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4.
Nat Struct Mol Biol ; 27(3): 297-304, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32157249

RESUMO

Understanding the targeting and spreading patterns of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) on chromatin requires a technique that can detect both high-intensity binding sites and reveal genome-wide changes in spreading patterns with high precision and confidence. Here we determine lncRNA localization using biotinylated locked nucleic acid (LNA)-containing oligonucleotides with toehold architecture capable of hybridizing to target RNA through strand-exchange reaction. During hybridization, a protecting strand competitively displaces contaminating species, leading to highly specific RNA capture of individual RNAs. Analysis of Drosophila roX2 lncRNA using this approach revealed that heat shock, unlike the unfolded protein response, leads to reduced spreading of roX2 on the X chromosome, but surprisingly also to relocalization to sites on autosomes. Our results demonstrate that this improved hybridization capture approach can reveal previously uncharacterized changes in the targeting and spreading of lncRNAs on chromatin.


Assuntos
Cromatina/química , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Oligonucleotídeos/química , RNA Longo não Codificante/química , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética , Cromossomo X/química , Animais , Pareamento de Bases , Sítios de Ligação , Biotinilação , Cromatina/metabolismo , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Cromossomos de Insetos/química , Cromossomos de Insetos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Drosophila melanogaster/metabolismo , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Nanotecnologia/métodos , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Oligonucleotídeos/metabolismo , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo , Cromossomo X/metabolismo
5.
Gene ; 740: 144514, 2020 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32112985

RESUMO

As an important transcription factor family, DREB transcription factors play important roles in response to abiotic stresses. In this study, we identified wheat DREB genes at genome-level, and characterized the functions of TaDREB genes. Totally, there are 210 TaDREB genes, which can be divided into 6 subgroups. Some of these genes display tissue-specific expression patterns. Among them, the expression of three TaDREB3 homoeologous genes is induced by abiotic stresses. Meanwhile, as alternatively spliced genes, they generate three isoforms respectively. Transcripts I and II encode DREB proteins, while transcript III does not generate DREB proteins. Transgenic Arabidopsis over-expressing TaDREB3-AI displayed enhanced resistance to drought, salt and heat stresses. The physical indexes and the expression of stress-related genes further verified the functions in response to abiotic stresses. Our results lay a foundation for further study of wheat DREB genes. Especially, our findings indicate that TaDREB3 genes can be used for crop genetic improvement.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Triticum/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Desidratação , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Estresse Salino , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Triticum/fisiologia
7.
Sci Total Environ ; 716: 137036, 2020 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32059293

RESUMO

There is clear evidence of severe honeybee declines in recent years, and parallel declines of plant community and crop productivity that rely on them. Different stresses, including heat stress, are among the primary drivers of this decline. However, the mechanisms by which honeybees respond to heat stress are elusive. Though heat shock proteins (Hsps) play important roles in heat stress response, the function of DnaJs (a subfamily of Hsps) is unclear. Here, we aimed to determine the underlying regulatory mechanism of honeybees to heat stress mediated by DnaJs. We found that several DnaJ genes, including DnaJA1, DnaJB12 and DnaJC8, are key for honeybee heat tolerance. DnaJA1 and DnaJB12 are cytoplasmic proteins, and DnaJC8 is a nuclear protein. The expression of DnaJA1, DnaJB12 and DnaJC8 was induced at different levels under short-term and long-term heat stress. Phenotypic analysis indicated that DnaJA1, DnaJB12 and DnaJC8 knockdown attenuated honeybee heat resistance. In addition, DnaJA1 participated in the heat stress response by upregulating many heat-inducible genes at the transcriptome-wide level, especially LOC108002668 and LOC107995148. Importantly, the upregulation of LOC108002668 and LOC107995148 was significantly repressed under heat stress when DnaJA1 was knocked down. We also found that knockdown of DnaJA1, DnaJB12 and DnaJC8 decreased antioxidant defense ability and increased the degree of oxidative damage in the honeybee. Taken together, our results indicate that DnaJ genes play important roles under heat stress in the honeybee. Overexpression of DnaJ genes may protect honeybees from heat stress-induced injuries and increase their survival rate.


Assuntos
Termotolerância , Animais , Antioxidantes , Abelhas , Proteínas de Choque Térmico , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Transcriptoma
8.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0220221, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32040479

RESUMO

Consequences of heat stress during pregnancy can affect the normal development of the offspring. In the present experiment, 30 Murciano-Granadina dairy goats (41.8 ± 5.7 kg) were exposed to 2 thermal environments varying in temperature-humidity index (THI) from 12 days before mating to 45 days of gestation. The environmental conditions were: gestation under thermal-neutral (TN; THI = 71 ± 3); and gestation under heat stress (HS; THI = 85 ± 3) conditions. At 27 ± 4 days old, female kids exposed to in utero TN (IUTN; n = 16) or in utero HS (IUHS; n = 10) were subjected to 2 tests: arena test (AT) and novel object test (NOT), the latter was repeated at 3 months of age. Additionally, 8 months after birth, a subset of IUTH and IUHS growing goats (n = 8 each; 16.8 ± 3.4 kg BW) were exposed to 2 environmental conditions in 2 consecutive periods: a basal thermal-neutral period (THI = 72 ± 3) for 7 days, and a heat-stress period (THI = 87 ± 2) for 21 days. In both periods, feeding, resting, posture, and thermally-associated behaviors were recorded. The gestation length was shortened by 3 days in GHS goats. In the AT, IUHS kids showed a lower number of sniffs (P < 0.01) compared to IUTN. In the NOT, IUHS kids also tended to show a lower number of sniffs (P = 0.09). During heat exposure, IUTN and IUHS growing goats spent more time resting and exhibited more heat-stress related behaviors such as panting and drinking (P < 0.001); however, no differences were observed between both groups. In conclusion, heat stress during the first third of pregnancy shortened gestation length and influenced the exploratory behavior of the kids in the early life. However, behavior responses to heat stress during the adulthood were not affected by the in utero thermal treatment.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/complicações , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/etiologia , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Comportamento Animal , Ingestão de Líquidos , Comportamento Exploratório , Feminino , Cabras , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/veterinária , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/veterinária
9.
Int J Biometeorol ; 64(5): 853-861, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32036432

RESUMO

Occupational exposure to heat stress may lead to changes in blood cell count. The objective of this retrospective descriptive-analytical field study is to investigate the relationship between heat stress exposure and some immunological parameters among foundry workers. This study was carried out on 55 subjects of which, 35 were working in a foundry unit (exposed group) and 20 were working in a computer numerical control (CNC) machining unit (control group). The measurement method consisted of taking 10 cc of the subjects' blood between 10 am and 2 pm and then performing the automated blood cell counting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) on the sample. Environmental parameters such as noise levels, lighting, and the wet-bulb globe temperature (WBGT) index were measured at the subjects' workstations. All measurements were made in the first half of the month of July. The mean WBGT index was 22.5 ± 2.16 °C for the control group and 32.97 ± 3.22 °C for the exposed group. The laboratory test results show a significant decrease in white blood cell count and lymphocyte levels and a significant increase in neutrophil levels and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio in exposed group compared with control ones (P < 0.05). IgM levels decrease under heat stress, but we do not observe significant differences between IgG and IgA levels between two groups. A significant negative correlation was observed between white blood cell count, lymphocyte levels, and IgM concentration with WBGT index and significant positive correlation was observed between neutrophil and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio with WBGT index. No significant correlation was observed between sound pressure levels and light intensity with studied immunological parameters. In conclusion, under heat stress conditions, leukocytes levels and immunoglobulin concentration may reduce and it may weaken and suppress the human immune system.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Estresse por Calor , Exposição Ocupacional , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Temperatura
10.
Gene ; 737: 144449, 2020 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32032746

RESUMO

Ureibacillus thermophilus strain LM102 is a facultative thermophile with growth in range 37 °C-60 °C. Upon identification using the 16S rRNA marker, it showed highest similarity of 99.8% with U. thermophilus strain HC148. A phylogenetic analysis revealed U. suwonensis strain 6 T19 to be the closest species to strain LM102. Our aim was to determine the unique thermotolerant properties of LM102 by identifying thermostablity of its proteins and the interactions existing in its heat shock response systems (HSRS). The strain was sequenced, assembled and the draft genome (3,017,325 bp) was analyzed. Post-annotation, we randomly selected a set of hundred proteins and computed the percentage distribution of 12 amino acids which have been substantially studied for their role in thermostability. The protein homologues were searched and the residues of LM102 were compared with Bacillus subtilis and Thermus thermophilus, a mesophile and hyperthermophile respectively. Within the 95% confidence limit, a Z-score of -0.61 was observed between LM102 and B. subtilis. However, a significantly lower value of -8.84 was observed for the pair LM102 and T. thermophilus. The amino acid distribution did not appear to influence the protein thermostability. Further, we investigated the role of Protein-Protein interactions by building networks for heat shock responses, namely DNA repair, transcriptional regulation, and activation of heat shock proteins. Interaction data retrieved from the STRING database for more than 50 species were used to build these networks. Highly clustered MCODE results notably revealed RNA 3'-5' exonuclease, CshA and HemW previously unreported, in association with other proteins. Additionally, these and other proteins estimated from the HSRS networks were found in both mesophiles and thermophiles, suggesting a crucial role of gene regulatory networks in the cellular viability of LM102 at high temperatures.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Genoma Bacteriano , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Planococáceas/genética , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas , Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Reparo do DNA , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Transcrição Genética
11.
Nat Cell Biol ; 22(2): 151-158, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32015439

RESUMO

Under proteotoxic stress, some cells survive whereas others die. The mechanisms governing this heterogeneity in cell fate remain unknown. Here we report that condensation and phase transition of heat-shock factor 1 (HSF1), a transcriptional regulator of chaperones1,2, is integral to cell-fate decisions underlying survival or death. During stress, HSF1 drives chaperone expression but also accumulates separately in nuclear stress bodies called foci3-6. Foci formation has been regarded as a marker of cells actively upregulating chaperones3,6-10. Using multiplexed tissue imaging, we observed HSF1 foci in human tumours. Paradoxically, their presence inversely correlated with chaperone expression. By live-cell microscopy and single-cell analysis, we found that foci dissolution rather than formation promoted HSF1 activity and cell survival. During prolonged stress, the biophysical properties of HSF1 foci changed; small, fluid condensates enlarged into indissoluble gel-like arrangements with immobilized HSF1. Chaperone gene induction was reduced in such cells, which were prone to apoptosis. Quantitative analysis suggests that survival under stress results from competition between concurrent but opposing mechanisms. Foci may serve as sensors that tune cytoprotective responses, balancing rapid transient responses and irreversible outcomes.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Fatores de Transcrição de Choque Térmico/genética , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/genética , Apoptose/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Diferenciação Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/genética , Neoplasias do Colo/genética , Neoplasias do Colo/metabolismo , Neoplasias do Colo/patologia , Feminino , Fatores de Transcrição de Choque Térmico/metabolismo , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/metabolismo , Resposta ao Choque Térmico/genética , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Mieloma Múltiplo/genética , Mieloma Múltiplo/metabolismo , Mieloma Múltiplo/patologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Transição de Fase , Transdução de Sinais , Análise de Célula Única , Transcrição Genética
12.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0228314, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32027666

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is an important tool for analyzing gene expression. However, before analyzing the expression of target genes, it is crucial to normalize the reference genes, in order to find the most stable gene to be used as an endogenous control. A gene that remains stable in all samples under different treatments is considered a suitable normalizer. In this sense, we aimed to identify stable reference genes for normalization of target genes in the heart and liver tissues from two genetically divergent groups of chickens (Cobb 500® commercial line and Peloco backyard chickens) under comfort and acute heat stress environmental conditions. Eight reference genes (ACTB, HPRT1, RPL5, EEF1, MRPS27, MRPS30, TFRC and LDHA) were analyzed for expression stability. The samples were obtained from 24 chickens, 12 from the backyard Peloco and 12 from the Cobb 500® line, exposed to two environmental conditions (comfort and heat stress). Comfort temperature was 23°C and heat stress temperature was 39.5°C for one hour. Subsequently, the animals were euthanized, and heart and liver tissue fragments were collected for RNA extraction and amplification. To determine the stability rate of gene expression, three different statistical algorithms were applied: BestKeeper, geNorm and NormFinder, and to obtain an aggregated stability list, the RankAgregg package of R software was used. RESULTS: The most stable genes using BestKeeper tool, including the two factors (genetic group and environmental condition), were LDHA, RPL5 and MRPS27 for heart tissue, and TFRC, RPL5 and EEF1 for liver tissue. Applying geNorm algorithm, the best reference genes were RPL5, EEF1 and MRPS30 for heart tissue and LDHA, EEF1 and RPL5 for liver. Using the NormFinder algorithm, the best normalizer genes were EEF1, RPL5 and LDHA in heart, and EEF1, RPL5 and ACTB in liver tissue. In the overall ranking obtained by RankAggreg package, considering the three algorithms, the RPL5, EEF1 and LDHA genes were the most stable for heart tissue, whereas RPL5, EEF1 and ACTB were the most stable for liver tissue. CONCLUSION: According to the RankAggreg tool classification based on the three different algorithms (BestKeeper, geNorm and NormFinder), the most stable genes were RPL5, EEF1 and LDHA for heart tissue and RPL5, EEF1 and ACTB for liver tissue of chickens subjected to comfort and acute heat stress environmental conditions. However, the best reference genes may vary depending on the experimental conditions of each study, such as different breeds, environmental stressors, and tissues analyzed. Therefore, the need to perform priori studies to assay the best reference genes at the outset of each study is emphasized.


Assuntos
Galinhas/genética , Resposta ao Choque Térmico/genética , Fígado/metabolismo , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Algoritmos , Animais , Feminino , Genótipo , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/genética , Masculino , Fator 1 de Elongação de Peptídeos/genética , RNA/metabolismo , Receptores da Transferrina/genética , Temperatura
13.
Immunity ; 52(2): 328-341.e5, 2020 02 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32049050

RESUMO

Fever, an evolutionarily conserved physiological response to infection, is also commonly associated with many autoimmune diseases, but its role in T cell differentiation and autoimmunity remains largely unclear. T helper 17 (Th17) cells are critical in host defense and autoinflammatory diseases, with distinct phenotypes and pathogenicity. Here, we show that febrile temperature selectively regulated Th17 cell differentiation in vitro in enhancing interleukin-17 (IL-17), IL-17F, and IL-22 expression. Th17 cells generated under febrile temperature (38.5°C-39.5°C), compared with those under 37°C, showed enhanced pathogenic gene expression with increased pro-inflammatory activities in vivo. Mechanistically, febrile temperature promoted SUMOylation of SMAD4 transcription factor to facilitate its nuclear localization; SMAD4 deficiency selectively abrogated the effects of febrile temperature on Th17 cell differentiation both in vitro and ameliorated an autoimmune disease model. Our results thus demonstrate a critical role of fever in shaping adaptive immune responses with implications in autoimmune diseases.


Assuntos
Temperatura Corporal/imunologia , Febre/imunologia , Células Th17/imunologia , Imunidade Adaptativa , Animais , Diferenciação Celular/imunologia , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Encefalomielite Autoimune Experimental/genética , Encefalomielite Autoimune Experimental/imunologia , Febre/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Resposta ao Choque Térmico/imunologia , Camundongos , Proteína Smad4/deficiência , Proteína Smad4/metabolismo , Sumoilação , Células Th17/metabolismo
14.
Life Sci ; 248: 117464, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32097667

RESUMO

AIMS: The present study was carried out to investigate the influences of Selenium/Zinc-Enriched probiotics (SeZnP) on growth performance, serum enzyme activity, antioxidant capability, inflammatory factors and gene expression associated with Wistar rats inflated under high ambient thermal-stress. MAIN METHODS: Sixty male rates with six-weeks of age were randomly allocated into five groups (12 per group) and fed basal diet (Control), basal diet supplemented with probiotics (P), Zinc-Enriched probiotics (ZnP, 100 mg/L), Selenium-Enriched Probiotics (SeP, 0.3 mg/L) and Selenium/Zinc-Enriched probiotics (SeZnP, 0.3 mg + 100 mg/L). The experiment lasted 30 days. Blood and Tissues samples were taken to investigate serum enzyme activity, antioxidants capability and inflammatory factors by using of commercial kits and antioxidant, heat shock and inflammatory related molecules expressions were determined by qRT-PCR. KEY FINDINGS: Data analysis revealed that thermal stress significantly increased the level of Aspartate-aminotransferase, Alanine-aminotransferase, Lactate-dehydrogenase, Creatine-kinase, blood urea nitrogen, Creatinine and Alkaline phosphatase compared to P, ZnP, SeP or SeZnP groups (P < 0.01). However, supplementation of ZnP, SeP, and SeZnP significantly enhanced glutathione content, glutathione-peroxidase & superoxide-dismutase activity, and decreased malondialdehyde content (P < 0.05). Moreover, the concentration of IL-2, IL-6 and IL-8 were significantly increased while IL-10 was significantly decreased (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the expression of GPx1 and SOD1 genes were significantly increased, but COX-2, iNOS, HSP70 and 90 mRNA levels were significantly decreased (P < 0.05). Finally, the highest influence of the mentioned parameters was observed in SeZnP supplemented group. SIGNIFICANCE: Our study suggests that SeZnP supplementation serves as possible and best nutritive than ZnP or SeP for Wistar rats raising under high ambient temperature.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Suplementos Nutricionais , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Resposta ao Choque Térmico/efeitos dos fármacos , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Selênio/administração & dosagem , Zinco/administração & dosagem , Alanina Transaminase/genética , Alanina Transaminase/metabolismo , Fosfatase Alcalina/genética , Fosfatase Alcalina/metabolismo , Animais , Aspartato Aminotransferases/genética , Aspartato Aminotransferases/metabolismo , Nitrogênio da Ureia Sanguínea , Creatina Quinase/genética , Creatina Quinase/metabolismo , Creatinina/metabolismo , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/genética , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Glutationa/metabolismo , Glutationa Peroxidase/genética , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP70/genética , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP70/metabolismo , Resposta ao Choque Térmico/genética , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/genética , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Masculino , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/genética , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Superóxido Dismutase/genética , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
15.
DNA Cell Biol ; 39(3): 428-440, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31977244

RESUMO

In this study, we analyzed the gene structure, chemical characterizations, chromosome locations, evolutionary relationship, and expression profile of hsp90 genes with online database. In addition, the expression levels of hsp90s were also investigated under heat stress by quantitative real-time (qRT)-PCR. A total of eight hsp90 genes were identified from the rainbow trout genome. They were all distributed on chromosomes 2, 4, 8, and 13. The molecular weight ranged from 78.93 to 91.39 kDa, and the isoelectric point ranged from 4.84 to 4.96. The eight hsp90 genes were clustered into six subfamilies (A, B, C, D, E, and F). Genetic structure and conserved domain analysis revealed that all eight hsp90 genes had only one exon, and motif 1-motif 10 was shared by most genes. According to RNA-seq analysis of rainbow trout liver and head kidney, a total of seven out of eight genes were significantly upregulated under heat stress, and qRT-PCR was carried out on these seven genes; the expression levels of these genes were significantly upregulated under heat stress. The significantly regulated expressions of hsp90 genes under heat stress indicated that hsp90 genes are involved in heat stress response in rainbow trout. This study provides a theoretical basis for further study on the role of hsp90 in the heat stress tolerance of rainbow trout.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP90/genética , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Truta/genética , Animais , Proteínas de Peixes/química , Proteínas de Peixes/metabolismo , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP90/química , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP90/metabolismo , Domínios Proteicos , Truta/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima
16.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0227909, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31986193

RESUMO

Vitiligo is a T-cell mediated skin disorder characterized by progressive loss of skin color. In individuals genetically predisposed to the disease, various triggers contribute to the initiation of vitiligo. Precipitating factors can stress the skin, leading to T-cell activation and recruitment. Though hereditary factors are implicated in the pathogenesis of vitiligo, it is unknown whether precipitating, stressful events play a role in vitiligo. To understand this, we utilized a validated perceived stress scale (PSS) to measure this parameter in vitiligo patients compared to persons without vitiligo. Additionally, we probed a clinical database, using a knowledge linking software called ROCKET, to gauge stress-related conditions in the vitiligo patient population. From a pool of patients in an existing database, a hundred individuals with vitiligo and twenty-five age- and sex-matched comparison group of individuals without vitiligo completed an online survey to quantify their levels of perceived stress. In parallel, patients described specifics of their disease condition, including the affected body sites, the extent, duration and activity of their vitiligo. Perceived stress was significantly higher among vitiligo individuals compared to those without vitiligo. ROCKET analyses suggested signs of metabolic-related disease (i.e., 'stress') preceding vitiligo development. No correlation was found between perceived stress and the stage or the extent of disease, suggesting that elevated stress may not be a consequence of pigment loss alone. The data provide further support for stress as a precipitating factor in vitiligo development.


Assuntos
Estresse Fisiológico , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Vitiligo/fisiopatologia , Vitiligo/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Resposta ao Choque Térmico/genética , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Melanócitos/metabolismo , Melanócitos/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pacientes/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/complicações , Estresse Psicológico/genética , Estresse Psicológico/metabolismo , Inquéritos e Questionários , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/patologia , Vitiligo/complicações , Vitiligo/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
17.
Sci Total Environ ; 710: 136280, 2020 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31911257

RESUMO

Understanding physiological adaptations of organisms to temperature changes that characterize their habitat is the first step in predicting the putative effects of global climate change on population dynamics. Mudflats are an important part of the intertidal zone and experience extreme and fluctuating temperatures. Therein, species would be potentially susceptible to global warming. The present study explored physiological adaptations of burrowing species to life in an intertidal mudflat by analyzing the potential operative temperatures in the mudflat, and assessing cardiac performance and the transcriptional response to thermal stress by a typical burrowing bivalve, the razor clam Sinonovacula constricta in different thermal environments, mimicking conditions during low tides. Clams showed higher thermal sublethal limits in mud with overlying air than in mud with overlying water, indicating an adaptation to rapidly changing ambient temperatures and thermal environments during emersion. This sublethal limit was far above the maximum operative temperature in the actual habitat site and suggests a potential buffer zone to ensure survival under unexpected high temperatures, that could occur with global warming. In response to high temperature, S. constricta exhibited the common heat stress response by up-regulating expression of the Bcl2-associated athanogene 3 (BAG3) and heat shock proteins to cope with the adverse effects of high temperature on protein homeostasis. Increased expression of key genes, including molybdenum cofactor synthesis 3 (MOCS3), oligoribonuclease (REX2), and NFκappaB inhibitor alpha (NFIA) may further remit the effect of thermal stress during the emersion period and delay a situation where clams reach their thermal sublethal limit, thereby helping to endure high temperature during low tide. These results clearly illustrate significant adaptations of a burrowing bivalve to life in intertidal mudflats at both physiological and molecular levels and can provide insights into potential physiological or evolutionary responses that could aid survival of mudflat species in a changing global climate.


Assuntos
Bivalves , Adaptação Fisiológica , Animais , Mudança Climática , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Estresse Fisiológico
18.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 191: 110206, 2020 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31954923

RESUMO

Heat stress is found to be a detrimental factor for growth and development of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) which is tremendously invaluable forage due to its high feed value and yield potential. Salicylic acid (SA) has been reported to play a pivotal role in the regulation of plants biotic and abiotic stress response. However, the role of exogenous SA in protecting alfalfa from heat-induced damage has rarely been studied. In this study, four-week-old alfalfa seedlings were treated with 0.25 mM or 0.5 mM SA five days prior to high stress treatment (three day), and various growth and physiological traits were measured. The results showed that exogenous SA pretreatment could improve leaf morphology, plant height, biomass, chlorophyll content, and photosynthetic efficiency of alfalfa under heat stress. Meanwhile, SA could alleviate heat-induced membrane damage by reducing electrolyte leakage (EL) and malondialdehyde (MDA) content, and regulate the activities of antioxidant enzymes including catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and peroxidase (POD). The results revealed that exogenous SA application enhanced alfalfa heat tolerance by modulating various morphological and physiological characteristics under heat stress, with more prominent effect at lower concentration (0.25 mM). Overall, this study provides fundamental insights into the SA-mediated physiological adaptation of alfalfa plants to heat stress, which could have useful implication in managing other plants which are suffering global warming.


Assuntos
Resposta ao Choque Térmico/efeitos dos fármacos , Medicago sativa/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Salicílico/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Catalase/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Medicago sativa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Medicago sativa/metabolismo , Peroxidase/metabolismo , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
19.
J Anim Sci ; 98(1)2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31958339

RESUMO

This study consisted of three 5-wk experiments to test the effects of administering Zinpro-LQ (Zinpro-LQ, Zinpro Corporation, Eden Prairie, MN) for different time intervals in stressed broilers, pullets, and layers. Treatments included: nonstressed control (NC), stressed control (SC), stressed and supplemented Zinpro-LQ for 14 d prior to stressor (S1), 10 d prior (S2), 7 d prior to and 7 d during stressor (S3), and 5 d prior (S4). Birds included 1-d-old Cobb 500 male broilers (Experiment 1), 7-wk-old white Leghorn pullets (Experiment 2), and 50-wk-old white Leghorn layers (Experiment 3). All stressed birds were vaccinated against Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) on day 28 and exposed to random feed and water withdrawal days 28 to 35 for 6 h/d. Pullets were beak trimmed on day 21, and layers were heat stressed days 28 to 35. Blood was sampled on day 35 to determine plasma chemistry, corticosterone (CORT), anti-NDV antibody titer, and heterophil/lymphocyte (H/L) ratio. Mortality, feed and water consumption, and BW were also recorded. In Experiment 1, CORT and H/L ratio were highest in SC (P < 0.05). In Experiment 2, CORT was higher in SC than S4 (P < 0.05) while all other treatments were statistically intermediate. NDV titer was lower in SC than S4 while all other treatments were statistically intermediate. Treatment differences were also observed for H/L ratio, and plasma uric acid and cholesterol in Experiment 2. In Experiment 3, treatment differences were observed for H/L ratio, plasma glucose, sodium, and chloride. H/L ratio was lower in NC, S1, and S4 compared with SC (P < 0.05); and NC and S1 were lower than S2 (P < 0.05). In conclusion, dietary inclusion of zinc AA complex for any length of time prior to a stressor helped reduce measures of stress in broilers. The S1 and S4 treatments helped reduce stress and improve humoral immune response in pullets and layers.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/farmacologia , Galinhas/fisiologia , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Zinco/farmacologia , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Corticosterona/sangue , Dieta/veterinária , Feminino , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Masculino
20.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0227822, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31940417

RESUMO

Peptidylarginine deiminase (PAD) modifies peptidylarginine and converts it to peptidylcitrulline in the presence of elevated calcium. Protein modification can lead to severe changes in protein structure and function, and aberrant PAD activity is linked to human pathologies. While PAD homologs have been discovered in vertebrates-as well as in protozoa, fungi, and bacteria-none have been identified in Drosophila melanogaster, a simple and widely used animal model for human diseases. Here, we describe the development of a human PAD overexpression model in Drosophila. We established fly lines harboring human PAD2 or PAD4 transgenes for ectopic expression under control of the GAL4/UAS system. We show that ubiquitous or nervous system expression of PAD2 or PAD4 have minimal impact on fly lifespan, fecundity, and the response to acute heat stress. Although we did not detect citrullinated proteins in fly homogenates, fly-expressed PAD4-but not PAD2-was active in vitro upon Ca2+ supplementation. The transgenic fly lines may be valuable in future efforts to develop animal models of PAD-related disorders and for investigating the biochemistry and regulation of PAD function.


Assuntos
Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Proteína-Arginina Desiminase do Tipo 2/genética , Proteína-Arginina Desiminase do Tipo 4/genética , Transgenes , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados/genética , Drosophila melanogaster/fisiologia , Feminino , Fertilidade , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Humanos , Longevidade , Masculino , Regulação para Cima
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