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1.
JAMA ; 323(5): 455-465, 2020 02 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32016309

RESUMO

Importance: The association of home noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) with outcomes in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and hypercapnia is uncertain. Objective: To evaluate the association of home NIPPV via bilevel positive airway pressure (BPAP) devices and noninvasive home mechanical ventilator (HMV) devices with clinical outcomes and adverse events in patients with COPD and hypercapnia. Data Sources: Search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, SCOPUS, Cochrane Central Registrar of Controlled Trials, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, National Guideline Clearinghouse, and Scopus for English-language articles published from January 1, 1995, to November 6, 2019. Study Selection: Randomized clinical trials (RCTs) and comparative observational studies that enrolled adults with COPD with hypercapnia who used home NIPPV for more than 1 month were included. Data Extraction and Synthesis: Data extraction was completed by independent pairs of reviewers. Risk of bias was evaluated using the Cochrane Collaboration risk of bias tool for RCTs and select items from the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale for nonrandomized studies. Main Outcomes and Measures: Primary outcomes were mortality, all-cause hospital admissions, need for intubation, and quality of life at the longest follow-up. Results: A total of 21 RCTs and 12 observational studies evaluating 51 085 patients (mean [SD] age, 65.7 [2.1] years; 43% women) were included, among whom there were 434 deaths and 27 patients who underwent intubation. BPAP compared with no device was significantly associated with lower risk of mortality (22.31% vs 28.57%; risk difference [RD], -5.53% [95% CI, -10.29% to -0.76%]; odds ratio [OR], 0.66 [95% CI, 0.51-0.87]; P = .003; 13 studies; 1423 patients; strength of evidence [SOE], moderate), fewer patients with all-cause hospital admissions (39.74% vs 75.00%; RD, -35.26% [95% CI, -49.39% to -21.12%]; OR, 0.22 [95% CI, 0.11-0.43]; P < .001; 1 study; 166 patients; SOE, low), and lower need for intubation (5.34% vs 14.71%; RD, -8.02% [95% CI, -14.77% to -1.28%]; OR, 0.34 [95% CI, 0.14-0.83]; P = .02; 3 studies; 267 patients; SOE, moderate). There was no significant difference in the total number of all-cause hospital admissions (rate ratio, 0.91 [95% CI, 0.71-1.17]; P = .47; 5 studies; 326 patients; SOE, low) or quality of life (standardized mean difference, 0.16 [95% CI, -0.06 to 0.39]; P = .15; 9 studies; 833 patients; SOE, insufficient). Noninvasive HMV use compared with no device was significantly associated with fewer all-cause hospital admissions (rate ratio, 0.50 [95% CI, 0.35-0.71]; P < .001; 1 study; 93 patients; SOE, low), but not mortality (21.84% vs 34.09%; RD, -11.99% [95% CI, -24.77% to 0.79%]; OR, 0.56 [95% CI, 0.29-1.08]; P = .49; 2 studies; 175 patients; SOE, insufficient). There was no statistically significant difference in the total number of adverse events in patients using NIPPV compared with no device (0.18 vs 0.17 per patient; P = .84; 6 studies; 414 patients). Conclusions and Relevance: In this meta-analysis of patients with COPD and hypercapnia, home BPAP, compared with no device, was associated with lower risk of mortality, all-cause hospital admission, and intubation, but no significant difference in quality of life. Noninvasive HMV, compared with no device, was significantly associated with lower risk of hospital admission, but there was no significant difference in mortality risk. However, the evidence was low to moderate in quality, the evidence on quality of life was insufficient, and the analyses for some outcomes were based on small numbers of studies.


Assuntos
Respiração com Pressão Positiva/métodos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/terapia , Respiração Artificial/métodos , Serviços de Assistência Domiciliar , Hospitalização , Humanos , Hipercapnia/etiologia , Ventilação não Invasiva/instrumentação , Respiração com Pressão Positiva/instrumentação , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/complicações , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/mortalidade , Qualidade de Vida , Respiração Artificial/instrumentação , Resultado do Tratamento
2.
Br J Anaesth ; 124(3): 324-335, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32007240

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The debate on lung-protective ventilation strategies for surgical patients is ongoing. Evidence suggests that the use of low tidal volume VT improves clinical outcomes. However, the optimal levels of PEEP and recruitment manoeuvre (RM) strategies incorporated into low VT ventilation remain unclear. METHODS: Several electronic databases were searched to identify RCTs that focused on comparison between low VT strategy and conventional mechanical ventilation (CMV), or between two different low VT strategies in surgical patients. The primary outcome was postoperative pulmonary complications (PPCs). The secondary outcomes were atelectasis, pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome, and short-term mortality. Bayesian network meta-analyses were performed using WinBUGS. The odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% credible intervals (CrIs) were estimated. RESULTS: Compared with CMV, low VT ventilation with moderate-to-high PEEP reduced the risk of PPCs (moderate PEEP [5-8 cm H2O]: OR 0.50 [95% CrI: 0.28, 0.89]; moderate PEEP+RMs: 0.39 [0.19, 0.78]; and high PEEP [≥9 cm H2O]+RMs: 0.34 [0.14, 0.79]). Low VT ventilation with moderate-to-high PEEP and RMs also specifically reduced the risk of atelectasis compared with CMV (moderate PEEP+RMs: OR 0.36 [95% CrI: 0.16, 0.87]; and high PEEP+RMs: 0.41 [0.15, 0.97]), whilst low VT ventilation with moderate PEEP was superior to CMV in reducing the risk of pneumonia (OR 0.46 [95% CrI: 0.15, 0.94]). CONCLUSIONS: The combination of low VT ventilation and moderate-to-high PEEP (≥5 cm H2O) seems to confer lung protection in surgical patients undergoing general anaesthesia. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: PROSPERO (CRD42019144561).


Assuntos
Pneumopatias/prevenção & controle , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Respiração Artificial/métodos , Teorema de Bayes , Humanos , Pneumopatias/etiologia , Pneumonia/etiologia , Pneumonia/prevenção & controle , Respiração com Pressão Positiva/métodos , Atelectasia Pulmonar/etiologia , Atelectasia Pulmonar/prevenção & controle , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/métodos , Respiração Artificial/efeitos adversos , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/etiologia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/prevenção & controle , Volume de Ventilação Pulmonar
3.
Zhonghua Jie He He Hu Xi Za Zhi ; 43(2): 136-139, 2020 Feb 12.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32062884

RESUMO

Objective: To explore the effect of a breathing trainer on relieving the peak airway pressure caused by forced exhalation at the end of deep inspiration, gentle coughing at the end of calm inspiration and forced coughing at the end of deep inspiration in patients undergoing mechanical ventilation. Methods: From July to September 2018, 15 patients undergoing mechanical ventilation were selected from the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, including 5 patients with invasive ventilation (3 with tracheotomy and 2 with endotracheal intubation), and 10 patients with non-invasive ventilation through mask. The patients included 14 males and 1 female, aging 48-79 years, with an average age of (68±10) years. A Breathing Trainer developed by both Dongguan Yongsheng Medical Products Co., Ltd. and Guangzhou Institute of Respiratory Health was used to relieve the peak airway pressure. A one-way expiratory valve connected with a spring at the expiratory end of the Breathing Trainer was not opened until the pressure inside the airway was higher than 20 cmH(2)O (1 cmH(2)O=0.098 kPa), and opened completely when the pressure was higher than 35 cmH(2)O. Both before and after the Breathing Trainer was connected to the respiratory circuit, the patients were asked to exhale hard at the end of deep inspiration, to cough gently at the end of calm inspiration and to cough forcefully at the end of deep inspiration and the airway pressure were measured respectively. Each action was tested 3 times, and the interval time of each test was 1 min, and the interval of each action was 10 min. Results: Among the patients with tracheotomy or endotracheal intubation for invasive mechanical ventilation, when the patients exhaled hard at the end of deep inspiration,coughed gently at the end of gentle inspiration and coughed forcefully at the end of deep inspiration, the peak airway pressure measured before the ventilation circuit was connected to the Breathing Trainer was (30.0±4.5), (31.4±5.0) and (34.9±5.0)cmH(2)O, respectively, which was significantly higher than that after the ventilation circuit was connected to the Breathing Trainer(26.3±2.9), (26.7±3.5) and (29.0±4.1) cmH(2)O (all P<0.01). Among the patients with non-invasive mechanical ventilation wearing face masks, when the patients exhaled hard at the end of deep inspiration, coughed gently at the end of gentle inspiration and coughed forcefully at the end of deep inspiration, the peak airway pressure was (17.7±1.9), (16.6±2.5) and (18.9±2.5) respectively, before the ventilation circuit was connected to the Breathing Trainer, and was (18.9±2.5), (16.3±1.9) and (18.8±2.0) cmH(2)O respectively, after the ventilation circuit was connected to the Breathing Trainer. There was no significant difference between them (P>0.05). Conclusion: The application of Breathing Trainer in the mechanical ventilation circuit of tracheotomy or endotracheal intubation could significantly reduce the peak airway pressure caused by hard exhalation and cough. It could be used as an active cough assist device for mechanical ventilation patients to prevent high airway pressure.


Assuntos
Tosse/complicações , Intubação Intratraqueal , Pico do Fluxo Expiratório/fisiologia , Respiração Artificial , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Respiração com Pressão Positiva , Respiração
5.
Anaesthesia ; 75(3): 359-365, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32022912

RESUMO

Anaesthesia and positive pressure ventilation cause ventral redistribution of regional ventilation, potentially caused by the tracheal tube. We used electrical impedance tomography to map regional ventilation during anaesthesia in 10 patients with and without a tracheal tube. We recorded impedance data in subjects who were awake, during bag-mask ventilation, with the tracheal tube positioned normally, rotated 90° to each side and advanced until in an endobronchial position. We recorded the following measurements: ventilation of the right lung (proportion, %); centre of ventilation (100% = entirely ventral); global inhomogeneity (0% = homogenous); and regional ventilation delay, an index of temporal heterogeneity. We compared the results using Student's t-tests. Relative to subjects who were awake, anaesthesia with bag-mask ventilation reduced right-sided ventilation by 5.6% (p = 0.002), reduced regional ventilation delay by 1.6% (p = 0.025), and moved the centre of ventilation ventrally from 51.4% to 58.2% (p = 0.0001). Tracheal tube ventilation caused a further centre of ventilation increase of 1.3% (p = 0.009). With the tube near the carina, right-sided ventilation increased by 3.2% (p = 0.031) and regional ventilation delay by 2.8% (p = 0.049). Tube rotation caused a 1.6% increase in right-sided ventilation compared with normal position (p = 0.043 left and p = 0.031 right). Global inhomogeneity remained mostly unchanged. Ventral ventilation with positive pressure ventilation occurred with bag-mask ventilation, but was exacerbated by a tracheal tube. Tube position influenced ventilation of the right and left lungs, while ventilation overall remained homogenous. Tube rotation in either direction resulted in ventilation patterns being closer to when awake than either bag-mask ventilation or a normally positioned tube. These results suggest that even ideal tube positioning cannot avoid the ventral shift in ventilation.


Assuntos
Intubação Intratraqueal/métodos , Ventilação Pulmonar , Adulto , Idoso , Anestesia/métodos , Impedância Elétrica , Feminino , Humanos , Intubação Intratraqueal/efeitos adversos , Máscaras Laríngeas , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Respiração com Pressão Positiva , Respiração Artificial , Tomografia , Adulto Jovem
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(5): e18999, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32000439

RESUMO

The intraoperative lung protective ventilation with low tidal volume, positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP) and intermittent lungs recruitment was found to decrease postoperative pulmonary complications. In this retrospective medical records study, we investigated the effects of lung protective ventilation on postoperative pulmonary outcomes among the patients received prolonged oral cancer combined with free flap surgery.We collected the medical records of the patients received oral cancer surgery with the operation time more than 12 hours from January 2011 to December 2015. We recordedFifty nine cases were included. Thirty cases received the lung protective ventilation and 29 cases received conventional ventilation. Compared to the patients received conventional ventilation, the patients received intraoperative lung protective ventilation showedIn conclusion, for the prolonged oral cancer combined with free flap surgery, the intraoperative lung protective ventilation improves postoperative pulmonary outcomes and decreases the duration of ICU stay.


Assuntos
Retalhos de Tecido Biológico , Neoplasias Bucais/cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Respiração Artificial/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Respiração com Pressão Positiva , Estudos Retrospectivos , Volume de Ventilação Pulmonar
7.
Arch. bronconeumol. (Ed. impr.) ; 56(1): 18-22, ene. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-186461

RESUMO

Background: Large variation in diagnostic procedures and treatment recommendations may hinder the management of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and also compromise correct interpretation of the results of multicenter clinical trials, especially in subjects with non-severe OSA. The aim of this study was to analyze the therapeutic decision-making between different sleep physicians in patients with AHÍ < 40 events/h. Methods: Six experienced senior sleep specialists from different sleep centers of Spain were asked to make a therapeutic decision (CPAP treatment) based on anonymized recordings of patients with suspected OSA that has previously performed a sleep study. The clinical data was shown in an online database and included anthropometric features, clinical questionnaires, comorbidities, physical examination and sleep study results. Intra- and inter-observer decision-making were analyzed by the Fleiss’ Kappa statistics (Kappa). Results: A total of 720 medical decisions were taken to analyze the agreement between sleep professionals. Overall intra-observer evaluation reliability was almost perfect (Kappa = 0.83, 95% CI, 0.75-0.90, p < 0.001). However, overall inter-observer concordance decreased to moderate agreement (Kappa = 0.46, 95% CI, 0.42-0.51, p < 0.001). Nevertheless, it was especially low when considering AHÍ < 15 events/h. Conclusions: This study demonstrates a good intra-observer concordance in the therapeutic decision-making of different sleep physicians treating patients with low/moderate OSA. However, when analyzing inter-observer agreement the results were considerably worse. These findings underline the importance of developing improved consensus management protocols


Introducción: La gran variedad de procedimientos diagnósticos y recomendaciones de tratamiento puede dificultar el manejo del síndrome de apnea obstructiva del sueño (SAHS), y del mismo modo comprometer la correcta interpretación de los resultados de ensayos clínicos multicéntricos, especialmente en pacientes con SAHS no grave. El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar la decisión terapéutica de distintos médicos expertos en sueño en pacientes con el índice de apnea hipopnea < 40 eventos/h. Métodos: Se pidió a seis especialistas con amplia experiencia en sueño de diferentes centros de España que tomaran una decisión terapéutica (terapia de presión positiva continua en las vías respiratorias o CPAP) basada en datos anónimos de los pacientes con sospecha de SAHS en los que previamente se había llevado a cabo un estudio del sueño. Los datos clínicos procedían de una base de datos online e incluían características antropométricas, cuestionarios clínicos, comorbilidades, examen físico y resultados del estudio del sueño. La concordancia intra- e interobservador de la toma de decisiones se analizó mediante el estadístico Fleiss' Kappa (Kappa). Resultados: Se analizaron un total de 720 decisiones médicas para evaluar el consenso entre profesionales del sueño. De manera global, la fiabilidad de la evaluación intraobservador fue casi perfecta (Kappa = 0,83; 95% CI; 0,75 a 0,90, p < 0,001). Sin embargo, la concordancia global interobservador disminuyó hasta alcanzar un grado moderado de consenso (Kappa = 0,46; 95% CI; 0,42 a 0,51, p < 0,001), que fue especialmente bajo cuando se tuvo en cuenta un índice de apnea hipopnea < 15 eventos/h. Conclusiones: Este estudio demuestra una buena concordancia intraobservador en la toma de decisiones terapéuticas de distintos médicos expertos en sueño que tratan a pacientes con SAHS leve o moderado. Sin embargo, los resultados relativos al acuerdo interobservador fueron notablemente peores. Estos hallazgos señalan la importancia de desarrollar mejores protocolos consensuados de manejo


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Síndromes da Apneia do Sono/terapia , Tomada de Decisão Clínica/métodos , Respiração com Pressão Positiva , Respiração com Pressão Positiva Intermitente/métodos , Análise de Variância , Antropometria , Inquéritos e Questionários , Comorbidade , Consenso , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/epidemiologia
8.
Arch. bronconeumol. (Ed. impr.) ; 56(1): 35-41, ene. 2020. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-186464

RESUMO

Sleep is considered an essential part of life and plays a vital role in good health and well-being. Equally important as a balanced diet and adequate exercise, quality and quantity of sleep are essential for maintaining good health and quality of life. Sleep-disordered breathing is one of the most prevalent conditions that compromises the quality and duration of sleep, with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) being the most prevalent disorder among these conditions. OSA is a chronic and highly prevalent disease that is considered to be a true public health problem. OSA has been associated with increased cardiovascular, neurocognitive, metabolic and overall mortality risks, and its management is a challenge facing the health care system. To establish the main future lines of research in sleep respiratory medicine, the Spanish Sleep Network (SSN) promoted the 1st World Café experts' meeting. The overall vision was established by consensus as "Sleep as promoter of health and the social impact of sleep disturbances". Under this leitmotiv and given that OSA is the most prevalent sleep disorder, five research lines were established to develop a new comprehensive approach for OSA management: (1) an integrated network for the comprehensive management of OSA; (2) the biological impact of OSA on comorbidities with high mortality, namely, cardiovascular and metabolic diseases, neurocognitive diseases and cancer; (3) Big Data Analysis for the identification of OSA phenotypes; (4) personalized medicine in OSA; and (5) OSA in children: current needs and future perspectives


El sueño se considera una parte esencial de la vida y es vital para una buena salud y para el bienestar. De igual importancia que una dieta equilibrada y una adecuada actividad física, la calidad y la cantidad del sueño son esenciales para mantener una buena salud y calidad de vida. Las alteraciones respiratorias del sueño son los trastornos más prevalentes que comprometen la calidad y duración del sueño, siendo el síndrome de la apnea obstructiva del sueño (SAHS) el más frecuente. El SAHS es una enfermedad de elevada prevalencia que se considera un problema de salud pública. Se ha asociado con aumento del riesgo cardiovascular, neurocognitivo, metabólico y especialmente de mortalidad, y su manejo representa un reto para el sistema de salud. Para establecer las principales líneas futuras de investigación en medicina respiratoria del sueño, el Spanish Sleep Network promovió la primera edición del World Cafe experts' meeting. El mensaje principal «El sueño como promotor de la salud y el impacto social de los trastornos del sueño» se estableció por consenso. Bajo este lema y dado que el SAHS es el trastorno del sueño más prevalente, se establecieron cinco líneas de investigación para desarrollar una aproximación completa para el manejo de este síndrome: 1) Una red integrada para el manejo del SAHS; 2) El impacto biológico del SAHS en las comorbilidades con elevada mortalidad como la enfermedad cardiovascular, las enfermedades metabólicas y neurocognitivas y el cáncer; 3) El análisis de grandes bases de datos para la identificación de fenotipos del SAHS; 4) Medicina personalizada en el SAHS, y 5) El SAHS en niños: necesidades actuales y perspectivas futuras


Assuntos
Humanos , Assistência Integral à Saúde/tendências , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/diagnóstico , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/terapia , Ventilação com Pressão Positiva Intermitente/métodos , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/complicações , Respiração com Pressão Positiva/métodos , Big Data , Fenótipo
9.
Pneumologie ; 74(3): 137-148, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31918445

RESUMO

Nasal high-flow provides a stable oxygenation in acute hypoxemic respiratory failure, modifies breathing patterns, reduces work of breathing and can decrease hypercapnia. Thereby NHF provides more features than low-flow oxygen and acts as a ventilatory support device. Different studies show benefits of NHF compared to NIV. For these reasons we will discuss the capabilities of NHF and NIV in selected settings.


Assuntos
Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Ventilação não Invasiva/métodos , Oxigenoterapia/métodos , Oxigênio/administração & dosagem , Respiração com Pressão Positiva/métodos , Insuficiência Respiratória/terapia , Trabalho Respiratório/fisiologia , Humanos , Hipercapnia/prevenção & controle , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Br J Anaesth ; 124(3): 345-353, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31952649

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bedside lung volume measurement could personalise ventilation and reduce driving pressure in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). We investigated a modified gas-dilution method, the inspired sinewave technique (IST), to measure the effective lung volume (ELV) in pigs with uninjured lungs and in an ARDS model. METHODS: Anaesthetised mechanically ventilated pigs were studied before and after surfactant depletion by saline lavage. Changes in PEEP were used to change ELV. Paired measurements of absolute ELV were taken with IST (ELVIST) and compared with gold-standard measures (sulphur hexafluoride wash in/washout [ELVSF6] and computed tomography (CT) [ELVCT]). Measured volumes were used to calculate changes in ELV (ΔELV) between PEEP levels for each method (ΔELVIST, ΔELVSF6, and ΔELVCT). RESULTS: The coefficient of variation was <5% for repeated ELVIST measurements (n=13 pigs). There was a strong linear relationship between ELVIST and ELVSF6 in uninjured lungs (r2=0.97), and with both ELVSF6 and ELVCT in the ARDS model (r2=0.87 and 0.92, respectively). ELVIST had a mean bias of -12 to 13% (95% limits=±17 - 25%) compared with ELVSF6 and ELVCT. ΔELVIST was concordant with ΔELVSF6 and ΔELVCT in 98-100% of measurements, and had a mean bias of -73 to -77 ml (95% limits=±128 - 186 ml) compared with ΔELVSF6 and -1 ml (95% limits ±333 ml) compared with ΔELVCT. CONCLUSIONS: IST provides a repeatable measure of absolute ELV and shows minimal bias when tracking PEEP-induced changes in lung volume compared with CT in a saline-lavage model of ARDS.


Assuntos
Respiração com Pressão Positiva/métodos , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/terapia , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Medidas de Volume Pulmonar/métodos , Testes Imediatos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/diagnóstico por imagem , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/etiologia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/fisiopatologia , Solução Salina , Sus scrofa , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
11.
Br J Anaesth ; 124(1): 110-120, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31767144

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We aimed to examine whether using a high fraction of inspired oxygen (FIO2) in the context of an individualised intra- and postoperative open-lung ventilation approach could decrease surgical site infection (SSI) in patients scheduled for abdominal surgery. METHODS: We performed a multicentre, randomised controlled clinical trial in a network of 21 university hospitals from June 6, 2017 to July 19, 2018. Patients undergoing abdominal surgery were randomly assigned to receive a high (0.80) or conventional (0.3) FIO2 during the intraoperative period and during the first 3 postoperative hours. All patients were mechanically ventilated with an open-lung strategy, which included recruitment manoeuvres and individualised positive end-expiratory pressure for the best respiratory-system compliance, and individualised continuous postoperative airway pressure for adequate peripheral oxyhaemoglobin saturation. The primary outcome was the prevalence of SSI within the first 7 postoperative days. The secondary outcomes were composites of systemic complications, length of intensive care and hospital stay, and 6-month mortality. RESULTS: We enrolled 740 subjects: 371 in the high FIO2 group and 369 in the low FIO2 group. Data from 717 subjects were available for final analysis. The rate of SSI during the first postoperative week did not differ between high (8.9%) and low (9.4%) FIO2 groups (relative risk [RR]: 0.94; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.59-1.50; P=0.90]). Secondary outcomes, such as atelectasis (7.7% vs 9.8%; RR: 0.77; 95% CI: 0.48-1.25; P=0.38) and myocardial ischaemia (0.6% [n=2] vs 0% [n=0]; P=0.47) did not differ between groups. CONCLUSIONS: An oxygenation strategy using high FIO2 compared with conventional FIO2 did not reduce postoperative SSIs in abdominal surgery. No differences in secondary outcomes or adverse events were found. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT02776046.


Assuntos
Oxigênio/uso terapêutico , Respiração Artificial/métodos , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle , Abdome/cirurgia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oxigênio/sangue , Oxiemoglobinas/análise , Oxiemoglobinas/metabolismo , Assistência Perioperatória , Respiração com Pressão Positiva , Medicina de Precisão , Atelectasia Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Atelectasia Pulmonar/etiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed ; 105(1): 41-44, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31101662

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clinical assessment of newborn heart rate (HR) at birth has been reported to be inaccurate. NeoTapAdvancedSupport (NeoTapAS) is a free-of-charge mobile application that showed good accuracy in HR estimation. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of NeoTapAS on timing of HR communication and resuscitation interventions. METHODS: This was a randomised controlled cross-over (AB/BA) study evaluating HR assessment using auscultation plus NeoTapAS compared with auscultation plus mental computation in a high-fidelity simulated newborn resuscitation scenario. Twenty teams each including three paediatric residents were randomly assigned to AB or BA arms. The primary outcome was the timing of the first HR communication. Secondary outcomes included the timing of the following four HR communications and the timing of resuscitation interventions (positive pressure ventilation, chest compressions, intubation and administration of first dose of epinephrine). RESULTS: NeoTapAS reduced the time to the first HR communication (mean difference -13 s, 95% CI -23 to -4; p=0.009), and the time of initiation of chest compressions (mean difference -68 s, 95% CI -116 to -18; p=0.01) and administration of epinephrine (mean difference -76 s, 95% CI -115 to -37; p=0.0004) compared with mental computation. CONCLUSIONS: In a neonatal resuscitation simulated scenario, NeoTapAS reduced the time to the first HR communication and the time of initiation of chest compressions and administration of epinephrine compared with mental computation. This app can be especially useful in settings with limited availability of monitoring equipment, but further studies in clinical scenarios are warranted. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT03730025.


Assuntos
Aplicativos Móveis , Ressuscitação , Asfixia Neonatal/terapia , Auscultação , Broncodilatadores/administração & dosagem , Reanimação Cardiopulmonar , Comunicação , Estudos Cross-Over , Epinefrina/administração & dosagem , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Intubação Intratraqueal , Manequins , Respiração com Pressão Positiva
13.
Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed ; 105(1): 18-25, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31123056

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Lung hypoplasia associated with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) results in respiratory insufficiency and pulmonary hypertension after birth. We have investigated whether aerating the lung before removing placental support (physiologically based cord clamping (PBCC)), improves the cardiopulmonary transition in lambs with a CDH. METHODS: At ≈138 days of gestational age, 17 lambs with surgically induced left-sided diaphragmatic hernia (≈d80) were delivered via caesarean section. The umbilical cord was clamped either immediately prior to ventilation onset (immediate cord clamping (ICC); n=6) or after achieving a target tidal volume of 4 mL/kg, with a maximum delay of 10 min (PBCC; n=11). Lambs were ventilated for 120 min and physiological changes recorded. RESULTS: Pulmonary blood flow (PBF) increased following ventilation onset in both groups, but was 19-fold greater in PBCC compared with ICC lambs at cord clamping (19±6.3 vs 1.0±0.5 mL/min/kg, p<0.001). Cerebral tissue oxygenation was higher in PBCC than ICC lambs during the first 10 min after cord clamping (59%±4% vs 30%±5%, p<0.001). PBF was threefold higher (23±4 vs 8±2 mL/min/kg, p=0.01) and pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) was threefold lower (0.6±0.1 vs 2.2±0.6 mm Hg/(mL/min), p<0.001) in PBCC lambs compared with ICC lambs at 120 min after ventilation onset. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with ICC, PBCC prevented the severe asphyxia immediately after birth and resulted in a higher PBF due to a lower PVR, which persisted for at least 120 min after birth in CDH lambs.


Assuntos
Débito Cardíaco , Constrição , Hérnias Diafragmáticas Congênitas , Respiração com Pressão Positiva , Circulação Pulmonar , Cordão Umbilical , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Asfixia Neonatal/prevenção & controle , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Ovinos , Volume de Ventilação Pulmonar , Resistência Vascular
14.
Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed ; 105(1): 87-93, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31123057

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: High-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) therapy is increasingly used in preterm infants despite a paucity of physiological studies. We aimed to investigate the effects of HFNC on respiratory physiology. STUDY DESIGN: A prospective randomised crossover study was performed enrolling clinically stable preterm infants receiving either HFNC or nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP). Infants in three current weight groups were studied: <1000 g, 1000-1500 g and >1500 g. Infants were randomised to either first receive HFNC flows 8-2 L/min and then nCPAP 6 cm H2O or nCPAP first and then HFNC flows 8-2 L/min. Nasopharyngeal end-expiratory airway pressure (pEEP), tidal volume, dead space washout by nasopharyngeal end-expiratory CO2 (pEECO2), oxygen saturation and vital signs were measured. RESULTS: A total of 44 preterm infants, birth weights 500-1900 g, were studied. Increasing flows from 2 to 8 L/min significantly increased pEEP (mean 2.3-6.1 cm H2O) and reduced pEECO2 (mean 2.3%-0.9%). Tidal volume and transcutaneous CO2 were unchanged. Significant differences were seen between pEEP generated in open and closed mouth states across all HFNC flows (difference 0.6-2.3 cm H2O). Infants weighing <1000 g received higher pEEP at the same HFNC flow than infants weighing >1000 g. Variability of pEEP generated at HFNC flows of 6-8 L/min was greater than nCPAP (2.4-13.5 vs 3.5-9.9 cm H2O). CONCLUSIONS: HFNC therapy produces clinically significant pEEP with large variability at higher flow rates. Highest pressures were observed in infants weighing <1000 g. Flow, weight and mouth position are all important determinants of pressures generated. Reductions in pEECO2 support HFNC's role in dead space washout.


Assuntos
Oxigenoterapia/métodos , Respiração com Pressão Positiva , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Recém-Nascido/terapia , Peso Corporal , Dióxido de Carbono/sangue , Pressão Positiva Contínua nas Vias Aéreas , Estudos Cross-Over , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Masculino , Oxigênio/sangue , Estudos Prospectivos , Volume de Ventilação Pulmonar , Sinais Vitais
15.
Br J Anaesth ; 124(1): 101-109, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31733807

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: During general anaesthesia, most patients develop atelectasis, which promotes postoperative pulmonary complications. RCTs that investigated perioperative lung protection have failed to reduce postoperative pulmonary complications consistently. Ultrasound imaging could help confirm the effects of different protective ventilatory strategies, but this has not been tested in trials. The objective of this study was to use ultrasonography to evaluate whether lung-protective ventilation measures reduce perioperative atelectasis. METHODS: We conducted a prospective, randomised patient- and assessor-blinded controlled trial in women undergoing open gynaecological surgery. Subjects were randomised to either lung protection or zero end-expiratory pressure (ZEEP; with no recruitment manoeuvres [RMs]). Lung protection entailed PEEP (7 cm H2O) and RMs every 30 min. Lung ultrasonography was undertaken at five predefined time points. The primary outcome was the difference in lung ultrasonography score (LUS) between groups before emergence; a lower LUS indicates better lung aeration. RESULTS: We recruited 45 women (34-85 yr old). Women randomised to lung protection had lower mean (standard deviation) LUS before emergence (6.1 [3.7]), compared with women randomised to ZEEP (11.7 [3.9]; 95% confidence interval for the difference between group means [-7.9 to -3.2]; P<0.0001). This difference did not persist after extubation, with similar mean LUSs in women who had received intraoperative lung protection (7.0 [4.1]), compared with women randomised to receive ZEEP (7.7 [3.1]). CONCLUSIONS: As assessed by lung ultrasonography, intraoperative PEEP/RMs decreased aeration loss during general anaesthesia. However, similar degrees of aeration loss were observed after tracheal extubation regardless of intraoperative ventilatory strategy. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT02055807.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos em Ginecologia/efeitos adversos , Complicações Intraoperatórias/diagnóstico por imagem , Complicações Intraoperatórias/epidemiologia , Respiração com Pressão Positiva/métodos , Atelectasia Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Atelectasia Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anestesia Geral , Feminino , Humanos , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico por imagem , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Atelectasia Pulmonar/etiologia , Respiração Artificial , Resultado do Tratamento , Ultrassonografia
16.
Braz J Cardiovasc Surg ; 34(6): 699-703, 2020 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31545577

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of different levels of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) on gas exchange in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). METHODS: A randomized clinical trial was conducted with patients undergoing CABG surgery. Patients were randomized into three groups: Group 10, PEEP of 10 cmH2O; Group 12, PEEP of 12 cmH2O; and Group 15, PEEP of 15 cmH2O. After the randomization, all patients underwent gas analysis at three moments: (1) before lung expansion therapy (LET); (2) 30 minutes after LET; and (3) one hour after extubation. RESULTS: Sixty-six patients were studied, of which 61.7% were men, with mean age of 64 ± 8.9 years. Patients allocated to Group 15 showed a significant improvement in gas exchange comparing pre- and post-expansion values (239±21 vs. 301±19, P<0,001) and the increase was maintained after extubation (278±26). Despite the use of high levels of PEEP, no significant hemodynamic change was evidenced. CONCLUSION: It is concluded that high levels of PEEP (15 cmH2O) are beneficial for the improvement of gas exchange in patients undergoing CABG.


Assuntos
Ponte de Artéria Coronária/reabilitação , Respiração com Pressão Positiva/métodos , Idoso , Extubação , Gasometria , Feminino , Hemodinâmica , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Troca Gasosa Pulmonar , Mecânica Respiratória
20.
Res Vet Sci ; 127: 91-98, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31683197

RESUMO

This study was performed to assess the effects of open-lung positive end-expiratory pressure (OL-PEEP) following stepwise recruitment manoeuvre (RM) and those of a fixed PEEP of 5 cm H2O without previous RM on respiratory system compliance (Crs) and selected cardiovascular variables in healthy dogs under general anaesthesia. Forty-five healthy client-owned dogs undergoing surgery were anaesthetised and mechanically ventilated (tidal volume, VT = 10-12 mL/kg; PEEP = 0 cm H2O) for 1 min (baseline) and randomly allocated into zero positive end-expiratory pressure (ZEEP), PEEP (5 cm H2O) and OL-PEEP treatment groups. In the OL-PEEP group, a stepwise RM was performed and the individual OL-PEEP was subsequently applied. The Crs, heart rate (HR) and non-invasive mean arterial pressure (NIMAP) were registered at baseline and then every 10 min during 60 min. In the ZEEP group, Crs decreased from baseline. In the PEEP group, Crs was not different from either baseline or ZEEP group values. In the OL-PEEP group, Crs was higher than both baseline and ZEEP group values at all time points as well as of those in the PEEP group during at least 20 min after RM. There were no differences for HR and NIMAP between groups. A clinically relevant hypotension following RM was observed in 40% of dogs. Therefore, an individually set OL-PEEP following stepwise RM improved Crs in anaesthetised healthy dogs, although transient but clinically relevant hypotension was observed during RM in some dogs. Fixed PEEP of 5 cm H2O without previous RM did not improve Crs, although it prevented it from decreasing.


Assuntos
Anestesia Geral/veterinária , Anestésicos Inalatórios/farmacologia , Cães/fisiologia , Isoflurano/farmacologia , Respiração com Pressão Positiva/veterinária , Animais , Feminino , Masculino
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