Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 1.171
Filtrar
1.
G3 (Bethesda) ; 11(9)2021 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34544147

RESUMO

Threonyl-tRNA synthetase (ThrRS), one of the aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (AARSs), plays a crucial role in protein synthesis. However, the AARS functions on rice chloroplast development and growth were not fully appraised. In this study, a thermo-sensitive virescent mutant tsv2, which showed albino phenotype and lethal after the 4-leaf stage at 20°C but recovered to normal when the temperatures rose, was identified and characterized. Map-based cloning and complementation tests showed that TSV2 encoded a chloroplast-located ThrRS protein in rice. The Lys-to-Arg mutation in the anticodon-binding domain hampered chloroplast development under cold stress, while the loss of function of the ThrRS core domain in TSV2 fatally led to seedling death regardless of growing temperatures. In addition, TSV2 had a specific expression in early leaves. Its disruption obviously resulted in the downregulation of certain genes associated with chlorophyll biosynthesis, photosynthesis, and chloroplast development at cold conditions. Our observations revealed that rice nuclear-encoded TSV2 plays an important role in chloroplast development at the early leaf stage under cold stress.


Assuntos
Oryza , Treonina-tRNA Ligase , Cloroplastos/genética , Cloroplastos/metabolismo , Resposta ao Choque Frio , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Mutação , Oryza/genética , Oryza/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plântula/genética , Plântula/metabolismo
2.
Planta ; 254(4): 84, 2021 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34561734

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: Genome-wide identification reveals 55 PvuGRAS genes belonging to 16 subfamilies and their gene structures and evolutionary relationships were characterized. Expression analyses highlight their prominence in plant growth, development and abiotic stress responses. GRAS proteins comprise a plant-specific transcription factor family involved in multiple growth regulatory pathways and environmental cues including abiotic/biotic stresses. Despite its crucial importance, characterization of this gene family is still elusive in common bean. A systematic genome-wide scan identified 55 PvuGRAS genes unevenly anchored to the 11 common bean chromosomes. Segmental duplication appeared to be the key driving force behind expansion of this gene family that underwent purifying selection during evolution. Computational investigation unraveled their intronless organization and identified similar motif composition within the same subfamily. Phylogenetic analyses clustered the PvuGRAS proteins into 16 phylogenetic clades and established extensive orthologous relationships with Arabidopsis and rice. Analysis of the upstream promoter region uncovered cis-elements responsive to growth, development, and abiotic stresses that may account for their differential expression. The identified SSRs could serve as putative molecular markers facilitating future breeding programs. 37 PvuGRAS transcripts were post-transcriptionally regulated by different miRNA families, miR171 being the major player preferentially targeting members of the HAM subfamily. Global expression profile based on RNA-seq data indicates a clade specific expression pattern in various tissues and developmental stages. Additionally, nine PvuGRAS genes were chosen for further qPCR analyses under drought, salt, and cold stress suggesting their involvement in acclimation to environmental stimuli. Combined, the present results significantly contribute to the current understanding of the complexity and biological function of the PvuGRAS gene family. The resources generated will provide a solid foundation in future endeavors for genetic improvement in common bean.


Assuntos
Phaseolus , Resposta ao Choque Frio , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genoma de Planta/genética , Família Multigênica , Phaseolus/genética , Phaseolus/metabolismo , Filogenia , Melhoramento Vegetal , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/genética
3.
J Hazard Mater ; 416: 125868, 2021 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34492815

RESUMO

Comprehensive studies on the effects of cold stress on antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in the intestines and feces remain scarce. In this study, pigs were selected as the animal model and divided into a normal temperature group and a 48-h short-term cold stress group. The ARG profiles in fecal, cecal content and cecal mucosa samples were analyzed. The results showed that the normalized abundance of ARGs in the cecal mucosa samples in the cold stress group was significantly higher than that in the normal temperature group, while the normalized ARG abundances in the fecal and cecal content samples were significantly lower than those in the normal temperature group (P < 0.05). The bacterial community composition (especially Firmicutes) was the major driver impacting the ARG profile and accounted for 32.2% of the variation in the ARG profile, followed by metabolites (especially creatinine and oxypurinol) and mobile genetic elements (MGEs) (especially plasmids and insertion elements). And it was found that creatinine and oxypurinol can reduce the abundance of ARGs and Firmicutes in the in vitro experiment. The results indicate that short-term cold stress can reduce the abundance of ARGs in the cecum and feces of pigs, providing reference data for environmental safety.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Genes Bacterianos , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Ceco , Resposta ao Choque Frio , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos/genética , Fezes , Suínos
4.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 167: 901-910, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34544007

RESUMO

Maize (Zea mays) plants over-expressing or suppressing the class 1 Phytoglobin (ZmPgb1.1) were evaluated for their ability to cope with low temperature stress. Cold treatment (10 °C day/4 °C night) depressed several gas exchange parameters including photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance and transpiration, while elevated the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and ROS-induced damage. These effects were attenuated by the over-expression of ZmPgb1.1, and aggravated when the level of the same gene was suppressed. Combination of transcriptomic and pharmacological studies revealed that over-expression of ZmPgb1.1 suppressed the level of nitric oxide (NO), which lowers the transcription of several Brassinosteroid (BR) biosynthetic and response genes. Cellular BR was required to induce the expression of ZmMPK5, a component of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade, which is known to be involved in the regulation of ROS-producing pathways. Experimental reduction of NO content, suppression of BR or inhibition of ZmMPK5 reverted the beneficial effects of ZmPgb1.1 over-expression, and increased plant susceptibility to cold stress through accumulation of ROS. Conversely, tolerance to cold was augmented in the ZmPgb1.1 down-regulating line when the levels of NO or BR were elevated. Together, this study demonstrates a novel role of ZmPgb1.1 in modulating plant performance to cold stress, and integrates the ZmPgb1.1 response in a model requiring NO and BR to alleviate oxidative stress through ZmMPK5.


Assuntos
Resposta ao Choque Frio , Zea mays , Brassinosteroides , Temperatura Baixa , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico , Zea mays/genética , Zea mays/metabolismo
5.
Planta ; 254(3): 50, 2021 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34386845

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: Overexpression of the leaf color (Lc) gene in Ma bamboo substantially increased the accumulation level of anthocyanin, and improved plant tolerance to cold and drought stresses, probably due to the increased antioxidant capacity. Most bamboos, including Ma bamboo (Dendrocalamus latiflorus Munro), are naturally evergreen and sensitive to cold and drought stresses, while it's nearly impossible to make improvements through conventual breeding due to their long and irregular flowering habit. Moreover, few studies have reported bamboo germplasm innovation through genetic engineering as bamboo genetic transformation remains difficult. In this study, we have upregulated anthocyanin biosynthesis in Ma bamboo, to generate non-green Ma bamboo with increased abiotic stress tolerance. By overexpressing the maize Lc gene, a bHLH transcription activator involved in the anthocyanin biosynthesis in Ma bamboo, we generated purple bamboos with increased anthocyanin levels including cyanidin-3-O-rutinoside, peonidin 3-O-rutinoside, and an unknown cyanidin pentaglycoside derivative. The expression levels of 9 anthocyanin biosynthesis genes were up-regulated. Overexpression of the Lc gene improved the plant tolerance to cold and drought stress, probably due to increased antioxidant capacity. The levels of the cold- and drought-related phytohormone jasmonic acid in the transgenic plants were also enhanced, which may also contribute to the plant stress-tolerant phenotypes. High anthocyanin accumulation level did not affect plant growth. Transcriptomic analysis showed higher expressions of genes involved in the flavonoid pathway in Lc transgenic bamboos compared with those in wild-type ones. The anthocyanin-rich bamboos generated here provide an example of ornamental and multiple agronomic trait improvements by genetic engineering in this important grass species.


Assuntos
Secas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Antocianinas , Resposta ao Choque Frio , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445308

RESUMO

Extreme temperatures are among the most important stressors limiting plant growth and development. Results indicate that light substantially influences the acclimation processes to both low and high temperatures, and it may affect the level of stress injury. The interaction between light and temperature in the regulation of stress acclimation mechanisms is complex, and both light intensity and spectral composition play an important role. Higher light intensities may lead to overexcitation of the photosynthetic electron transport chain; while different wavelengths may act through different photoreceptors. These may induce various stress signalling processes, leading to regulation of stomatal movement, antioxidant and osmoregulation capacities, hormonal actions, and other stress-related pathways. In recent years, we have significantly expanded our knowledge in both light and temperature sensing and signalling. The present review provides a synthesis of results for understanding how light influences the acclimation of plants to extreme low or high temperatures, including the sensing mechanisms and molecular crosstalk processes.


Assuntos
Resposta ao Choque Frio , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Fotossíntese , Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas/efeitos da radiação , Transdução de Sinais , Luz Solar
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444044

RESUMO

The objective of this preliminary study was to determine the reproducibility of lower limbs skin temperature after cold stress test using the Game Ready system. Skin temperature of fourteen participants was measured before and after cold stress test using the Game Ready system and it was repeated the protocol in four times: at 9:00, at 11:00, at 19:00, and at 9:00 h of the posterior day. To assess skin temperature recovery after cold stress test, a logarithmic equation for each region was calculated, and constant (ß0) and slope (ß1) coefficients were obtained. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), standard error (SE), and within-subject coefficient of variation (CV) were determined. No differences were observed between measurement times in any of the regions for the logarithmic coefficients (p > 0.38). Anterior thigh (ß0 ICC 0.33-0.47; ß1 ICC 0.31-0.43) and posterior knee (ß0 ICC 0.42-0.58; ß1 ICC 0.28-0.57) were the regions with the lower ICCs, and the other regions presented values with a fair and good reproducibility (ICC > 0.41). Posterior leg was the region with the better reproducibility (ß0 ICC 0.68-0.78; ß1 ICC 0.59-0.74; SE 3-4%; within-subject CV 7-12%). In conclusion, cold stress test using Game Ready system showed a fair and good reproducibility, especially when the posterior leg was the region assessed.


Assuntos
Resposta ao Choque Frio , Temperatura Cutânea , Temperatura Baixa , Teste de Esforço , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445334

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to demonstrate the biostimulating effect of exogenous melatonin (MEL) applied to seeds via hydroconditioning. It was indicated that only well-chosen application technique and MEL dose guarantees success concerning seed germination and young seedlings growth under stress conditions. For maize seed, 50 µM of MEL appeared to be the optimal dose. It improved seed germination and embryonic axes growth especially during chilling stress (5 °C/14 days) and during regeneration after its subsided. Unfortunately, MEL overdosing lowered IAA level in dry seeds and could disrupt the ROS-dependent signal transduction pathways. Very effective antioxidant MEL action was confirmed by low level of protein oxidative damage and smaller quantity of lipid oxidation products in embryonic axes isolated from seeds pre-treated with MEL and then exposed to cold. The stimulatory effects of MEL on antioxidant enzymes: SOD, APX and GSH-PX and on GST-a detoxifying enzyme, was also demonstrated. It was indicated for the first time, that MEL induced defence strategies against stress at the cytological level, as appearing endoreplication in embryonic axes cells even in the seeds germinating under optimal conditions (preventive action), but very intensively in those germinating under chilling stress conditions (intervention action), and after stress removal, to improve regeneration.


Assuntos
Resposta ao Choque Frio , Melatonina/farmacologia , Zea mays , Agricultura/métodos , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Resposta ao Choque Frio/efeitos dos fármacos , Resposta ao Choque Frio/genética , Endorreduplicação/efeitos dos fármacos , Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Germinação/genética , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/genética , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plântula/metabolismo , Sementes/efeitos dos fármacos , Sementes/genética , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/metabolismo , Temperatura , Zea mays/efeitos dos fármacos , Zea mays/genética , Zea mays/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Zea mays/metabolismo
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360902

RESUMO

Acyl-CoA:lysophosphatidylethanolamine acyltransferases (LPEATs) are known as enzymes utilizing acyl-CoAs and lysophospholipids to produce phosphatidylethanolamine. Recently, it has been discovered that they are also involved in the growth regulation of Arabidopsis thaliana. In our study we investigated expression of each Camelina sativa LPEAT isoform and their behavior in response to temperature changes. In order to conduct a more extensive biochemical evaluation we focused both on LPEAT enzymes present in microsomal fractions from C. sativa plant tissues, and on cloned CsLPEAT isoforms expressed in yeast system. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that CsLPEAT1c and CsLPEAT2c originated from Camelina hispida, whereas other isoforms originated from Camelina neglecta. The expression ratio of all CsLPEAT1 isoforms to all CsLPEAT2 isoforms was higher in seeds than in other tissues. The isoforms also displayed divergent substrate specificities in utilization of LPE; CsLPEAT1 preferred 18:1-LPE, whereas CsLPEAT2 preferred 18:2-LPE. Unlike CsLPEAT1, CsLPEAT2 isoforms were specific towards very-long-chain fatty acids. Above all, we discovered that temperature strongly regulates LPEATs activity and substrate specificity towards different acyl donors, making LPEATs sort of a sensor of external thermal changes. We observed the presented findings not only for LPEAT activity in plant-derived microsomal fractions, but also for yeast-expressed individual CsLPEAT isoforms.


Assuntos
Aciltransferases/metabolismo , Camellia/enzimologia , Camellia/genética , Fosfatidiletanolaminas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Sementes/enzimologia , Temperatura , Acil Coenzima A/metabolismo , Aciltransferases/genética , Camellia/classificação , Camellia/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Resposta ao Choque Frio , DNA de Plantas/genética , Ativação Enzimática , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Isoenzimas/genética , Microssomos/enzimologia , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Especificidade por Substrato
10.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 369, 2021 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34384381

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Low temperature severely limits the growth, yield, and geographic distributions of soybean. Soybean plants respond to cold stress by reprogramming the expression of a series of cold-responsive genes. However, the intrinsic mechanism underlying cold-stress tolerance in soybean remains unclear. A. thaliana tolerant to chilling and freezing 1 (AtTCF1) is a regulator of chromosome condensation 1 (RCC1) family protein and regulates freezing tolerance through an independent C-repeat binding transcription factor (CBF) signaling pathway. RESULTS: In this study, we identified a homologous gene of AtTCF1 in soybean (named GmTCF1a), which mediates plant tolerance to low temperature. Like AtTCF1, GmTCF1a contains five RCC1 domains and is located in the nucleus. GmTCF1a is strongly and specifically induced by cold stress. Interestingly, ectopic overexpression of GmTCF1a in Arabidopsis greatly increased plant survival rate and decreased electrolyte leakage under freezing stress. A cold-responsive gene, COR15a, was highly induced in the GmTCF1a-overexpressing transgenic lines. CONCLUSIONS: GmTCF1a responded specifically to cold stress, and ectopic expression of GmTCF1a enhanced cold tolerance and upregulated COR15a levels. These results indicate that GmTCF1a positively regulates cold tolerance in soybean and may provide novel insights into genetic improvement of cold tolerance in crops.


Assuntos
Aclimatação/genética , Genes de Plantas , Soja/genética , Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Temperatura Baixa , Resposta ao Choque Frio/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Soja/fisiologia
11.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 361, 2021 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34364372

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Priming of seed prior chilling is regarded as one of the methods to promote seeds germination, whole plant growth, and yield components. The application of biostimulants was reported as beneficial for protecting many plants from biotic or abiotic stresses. Their value was as important to be involved in improving the growth parameters of plants. Also, they were practiced in the regulation of various metabolic pathways to enhance acclimation and tolerance in coriander against chilling stress. To our knowledge, little is deciphered about the molecular mechanisms underpinning the ameliorative impact of biostimulants in the context of understanding the link and overlap between improved morphological characters, induced metabolic processes, and upregulated gene expression. In this study, the ameliorative effect(s) of potassium silicate, HA, and gamma radiation on acclimation of coriander to tolerate chilling stress was evaluated by integrating the data of growth, yield, physiological and molecular aspects. RESULTS: Plant growth, yield components, and metabolic activities were generally diminished in chilling-stressed coriander plants. On the other hand, levels of ABA and soluble sugars were increased. Alleviation treatment by humic acid, followed by silicate and gamma irradiation, has notably promoted plant growth parameters and yield components in chilling-stressed coriander plants. This improvement was concomitant with a significant increase in phytohormones, photosynthetic pigments, carbohydrate contents, antioxidants defense system, and induction of large subunit of RuBisCO enzyme production. The assembly of Toc complex subunits was maintained, and even their expression was stimulated (especially Toc75 and Toc 34) upon alleviation of the chilling stress by applied biostimulators. Collectively, humic acid was the best the element to alleviate the adverse effects of chilling stress on growth and productivity of coriander. CONCLUSIONS: It could be suggested that the inducing effect of the pretreatments on hormonal balance triggered an increase in IAA + GA3/ABA hormonal ratio. This ratio could be linked and engaged with the protection of cellular metabolic activities from chilling injury against the whole plant life cycle. Therefore, it was speculated that seed priming in humic acid is a powerful technique that can benefit the chilled along with non-chilled plants and sustain the economic importance of coriander plant productivity.


Assuntos
Resposta ao Choque Frio/fisiologia , Coriandrum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/farmacologia , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Aclimatação , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos , Carboidratos/análise , Proteínas de Cloroplastos/metabolismo , Resposta ao Choque Frio/efeitos dos fármacos , Resposta ao Choque Frio/efeitos da radiação , Coriandrum/efeitos dos fármacos , Coriandrum/efeitos da radiação , Enzimas/metabolismo , Raios gama , Substâncias Húmicas , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Pigmentos Biológicos/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Compostos de Potássio/química , Compostos de Potássio/farmacologia , Sementes/efeitos dos fármacos , Sementes/efeitos da radiação
12.
Biomolecules ; 11(7)2021 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34356657

RESUMO

The aims of this research were to perform molecular characterization and biofunctional analyses of giant river prawn Hsp40 and Hsp90 genes (Mr-hsp40 and Mr-hsp90) under various stress conditions. Comparisons of the nucleotide and amino acid sequences of Mr-hsp40 and Mr-hsp90 with those of other species showed the highest similarity scores with crustaceans. Under normal conditions, expression analysis using quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) indicated that Mr-hsp40 was highly expressed in the gills and testis, and Mr-hsp90 expression was observed in all tissues, with the highest expression in the ovary. The expression patterns of Mr-hsp40 and Mr-hsp90 transcripts under Aeromonas hydrophila challenge and heat-cold shock conditions were examined in gills, the hepatopancreas and hemocytes, at 0, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 96 h by qRT-PCR. Under bacterial challenge, Mr-hsp40 displayed variable expression patterns in all tissues examined during the tested periods. In contrast, upregulated expression of Mr-hsp90 was quickly observed from 3 to 12 h in the gills and hepatopancreas, whereas obviously significant upregulation of Mr-hsp90 was observed in hemocytes at 12-96 h. Under temperature shock conditions, upregulation of Mr-hsp40 expression was detected in all tested tissues, while Mr-hsp90 expression was quickly upregulated at 3-48 h in all tissues in response to 35 °C conditions, and conditions of 35 and 25 °C stimulated its expression in gills and the hepatopancreas at 12 and 48 h, respectively. Silencing analyses of these two genes were successfully conducted under normal, high-temperature (35 °C) and A. hydrophila infection conditions. Overall, knockdown of Mr-hsp40 and Mr-hsp90 effectively induced more rapid and higher mortality than in the PBS control and GFP induction groups in temperature and infectious treatments. Evidence from this study clearly demonstrated the significant functional roles of Mr-hsp40 and Mr-hsp90, which are crucially involved in cellular stress responses to both temperature and pathogenic bacterial stimuli.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP40/genética , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP90/genética , Palaemonidae/fisiologia , Aeromonas hydrophila/patogenicidade , Animais , Resposta ao Choque Frio/fisiologia , Resistência à Doença/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP40/metabolismo , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP90/metabolismo , Resposta ao Choque Térmico/fisiologia , Palaemonidae/microbiologia , Filogenia , Temperatura
13.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 167: 577-585, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34461554

RESUMO

Sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas [L.] Lam) is a prospective food crop that ensures food and nutrition security under the dynamic changes in global climate. Peroxidase (POD) is a multifunctional enzyme involved in diverse plant physiological processes, including stress tolerance and cell wall lignification. Although various POD genes were cloned and functionally characterized in sweetpotato, the role of POD in lignification and low-temperature storage ability of sweetpotato tuberous roots is yet to be investigated. In this study, we isolated the cold-induced lignin forming peroxidase (IbLfp) gene of sweetpotato, and analyzed its physiological functions. IbLfp showed more predominant expression in fibrous roots than in other tissues. Moreover, IbLfp expression was up-regulated in leaves and roots under cold stress, and was altered by other abiotic stresses. Tuberous roots of transgenic sweetpotato lines overexpressing IbLfp (LP lines) showed improved tolerance to low temperature, with lower malondialdehyde and hydrogen peroxide contents than non-transgenic sweetpotato plants under cold stress. The enhanced cold tolerance of LP lines could be attributed to the increased basal activity of POD, which is involved in reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging. Moreover, greater accumulation of lignin could also contribute to the enhanced cold tolerance of LP lines, as lignin acts as a protective barrier against invading pathogens, which is a secondary symptom of chilling injury in sweetpotato. Overall, the results of this study enhance our understanding of the function of POD in low-temperature storage of sweetpotato tuberous roots.


Assuntos
Ipomoea batatas , Resposta ao Choque Frio , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Ipomoea batatas/genética , Peroxidases , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Estudos Prospectivos , Temperatura
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34281256

RESUMO

Plants are often challenged by an array of unfavorable environmental conditions. During cold exposure, many changes occur that include, for example, the stabilization of cell membranes, alterations in gene expression and enzyme activities, as well as the accumulation of metabolites. In the presented study, the carbohydrate metabolism was analyzed in the very early response of plants to a low temperature (2 °C) in the leaves of 5-week-old potato plants of the Russet Burbank cultivar during the first 12 h of cold treatment (2 h dark and 10 h light). First, some plant stress indicators were examined and it was shown that short-term cold exposure did not significantly affect the relative water content and chlorophyll content (only after 12 h), but caused an increase in malondialdehyde concentration and a decrease in the expression of NDA1, a homolog of the NADH dehydrogenase gene. In addition, it was shown that the content of transitory starch increased transiently in the very early phase of the plant response (3-6 h) to cold treatment, and then its decrease was observed after 12 h. In contrast, soluble sugars such as glucose and fructose were significantly increased only at the end of the light period, where a decrease in sucrose content was observed. The availability of the monosaccharides at constitutively high levels, regardless of the temperature, may delay the response to cold, involving amylolytic starch degradation in chloroplasts. The decrease in starch content, observed in leaves after 12 h of cold exposure, was preceded by a dramatic increase in the transcript levels of the key enzymes of starch degradation initiation, the α-glucan, water dikinase (GWD-EC 2.7.9.4) and the phosphoglucan, water dikinase (PWD-EC 2.7.9.5). The gene expression of both dikinases peaked at 9 h of cold exposure, as analyzed by real-time PCR. Moreover, enhanced activities of the acid invertase as well as of both glucan phosphorylases during exposure to a chilling temperature were observed. However, it was also noticed that during the light phase, there was a general increase in glucan phosphorylase activities for both control and cold-stressed plants irrespective of the temperature. In conclusion, a short-term cold treatment alters the carbohydrate metabolism in the leaves of potato, which leads to an increase in the content of soluble sugars.


Assuntos
Metabolismo dos Carboidratos , Resposta ao Choque Frio/fisiologia , Solanum tuberosum/metabolismo , Amilases/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos/genética , Clorofila/metabolismo , Temperatura Baixa/efeitos adversos , Resposta ao Choque Frio/genética , Complexo I de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Sistema da Enzima Desramificadora do Glicogênio/metabolismo , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Fosforilases/metabolismo , Fosfotransferases (Aceptores Pareados)/genética , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Solanum tuberosum/genética , Amido/metabolismo , Água/metabolismo , beta-Frutofuranosidase/metabolismo
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34201749

RESUMO

Plant abiotic stress responses are tightly regulated by different players at multiple levels. At transcriptional or post-transcriptional levels, several RNA binding proteins (RBPs) regulate stress response genes through RNA metabolism. They are increasingly recognized as critical modulators of a myriad of biological processes, including stress responses. Plant RBPs are heterogeneous with one or more conservative RNA motifs that constitute canonical/novel RNA binding domains (RBDs), which can bind to target RNAs to determine their regulation as per the plant requirements at given environmental conditions. Given its biological significance and possible consideration as a potential tool in genetic manipulation programs to improve key agronomic traits amidst frequent episodes of climate anomalies, studies concerning the identification and functional characterization of RBP candidate genes are steadily mounting. This paper presents a comprehensive overview of canonical and novel RBPs and their functions in major abiotic stresses including drought, heat, salt, and cold stress conditions. To some extent, we also briefly describe the basic motif structure of RBPs that would be useful in forthcoming studies. Additionally, we also collected RBP genes that were modulated by stress, but that lacked functional characterization, providing an impetus to conduct further research.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/fisiologia , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/química , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/fisiologia , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia , Resposta ao Choque Frio/fisiologia , Secas , Resposta ao Choque Térmico/fisiologia , Domínios Proteicos , Salinidade , Estresse Salino/fisiologia
16.
Curr Microbiol ; 78(9): 3372-3380, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34283283

RESUMO

A temperature downshift results in stabilized secondary structure formation in mRNA that halts translation to which Escherichia coli responds by synthesizing a set of proteins termed as cold shock proteins (Csps). To cope with the sudden temperature drop, gene expression patterns are reprogrammed to induce Csps at the cost of other proteins. Out of the nine homologous proteins in the CspA family, CspA, CspB, CspG, and CspI have major roles in protecting the cell under a cold shock. Additionally, a subset of Csps has conferred the organism an ability to adapt to various stresses along the lines of nutrient deprivation, oxidative, heat, acid, and antibiotic stresses. Stressors like C group translational inhibitors stall the translational apparatus and produce a response similar to that observed under a temperature downshift. Conditions set by the antibiotic therefore elicit a cold shock response and induce the major Csps, thereby pointing out to a common mechanism existing between the two. In the current review, we briefly describe the induction of E. coli Csps under an antibiotic stress acquired from data published previously and help establish the role of Csps in protecting the cell against the inducing agents and as a participant in the organisms' complex stress response network.


Assuntos
Resposta ao Choque Frio , Escherichia coli , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Temperatura Baixa , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Humanos
17.
Poult Sci ; 100(8): 101294, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34237550

RESUMO

Cold temperature is a common environmental stressor that induces pathophysiological stress in birds with profound economic losses. Current methods used for preventing cold stress, such as reducing ventilation and using gas heaters, are facing challenges due to poor indoor air quality and deleterious effects on bird and caretaker health. The aim of this study was to examine if the novel designed warmed perch system, as a thermal device, can reduce cold stress-associated adverse effects on laying hens. Seventy-two 32-week-old DeKalb hens were randomly assigned to 36 cages arranged to 3 banks. The banks were assigned to 1 of 3 treatments: cages with warmed perches (WP; perches with circulating water at 30°C), air perches (AP, regular perches only), or no perches (NP) for a 21-d trial. The room temperature was set at 10°C during the entire experimental period. Rectal temperature and body weight were measured from the same bird of each cage at d 1, 8, 15, and 21 during the cold exposure. Egg production was recorded daily. Feed intake, egg and eggshell quality were determined during the 1st and 3rd wk of cold stress. Plasma levels of corticosterone, thyroid hormones (3, 3', 5-triiodothyronine and thyroxine), interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-10, were determined after 1 d and 21 d of cold exposure. Compared to both AP and NP hens, WP hens were able to maintain their body temperature without increasing feed intake and losing BW. The eggs from WP hens had thicker eggshell during the 3rd wk of cold exposure. Warmed perch hens also had a lower thyroxine conversion rate (3, 3', 5-triiodothyronine/thyroxine) at d 1, while higher plasma concentrations of IL-6 at d 21. Plasma levels of corticosterone, 3, 3', 5-triiodothyronine, and IL-10 were not different among treatments. Our results indicate that the warmed perch system can be used as a novel thermal device for preventing cold stress-induced negative effects on hen health and welfare through regulating immunity and metabolic hormonal homeostasis.


Assuntos
Abrigo para Animais , Percas , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Bem-Estar do Animal , Animais , Galinhas , Temperatura Baixa , Resposta ao Choque Frio , Corticosterona , Feminino , Oviposição , Óvulo
18.
Plant Mol Biol ; 106(6): 521-531, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34224063

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: We characterize a functional lincRNA, XH123 in cotton seedling in defense of cold stress. The silencing of XH123 leads to increased sensitivity to cold stress and the decay of chloroplast. Cotton, which originated from the arid mid-American region, is one of the most important cash crops worldwide. Cultivated cotton is now widely spread throughout high-altitude regions such as those in the far northwest of Asia. In such areas, spring temperatures below 12 ℃ impose cold stress on cotton seedlings, with concomitant threat of lost yield and productivity. It is documented that cold stress can induce differential expression of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) in cotton; however, it is not yet clear if these cold-responsive lncRNAs are actively involved with tolerance of cold stress at the molecular level. Here, we select ten long intergenic non-coding RNAs as candidate genes and use virus-induced gene silencing and additional cold treatments to examine their roles in the response to cold stress during the cotton seedling stage. One such gene, XH123, was revealed to be involved in tolerance of cold stress. Specifically, XH123-silenced plants demonstrated sensitivity to cold stress, exhibiting chloroplast damage and increased endogenous levels of reactive oxygen species. The transcriptome profile of XH123-silenced seedlings was similar to that of cold-stressed seedlings having the known cold stress gene PIF3 silenced. These results imply that the lincRNA XH123 is actively involved with cold stress regulation in cotton during the seedling stage.


Assuntos
Resposta ao Choque Frio/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Gossypium/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , RNA de Plantas/genética , Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Cloroplastos/genética , Cloroplastos/metabolismo , Cloroplastos/ultraestrutura , Temperatura Baixa , Inativação Gênica , Gossypium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/ultraestrutura , RNA-Seq/métodos , Plântula/genética , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento
19.
Ann Bot ; 128(5): 559-575, 2021 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34232290

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Cold stress in rice (Oryza sativa) plants at the reproductive stage prevents normal anther development and causes pollen sterility. Tapetum hypertrophy in anthers has been associated with pollen sterility in response to cold at the booting stage. Here, we re-examined whether the relationships between anther abnormality and pollen sterility caused by cold stress at the booting stage in rice can be explained by a monovalent factor such as tapetum hypertrophy. METHODS: After exposing plants to a 4-d cold treatment at the booting stage, we collected and processed anthers for transverse sectioning immediately and at the flowering stage. We anatomically evaluated the effect of cold treatment on anther internal morphologies, pollen fertilities and pollen numbers in the 13 cultivars with various cold sensitivities. KEY RESULTS: We observed four types of morphological anther abnormalities at each stage. Pollen sterility was positively correlated with the frequency of undeveloped locules, but not with tapetum hypertrophy as commonly believed. In cold-sensitive cultivars grown at low temperatures, pollen sterility was more frequent than anther morphological abnormalities, and some lines showed remarkably high pollen sterility without any anther morphological alterations. Most morphological anomalies occurred only in specific areas within large and small locules. Anther length tended to shorten in response to cold treatment and was positively correlated with pollen number. One cultivar showed a considerably reduced pollen number, but fertile pollen grains under cold stress. We propose three possible relationships to explain anther structure and pollen sterility and reduction due to cold stress. CONCLUSIONS: The pollen sterility caused by cold stress at the booting stage was correlated with the frequency of entire locule-related abnormalities, which might represent a phenotypic consequence, but not a direct cause of pollen abortion. Multivalent factors might underlie the complicated relationships between anther abnormality and pollen sterility in rice.


Assuntos
Infertilidade , Oryza , Resposta ao Choque Frio , Flores , Infertilidade das Plantas , Pólen
20.
DNA Cell Biol ; 40(7): 906-920, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34129383

RESUMO

Low temperature is an important factor that affects the growth and reproduction of tea plants [Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze]. In this study, Yunwu Tribute Tea cutting seedlings [Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze var. niaowangensis Q.H. Chen] were subjected to different low-temperature treatments in Guizhou Province, China, and the changes in physiological indicators of the leaves were measured to investigate the physiological response and cold tolerance of this variety. Under cold stress, the peak of antioxidant enzyme activity appeared on the third day of treatment at 1°C, indicating that Yunwu Tribute Tea could improve the resistance to cold stress through an increase in enzyme activity within a low-temperature range. However, after 3 days treatment at 1°C, the tolerance of plant had been exceeded; the ability to resist cold stress disappeared, and enzyme activity decreased. When the temperature or duration of stress exceeded the maximum tolerance of the plant, the synthesis of soluble substances decreased in concert with their protective effects. Under cold conditions, Yunwu Tribute Tea could increase the production of abscisic acid growth inhibitors and reduce those of indoleacetic acid, gibberellin, and other growth promoting substances to manage cold stress by regulating the balance of growth regulators in the plant. Five differential genes were screened as candidate genes from the Yunwu Tribute Tea cold stress transcriptome (DW, 1°C) for fluorescence quantitative analysis. The results showed that the changes in levels of expression of these genes under continuous cold stress significantly positively correlated with the corresponding physiological indicators. Nevertheless, the levels of expression of the Yunwu Tribute Tea polyphenol oxidase (PPO) gene and the gibberellin 3ß-dioxygenase gene (G3O2) were reversely inhibited under cold stress. The result was consistent with the corresponding physiological indicators, and it provides a basis for the study of cold resistance mechanisms in tea plants.


Assuntos
Camellia sinensis/genética , Camellia sinensis/fisiologia , Resposta ao Choque Frio/genética , China , Temperatura Baixa , Expressão Gênica/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Genes de Plantas/genética , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Plântula/genética , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Chá/metabolismo , Temperatura , Transcriptoma/genética
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...