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2.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 53: e20190481, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027412

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Patients with acute respiratory failure due to influenza require ventilatory support. However, mechanical ventilation itself can exacerbate lung damage and increase mortality. METHODS: The aim of this study was to describe a feasible and protective ventilation protocol, with limitation of the tidal volume to ≤6 mL/kg of the predicted weight and a driving pressure ≤15 cmH2O after application of the alveolar recruitment maneuver and PEEP titration. RESULTS: Initial improvement in oxygenation and respiratory mechanics were observed in the four cases submitted to the proposed protocol. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that the mechanical ventilation strategy applied could be optimized.


Assuntos
Influenza Humana , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Respiração com Pressão Positiva , Respiração Artificial , Volume de Ventilação Pulmonar
3.
Best Pract Res Clin Anaesthesiol ; 34(3): 561-567, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004167

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a new disease with different phases that can be catastrophic for subpopulations of patients with cardiovascular and pulmonary disease states at baseline. Appreciation for these different phases and treatment modalities, including manipulation of ventilatory settings and therapeutics, has made it a less lethal disease than when it emerged earlier this year. Different aspects of the disease are still largely unknown. However, laboratory investigation and clinical course of the COVID-19 show that this new disease is not a typical acute respiratory distress syndrome process, especially during the first phase. For this reason, the best strategy to be applied is to treat differently the single phases and to support the single functions of the failing organs as they appear.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Respiração com Pressão Positiva/métodos , Humanos , Pandemias , Volume de Ventilação Pulmonar/fisiologia
4.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 4446-4449, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018981

RESUMO

Capnometry is a method to measure carbon dioxide (CO2) in exhaled gas and it has been used to monitor patient respiratory status. CO2 monitoring is also used for patients receiving non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) therapy during mechanical ventilation. Ventilators actively dilute exhaled gas during non-invasive ventilation. In order to accurately measure end-tidal CO2, an adequate amount of expired gas needs to be filled in a CO2 measurement cell before expiratory positive airway pressure (EPAP) gas from the ventilator arrives to the cell. This is the reason why it is difficult to measure CO2 stably during non-invasive ventilation using the conventional CO2 measurement method. Therefore, we developed NPPV cap-ONE mask, which accurately measures CO2 in exhaled gas during non-invasive ventilation. In this study, we evaluated the basic performance of the NPPV cap-ONE mask system. The NPPV cap-ONE mask system could accurately measure CO2 in exhaled gas comparing to the conventional device in this study.


Assuntos
Capnografia , Ventilação não Invasiva , Dióxido de Carbono , Humanos , Respiração com Pressão Positiva , Ventiladores Mecânicos
5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(42): e22449, 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33080680

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Expiratory central airway collapse is defined by excessive inward bulging of either tracheobronchial posterior membrane or cartilage. The former is called excessive dynamic airway collapse (EDAC), and the latter, depending on the site of collapse, tracheomalacia, bronchomalacia or tracheobronchomalacia. Due to their non-specific symptoms and lack of awareness amongst clinicians they tend to be mislabeled as common obstructive lung disorders, or complicate their course undetected. Particular controversies refer to EDAC sometimes considered just as a symptom of obstructive lung disease and not a separate entity. Nonetheless, a growing body of evidence indicates that EDAC might be present in patients without apparent obstructive lung disease or it might be an independent risk factor in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or asthma patients. PATIENT CONCERNS: Patient #1 was admitted because of idiopathic chronic cough whereas patient #2 was admitted for differential diagnosis of dyspnea of uncertain etiology. In both patients symptoms were unresponsive to bronchodilators and inhaled corticosteroids. FINDINGS AND DIAGNOSIS: In both patients an excess collapse of tracheobronchial posterior membrane was detected during bronchoscopy; in patient #1, of right main bronchus and right upper lobe bronchus and in patient #2 of right upper lobe bronchus and both main bronchi. Excess central airway collapse in patient #2 was also visualized on expiratory chest CT. In patient #1 spirometry did not reveal obturation, whereas in patient #2 only mild, irreversible, obstruction was revealed, disproportionate to patients significant breathlessness. INTERVENTIONS: Both patients were treated with N-acetylcysteine and adjustable positive expiratory pressure valves. OUTCOMES: Due to aforementioned treatment chronic cough in patient #1 subsided almost completely whereas patient's #2 dyspnea improved significantly. CONCLUSIONS: In presented cases EDAC was an unexpected finding, even though, it firmly corresponded with reported symptoms. Treatment modification led to improvement of patients quality of life.


Assuntos
Traqueobroncomalácia/diagnóstico , Traqueobroncomalácia/terapia , Acetilcisteína/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Broncoscopia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Humanos , Respiração com Pressão Positiva/instrumentação , Espirometria , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
6.
Int J Occup Environ Med ; 11(4): 157-178, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33098401

RESUMO

The novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and has created a worldwide pandemic. Many patients with this infection have an asymptomatic or mild illness, but a small percentage of patients require hospitalization and intensive care. Patients with respiratory tract involvement have a spectrum of presentations that range from scattered ground-glass infiltrates to diffuse infiltrates with consolidation. Patients with the latter radiographic presentation have severe hypoxemia and usually require mechanical ventilation. In addition, some patients develop multiorgan failure, deep venous thrombi with pulmonary emboli, and cytokine storm syndrome. The respiratory management of these patients should focus on using low tidal volume ventilation with low intrathoracic pressures. Some patients have significant recruitable lung and may benefit from higher positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) levels and/or prone positioning. There is no well-established anti-viral treatment for this infection; the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has provided emergency use authorization for convalescent plasma and remdesivir for the treatment of patients with COVID-19. In addition, randomized trials have demonstrated that dexamethasone improves outcomes in patients on mechanical ventilators or on oxygen. There are ongoing trials of other drugs which have the potential to moderate the acute inflammatory state seen in some of these patients. These patients often need prolonged high-level intensive care. Hospitals are confronted with significant challenges in patient management, supply management, health care worker safety, and health care worker burnout.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/virologia , Monofosfato de Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Monofosfato de Adenosina/uso terapêutico , Alanina/análogos & derivados , Alanina/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Humanos , Imunização Passiva/métodos , Pulmão/virologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Respiração com Pressão Positiva/métodos , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/terapia , Estados Unidos
8.
Rev Bras Ter Intensiva ; 32(3): 348-353, 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33053023

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: A novel coronavirus emerged this year as a cause of viral pneumonia. The main characteristics of the virus are rapid transmission, high contagion capacity and potential severity. The objective of this case series study is to describe the clinical characteristics of patients with confirmed coronavirus disease (COVID-19) admitted to different intensive care units in Argentina for mechanical ventilation. METHODS: A descriptive, prospective, multicenter case series study was conducted between April 1 and May 8, 2020. Data from patients older than 18 years who were admitted to the intensive care unit for mechanical ventilation for acute respiratory failure with a positive diagnosis of COVID-19 were included. RESULTS: The variables for 47 patients from 31 intensive care units were recorded: 78.7% were men (median age of 61 years), with a SAPS II score of 43 and a Charlson index score of 3. The initial ventilatory mode was volume control - continuous mandatory ventilation with a tidal volume less than 8mL/kg in 100% of cases, with a median positive end-expiratory pressure of 10.5cmH2O. At the end of the study, 29 patients died, 8 were discharged, and 10 remained hospitalized. The SAPS II score was higher among patients who died (p = 0.046). Charlson comorbidity index was associated with higher mortality (OR = 2.27, 95% CI 1.13 - 4.55, p = 0.02). CONCLUSION: Patients with COVID-19 and on mechanical ventilation in this series presented clinical variables similar to those described to date in other international reports. Our findings provide data that may predict outcomes.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Respiração Artificial , Insuficiência Respiratória/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Argentina , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Respiração com Pressão Positiva , Estudos Prospectivos , Insuficiência Respiratória/virologia , Volume de Ventilação Pulmonar
9.
Isr Med Assoc J ; 22(10): 552-556, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33070485

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) experience frequent exacerbations and need to be hospitalized, resulting in an economic and social burden. Although data exist regarding reasons of frequent hospitalizations, there is no data available about the impact on the length of stay (LOS). OBJECTIVES: To characterize the causes of prolonged hospitalizations in COPD patients. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted of patients who were diagnosed and treated in the pulmonary department for severe COPD exacerbations. All patient demographic data and medical history were collected. Data regarding the disease severity were also collected (including Global Initiative for Obstructive Lung Disease [GOLD] criteria, pulmonologist follow-up, prior hospitalizations, and LOS). RESULTS: The study comprised 200 patients, average age 69.5 ± 10.8 years, 61% males. Of these patients, 89 (45%) were hospitalized for up to 4 days, 111 (55%) for 5 days or more, and 34 (17%) for more than 7 days. Single patients had longer LOS compared with married patients (48% vs. 34%, P = 0.044). Multivariate analysis showed that the number of prior hospital admissions in the last year was a predictor of LOS (P = 0.038, odds ratio [OR] = 0.807, 95% confidence interval [95%CI] = 0.659-0.988), as well as the use of non-invasive respiratory support by bilevel positive airway pressure (BiPAP) during the hospitalization (P = 0.024, OR = 4.662, 95%CI = 1.229-17.681). CONCLUSIONS: Fewer previous hospitalizations due to COPD exacerbations and the need for non-invasive respiratory support by BiPAP were found as predictors of longer LOS.


Assuntos
Progressão da Doença , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Respiração com Pressão Positiva/métodos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/terapia , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Análise de Variância , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Estudos de Coortes , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Incidência , Israel , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Distribuição por Sexo , Análise de Sobrevida
10.
J Cardiothorac Surg ; 15(1): 263, 2020 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32958067

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is an increasing amount of literature describing the pathogenesis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia and its associated complications. Historically, a small pneumothorax has been shown to be successfully treated without chest tube insertion, but this management has yet to be proven in COVID-19 pneumonia patients. In addition, pneumothorax in an intubated patient with high positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) provides additional uncertainty with pursuing non-operative management. CASE PRESENTATION: In this series we report four cases of patients with respiratory distress who tested positive for COVID-19 via nasopharyngeal swab and developed ventilator-induced pneumothoraces which were successfully managed with observation alone. CONCLUSIONS: Management of patients with COVID-19 pneumonia on positive pressure ventilation who develop small stable pneumothoraces can be safely observed without chest tube insertion.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Pneumotórax/terapia , Conduta Expectante , Idoso , Betacoronavirus , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumotórax/etiologia , Respiração com Pressão Positiva/efeitos adversos
11.
JAMA ; 324(9): 848-858, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32870298

RESUMO

Importance: In patients who undergo mechanical ventilation during surgery, the ideal tidal volume is unclear. Objective: To determine whether low-tidal-volume ventilation compared with conventional ventilation during major surgery decreases postoperative pulmonary complications. Design, Setting, and Participants: Single-center, assessor-blinded, randomized clinical trial of 1236 patients older than 40 years undergoing major noncardiothoracic, nonintracranial surgery under general anesthesia lasting more than 2 hours in a tertiary hospital in Melbourne, Australia, from February 2015 to February 2019. The last date of follow-up was February 17, 2019. Interventions: Patients were randomized to receive a tidal volume of 6 mL/kg predicted body weight (n = 614; low tidal volume group) or a tidal volume of 10 mL/kg predicted body weight (n = 592; conventional tidal volume group). All patients received positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) at 5 cm H2O. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was a composite of postoperative pulmonary complications within the first 7 postoperative days, including pneumonia, bronchospasm, atelectasis, pulmonary congestion, respiratory failure, pleural effusion, pneumothorax, or unplanned requirement for postoperative invasive or noninvasive ventilation. Secondary outcomes were postoperative pulmonary complications including development of pulmonary embolism, acute respiratory distress syndrome, systemic inflammatory response syndrome, sepsis, acute kidney injury, wound infection (superficial and deep), rate of intraoperative need for vasopressor, incidence of unplanned intensive care unit admission, rate of need for rapid response team call, intensive care unit length of stay, hospital length of stay, and in-hospital mortality. Results: Among 1236 patients who were randomized, 1206 (98.9%) completed the trial (mean age, 63.5 years; 494 [40.9%] women; 681 [56.4%] undergoing abdominal surgery). The primary outcome occurred in 231 of 608 patients (38%) in the low tidal volume group compared with 232 of 590 patients (39%) in the conventional tidal volume group (difference, -1.3% [95% CI, -6.8% to 4.2%]; risk ratio, 0.97 [95% CI, 0.84-1.11]; P = .64). There were no significant differences in any of the secondary outcomes. Conclusions and Relevance: Among adult patients undergoing major surgery, intraoperative ventilation with low tidal volume compared with conventional tidal volume, with PEEP applied equally between groups, did not significantly reduce pulmonary complications within the first 7 postoperative days. Trial Registration: ANZCTR Identifier: ACTRN12614000790640.


Assuntos
Pneumopatias/prevenção & controle , Respiração com Pressão Positiva/métodos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios , Volume de Ventilação Pulmonar , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Cuidados Intraoperatórios , Pneumopatias/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Período Pós-Operatório , Método Simples-Cego , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/efeitos adversos
12.
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao ; 40(7): 1008-1012, 2020 Jul 30.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32895160

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of inverse ratio ventilation (IRV) combined with positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) in infants undergoing thoracoscopic surgery with single lung ventilation (OLV) for lung cystadenomas. METHODS: A total of 66 infants undergoing thoracoscopic surgery with OLV for lung cystadenomas in our hospital from February, 2018 to February, 2019 were randomized into conventional ventilation groups (group N, n=33) and inverse ventilation group (group R, n=33). Hemodynamics and respiratory parameters of the infants were recorded and arterial blood gas analysis was performed at 15 min after two lung ventilation (TLV) (T1), OLV30 min (T2), OLV60 min (T3), and 15 min after recovery of TLV (T4). Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was collected before and after surgery to detect the expression level of advanced glycation end product receptor (RAGE). RESULTS: Sixty-three infants were finally included in this study. At T2 and T3, Cdyn, PaO2 and OI in group R were significantly higher (P < 0.05) and Ppeak, PaCO2 and PA-aO2 were significantly lower than those in group N (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in HR or MAP between the two groups at T2 and T3 (P > 0.05). The level of RAGE significantly increased after the surgery in both groups (P < 0.05), and was significantly lower in R group than in N group (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: In infants undergoing thoracoscopic surgery with OLV for pulmonary cystadenoma, appropriate IRV combined with PEEP does not affect hemodynamic stability and can increases pulmonary compliance, reduce the peak pressure, and improve oxygenation to provide pulmonary protection.


Assuntos
Cistadenoma , Ventilação Monopulmonar , Cistadenoma/terapia , Humanos , Lactente , Pulmão , Respiração com Pressão Positiva , Toracoscopia
13.
BMJ Case Rep ; 13(9)2020 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32907873

RESUMO

A 71-year-old man presented to the emergency department (ED) with low oxygen saturations and symptoms consistent with COVID-19 infection. Apart from a small left-sided ischaemic stroke 10 years prior with very minor residual deficit, he had been well and in full-time employment until development of symptoms. Within minutes of commencing non-invasive ventilation (NIV) in the ED, he developed a complete left-sided paralysis and hemineglect. This case highlights the significance of the prothrombotic complications associated with COVID-19 infection. It also raises the question whether pressure changes upon commencing NIV could lead to clot migration.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Ventilação não Invasiva/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Doença Aguda , Idoso , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Evolução Fatal , Fibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Respiração com Pressão Positiva/métodos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Terapia Trombolítica/métodos , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tecidual/uso terapêutico , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos
14.
J Investig Med High Impact Case Rep ; 8: 2324709620957778, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32911986

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by a novel human coronavirus has led to a tsunami of viral illness across the globe, originating from Wuhan, China. Although the value and effectiveness of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) in severe respiratory illness from COVID-19 remains unclear at this time, there is emerging evidence suggesting that it could be utilized as an ultimate treatment in appropriately selected patients not responding to conventional care. We present a case of a 32-year-old COVID-19 positive male with a history of diabetes mellitus who was intubated for severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The patient's hypoxemia failed to improve despite positive pressure ventilation, prone positioning, and use of neuromuscular blockade for ventilator asynchrony. He was evaluated by a multidisciplinary team for considering ECMO for refractory ARDS. He was initiated on venovenous ECMO via dual-site cannulation performed at the bedside. Although his ECMO course was complicated by bleeding, he showed a remarkable improvement in his lung function. ECMO was successfully decannulated after 17 days of initiation. The patient was discharged home after 47 days of hospitalization without any supplemental oxygen and was able to undergo active physical rehabilitation. A multidisciplinary approach is imperative in the initiation and management of ECMO in COVID-19 patients with severe ARDS. While ECMO is labor-intensive, using it in the right phenotype and in specialized centers may lead to positive results. Patients who are young, with fewer comorbidities and single organ dysfunction portray a better prognosis for patients in which ECMO is utilized.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/terapia , Terapia de Salvação/métodos , Adulto , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Respiração com Pressão Positiva/métodos , Radiografia Torácica , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/diagnóstico , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/etiologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
15.
Emerg Med Clin North Am ; 38(4): 857-869, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32981622

RESUMO

The obesity pandemic now affects hundreds of millions of people worldwide. As obesity rates continue to increase, emergency physicians are called on with increasing frequency to resuscitate obese patients. This article discusses important anatomic, physiologic, and practical challenges imposed by obesity on resuscitative care. Impacts on hemodynamic monitoring, airway and ventilator management, and pharmacologic therapy are discussed. Finally, several important clinical scenarios (trauma, cardiac arrest, and sepsis), in which alterations to standard treatments may benefit obese patients, are highlighted.


Assuntos
Obesidade/complicações , Ressuscitação/métodos , Manuseio das Vias Aéreas/métodos , Analgésicos/administração & dosagem , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Composição Corporal , Fármacos Cardiovasculares/administração & dosagem , Doenças Cardiovasculares/complicações , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Parada Cardíaca/terapia , Humanos , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/administração & dosagem , Medidas de Volume Pulmonar , Consumo de Oxigênio , Farmacocinética , Respiração com Pressão Positiva , Sepse/complicações , Sepse/terapia , Ferimentos e Lesões/complicações , Ferimentos e Lesões/terapia
16.
Emerg Med Clin North Am ; 38(4): 931-944, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32981627

RESUMO

Emergency physicians must be prepared to rapidly diagnose and resuscitate patients with pulmonary embolism (PE). Certain aspects of PE resuscitation run counter to typical approaches. A specific understanding of the pathophysiology of PE is required to avoid cardiovascular collapse potentially associated with excessive intravenous fluids and positive pressure ventilation. Once PE is diagnosed, rapid risk stratification should be performed and treatment guided by patient risk class. Although anticoagulation remains the mainstay of PE treatment, emergency physicians also must understand the indications and contraindications for thrombolysis and should be aware of new therapies and models of care that may improve outcomes.


Assuntos
Embolia Pulmonar/terapia , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores/sangue , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada , Estado Terminal , Ecocardiografia , Eletrocardiografia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea , Hidratação , Humanos , Intubação Intratraqueal , Ácido Láctico/sangue , Trombólise Mecânica , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/sangue , Óxido Nítrico/uso terapêutico , Oxigenoterapia , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/sangue , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito , Respiração com Pressão Positiva , Embolia Pulmonar/classificação , Embolia Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Embolia Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Ressuscitação/métodos , Medição de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Terapia Trombolítica , Troponina/sangue , Vasoconstritores/uso terapêutico
17.
Pediatrics ; 146(4)2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32917847

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: International guidelines for resuscitation recommend using positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) during ventilation of preterm newborns. Reliable PEEP-valves for self-inflating bags have been lacking, and effects of PEEP during resuscitation of term newborns are insufficiently studied. The objective was to determine if adding a new PEEP valve to the bag-mask during resuscitation of term and near-term newborns could improve heart rate response. METHODS: This randomized controlled trial was performed at Haydom Lutheran Hospital in Tanzania (September 2016 to June 2018). Helping Babies Breathe-trained midwives performed newborn resuscitation using self-inflating bags with or without a new, integrated PEEP valve. All live-born newborns who received bag-mask ventilation at birth were eligible. Heart rate response measured by ECG was the primary outcome, and clinical outcome and ventilation data were recorded. RESULTS: Among 417 included newborns (median birth weight 3200 g), 206 were ventilated without and 211 with PEEP. We found no difference in heart rate response. Median (interquartile range) measured PEEP in the PEEP group was 4.7 (2.0-5.6) millibar. The PEEP group received lower tidal volumes (4.9 [1.9-8.2] vs 6.3 [3.9-10.5] mL/kg; P = .02) and had borderline lower expired CO2 (2.9 [1.5-4.3] vs 3.3 [1.9-5.0] %; P = .05). Twenty four-hour mortality was 9% in both groups. CONCLUSIONS: We found no evidence for improved heart rate response during bag-mask ventilation with PEEP compared with no PEEP. The PEEP valve delivered a median PEEP within the intended range. The findings do not support routine use of PEEP during resuscitation of newborns around term.


Assuntos
Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Respiração com Pressão Positiva/instrumentação , Respiração Artificial/métodos , Ressuscitação/instrumentação , Eletrocardiografia , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Tocologia , Respiração com Pressão Positiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Ressuscitação/métodos , Ressuscitação/estatística & dados numéricos , Tamanho da Amostra , Nascimento a Termo
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