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1.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0244427, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33382784

RESUMO

Although emotion regulation has been proposed to be crucial for empathy, investigations on emotion regulation have been primarily limited to intrapersonal processes, leaving the interpersonal processes of self-regulation rather unexplored. Moreover, studies showed that emotion regulation and empathy are related with increased autonomic activation. How emotion regulation and empathy are related at the autonomic level, and more specifically during differently valenced social situations remains an open question. Healthy adults viewed a series of short videos illustrating a target who was expressing positive, negative, or no emotions during a social situation (Positive, Negative, or Neutral Social Scenes). Prior to each video, participants were instructed to reappraise their own emotions (Up-regulation, Down-regulation, or No-regulation). To assess autonomic activation, RR intervals (RRI), high frequency (HF) components of heart rate variability (HRV), and electrodermal activity phasic responses (EDRs) were calculated. Situational empathy was measured through a visual analogue scale. Participants rated how empathic they felt for a specific target. Up- and Down-regulation were related to an increase and a decrease in situational empathy and an increase in RRI and HF, respectively, compared to the control condition (No-regulation). This suggests increased activity of the parasympathetic branch during emotion regulation of situational empathic responses. Positive compared to Negative Social Scenes were associated with decreased situational empathy, in addition to a slightly but non-significantly increased HF. Altogether, this study demonstrates that emotion regulation may be associated with changes in situational empathy and autonomic responses, preferentially dominated by the parasympathetic branch and possibly reflecting an increase of regulatory processes. Furthermore, the current study provides evidence that empathy for different emotional valences is associated with distinct changes in situational empathy and autonomic responses.


Assuntos
Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/fisiologia , Regulação Emocional/fisiologia , Resposta Galvânica da Pele/fisiologia , Adulto , Empatia , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Masculino , Autorrelato , Adulto Jovem
2.
Neuron ; 108(1): 8-12, 2020 10 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33058768

RESUMO

Faster, more reliable, and comfortably wearable personal devices are producing data from biosensors on an unprecedented scale. Combined with context and analytics, these signals hold great promise to advance neuroscience via real-world data. Here, we discuss wearable technology broadly and provide specific examples of activity patterns from electrodermal sensors found during sleep, stress, and seizures.


Assuntos
Resposta Galvânica da Pele/fisiologia , Neurociências , Convulsões/fisiopatologia , Sono/fisiologia , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Biorretroalimentação Psicológica/métodos , Lateralidade Funcional , Humanos , Convulsões/terapia
3.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236999, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32813734

RESUMO

Snakes have been important ambush predators of both primates and human hunter-gatherers throughout their co-evolutionary history. Viperid snakes in particular are responsible for most fatal venomous snakebites worldwide and thus represent a strong selective pressure. They elicit intense fear in humans and are easily recognizable thanks to their distinctive morphotype. In this study, we measured skin resistance (SR) and heart rate (HR) in human subjects exposed to snake pictures eliciting either high fear (10 venomous viperid species) or disgust (10 nonvenomous fossorial species). Venomous snakes subjectively evaluated as frightening trigger a stronger physiological response (higher SR amplitude) than repulsive non-venomous snakes. However, stimuli presented in a block (more intense stimulation) do not trigger a stronger emotional response compared to sequentially presented stimuli (less intense stimulation). There are significant interindividual differences as subjects with high fear of snakes confronted with images of viperid snakes show stronger, longer-lasting, and more frequent changes in SR and higher HR compared to low-fear subjects. Thus, we show that humans demonstrate a remarkable ability to discriminate between dangerous viperids and harmless fossorial snakes, which is also reflected in distinct autonomous body responses.


Assuntos
Medo/fisiologia , Medo/psicologia , Mordeduras de Serpentes/psicologia , Serpentes , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/fisiologia , Evolução Biológica , Asco , Feminino , Resposta Galvânica da Pele/fisiologia , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Psicológicos , Estimulação Luminosa , Psicometria , Psicofisiologia , Venenos de Serpentes/envenenamento , Adulto Jovem
4.
Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol ; 319(3): R366-R375, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32726157

RESUMO

We have tested the feasibility of thermal grills, a harmless method to induce pain. The thermal grills consist of interlaced tubes that are set at cool or warm temperatures, creating a painful "illusion" (no tissue injury is caused) in the brain when the cool and warm stimuli are presented collectively. Advancement in objective pain assessment research is limited because the gold standard, the self-reporting pain scale, is highly subjective and only works for alert and cooperative patients. However, the main difficulty for pain studies is the potential harm caused to participants. We have recruited 23 subjects in whom we induced electric pulses and thermal grill (TG) stimulation. The TG effectively induced three different levels of pain, as evidenced by the visual analog scale (VAS) provided by the subjects after each stimulus. Furthermore, objective physiological measurements based on electrodermal activity showed a significant increase in levels as stimulation level increased. We found that VAS was highly correlated with the TG stimulation level. The TG stimulation safely elicited pain levels up to 9 out of 10. The TG stimulation allows for extending studies of pain to ranges of pain in which other stimuli are harmful.


Assuntos
Resposta Galvânica da Pele/fisiologia , Temperatura Alta , Limiar da Dor/fisiologia , Dor/fisiopatologia , Sensação Térmica/fisiologia , Adulto , Temperatura Baixa , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Medição da Dor/métodos
5.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234397, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32584827

RESUMO

When we perform an action, the outcome that follows it can change the value we place on that behaviour, making it more or less likely to be repeated in the future. However, the values that we learn are not objective: we interpret the outcomes that we receive for ourselves relative to those that share our environment, i.e. we engage in social comparison. The temporal dynamics of physiological responses to stimulus valuation in social learning tasks are poorly understood, particularly in human participants. Therefore, we recorded stimulus-locked event-related potentials with 64-channel EEG to examine stimulus valuation, following the design of a study previously used in macaques. Pairs of participants performed a social learning task in which they received outcomes sequentially for a presented stimulus (partner first) by pressing a button in response to a cue. There were two conditions: one in which stimulus values varied for the participant but output a constant rate of reward for the partner (self-variable blocks), and another condition in which this payout was reversed (other-variable blocks). We then measured participants' self-reported competitiveness. Approximately 200 ms post-stimulus, an ERP related to stimulus evaluation and attentional processing appeared to encode own stimulus value in self-variable blocks. In other-variable blocks the same pattern of activity was reversed, even though the value of the stimulus for the participant did not depend on the stimulus presented. Outcome-locked analyses further showed that attention dedicated to the partner's outcome was greater in more competitive participants. We conclude that subjective stimulus value can be reflected in early stimulus-locked ERP responses and that competitive participants may be more invested in their own performance relative to the other player, hence their increased interest in the outcome of their partner.


Assuntos
Aprendizado Social/fisiologia , Adulto , Atenção/fisiologia , Comportamento Competitivo/fisiologia , Sinais (Psicologia) , Eletroencefalografia , Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia , Feminino , Resposta Galvânica da Pele/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Estimulação Luminosa , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Recompensa
6.
Ideggyogy Sz ; 73(05-06): 185-188, 2020 05 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32579308

RESUMO

Background and purpose: After carpal tunnel surgery, some patients report complaints such as edema, pain, and numbness. Purpose - The aim of this study was to evaluate autonomic nervous system function in patients with a history of carpal tunnel surgery using sympathetic skin response (SSR). Methods: Thirty three patients (55 ±10 years old) with a history of unilateral operation for carpal tunnel syndrome were included in the study. The SSR test was performed for both hands. Both upper extremities median and ulnar nerve conduction results were recorded. Results: A reduced amplitude (p=0.006) and delayed latency (p<0.0001) were detected in the SSR test on the operated side compared to contralateral side. There was no correlation between SSR and carpal tunnel syndrome severity. Conclusion: Although complex regional pain syndrome does not develop in patients after carpal tunnel surgery, some of the complaints may be caused by effects on the autonomic nervous system.


Assuntos
Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/fisiologia , Síndrome do Túnel Carpal/cirurgia , Resposta Galvânica da Pele/fisiologia , Sistema Nervoso Simpático/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Nervo Mediano , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Condução Nervosa/fisiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Resultado do Tratamento , Nervo Ulnar/fisiologia , Nervo Ulnar/fisiopatologia
7.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231659, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32324756

RESUMO

Pathological fear and anxiety disorders can have debilitating impacts on individual patients and society. The neural circuitry underlying fear learning and extinction has been known to play a crucial role in the development and maintenance of anxiety disorders. Pavlovian conditioning, where a subject learns an association between a biologically-relevant stimulus and a neutral cue, has been instrumental in guiding the development of therapies for treating anxiety disorders. To date, a number of physiological signal responses such as skin conductance, heart rate, electroencephalography and cerebral blood flow have been analyzed in Pavlovian fear conditioning experiments. However, physiological markers are often examined separately to gain insight into the neural processes underlying fear acquisition. We propose a method to track a single brain-related sympathetic arousal state from physiological signal features during fear conditioning. We develop a state-space formulation that probabilistically relates features from skin conductance and heart rate to the unobserved sympathetic arousal state. We use an expectation-maximization framework for state estimation and model parameter recovery. State estimation is performed via Bayesian filtering. We evaluate our model on simulated and experimental data acquired in a trace fear conditioning experiment. Results on simulated data show the ability of our proposed method to estimate an unobserved arousal state and recover model parameters. Results on experimental data are consistent with skin conductance measurements and provide good fits to heartbeats modeled as a binary point process. The ability to track arousal from skin conductance and heart rate within a state-space model is an important precursor to the development of wearable monitors that could aid in patient care. Anxiety and trauma-related disorders are often accompanied by a heightened sympathetic tone and the methods described herein could find clinical applications in remote monitoring for therapeutic purposes.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Nível de Alerta/fisiologia , Condicionamento Clássico/fisiologia , Medo/fisiologia , Resposta Galvânica da Pele/fisiologia , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Sistema Nervoso Simpático/fisiologia , Simulação por Computador , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
8.
Work ; 65(3): 671-678, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32116285

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this research is to examine the influence of music and yogic breathing for the management and control of stress. OBJECTIVE: To discover the most effective stimuli to handle stress by measuring the effect of types of musical drills and yogic breathing on engineering students using the Galvanic Skin Response Sensor Meter (GSRSM). METHODS: The present study attempts to study the effectiveness of music and yoga drills for relieving and managing stress. The study used a stratified random sampling method selecting engineering students from four streams. The GSRSM was used as a tool to record the responses after 300 seconds for the experimental and the control groups of 200 students each. Each group was comprised of 52 females (26%) and 148 males (74%). RESULTS: The experimental group reported reduction in mean value in Galvanic Skin Response (GSR) when they underwent deep yogic breathing, listened to religious hymns and listened to flute music. CONCLUSION: On the basis of the results, the researchers suggest that all three techniques i.e practicing yogic breathing, listening to religious hymns and listening to flute music were effective in reducing the stress level of engineering students. Listening to flute music emerged from these three drills, as the most effective stimulus for stress management.


Assuntos
Música , Estresse Psicológico/prevenção & controle , Ioga , Exercícios Respiratórios/psicologia , Feminino , Resposta Galvânica da Pele/fisiologia , Humanos , Índia , Masculino , Estudantes/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
Int J Neural Syst ; 30(4): 2050013, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32114841

RESUMO

Emotion estimation systems based on brain and physiological signals such as electro encephalography (EEG), blood-volume pressure (BVP), and galvanic skin response (GSR) are gaining special attention in recent years due to the possibilities they offer. The field of human-robot interactions (HRIs) could benefit from a broadened understanding of the brain and physiological emotion encoding, together with the use of lightweight software and cheap wearable devices, and thus improve the capabilities of robots to fully engage with the users emotional reactions. In this paper, a previously developed methodology for real-time emotion estimation aimed for its use in the field of HRI is tested under realistic circumstances using a self-generated database created using dynamically evoked emotions. Other state-of-the-art, real-time approaches address emotion estimation using constant stimuli to facilitate the analysis of the evoked responses, remaining far from real scenarios since emotions are dynamically evoked. The proposed approach studies the feasibility of the emotion estimation methodology previously developed, under an experimentation paradigm that imitates a more realistic scenario involving dynamically evoked emotions by using a dramatic film as the experimental paradigm. The emotion estimation methodology has proved to perform on real-time constraints while maintaining high accuracy on emotion estimation when using the self-produced dynamically evoked emotions multi-signal database.


Assuntos
Córtex Cerebral/fisiologia , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Emoções/fisiologia , Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia , Resposta Galvânica da Pele/fisiologia , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Processamento de Sinais Assistido por Computador , Adulto , Bases de Dados Factuais , Humanos
10.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 5406, 2020 03 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32214158

RESUMO

Standard functional assessment of autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity on cardiovascular control relies on spectral analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) series. However, difficulties in obtaining a reliable measure of sympathetic activity from HRV spectra limits the exploitation of sympatho-vagal metrics. On the other hand, measures of electrodermal activity (EDA) have been demonstrated to provide a reliable quantifier of sympathetic dynamics. In this study we propose novel indices of phasic autonomic regulation mechanisms by combining HRV and EDA correlates and thoroughly investigating their time-varying dynamics. HRV and EDA series were gathered from 26 healthy subjects during a cold-pressor test and emotional stimuli. Instantaneous linear and nonlinear (bispectral) estimates of vagal dynamics were obtained from HRV through inhomogeneous point-process models, and combined with a sensitive maker of sympathetic tone from EDA spectral power. A wavelet decomposition analysis was applied to estimate phasic components of the proposed sympatho-vagal indices. Results show significant statistical differences for the proposed indices between the cold-pressor elicitation and previous resting state. Furthermore, an accuracy of 73.08% was achieved for the automatic emotional valence recognition. The proposed nonlinear processing of phasic ANS markers brings novel insights on autonomic functioning that can be exploited in the field of affective computing and psychophysiology.


Assuntos
Emoções/fisiologia , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia , Nervo Vago/fisiologia , Adulto , Sistema Cardiovascular/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Resposta Galvânica da Pele/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
11.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0228949, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32023317

RESUMO

Electrodermal activity (EDA) is an electrical property of the human skin, correlated with person's psychological arousal. Nowadays, different types of EDA measuring devices are used in highly versatile fields-from research, health-care and education to entertainment industry. But despite their universal use the quality of their measuring function (their accuracy) is questioned or investigated very seldom. In this paper, we propose a concept of an EDA patient simulator-a device enabling metrological testing of EDA devices by means of a variable resistance. EDA simulator was designed based on a programmable light-controlled resistor with a wide resistance range, capable of simulating skin conductance levels (SCL) and responses (SCR) and was equipped with an artificial hand. The hand included electrically conductive fingers for attachment of EDA device electrodes. A minimal set of tests for evaluating an EDA device was identified, the simulator's functionality discussed and some testing results presented.


Assuntos
Resposta Galvânica da Pele/fisiologia , Nível de Alerta/fisiologia , Simulação por Computador , Eletrodos , Equipamentos e Provisões , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos , Pele , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Pele
12.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 383, 2020 01 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31959749

RESUMO

Although humans display inequality aversion, many people appear to be untroubled by widespread economic disparities. We suggest that such indifference is partly attributable to a belief in the fairness of the capitalist system. Here we report six studies showing that economic ideology predicts self-reported and physiological responses to inequality. In Studies 1 and 2, participants who regard the economic system as justified, compared with those who do not, report feeling less negative emotion after watching videos depicting homelessness. In Studies 3-5, economic system justifiers exhibit low levels of negative affect, as indexed by activation of the corrugator supercilii muscle, and autonomic arousal, as indexed by skin conductance, while viewing people experiencing homelessness. In Study 6, which employs experience-sampling methodology, everyday exposure to rich and poor people elicits less negative emotion among system justifiers. These results provide the strongest evidence to date that system-justifying beliefs diminish aversion to inequality in economic contexts.


Assuntos
Capitalismo , Cultura , Emoções/fisiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/fisiologia , Feminino , Resposta Galvânica da Pele/fisiologia , Pessoas em Situação de Rua/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Autorrelato , Estados Unidos , Gravação em Vídeo , Adulto Jovem
13.
Sensors (Basel) ; 20(2)2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31952289

RESUMO

In this paper, we investigate various machine learning classifiers used in our Virtual Reality (VR) system for treating acrophobia. The system automatically estimates fear level based on multimodal sensory data and a self-reported emotion assessment. There are two modalities of expressing fear ratings: the 2-choice scale, where 0 represents relaxation and 1 stands for fear; and the 4-choice scale, with the following correspondence: 0-relaxation, 1-low fear, 2-medium fear and 3-high fear. A set of features was extracted from the sensory signals using various metrics that quantify brain (electroencephalogram-EEG) and physiological linear and non-linear dynamics (Heart Rate-HR and Galvanic Skin Response-GSR). The novelty consists in the automatic adaptation of exposure scenario according to the subject's affective state. We acquired data from acrophobic subjects who had undergone an in vivo pre-therapy exposure session, followed by a Virtual Reality therapy and an in vivo evaluation procedure. Various machine and deep learning classifiers were implemented and tested, with and without feature selection, in both a user-dependent and user-independent fashion. The results showed a very high cross-validation accuracy on the training set and good test accuracies, ranging from 42.5% to 89.5%. The most important features of fear level classification were GSR, HR and the values of the EEG in the beta frequency range. For determining the next exposure scenario, a dominant role was played by the target fear level, a parameter computed by taking into account the patient's estimated fear level.


Assuntos
Aprendizado Profundo , Medo/classificação , Transtornos Fóbicos , Processamento de Sinais Assistido por Computador , Adulto , Ansiedade , Diagnóstico por Computador , Eletroencefalografia , Resposta Galvânica da Pele/fisiologia , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Transtornos Fóbicos/diagnóstico , Transtornos Fóbicos/fisiopatologia , Transtornos Fóbicos/terapia , Adulto Jovem
14.
Int J Psychophysiol ; 147: 113-127, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31778726

RESUMO

Data from three published studies examining autonomic and ERP measures in variants of a dishabituation paradigm were re-analysed to clarify ambiguous novelty results. The three studies manipulated 1. Novelty, 2. Novelty and Intensity, and 3. Novelty and Significance, in auditory dishabituation paradigms at very long interstimulus intervals (ISIs). The question of whether any single ERP matches SCR as the benchmark for the phasic Orienting Reflex (OR) was also addressed. Finally, we aimed to align the re-analysed measures of this and the previous analyses with processes of Preliminary Process Theory (PPT). The SCR demonstrated decrement, recovery, and dishabituation. A summary temporal PCA extracted PN (Processing Negativity), P3a, P3b, Novelty P3, and classic SW for detailed analysis. P3b and SW showed decrement but no recovery at the change trial, while Respiratory pause (RP) and Novelty P3 demonstrated decrement and recovery, but no dishabituation. Post hoc exploration of observed power versus sample size for each of these findings confirmed their robustness. No decrement for PN was also confirmed. Five autonomic and ERP groupings emerged and aligned with modules of processing in PPT: ECR1 (cardiac deceleration), P1, N1-3, and PN - stimulus registration; RP and Novelty P3 - Novelty registration; Peripheral Vasoconstriction (PVC) and P3b - Intensity registration; and ECR2 (cardiac acceleration) and classic SW - Response system. The SCR was confirmed as the sole index of the phasic OR. The pattern of results for the Late Positive Complex (LPC) components (P3a, P3b, Novelty P3, and SW) suggests each is differentially sensitivity to selective determinants of the phasic OR, and consequently the summary LPC is presented as the most appropriate central index of the phasic OR.


Assuntos
Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/fisiologia , Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia , Resposta Galvânica da Pele/fisiologia , Habituação Psicofisiológica/fisiologia , Orientação/fisiologia , Reflexo/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Eletroencefalografia , Potencial Evocado P300/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Componente Principal , Adulto Jovem
15.
Pain Pract ; 20(4): 348-356, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31705738

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An impairment of the peripheral nervous system has been suggested in fibromyalgia (FM). Noninvasive distal electrochemical skin conductance (ESC) has been studied little so far when combined with quantitative sensory testing (QST) in patients with FM. METHODS: This study (clinicaltrials.gov NCT03347669) included 50 female patients with FM and 50 matched healthy volunteers (HVs). ESC (measured in microsiemens [µS] with Sudoscan), as well as psychological, quality of life, sleep, and social characteristics, were assessed in both groups. In a subgroup of 24 patients with FM and 24 HVs, QST of cold and warm detection and pain thresholds and diffuse noxious inhibitory controls (DNICs) were explored. Statistical analysis was performed for a 2-sided type I error at 5%. RESULTS: Between patients with FM and HVs, ESC values differed (71.4 ± 11.2 µS vs. 74.4 ± 10.3 µS, respectively; P = 0.003), especially on the dominant hand (P = 0.03), where more patients with FM had ESC values < 66 µS than did HVs (P = 0.046). No difference was observed on feet. In patients with FM, all collected characteristics were impaired (P < 0.001), DNICs were less functional, detection thresholds occurred later, and pain thresholds occurred earlier. No correlation was observed between ESC and DNICs or with any parameter. CONCLUSION: This study shows that the sudomotor function is significantly impaired in patients with FM, especially on the dominant hand. This occurs in parallel with adjustments of detection and pain thresholds in the context of deficient spinal pain modulation. ESC values combined with QST values are relevant in the context of patients with FM and need to be explored further in this nociception-autonomic system intertwining.


Assuntos
Fibromialgia/fisiopatologia , Resposta Galvânica da Pele/fisiologia , Glândulas Sudoríparas/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dor/fisiopatologia , Limiar da Dor/fisiologia , Projetos Piloto , Qualidade de Vida , Limiar Sensorial/fisiologia
16.
Clin Neurophysiol ; 131(1): 205-212, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31812081

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Global EEG alpha activity is negatively correlated with skin conductance level (SCL), supporting alpha as an inverse marker of arousal. Frequency Principal Components Analysis (f-PCA) of resting EEG amplitude spectra has demonstrated natural components in the alpha band of healthy persons. This is a preliminary exploration of whether such components differ with arousal, possibly underpinning the anomalous ADHD hypoarousal link to reduced alpha. METHOD: Twenty-seven right-handed undergraduate students participated in three 2 minute blocks of resting eyes-open/closed EEG and SCL: EO1, EC, EO2. For each condition, mean EEG spectra were submitted to separate f-PCAs. RESULTS: The inverse alpha/SCL relationship was confirmed for band amplitudes. EO had two alpha components; both correlated negatively with SCL. EC alpha contained four components, but only one had a substantial negative correlation with SCL; two had no relationship, suggesting natural alpha components with different non-arousal functionality in EC. CONCLUSION: Some alpha components in both EC and EO reflect arousal, with other non-arousal components in EC. Our f-PCA approach offers insight into previously-noted alpha anomalies in disorders such as ADHD. SIGNIFICANCE: This proof of concept demonstration in typical participants may provide the basis for a new research effort in clinical disorders involving atypical arousal patterns.


Assuntos
Ritmo alfa/fisiologia , Nível de Alerta/fisiologia , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Resposta Galvânica da Pele/fisiologia , Descanso/fisiologia , Adulto , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Estudo de Prova de Conceito , Adulto Jovem
17.
Int J Psychophysiol ; 147: 213-223, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31812457

RESUMO

In a P300-based concealed information test (CIT), an increased response to a crime-related "probe" item of interest suggests concealed knowledge. Because the CIT's detection ability is based on knowledgeable parties recognizing the key item, weakening the crime memory might decrease probe identifiability and reduce diagnostic power. Research on retroactive memory interference (RI) has shown that acquiring new information after encoding a memory can degrade the original memory, which suggests that RI might pose a threat to CITs. To test this, Gronau et al. (2015) had participants complete a mock-crime, followed by either a control task or a RI manipulation task, intended to impair the crime memory. Both the simple guilty control and RI groups were subdivided into three time delay conditions: 1/3 of participants immediately completed the task and CIT, another 1/3 completed the task and returned a week later for the CIT, and the remaining participants completed both the task and CIT a week later. Results showed that RI reduced memory of crime details and skin conductance responses, while respiration line length was unaffected. Here, we extend Gronau et al. (2015), using the Complex Trial Protocol (CTP) version of the P300-based CIT, to investigate the influence of RI on recognition. The CIT effect was obvious in all six group × time delay subconditions, as evidenced by their significantly larger probe vs. irrelevant amplitudes, high percentage of bootstrapped iterations where probe > irrelevants, bootstrapped mean amplitude differences, and satisfactory hit rates. However, these indices of the CIT effect did not differ based on group or time delay, as was the case for target response error rates and P300 latencies. The only outcome of interest to vary by group or time delay was behavioral response times: both probe and combined irrelevant responses were delayed in the control (simple guilty) group. Thus, the evidence suggests that the RI manipulation used here does not threaten the P300-based CTP's accuracy. Results are considered as they compare to previous work, and limitations and possible explanations for our results are discussed.


Assuntos
Decepção , Potencial Evocado P300/fisiologia , Resposta Galvânica da Pele/fisiologia , Memória Episódica , Reconhecimento Psicológico/fisiologia , Adulto , Protocolos Clínicos , Eletroencefalografia , Humanos , Adulto Jovem
18.
Int J Psychophysiol ; 147: 100-106, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31760104

RESUMO

Recent research has shown an association between the viewing of wagering advertising, which often presents inducements to gamble, and maladaptive sports-betting behaviours; however, the mechanism/s underlying the development of the intention to gamble remains relatively understudied. Eye-tracking and tonic electrodermal activity was recorded from 59 participants (including 49 regular gamblers and 10 non-gamblers), while they watched a series of advertisements. Following each advertisement, participants were asked to rate how likely they would be to take up the offer presented, therein. The number of fixations placed on each offer differed according to the type of inducement shown (p < .001), with reduced risk and cash back inducements being looked at more often than better odds and bonus bet inducements by all groups. Increased electrodermal activity while viewing the advertisements was associated with greater severity of gambling-related harm (p < .001), as well as greater ratings of desire for most advertisements. Rating of desire was, likewise, positively associated with gambling-related harm (p < .001). These results may suggest that, while the offers in gambling advertisements may be looked at by most viewers, unless there an attendant increase in arousal, it is quite unlikely that these inducements will elicit a desire to gamble. For individuals already at risk of gambling problems, exposure to these advertisements, especially those offering what is perceived to be safer betting options that minimise financial losses, may exacerbate existing harms. Such information may prove useful in guiding industry practice, government regulations, therapeutic interventions, and future research on this topic.


Assuntos
Publicidade , Fixação Ocular/fisiologia , Resposta Galvânica da Pele/fisiologia , Jogo de Azar/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Idoso , Medições dos Movimentos Oculares , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Psicofisiologia/métodos , Adulto Jovem
19.
Int J Psychophysiol ; 147: 93-99, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31760105

RESUMO

Fear acquisition manifests in the development of conditioned fear responses (CRs), whereas a decrement in CRs as a consequence of unconditioned stimulus (UCS) omission is referred to as extinction learning. Time windows for CR scoring in physiological readouts are subject to discussion, especially regarding the subdivision of skin conductance responses (SCRs) into first- (FIR) and second-interval responses (SIR). However, distinct temporal CR trajectories within or across measures may reflect specific characteristics of the underlying associative processes. In this study, 41 participants underwent fear acquisition and extinction, while SCRs and pupillary responses were recorded and separated into different time bins to explore the temporal dynamics of CRs across both learning phases. For SCRs, we observed a shift from early (FIR) to late (SIR) time intervals during fear acquisition most likely reflecting subsequent learning processes, in which CS-UCS associations and their relative timing are formed. During extinction, only the FIR exhibited a CR decline and was thus able to track the learning progress. These results indicate that conditioned SCRs follow a dynamic temporal pattern that may be related to different learning dimensions. By contrast, pupillary CRs were generally better captured by a late pupillary response component, suggesting a rather stable temporal CR pattern for the pupil in both learning phases. Our findings underscore the importance of specifying CR quantification for different physiological readouts when evaluating learning performance in the context of fear acquisition and extinction and may motivate further investigation of time-specific CR patterns and their relation to specific associative dimensions.


Assuntos
Condicionamento Clássico/fisiologia , Extinção Psicológica/fisiologia , Medo/fisiologia , Resposta Galvânica da Pele/fisiologia , Pupila/fisiologia , Adulto , Medições dos Movimentos Oculares , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
20.
Neurochem Res ; 45(1): 34-41, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30710236

RESUMO

In cerebral cortex of anesthetized rats single waves of spreading depolarization (CSD) were elicited by needle prick. CSD-related changes of DC (direct current) potentials were either recorded from the intact skin or together with concomitant changes of potassium concentration with K+-selective microelectrodes simultaneously at the surface of the dura mater or of the cortex ([K+]s) and in the extracellular space at a cortical depth of 1200 µm. At the intact skin CSD-related DC-shifts had amplitudes of less than 1 mV and had only in a minority of cases the typical CSD-like shape. In the majority these DC-shifts rose and recovered very slowly and were difficult to identify without further indicators. At dura surface CSD-related DC shifts were significantly smaller and rose and recovered slower than intracortically recorded CSD. Concomitant increases in [K+]s were delayed and reached maximal values of about 5 mM from a baseline of 3 mM. They rose and recovered slower than simultaneously recorded intracortical changes in extracellular potassium concentration ([K+]e) that were up to 65 mM. The results suggest that extracellular potassium during CSD is diffusing through the subarachnoid space and across the dura mater. In a few cases CSD was either absent at the dura or at a depth of 1200 µm. Even full blown CSDs in this cortical depth could remain without concomitant deflections at the dura. Our data confirmed in principle the possibility of non-invasive recordings of CSD-related DC-shifts. For a use in clinical routine sensitivity and specificity will have to be improved.


Assuntos
Depressão Alastrante da Atividade Elétrica Cortical/fisiologia , Dura-Máter/fisiologia , Eletrodos Implantados , Resposta Galvânica da Pele/fisiologia , Neocórtex/fisiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Pele , Animais , Masculino , Ratos
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