion: children with oral respirators had good sleep quality according to the perceptions of parents or caregivers.

Humanos , Criança , Sono , Brasil , Ventiladores Mecânicos , Criança Hospitalizada , Menores de Idade , Respiração Bucal , Criança
Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol ; 125: 82-86, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31271972


INTRODUCTION: Adenotonsillar hyperplasia (ATH) causing upper airway obstruction (UAO) may increase pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP). Early diagnosis and mouth breathing (MB) management may help in cases of high PASP. Total inspiratory nasal airflow (TINAF) obtained by active anterior rhinomanometry (AARM) is a means to quantify nasal patency. This study aimed to correlate TINAF with high PASP. METHODS: This is a prospective study involving 30 children between two and twelve years of age, with indication for adenotonsillectomy due to ATH, evaluated before and six months after surgery; and 29 nasal breathing (NB) children in the same age group. We obtained the PASP, calculated for tricuspid regurgitation, by means of a transthoracic echocardiography. We assessed nasal patency using the AARM to estimate the TINAF. RESULTS: The mean PASP among mouth breathing children was 25.99 mmHg, with a Standard Deviation of (±) 3.27, p = 0.01 in the preoperative period; and 21.79 mmHg (±2.48; p = 0.01) in the postoperative period. Among nasal breathers, this mean value was 21.64 mmHg (±3.87, p = 0.01). The mean pre-operative TINAF was 266.76 cm3/s (±112.21, p = 0.01); and 498.93 cm3/s (±137.80, p = 0.01) after surgery. Among nasal breathers it was 609.37 cm3/s (±109.16; p = 0.01). The mean nasal patency in the preoperative period was 42.85% (±17.83; p = 0.01); and 79.33% (±21.35; p = 0.01) in the post-op. Among nasal breathers it was 112.94% (±15.88, p = 0.01). There was a significant Spearman correlation value between TINAF and PASP (r = -0.459; p = 0.01) when we analyzed all the groups. CONCLUSION: PASP and TINAF values improved postoperatively and had an inverse correlation. This study suggests that by improving TINAF there was a decrease in PASP.

Adenoidectomia , Inalação/fisiologia , Respiração Bucal/cirurgia , Artéria Pulmonar/fisiologia , Tonsilectomia , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Respiração Bucal/fisiopatologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Rinomanometria , Sístole/fisiologia
Rev. cuba. estomatol ; 56(2): e1395, abr.-jun. 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1093220


RESUMEN Introducción: La ruptura del equilibrio de las fuerzas extrabucales e intrabucales debido a una función anómala, desencadena maloclusión. Estas funciones musculares anómalas se conocen como hábitos bucales lesivos. Objetivo: Actualizar conocimientos y analizar los factores relacionados con las maloclusiones dentarias como los hábitos bucales lesivos en niños, en función de la frecuencia y duración de la succión nutritiva y no nutritiva, respiración por la boca y el empuje lingual atípico. Métodos: se realizó una revisión bibliográfica en cuatro bases de datos digitales Pubmed, Lilacs, Ibecs y Cumed correspondiente a los últimos 5 años. Se usó tesauro para el idioma inglés malocclusion, habits, finger sucking, pacifiers, bottle feeding, tongue habit, mouth breathing y en español maloclusión, hábitos, succión del dedo, chupete, biberones, hábitos linguales, respiración por la boca. La búsqueda reveló 65 artículos, de estos solo 19 cumplieron los criterios de inclusión. Análisis e integración de la información: El 89,5 por ciento de los artículos pertenecen a estudios de hábitos de succión no nutritivos solo o en conjunto con otros hábitos; y el 10,5 por ciento realizan investigaciones en niños respiradores bucales. Teniendo en cuenta la duración y frecuencia de los hábitos solo el 26,31 por ciento de las pesquisas seleccionadas tomaron en cuenta estas variables. En hábitos de succión nutritivos presentaron resalte horizontal aumentado, mordida cruzada posterior y escalón distal. Existe una asociación entre períodos cortos de amamantamiento y prevalencia de hábitos de succión no nutritivos; presentan además de maloclusiones anteriormente citadas, mordida abierta anterior. En respiración por la boca citaron clase II, mandíbula corta y retruida y disminución del tercio inferior de la cara. Conclusiones: Numerosas investigaciones se han realizado para asociar la duración de los hábitos de succión nutritivos y no nutritivos con maloclusiones, sin considerar la frecuencia de estos, además existe una reducida información científica en las bases electrónicas exploradas en lo que refiere a estudios de respiración por la boca y empuje lingual atípico en los niños(AU)

ABSTRACT Introduction: Malocclusion is triggered by rupture of the balance between extraoral and intraoral forces as a result of an anomalous function. Such anomalous muscular functions are known as harmful oral habits. Objective: Update knowledge and analyze factors related to dental malocclusions, such as harmful oral habits in children, in terms of the frequency and duration of nutritive and non-nutritive sucking, mouth breathing and atypical tongue thrust. Methods: A bibliographic review was conducted of papers published in the last five years in the digital databases Pubmed, Lilacs, Ibecs and Cumed. The search terms used were malocclusion, habits, finger sucking, pacifiers, bottle feeding, tongue habit and mouth breathing in English, and maloclusión, hábitos, succión del dedo, chupete, biberones, hábitos linguales and respiración por la boca in Spanish. 65 papers were obtained, of which only 39 met the inclusion criteria. Data analysis and integration: 89.5 percent of the papers corresponded to studies about non-nutritive sucking habits alone or in combination with other habits, whereas 10.5 percent dealt with studies about mouth breathing children. Only 26.31 percent of the studies selected took into account the variables duration and frequency of the habits. Nutritive sucking habits were found to be associated with overjet, posterior crossbite and distal step. A relationship was also found between a short breastfeeding period and the prevalence of non-nutritive sucking habits, with the presence of anterior open bite alongside the aforementioned malocclusions. Mouth breathing was related to class II, small retrognathic jaw and a decreased lower third of the face. Conclusions: Numerous studies have been conducted to determine the relationship between malocclusions and the duration of nutritive and non-nutritive sucking habits, without considering the frequency of such habits. On the other hand, the electronic databases consulted contain few studies about mouth breathing and atypical tongue thrust in children(AU)

Humanos , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Hábitos Linguais/psicologia , Má Oclusão/epidemiologia , Respiração Bucal/etiologia , Literatura de Revisão como Assunto , Bases de Dados Bibliográficas , Sucção de Dedo/efeitos adversos
Rev. cuba. estomatol ; 56(2): e1801, abr.-jun. 2019. graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1093222


RESUMEN Introducción: El bruxismo del sueño es una parafunción que afecta a más del 20 por ciento de la población en general, produce trastornos en el aparato estomatognático y el resto del organismo. Su multicausalidad dificulta su diagnóstico, control y tratamiento, sobre todo cuando está asociado con el hábito de respiración bucal. Existen aditamentos que son utilizados como coadyuvantes del tratamiento en ambas entidades por separado, pero se torna aún más difícil cuando están combinadas. Objetivo: Comprobar la efectividad de una férula multifunción en el bruxismo del sueño asociado al hábito de respiración bucal. Caso clínico: Paciente masculino de 42 años de edad, con antecedentes de faringitis a repetición y de hipertrofia de adenoides, que acude a la consulta de Trastornos Témporo Mandibulares de la Facultad de Estomatología "Raúl González Sánchez", quien refiere apretamiento de las mandíbulas cuando duerme y dolores en músculos de la cara al despertar. A través de la anamnesis, el examen clínico intrabucal y extrabucal y de diferentes maniobras clínicas, se observó sintomatología relacionada con bruxismo del sueño céntrico combinado con hábito de respiración bucal. Conclusiones: Con la colocación de la férula multifunción se logró disminuir la sintomatología por la cual asistió a consulta el paciente(AU)

ABSTRACT Introduction: Sleep bruxism, a parafunctional habit affecting more than 20 percent of the general population, causes disorders in the stomatognathic system and the rest of the body. Its multicausality makes its diagnosis, control and treatment difficult, particularly when it is associated with mouth breathing. Devices have been created which may be used for the treatment of either condition separately, but therapy becomes more complicated when the two are present. Objective: Verify the effectiveness of a multifunction splint for the treatment of sleep bruxism associated with mouth breathing. Clinical case: A male 42-year-old patient with a history of recurrent pharyngitis and adenoid hypertrophy presents at the temporomandibular disorders service of Raúl González Sánchez Dental School and reports tightening of his jaws during sleep and facial muscle pain upon awakening. Anamnesis, intraoral and extraoral clinical examination, and various clinical maneuvers reveal symptoms of centric sleep bruxism combined with mouth breathing. Conclusions: Placement of a multifunction splint reduced the symptoms that had prompted the patient to attend consultation(AU)

Humanos , Masculino , Adulto , Placas Oclusais/efeitos adversos , Bruxismo do Sono/epidemiologia , Respiração Bucal/etiologia
Int. j. morphol ; 37(2): 724-729, June 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002284


La influencia de la función respiratoria en el desarrollo de estructuras orofaciales y postura craneocervical ha sido ampliamente discutida. El objetivo del estudio fue comparar valores cefalométricos de la región craneocervical e hioidea en sujetos con respiración nasal y oral. Se incluyeron sujetos de entre 18 y 27 años, de ambos sexos, donde 20 presentaban diagnóstico de respiración oral y 20 no presentaban esta alteración; mediante telerradiografía lateral de cabeza y cuello se realizó análisis cefalométrico craneocervical de Rocabado y aplicación de la técnica de Penning, obteniendo medidas craneocervicales e hioideas, dimensión anterior nasofaríngea y curvatura cervical. Para el análisis estadístico se utilizó la prueba de normalidad Shapiro-Wilk y la prueba T para muestras independientes, considerando un valor de p <0,05 para obtener diferencias significativas; en aquellos parámetros en donde no se presentó distribución normal se aplicó la prueba U de Mann-Whitney. No se encontraron diferencias significativas entre los grupos de estudio y los valores cefalométricos analizados, a excepción de la distancia entre la base del hueso occipital y el arco posterior del atlas (p=0,03). Existen limitadas diferencias cefalométricas entre sujetos con respiración oral y respiración nasal, no asociándose el espacio aéreo nasofaríngeo con las modalidades de respiración estudiadas. Deben ser consideradas condiciones de morfología facial o mandibular, para determinar más adecuadamente la influencia de los parámetros cefalométricos en el diagnóstico del modo respiratorio en estudios futuros.

The influence of respiratory function on the development of orofacial structures and craniocervical posture has been widely discussed. The objective of the study was to compare cephalometric values of the craniocervical and hyoid region in subjects with nasal and oral respiration. Subjects between 18 and 27 years of age, of both sexes, were included, where 20 presented oral breathing diagnosis and 20 did not present this alteration; using lateral telerradiography of the head and neck, craniocervical cephalometric analysis was performed of Rocabado and Penning technique was applied, obtaining craniocervical and hyoid measurements, anterior nasopharyngeal dimension and cervical curvature. For the statistical analysis we used the Shapiro-Wilk normality test and the T test for independent samples, considering a value of p <0.05 to obtain significant differences; in those parameters where no normal distribution was presented, the MannWhitney U test was applied. No significant differences were found between the study groups and the cephalometric values ??analyzed, except for the distance between the base of the occipital bone and the posterior arch of the atlas (p=0.03). There are limited cephalometric differences between subjects with oral breathing and nasal breathing, with no association of the nasopharyngeal air space with the breathing modalities studied. Conditions of facial or mandibular morphology should be considered in order to determine more adequately the influence of cephalometric parameters in the diagnosis of the respiratory mode in future studies.

Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto , Adulto Jovem , Crânio/anatomia & histologia , Vértebras Cervicais/anatomia & histologia , Osso Hioide/anatomia & histologia , Respiração Bucal , Postura , Crânio/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Obstrução Nasal , Vértebras Cervicais/diagnóstico por imagem , Nasofaringe/anatomia & histologia , Cefalometria , Telerradiologia , Estudo Observacional , Osso Hioide/diagnóstico por imagem
Orthod Craniofac Res ; 22 Suppl 1: 43-48, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31074141


This narrative review surveys current research demonstrating how oral dysfunction can escalate into malocclusion, acquired craniofacial disorder and contribute to generational dysfunction, disorder and disease. INTRODUCTION: Baseline orthodontic consultations are generally recommended beginning age seven. However, the dysmorphic changes that result in malocclusion are often evident years earlier. Similarly, following orthodontic treatment, patients require permanent retention when the bite is not stable, and without such retention, the malocclusion can return. SETTING AND POPULATION: Narrative review article including research on infants, children and adults. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This review is a brief survey of the symptomology of orofacial myofunctional disorder and outlines 10 areas of oral function that impact occlusal and facial development: breastfeeding, airway obstruction, soft tissue restriction, mouth breathing, oral resting posture, oral habits, swallowing, chewing, the impact of orofacial myofunctional disorder (OMD) over time and maternal oral dysfunction on the developing foetus. CONCLUSION: Malocclusions and their acquired craniofacial dysmorphology are the result of chronic oral dysfunction and OMD. In order to achieve long-term stability of the face, it is critical to understand the underlying pathologies contributing to malocclusion, open bite and hard palate collapse.

Má Oclusão , Mordida Aberta , Adulto , Criança , Oclusão Dentária , Humanos , Lactente , Mastigação , Respiração Bucal
ABCS health sci ; 44(1): 28-33, 02 maio 2019. ilus, tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-995013


INTRODUÇÃO: A má oclusão dentária tem origem multifatorial, logo é difícil definir estratégicas específicas de como preveni-la. A respiração bucal e certos hábitos de sucção, se persistir por mais de 36 meses, podem influenciar de forma negativa. OBJETIVO: Identificar fatores de risco à oclusão dentária como: respiração bucal e hábitos de sucção em escolares de 8 a 10 anos de idade em Petrópolis, RJ. MÉTODOS: Estudo observacional, transversal, de caráter descritivo. Incluídos escolares de ambos os sexos, 8 a 10 anos, matriculados em sete escolas municipais de Petrópolis. Distribuído aos escolares o protocolo para a identificação da criança respiradora bucal e o questionário sobre hábitos de sucção (mamadeira, chupeta e dedo). RESULTADOS: Foram avaliados 377 protocolos para a identificação de criança respiradora bucal e 377 questionários sobre hábitos de sucção. Nos protocolos foram referidos sintomas como: dormir de boca aberta em 193 (51,2%), babar no travesseiro em 172 (45,6%), roncos em 131 (34,7%) e obstrução nasal diária em 118 (31,2%). Ao aplicar os critérios de Abreu, constatou-se uma frequência de 243 (64%) respiradores bucais e 134 (36%) respiradores nasais. Ao avaliar os 377 questionários sobre os hábitos de sucção encontraram-se: 276 (73%) crianças com hábitos de sucção e 101 (27%) sem tais hábitos. Dos 276 escolares que tiveram hábitos de sucção, houve persistência destes hábitos acima de três anos e 11 meses em 149 crianças (54%). CONCLUSÃO: Encontrada uma alta frequência de respiradores bucais e de crianças com hábitos de sucção.

INTRODUCTION: Dental malocclusion has a multifactorial origin, so it is difficult to define specific strategies for preventing it. Mouth breathing and certain sucking habits, if they persist for more than 36 months, can have a negative influence. OBJECTIVE: To identify potentially damaging factors to dental occlusion like mouth breathing and sucking habits in children aged 8 to 10 years old in Petrópolis, RJ. METHODS: Cross-sectional, observational, descriptive study. Both male and female children between the ages of 8 to 10 years, enrolled in seven public schools of Petrópolis, were included. The identification protocol for mouth breathing child and the questionnaire on sucking habits (feeding bottle, pacifier and finger sucking) were applied to the students. RESULTS: A total of 377 protocols for identification of mouth breathing children and 377 questionnaires for suction habits were evaluated. The following symptoms were reported: open mouth sleeping in 193 (51.2%), drooling on the pillow in 172 (45.6%), snoring in 131 (34.7%) and daily nasal obstruction in 118 (31,2%). After application of Abreu criteria, a frequency of 243 (64%) mouth breathers and 134 (36%) nasal breathers was observed. Evaluation of the questionnaires about sucking habits demontrated 276 (73%) children with sucking habits and 101 (27%) without such habits. Of the 276 schoolchildren with sucking habits, those habits persisted for more than 3 years and 11 months in 149 children (54%). CONCLUSION: A high frequency of mouth breathing and sucking habits children were found.

Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Comportamento de Sucção , Saúde da Criança , Fatores de Risco , Assistência Odontológica para Crianças , Má Oclusão , Respiração Bucal
Codas ; 31(2): e20180099, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30942289


PURPOSE: To verify the relationship between maximum tongue pressure and the etiology of oral breathing in oral breathing children attended at the Oral Respiratory Outpatient Clinic. METHODS: A descriptive and analytical cross-sectional study was accomplished with 59 mouth breathing children aged 3 to 12 years (mean age 6.5 years and SD: standard deviation= 2.4). To collect tongue pressure, the Iowa Oral Performance Instrument (IOPI) was used and data regarding the etiology of oral breathing and dental occlusion were collected in the records of these patients for analysis. The associations between the maximum tongue pressure and the etiology of oral breathing, age, gender and dental occlusion were verified by the T test, ANOVA, Spearman's coefficient and Tuckey's test, using a significance level of 5%. RESULTS: There was a moderate and positive correlation between age and maximum pressure, it was verified that there was a statistically significant difference between the maximum tongue pressure and the variables pharyngeal tonsil hypertrophy and palatine tonsil hypertrophy. There were no statistical differences between the other variables. CONCLUSION: It was concluded that mechanical obstructions, among them the pharyngeal and palatine tonsil hypertrophy alter the maximum tongue pressure in oral breathing children.

Respiração Bucal/etiologia , Pressão , Língua/patologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertrofia/complicações , Masculino , Respiração Bucal/fisiopatologia , Língua/fisiopatologia
J Oral Sci ; 61(1): 119-124, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30918208


This study was to investigate the influences of habitual mouth breathing on memory and learning ability during the growth period. At age 5 weeks, the experimental rats were subjected to surgery to close completely one side of the nasal cavity. An 8-arm radial maze was used to evaluate memory and learning ability at age 7, 11, and 15 weeks. Moreover, the brain was extracted at age 7, 11, and 15 weeks, and subjected to histomorphometric examination for the distribution and number of pyramidal cells in the hippocampal CA1 and CA3 regions after Nissl staining. The trial time to accomplish each task was significantly longer in the experimental group than in the control group throughout the experimental period. The number of pyramidal cells was significantly less in the experimental rats than in controls in both the CA1 and CA3 regions for the entire experimental period. Thus, the functional deterioration of the respiratory system during the growth phase exerts a substantial effect on the growth and development of the central nervous system.

Aprendizagem em Labirinto , Memória , Respiração Bucal , Animais , Gasometria , Região CA1 Hipocampal/citologia , Região CA1 Hipocampal/fisiologia , Região CA3 Hipocampal/citologia , Região CA3 Hipocampal/fisiologia , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
Int. arch. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 23(1): 41-49, Jan.-Mar. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002169


Abstract Introduction Breathing is one of the vital functions of the body and is essential for the maintenance of life. Preventive measures for respiratory disorders can be used by the population, as well as early self-diagnosis and immediate search for treatment based on knowledge of this subject. Objective this study developed a weblog on the breathing function targeting young people and analyzed the statistical data of views until the present moment. Methods The weblog was developed, and the stages of analysis, design, development and implementation were followed. All texts were evaluated by the Flesch Reading Index to verify the language, and the statistical data were analyzed by the number of views, countries with the highest number of views, search terms used, most viewed pages and number of comments on the blog. Results Issues related to the breathing function and thosemost cited in the literature were selected. The blog was structured using pages with content and curiosities, with texts with minimum readability of 50%, and was made available on the internet by means of the Wordpress tool. The statistics showed an increase in the number of visits after August 2015; the countries with the highest number of views were Brazil, United States and Portugal; the search terms used were unknown or related to mouth breathing; the most viewed pages related to mouth breathing and the comments addressed questions on mouth breathing, reports and compliments. Conclusion The blog "How do I breathe?," aimed at young people and containing information about the breathing function, was developed and is available on the internet at the address: (AU)

Respiração , Blogging/estatística & dados numéricos , Respiração Bucal , Telemedicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Internet/estatística & dados numéricos , Fonoaudiologia , Comunicação em Saúde/métodos
Distúrb. comun ; 31(1): 69-76, mar. 2019. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-996215


Introdução: A amamentação é fator de proteção para doenças respiratórias, além de contribuir para o desenvolvimento intelectual das crianças. Objetivo: Analisar a relação do tempo de amamentação com sinais de respiração oral em crianças com mau desempenho escolar. Métodos: Estudo transversal, realizado com 82 crianças de 7 a 12 anos de idade, com mau desempenho escolar, recrutadas nas escolas públicas de uma cidade do interior de Minas Gerais. Os pais responderam a um questionário contendo os seguintes temas: tempo de amamentação em meses, sexo da criança, escolaridade materna e sinais de respiração oral. Para a análise estatística foi empregado o teste Qui-quadrado de Pearson e Teste Exato de Fisher, considerando o nível de significância de 5%. Resultados: Do total das crianças estudadas, 61 (74%) receberam amamentação por mais de seis meses, 60 (73%) eram do sexo masculino, 47 (56%) das mães eram analfabetas ou tinham o ensino fundamental incompleto. Os sinais de respiração oral estavam presentes em 57 (70%) dos escolares. Houve associação entre o tempo de amamentação e o relato de queixas de obstrução nasal esporadicamente, dificuldade ou demora ao engolir o alimento e dormir de boca aberta. Conclusão: As crianças que foram amamentadas por tempo inferior a seis meses apresentaram maior número combinado de sinais de respiração oral. Houve associação estatisticamente significante entre os sinais de respiração oral e o tempo de amamentação. O rastreamento de crianças que precisam ser encaminhadas para avaliação multiprofissional do modo respiratório pode ser realizado por meio das informações sobre tempo de amamentação e sinais de respiração oral combinados.

Introduction: Breastfeeding is a protective factor for respiratory diseases, as well as contributing to the intellectual development of children. Objective: To analyze the relationship of breastfeeding time with signs of oral breathing in children with poor school performance. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out with 82 children aged 7 to 12 years old with poor school performance, recruited from public schools in a city in the interior of Minas Gerais. The parents answered a questionnaire containing the following topics: breastfeeding time in months, gender of the child, maternal schooling and signs of oral breathing. For the statistical analysis, Pearson's Chi-square test and Fisher's exact test were used, considering a significance level of 5%. Results: Of the total number of children studied, 61 (74%) received breastfeeding for more than six months, 60 (73%) were male, 47 (56%) of the mothers were illiterate or had incomplete elementary education. Signs of oral breathing were present in 57 (70%) of schoolchildren. There was an association between the time of breastfeeding and the report of complaints of nasal obstruction sporadically, difficulty or delay when swallowing food and sleeping with open mouth. Conclusion: Children who were breastfed for less than six months had a greater combined number of signs of oral breathing. There was a statistically significant association between the signs of oral breathing and the time of breastfeeding. Screening of children who need to be referred for multiprofessional evaluation of the respiratory mode can be performed through information on breastfeeding time and combined mouth breathing signals.

Introducción: La lactancia materna es un factor de protección para las enfermedades respiratorias, además de contribuir al desarrollo intelectual de los niños. Objetivo: Analizar la relación del tiempo de lactancia con signos de respiración oral en niños con mal desempeño escolar. Métodos: Estudio transversal, realizado con 82 niños de 7 a 12 años de edad, con mal desempeño escolar, reclutados en las escuelas públicas de una ciudad del interior de Minas Gerais. Los padres respondieron a un cuestionario que contenía los siguientes temas: tiempo de lactancia en meses, sexo del niño, escolaridad materna y signos de respiración oral. Para el análisis estadístico se empleó la prueba Chi-cuadrado de Pearson y la prueba exacta de Fisher, considerando el nivel de significancia del 5% .Resultados: Del total de los niños estudiados, 61 (74%) recibieron amamantación superior a seis meses, 60 (73%) eran del sexo masculino, 47 (56%) de las madres eran analfabetas o tenían la enseñanza fundamental incompleta. Los signos de respiración oral estaban presentes en 57 (70%) de los escolares. Se observó asociación entre el tiempo de lactancia y el relato de quejas de obstrucción nasal esporádicamente, dificultad o demora al tragar el alimento y dormir de boca abierta. Conclusión: Los niños que fueron amamantados por tiempo inferior a seis meses presentaron mayor número combinado de signos de respiración oral. Se observó asociación estadísticamente significativa entre los signos de respiración oral y el tiempo de lactancia. El seguimiento de niños que necesitan ser encaminados para evaluación multiprofesional del modo respiratorio puede ser realizado por medio de las informaciones sobre tiempo de lactancia y señales de respiración oral combinadas.

Humanos , Criança , Baixo Rendimento Escolar , Aleitamento Materno , Fonoaudiologia , Respiração Bucal
PLoS One ; 14(2): e0210957, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30726268


BACKGROUND: Mouth breathing could induce not only dry throat and eventually upper respiratory tract infection, but also snoring and obstructive sleep apnea, while nasal breathing is protective against those problems. Thus, one may want to explore an approach to modify habitual mouth breathing as preferable to nasal breathing. The aim of this study was to investigate the physiological effects of our newly developed mask on facilitation of nasal breathing. METHODS: Thirty seven healthy male volunteers were enrolled in a double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled crossover trial. Participants wore a newly developed heated humidification mask or non-heated-humidification mask (placebo) for 10-min each. Subjective feelings including dry nose, dry throat, nasal obstruction, ease to breathe, relaxation, calmness, and good feeling were asked before and after wearing each mask. In addition, the effects of masks on nasal resistance, breathing pattern, and heart rate variability were assessed. RESULTS: Compared with the placebo mask, the heated humidification mask improved all components of subjective feelings except for ease to breathe; moreover, decreased nasal resistance and respiratory frequency accompanied a simultaneous increase in a surrogate maker for tidal volume. However, use of the heated humidification mask did not affect heart rate variability. CONCLUSION: Adding heated humidification to the nasopharynx could modulate breathing patterns with improvement of subjective experience and objective nasal resistance.

Temperatura Alta/uso terapêutico , Umidade , Respiração Bucal/terapia , Nasofaringe/fisiologia , Respiração , Adulto , Estudos Cross-Over , Método Duplo-Cego , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Máscaras , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol ; 119: 79-85, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30684690


OBJECTIVE: Chinese herbal medicine has been gradually used to treat pediatric adenoid hypertrophy. This meta-analysis were conducted to evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of Chinese herbal medicine in the treatment of pediatric adenoid hypertrophy. METHODS: Randomized controlled trials involving Chinese herbal medicine in the treatment of pediatric adenoid hypertrophy were identified from Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, PubMed, EMBASE, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, Chinese Biomedical Database, Wanfang Database and VIP Information Database. The methodological quality of trials was evaluated with Cochrane Handbook criteria, and the Cochrane Collaboration's Review Manager 5.3 software was used for Meta-analysis. RESULTS: A total of 13 valid articles involving 1038 patients were included. The meta-analysis showed that: Compared with western medicine treatment, Chinese herbal medicine significantly improved clinical efficacy (RR = 1.33, 95% CI [1.24,1.43]), and significantly decreased A/N ratio (MD = -0.04,95%CI [-0.05,-0.03]). Chinese herbal medicine also prominently improved the quality of life (MD = -4.77,95%CI [-8.35,-1.20]). Meanwhile, it dramatically improved snoring (MD = -0.46,95%CI [-0.62,-0.30]); mouth breathing (MD = -0.52,95%CI [-0.66,-0.39]); nasal obstruction (MD = -0.56,95%CI [-0.68,-0.45]). CONCLUSION: Chinese herbal medicine has good clinical efficacy and safety on pediatric adenoid hypertrophy, which need to be confirmed by high quality, multiple-centre, large sample randomized controlled trials.

Tonsila Faríngea/patologia , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Qualidade de Vida , Criança , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Hipertrofia/complicações , Hipertrofia/tratamento farmacológico , Respiração Bucal/tratamento farmacológico , Respiração Bucal/etiologia , Obstrução Nasal/tratamento farmacológico , Obstrução Nasal/etiologia , Ronco/tratamento farmacológico , Ronco/etiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
J Pediatr (Rio J) ; 95 Suppl 1: 66-71, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30611649


OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationship between mouth breathing and growth disorders among children and teenagers. DATA SOURCE: Search on MEDLINE database, over the last 10 years, by using the following terms: "mouth breathing", "adenotonsilar hypertrophy", "allergic rhinitis", "sleep disturbance" AND "growth impairment", "growth hormone", "failure to thrive", "short stature", or "failure to thrive". DATA SUMMARY: A total of 247 articles were identified and, after reading the headings, this number was reduced to 45 articles, whose abstracts were read and, of these, 20 were deemed important and were included in the review. In addition of these articles, references mentioned in them and specific books on mouth breathing deemed important were included. Hypertrophy of palatine and/or pharyngeal tonsils, whether associated with allergic rhinitis, as well as poorly controlled allergic rhinitis, are the main causes of mouth breathing in children. Respiratory sleep disorders are frequent among these patients. Several studies associate mouth breathing with reduced growth, as well as with reduced growth hormone release, which are reestablished after effective treatment of mouth breathing (clinical and/or surgical). CONCLUSIONS: Mouth breathing should be considered as a potential cause of growth retardation in children; pediatricians should assess these patients in a broad manner.

Transtornos do Crescimento/etiologia , Respiração Bucal/complicações , Criança , Transtornos do Crescimento/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Respiração Bucal/fisiopatologia , Obstrução Nasal/complicações , Obstrução Nasal/fisiopatologia , Rinite/complicações , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/complicações , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/fisiopatologia