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1.
Molecules ; 26(7)2021 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33805024

RESUMO

Depression and anxiety disorders are widespread diseases, and they belong to the leading causes of disability and greatest burdens on healthcare systems worldwide. It is expected that the numbers will dramatically rise during the COVID-19 pandemic. Established medications are not sufficient to adequately treat depression and are not available for everyone. Plants from traditional medicine may be promising alternatives to treat depressive symptoms. The model organism Chaenorhabditis elegans was used to assess the stress reducing effects of methanol/dichlormethane extracts from plants used in traditional medicine. After initial screening for antioxidant activity, nine extracts were selected for in vivo testing in oxidative stress, heat stress, and osmotic stress assays. Additionally, anti-aging properties were evaluated in lifespan assay. The extracts from Acanthopanax senticosus, Campsis grandiflora, Centella asiatica, Corydalis yanhusuo, Dan Zhi, Houttuynia cordata, Psoralea corylifolia, Valeriana officinalis, and Withaniasomnifera showed antioxidant activity of more than 15 Trolox equivalents per mg extract. The extracts significantly lowered ROS in mutants, increased resistance to heat stress and osmotic stress, and the extended lifespan of the nematodes. The plant extracts tested showed promising results in increasing stress resistance in the nematode model. Further analyses are needed, in order to unravel underlying mechanisms and transfer results to humans.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos/farmacologia , Caenorhabditis elegans/efeitos dos fármacos , Caenorhabditis elegans/fisiologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Plantas Medicinais/química , Envelhecimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Resposta ao Choque Térmico/efeitos dos fármacos , Longevidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Longevidade/genética , Longevidade/fisiologia , Mutação , Pressão Osmótica/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(6)2021 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33809330

RESUMO

Clematis plants play an important role in botanical gardens. Heat stress can destroy the activity, state and conformation of plant proteins, and its regulatory pathway has been well characterized in Arabidopsis and some crop plants. However, the heat resistance response mechanism in horticultural plants including Clematis has rarely been reported. Here, we identified a heat-tolerant clematis species, Clematis vitalba. The relative water loss and electrolytic leakage were significantly lower under heat treatment in Clematis vitalba compared to Stolwijk Gold. Differential expression heat-tolerant genes (HTGs) were identified based on nonparametric transcriptome analysis. For validation, one heat shock transcription factor, CvHSF30-2, extremely induced by heat stimuli in Clematis vitalba, was identified to confer tolerance to heat stress in Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Furthermore, silencing of HSF30-2 by virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) led to heat sensitivity in tobacco and Clematis, suggesting that the candidate heat-resistant genes identified in this RNA-seq analysis are credible and offer significant utility. We also found that CvHSF30-2 improved heat tolerance of Clematis vitalba by elevating heat shock protein (HSP) expression, which was negatively regulated by CvHSFB2a. Taken together, this study provides insights into the mechanism of Clematis heat tolerance and the findings can be potentially applied in horticultural plants to improve economic efficiency through genetic approaches.


Assuntos
Clematis/genética , Fatores de Transcrição de Choque Térmico/genética , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Arabidopsis/genética , Clematis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Resposta ao Choque Térmico/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Termotolerância/genética , Tabaco/genética
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(5)2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33804571

RESUMO

Blueberries (Vaccinium spp.) are highly vulnerable to changing climatic conditions, especially increasing temperatures. To gain insight into mechanisms underpinning the response to heat stress, two blueberry species were subjected to heat stress for 6 and 9 h at 45 °C, and leaf samples were used to study the morpho-physiological and transcriptomic changes. As compared with Vaccinium corymbosum, Vaccinium darrowii exhibited thermal stress adaptation features such as small leaf size, parallel leaf orientation, waxy leaf coating, increased stomatal surface area, and stomatal closure. RNAseq analysis yielded ~135 million reads and identified 8305 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) during heat stress against the control samples. In V. corymbosum, 2861 and 4565 genes were differentially expressed at 6 and 9 h of heat stress, whereas in V. darrowii, 2516 and 3072 DEGs were differentially expressed at 6 and 9 h, respectively. Among the pathways, the protein processing in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) was the highly enriched pathway in both the species: however, certain metabolic, fatty acid, photosynthesis-related, peroxisomal, and circadian rhythm pathways were enriched differently among the species. KEGG enrichment analysis of the DEGs revealed important biosynthesis and metabolic pathways crucial in response to heat stress. The GO terms enriched in both the species under heat stress were similar, but more DEGs were enriched for GO terms in V. darrowii than the V. corymbosum. Together, these results elucidate the differential response of morpho-physiological and molecular mechanisms used by both the blueberry species under heat stress, and help in understanding the complex mechanisms involved in heat stress tolerance.


Assuntos
Mirtilos Azuis (Planta)/anatomia & histologia , Mirtilos Azuis (Planta)/fisiologia , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Termotolerância/genética , Transcriptoma , Mirtilos Azuis (Planta)/classificação , Biologia Computacional , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/genética
4.
Science ; 372(6538)2021 04 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33833095

RESUMO

During multicellular development, spatial position and lineage history play powerful roles in controlling cell fate decisions. Using a serine integrase-based recording system, we engineered cells to record lineage information in a format that can be read out in situ. The system, termed integrase-editable memory by engineered mutagenesis with optical in situ readout (intMEMOIR), allowed in situ reconstruction of lineage relationships in cultured mouse cells and flies. intMEMOIR uses an array of independent three-state genetic memory elements that can recombine stochastically and irreversibly, allowing up to 59,049 distinct digital states. It reconstructed lineage trees in stem cells and enabled simultaneous analysis of single-cell clonal history, spatial position, and gene expression in Drosophila brain sections. These results establish a foundation for microscopy-readable lineage recording and analysis in diverse systems.


Assuntos
Linhagem da Célula , Expressão Gênica , Células-Tronco Embrionárias Murinas/citologia , Neurônios/citologia , Análise de Célula Única , Animais , Encéfalo/citologia , Linhagem Celular , Células Clonais/citologia , Drosophila melanogaster/citologia , Drosophila melanogaster/embriologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Integrases/metabolismo , Camundongos , Mutagênese , Análise Espacial , Imagem com Lapso de Tempo , Transcrição Genética
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(5)2021 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33800127

RESUMO

Heat stress causes huge losses in the yield of cereal crops. Temperature influences the rate of plant metabolic and developmental processes that ultimately determine the production of grains, with high temperatures causing a reduction in grain yield and quality. To ensure continued food security, the tolerance of high temperature is rapidly becoming necessary. Brassinosteroids (BR) are a class of plant hormones that impact tolerance to various biotic and abiotic stresses and regulate cereal growth and fertility. Fine-tuning the action of BR has the potential to increase cereals' tolerance and acclimation to heat stress and maintain yields. Mechanistically, exogenous applications of BR protect yields through amplifying responses to heat stress and rescuing the expression of growth promoters. Varied BR compounds and differential signaling mechanisms across cereals point to a diversity of mechanisms that can be leveraged to mitigate heat stress. Further, hormone transport and BR interaction with other molecules in plants may be critical to utilizing BR as protective agrochemicals against heat stress. Understanding the interplay between heat stress responses, growth processes and hormone signaling may lead us to a comprehensive dogma of how to tune BR application for optimizing cereal growth under challenging environments in the field.


Assuntos
Brassinosteroides/metabolismo , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/fisiologia , Resposta ao Choque Térmico/fisiologia , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Temperatura Alta
6.
J Strength Cond Res ; 35(5): 1279-1286, 2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33900261

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Wardenaar, FC, Ortega-Santos, CP, Vento, K, Beaumont, JS, Griffin, SC, Johnston, C, and Kavouras, SA. A 5-day heat acclimation program improves heat stress indicators while maintaining exercise capacity. J Strength Cond Res 35(5): 1279-1286, 2021-This study aimed to evaluate whether a daily 60 minutes isothermic biking protocol during a 5-day period could improve physiological heat acclimation and exercise performance capacity in partially acclimated subjects. A quasi-experimental study consisted of an intervention (INT, n = 7) and control (CON, n = 7) group completing 2 12 minutes Cooper tests (pre-CT on day 1 and post-CT on day 7) and a heat stress test (HST, on day 9). INT performed additional intensive exercise 1 hour per day on days 1-5, whereas CON did not. During CTs and HST, core temperature (Tc, telemetric capsule), skin temperature (Tsk, sensors at neck, right shoulder, left hand, and right shin), and heart rate (HR, chest strap) were continuously monitored and baseline, average, peak, and increment were calculated. During the HST, the INT group showed a smaller baseline-peak Tc increment (INT 0.88 ± 0.27 vs. CON 1.64 ± 0.90° C, p = 0.02), a lower HR peak (150.2 ± 12.6 vs. 173.0 ± 16.8 b·min-1, p = 0.02), and lower Tsk peak (36.47 ± 0.62 vs. 36.54 ± 0.46° C, p = 0.04). There was a nonsignificant, but practical difference based on a moderate effect size for change in pre-CT to post-CT performance of nearly +2.7 ± 12.3% in INT and -3.0 ± 8.5% in CON (p = 0.32 and d = 0.51), and HST distance covered resulting in a nonsignificant difference of 464 ± 849 m between INT and CON (p = 0.38 and d = 0.44). In conclusion a short-term 5-day heat acclimation program including 300 minutes of extra exercise resulted in positive physiological adaptions to heat stress, as indicated by lower core temperature and HR in comparison with a control group.


Assuntos
Temperatura Corporal , Tolerância ao Exercício , Aclimatação , Frequência Cardíaca , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Temperatura Alta , Humanos
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(5)2021 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33800795

RESUMO

Plant growth and development are challenged by biotic and abiotic stresses including salinity and heat stresses. For Populus simonii × P. nigra as an important greening and economic tree species in China, increasing soil salinization and global warming have become major environmental challenges. We aim to unravel the molecular mechanisms underlying tree tolerance to salt stress and high temprerature (HT) stress conditions. Transcriptomics revealed that a PsnNAC036 transcription factor (TF) was significantly induced by salt stress in P. simonii × P. nigra. This study focuses on addressing the biological functions of PsnNAC036. The gene was cloned, and its temporal and spatial expression was analyzed under different stresses. PsnNAC036 was significantly upregulated under 150 mM NaCl and 37 °C for 12 h. The result is consistent with the presence of stress responsive cis-elements in the PsnNAC036 promoter. Subcellular localization analysis showed that PsnNAC036 was targeted to the nucleus. Additionally, PsnNAC036 was highly expressed in the leaves and roots. To investigate the core activation region of PsnNAC036 protein and its potential regulatory factors and targets, we conducted trans-activation analysis and the result indicates that the C-terminal region of 191-343 amino acids of the PsnNAC036 was a potent activation domain. Furthermore, overexpression of PsnNAC036 stimulated plant growth and enhanced salinity and HT tolerance. Moreover, 14 stress-related genes upregulated in the transgenic plants under high salt and HT conditions may be potential targets of the PsnNAC036. All the results demonstrate that PsnNAC036 plays an important role in salt and HT stress tolerance.


Assuntos
Genes de Plantas , Resposta ao Choque Térmico/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/fisiologia , Populus/genética , Estresse Salino/genética , Plantas Tolerantes a Sal/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/fisiologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Clorofila/biossíntese , Cruzamentos Genéticos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Temperatura Alta , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/fisiologia , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Populus/fisiologia , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Salinidade , Plantas Tolerantes a Sal/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Alinhamento de Sequência , Homologia de Sequência de Aminoácidos , Especificidade da Espécie , Frações Subcelulares/metabolismo , Tabaco/genética , Tabaco/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Ativação Transcricional
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(5)2021 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33800930

RESUMO

Common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench), a pseudocereal crop, produces a large number of flowers, but this does not guarantee high seed yields. This species demonstrates strong abortion of flowers and embryos. High temperatures during the generative growth phase result in an increase in the degeneration of embryo sacs. The aim of this study was to investigate proteomic changes in flowers and leaves of two common buckwheat accessions with different degrees of heat tolerance, Panda and PA15. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry techniques were used to analyze the proteome profiles. Analyses were conducted for flower buds, open flowers capable of fertilization, and wilted flowers, as well as donor leaves, i.e., those growing closest to the inflorescences. High temperature up-regulated the expression of 182 proteins. The proteomic response to heat stress differed between the accessions and among their organs. In the Panda accession, we observed a change in abundance of 17, 13, 28, and 11 proteins, in buds, open and wilted flowers, and leaves, respectively. However, in the PA15 accession there were 34, 21, 63, and 21 such proteins, respectively. Fifteen heat-affected proteins were common to both accessions. The indole-3-glycerol phosphate synthase chloroplastic-like isoform X2 accumulated in the open flowers of the heat-sensitive cultivar Panda in response to high temperature, and may be a candidate protein as a marker of heat sensitivity in buckwheat plants.


Assuntos
Fagopyrum/metabolismo , Flores/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteoma , Termotolerância/genética , Eletroforese em Gel Bidimensional , Fagopyrum/embriologia , Fagopyrum/genética , Fagopyrum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Resposta ao Choque Térmico/genética , Temperatura Alta , Indol-3-Glicerolfosfato Sintase/biossíntese , Indol-3-Glicerolfosfato Sintase/genética , Metionina Adenosiltransferase/biossíntese , Metionina Adenosiltransferase/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/biossíntese , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Regulação para Cima
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(6)2021 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33810107

RESUMO

Transmembrane proteins are involved in an array of stress responses, particularly in thermo-sensation and thermo-regulation. In this study, we performed a genome-wide identification and characterization of the Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) genes in the Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) and investigated their expression profiles after heat stress to identify critical TRPs potentially associated with thermal regulation. A total of 66 TRP genes were identified in the C. gigas, which showed significant gene expansion and tandem duplication. Meta-analysis of the available RNA-Seq data generated from samples after acute heat stress revealed a set of heat-inducible TRPs. Further examination of their expression profiles under chronic heat stress, and comparison between C. gigas and C. angulata, two oyster species with different tolerance levels to heat stress, led to the identification of TRPC3.6, TRPC3.7, and TRPV4.7 as important TRPs involved in thermal regulation in oysters. This work provided valuable information for future studies on the molecular mechanism of TRP mediated thermal tolerance, and identification of diagnostic biomarker for thermal stress in the oysters.


Assuntos
Crassostrea/fisiologia , Resposta ao Choque Térmico/genética , Transcriptoma , Canais de Receptores Transientes de Potencial/genética , Animais , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Crassostrea/classificação , Dosagem de Genes , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Invertebrados , Fenótipo , Filogenia , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Vertebrados
10.
Arch Insect Biochem Physiol ; 106(4): e21776, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33644932

RESUMO

Maternally inherited endosymbiotic bacterium Wolbachia infects Drosophila melanogaster populations worldwide. Its genetic diversity includes several closely related genotypes, which can be attributed to two main genotype groups: wMel and wMelCS. Here, we studied eight D. melanogaster lines carrying the nuclear background of wild type interbred Bi90 line and cytoplasmic backgrounds with or without Wolbachia of different origin, each of which belongs to wMelCS genotype group. We analyzed the effect these seven Wolbachia strains had on the heat stress resistance and dopamine metabolism in D. melanogaster females. Survival under heat stress (38°C, 3 h 30 min) was increased only in the line infected with bacteria of the wMelPlus strain. At the same time, the activity of alkaline phosphatase (an enzyme regulating the pool of dopamine precursor tyrosine) was increased under normal conditions in females infected with all strains under study and retained the response to heat stress typical for the uninfected line. Thus, we found the unique Wolbachia strain that provides an increase of the host stress resistance, and demonstrated that the mechanism of this resistance is not dopamine-mediated.


Assuntos
Drosophila melanogaster/microbiologia , Termotolerância , Wolbachia/genética , Fosfatase Alcalina/metabolismo , Animais , Dopamina/metabolismo , Drosophila melanogaster/metabolismo , Genótipo , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Simbiose/fisiologia , Termotolerância/genética , Termotolerância/fisiologia
11.
Sci Total Environ ; 771: 144911, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33736178

RESUMO

Heat exposure studies over the last decade have shown little attention in assessing and reporting the psychometric properties of the various scales used to measure impacts of occupational heat stress on workers. A descriptive cross-sectional survey including 320 small- and large-scale mining workers was employed to assess the construct validity of the social impacts of occupational heat stress scale (SIOHSS) in the Western Region of Ghana in 2017. A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and invariance analysis were carried out using AMOS version 25 and statistical product and service solutions (SPSS) version 26 to examine the model fit and establish consistency correspondingly across multiple groups (gender, age, working hours, type of mining and workplace setting). Empirically, our results depicted that effects on health and safety, behavioural, productivity and social well-being were each found to be reliable, with Cronbach's α of 0.722, 0.807, 0.852 and 0.900 respectively. Though there were issues of insufficient discriminant validity as some average variance extract (AVE) were smaller than the corresponding maximum shared variance (MSV), the CFA showed good model fit indices (CFI = 0.856, GFI = 0.890, TLI = 0.863, SRMR = 0.08, RMSEA = 0.08). Also, the model was variant for all constrained aspects of the structural model indicating a requirement for an adaptation of the instrument across groups. The good to moderate internal consistency and construct validity of the SIOHSS is adequate evidence for the confidence required for its reliability and accuracy in measuring the social impacts of occupational heat stress on workers.


Assuntos
Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Mudança Social , Estudos Transversais , Análise Fatorial , Gana , Humanos , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
Animal ; 15(2): 100081, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33712205

RESUMO

Recent studies have shown that chromium (Cr) could alleviate the negative effects of heat stress on livestock and poultry, but there is little information available to laying ducks. This study aimed to investigate the effects of dietary addition of chromium propionate on laying performance, egg quality, serum biochemical parameters and antioxidant status of laying ducks under hot (average 32 °C) and humid (average 75% relative humidity) summer conditions. A total of 900 66-week-old weight- and laying-matched Shanma laying ducks were randomly divided into five treatments, each with 6 replicates of 30 individually caged birds. The birds were fed either a basal diet or the basal diet supplemented with either 200, 400, 600, or 800 µg/kg Cr as chromium propionate. All laying ducks were given feed and water ad libitum for 5 weeks. The results showed that dietary supplementation with chromium propionate significantly increased the laying rate and yolk colour score (P < 0.05). Treatment with 400 µg/kg Cr as chromium propionate significantly decreased the feed/egg ratio by 5.4% (P < 0.05). Increased supplemental Cr from 0 to 800 µg/kg resulted in an increase in albumen height and the Haugh unit linearly (P < 0.05). Increased supplemental Cr decreased serum cortisol (P < 0.001, linear; P = 0.008, quadratic), heat shock protein-70 (P < 0.001, linear; P = 0.007, quadratic) and glucose (P = 0.007, linear), whereas it increased serum insulin (P = 0.011, Linear), total protein (P = 0.006, linear; P = 0.048, quadratic) and albumin (P = 0.035, linear; P = 0.088, quadratic). Dietary Cr levels increased the activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase, the total antioxidant capacity linearly and quadratically (P < 0.05). A linear and quadratic (P < 0.05) decrease of the malondialdehyde concentrations in response to dietary Cr level was observed. These results indicated that dietary supplementation of Cr as chromium propionate, particularly at 800 µg/kg could beneficially affect the laying rate, egg quality and antioxidant function, as well as modulate the blood biochemical parameters of laying ducks under heat stress conditions.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Patos , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Galinhas , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Propionatos
13.
Animal ; 15(2): 100106, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33712219

RESUMO

High environmental temperatures are a foremost concern affecting poultry production; thus, understanding and controlling such conditions are vital to successful production and welfare of poultry. In view of this, a completely randomized design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement involving two local strains (Kirin chicken (KC) and Three-yellow chicken (TYC)) and two temperature groups (normal/control = 30 ±â€¯2 °C and acute heat stress (AHS) = 35 ±â€¯1 °C for 8-h with 70% humidity) was used to assess the main regulatory factors such as heat shock protein (HSP70) gene, cytokine genes (IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-10), muscle development gene (IGF-1) and tissue histopathological changes. At 56 days old, the temperatures of the comb (CT), feet (FT), eyelid (ET) and rectal (RT) from each group were taken thrice at 0, 2, 4 and 8-h during AHS, and 1 and 3-h recovery period after AHS. At 80 days old, the slaughter weight was also analyzed. The CT and ET of the AHS groups increased during the 8-h trial, while the RT of both strains decreased significantly at 4 h but increased at 8 h in the TYC group. All temperature recordings dropped in the AHS groups of both strains during the recovery period. The results revealed that the mRNA expression of HSP70 in the liver was higher in the heat-stressed group of both strains compared to the control. The expression of HSP70 was shown in the AHS-KC group to be significantly high compared to the control (P < 0.05). Moreover, the IGF1 gene in the liver, breast muscle and leg muscle was downregulated in the AHS-TYC group compared to the control (P < 0.05), although that in the AHS-KC was downregulated in the breast muscle. The mRNA expression of spleen IL-1ß significantly decreased in the AHS-TYC group (P < 0.01), whereas that of the AHS-KC had no significant difference (P > 0.05). The mRNA expression of spleen IL-6 and IL-10 was increased in the AHS-KC group but did not exhibit obvious changes in the AHS-TYC. Correspondingly, the histopathological examinations revealed tissue injury in the AHS groups of both strains, with the TYC strain experiencing more severe changes. The final live and carcass weights showed a significant enhancement in the treatments (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, respectively) and treatment×strain interaction (P < 0.05) with breast muscle rate significantly reducing among the treatments (P < 0.01) at 80 days. In conclusion, the differential response to AHS after physiological, molecular and immune response portrays KC to have better thermal tolerance than the TYC.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor , Animais , Galinhas/genética , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP70/genética , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/veterinária , Proteínas de Choque Térmico , Resposta ao Choque Térmico/genética , Temperatura Alta , Estresse Fisiológico
14.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 214: 112078, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33676053

RESUMO

It is well known that the dairy cow production is very sensitive to environmental factors, including high temperature, high humidity and radiant heat sources. High temperature-induced heat stress is the main environmental factor that causes oxidative stress and apoptosis, which affects the development of mammary glands in dairy cows. Dihydromyricetin (DMY) is a nature flavonoid compound extracted from Ampelopsis grossedentata; it has been shown to have various pharmacological functions, such as anti-inflammation, antitumor and liver protection. The present study aims to evaluate the protective effect of DMY on heat stress-induced dairy cow mammary epithelial cells (DCMECs) apoptosis and explore the potential mechanisms. The results show that heat stress triggers heat shock response and reduces cell viability in DCMECs; pretreatment of DCMECs with DMY (25 µM) for 12 h significantly alleviates the negative effects of heat stress on cells. DMY can provide cytoprotective effects by suppressing heat stress-caused mitochondrial membrane depolarization and mitochondrial dysfunction, Bax and Caspase 3 activity, and modulation of oxidative enzymes, thereby preventing ROS production and apoptosis in DCMECs. Importantly, DMY treatment could attenuate heat stress-induced mitochondrial fragmentation through mediating the expression of mitochondrial fission and fusion-related genes, including Dynamin related protein 1 (Drp1), Mitochondrial fission 1 protein (Fis1), and Mitofusin1, 2 (Mfn1, 2). Above all, our findings demonstrate that DMY could protect DCMECs against heat stress-induced injury through preventing oxidative stress, the imbalance of mitochondrial fission and fusion, which provides useful evidence that DMY can be a promising therapeutic drug for protecting heat stress-induced mammary glands injury and mastitis.


Assuntos
Flavonóis/farmacologia , Resposta ao Choque Térmico/efeitos dos fármacos , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Bovinos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Dinaminas , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Dinâmica Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos
15.
J Anim Sci ; 99(3)2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33677551

RESUMO

This study was conducted to evaluate whether cooled floor pads combined with chilled drinking water could alleviate negative impacts of heat stress on lactating sows. Thirty sows (Landrace × Yorkshire, Parity = 1 to 6) were housed in individual farrowing stalls in two rooms with temperatures being controlled at 29.4°C (0700-1900 hours) and 23.9°C (1900-0700 hours). Sows in one room (Cool), but not in the other room (Control) were provided cooled floor pads (21-22°C) and chilled drinking water (13-15°C). Behavior of sows (15 sows/treatment) was video recorded during farrowing, and days 1, 3, 7, 14, and 21 after farrowing. Videos were viewed continuously to register the birth time of each piglet, from which total farrowing duration and birth intervals were calculated. The number of drinking bouts and the duration of each drinking bout were registered for each sow through viewing videos continuously for 2 h (1530-1730 hours) each video-recording day. Postures (lying laterally, lying ventrally, sitting, and standing) were recorded by scanning video recordings at 5-min intervals for 24 h each video-recording day, and time budget for each posture was calculated. Rectal temperature and respiration rate were measured for all sows the day before and after farrowing, and then once weekly. Sow and litter performance was recorded. Data were analyzed using the Glimmix procedure of SAS. The cooling treatment did not affect sow behavior or litter performance. Sows in the Cool room had lower rectal temperature (P = 0.03) and lower respiration rate (P < 0.001), consumed more feed (P = 0.03), tended to have reduced weight loss (P = 0.07), and backfat loss (P = 0.07) during lactation than sows in the Control room. As lactation progressed, sows increased drinking frequency (P < 0.001) and time spent lying ventrally (P < 0.0001), standing (P < 0.001), and sitting (P < 0.0001), and decreased time spent lying laterally (P < 0.0001) in both Cool and Control rooms. While cooled floor pads combined with chilled drinking water did not affect sow behavior, they did alleviate heat stress partially, as indicated by decreased rectal temperature, respiration rate, weight, and backfat loss, and increased feed intake in lactating sows.


Assuntos
Água Potável , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor , Doenças dos Suínos , Animais , Feminino , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/veterinária , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Lactação , Paridade , Gravidez , Suínos
16.
Plant Sci ; 306: 110850, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33775357

RESUMO

Autophagy is a major degradation pathway in plants for maintaining cellular homeostasis in response to various environmental stressors. ATG8 is one of a series of autophagy-related (ATG) proteins and plays a central role in both bulk and selective autophagy. Previously, we characterized MdATG8i in apple and demonstrated that it has a positive role in apple stress resistance. Although many ATG8-interacting proteins have been found in Arabidopsis, no protein has been reported to interact with MdATG8 in apple. Here, we identified MdHARBI1 as a MdATG8i-interacting protein in apple, however, the functions of HARBI1-like proteins have not been explored in plants. Expression analysis of MdHARBI1 and pro-MdHARBI1-GUS staining of transgenic Arabidopsis exposed to high temperature demonstrated that MdHARBI1 was significantly induced by heat stress. Moreover, heat-treated MdHARBI1-trangenic tomato plants maintained higher autophagic activity, accumulated fewer ROS, and displayed stronger chlorophyll fluorescence than wild-type plants. Because these phenotypes were consistent with those displayed by MdATG8i-overexpressing apple plants under high temperature, we concluded that the MdATG8i-interacting protein MdHARBI1 plays a critical role in the basal thermotolerance of plants, mainly by influencing autophagy pathways.


Assuntos
Proteínas Relacionadas à Autofagia/fisiologia , Autofagia/genética , Resposta ao Choque Térmico/genética , Malus/genética , Malus/fisiologia , Termotolerância/genética , Termotolerância/fisiologia , Autofagia/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Resposta ao Choque Térmico/fisiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/fisiologia
17.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 162: 301-314, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33714145

RESUMO

Abiotic stress due to climate change with continuous rise of atmospheric CO2 concentration is predicted to cause severe changes to crop productivity. Thus, research into wheat cultivars, capable of maintaining yield under limiting conditions is necessary. The aim of this study was to investigate the physiological responses of spring wheat to individual and combined drought- and heat events and their interaction with CO2 concentration. Two heat sensitive (LM19, KU10) and two heat tolerant (LM62, GN5) genotypes were selected and grown under ambient (400 ppm, aCO2) and elevated (800 ppm, eCO2) CO2 concentrations. At the tillering stage, the wheat plants were subjected to different treatments: control, progressive drought, heat and combined drought and heat stress. Our results showed that eCO2 mitigated the negative impact of the moderate stress in all genotypes. However, no distinctive responses were observed in some of the measured parameters between heat sensitive and tolerant genotypes. All genotypes grown at eCO2 had significantly higher net photosynthetic rates and maintained maximum quantum efficiency of PSII photochemistry under heat and combined stress compared to aCO2. Under heat and combined stress, the chlorophyll a:b ratios decreased only in heat tolerant genotypes at eCO2 compared to the control. Furthermore, the heat tolerant genotypes grown at eCO2 showed an increased glucose and fructose contents and a decreased sucrose content under combined stress compared to aCO2. These findings provide new insights into the underlying mechanisms of different genotypic responses to combined abiotic stresses at eCO2 that differ from the response to individual stresses.


Assuntos
Secas , Triticum , Dióxido de Carbono , Clorofila A , Genótipo , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Triticum/genética
18.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 162: 410-420, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33740680

RESUMO

Yellowhorn (Xanthoceras sorbifolium) is an important edible woody oil tree species that is endemic to China. Drought and heat stresses are factors severely limiting the high-quality development of the yellowhorn industry. Transcription factors (TFs) play critical roles in regulating the response of woody plant species to water deficit or high temperature. However, the MYB TFs that respond to combined drought and heat stress in yellowhorn remain unclear. Here, we first investigated the physiological changes in 5 yellowhorn varieties in response to combined stress treatments. We observed significant changes in antioxidant enzyme activities and photosynthesis. The Maigaiti variety yielded the best results and was selected for subsequent experiments. An R2R3-type MYB TF, designated XsMYB44, was isolated from the leaves of yellowhorn. XsMYB44 expression was strongly induced by combined stress. Suppression of XsMYB44 expression via virus-induced gene silencing weakened yellowhorn tolerance to both individual and combined drought and heat stress, and the increased susceptibility was coupled with decreased plant height, fresh weight and relative water content and inhibited stomatal closure. Moreover, compared with the individual stresses, the combined stress caused increased reactive oxygen species levels and decreased antioxidant enzyme activities and proline content in XsMYB44-silenced plants. Furthermore, the expression levels of several defense-related genes were reduced in the XsMYB44-silenced plants. Overall, we studied the physiological characteristics of 5 yellowhorn varieties, and the results demonstrated that XsMYB44 acts as a positive regulator in the yellowhorn response to combined stress by triggering stomatal closure to maintain water levels and by modulating ROS homeostasis.


Assuntos
Secas , Sapindaceae , China , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Homeostase , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Sapindaceae/genética , Estresse Fisiológico
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(4)2021 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33669361

RESUMO

RNA modifications are diverse post-transcriptional modifications that regulate RNA metabolism and gene expression. RNA modifications, and the writers, erasers, and readers that catalyze these modifications, serve as important signaling machineries in cellular stress responses and disease pathogenesis. In response to stress, RNA modifications are mobilized to activate or inhibit the signaling pathways that combat stresses, including oxidative stress, hypoxia, therapeutic stress, metabolic stress, heat shock, DNA damage, and ER stress. The role of RNA modifications in response to these cellular stressors is context- and cell-type-dependent. Due to their pervasive roles in cell biology, RNA modifications have been implicated in the pathogenesis of different diseases, including cancer, neurologic and developmental disorders and diseases, and metabolic diseases. In this review, we aim to summarize the roles of RNA modifications in molecular and cellular stress responses and diseases.


Assuntos
Dano ao DNA , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Hipóxia/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Processamento Pós-Transcricional do RNA , RNA/genética , RNA/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico , Animais , Humanos , Doenças Metabólicas/genética , Doenças Metabólicas/metabolismo , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/genética , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/metabolismo
20.
Poult Sci ; 100(3): 100964, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33652533

RESUMO

The effects of early heat conditioning on the acute heat stress response in broilers were investigated via the growth performance, dopamine, serotonin, and corticosterone and the expression of heat shock proteins (HSP) and heat shock factors. One-day-old chicks (n = 144) were divided into 3 groups in a 35-d experiment (48 chicks per each group). Group 1 (C) was treated with an optimum temperature, group 2 (CH) was treated with 40°C ± 1°C on day 35 (5 h), and group 3 (HH) was treated with 40°C ± 1°C on day 5 (24 h) and day 35 (5 h). On day 7, the body weight gain was lower (P < 0.05) in HH than in C and CH. On day 35, the heat-treated groups (CH and HH) had lower weight gains than the C group (P < 0.05), whereas the feed conversion ratio was lower in HH (P < 0.05). Serum corticosterone was higher in CH than in C, but HH and C did not differ (P < 0.05). Liver HSP70 protein expression was higher in CH than HH and C (P < 0.05), which did not differ, and HSP40 protein expression was higher in CH than C (P < 0.05). These results suggest that early heat conditioning may reduce acute heat stress on broiler.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Crescimento , Proteínas de Choque Térmico , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Animais , Galinhas/sangue , Galinhas/genética , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Crescimento/fisiologia , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP70/genética , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/genética , Resposta ao Choque Térmico/genética , Temperatura Alta , Ganho de Peso/fisiologia
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