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1.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 88(2): 298-304, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31996655

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Partial resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (pREBOA) and intermittent REBOA (iREBOA) are techniques to extend the therapeutic duration of REBOA by balloon titration for distal flow or cyclical balloon inflation/deflation to allow transient distal flow, respectively. We hypothesized that manually titrated pREBOA would reduce blood losses and ischemic burden when compared with iREBOA. METHODS: Following 20% blood volume controlled hemorrhage, 10 anesthetized pigs underwent uncontrolled hemorrhage from the right iliac artery and vein. Once in hemorrhagic shock, animals underwent 15 minutes of complete zone 1 REBOA followed by 75 minutes of either pREBOA or iREBOA (n = 5/group). After 90 minutes, definitive hemorrhage control was obtained, animals were resuscitated with the remaining collected blood, and then received 2 hours of critical care. RESULTS: There were no differences in mortality. Animals randomized to iREBOA spent a larger portion of the time at full occlusion when compared with pREBOA (median, 70 minutes; interquartile range [IQR], 70-80 vs. median, 20 minutes; IQR, 20-40, respectively; p = 0.008). While the average blood pressure during the intervention period was equivalent between groups, this was offset by large fluctuations in blood pressure and significantly more rescue occlusions for hypotension with iREBOA. Despite lower maximum aortic flow rates, the pREBOA group tolerated a greater total amount of distal aortic flow during the intervention period (median, 20.9 L; IQR, 20.1-23.0 vs. median, 9.8 L; IQR, 6.8-10.3; p = 0.03) with equivalent abdominal blood losses. Final plasma lactate and creatinine concentrations were equivalent, although iREBOA animals had increased duodenal edema on histology. CONCLUSION: Compared with iREBOA, pREBOA reduced the time spent at full occlusion and the number of precipitous drops in proximal mean arterial pressure while delivering more distal aortic flow but not increasing total blood loss in this highly lethal injury model. Neither technique demonstrated a survival benefit. Further refinement of these techniques is necessary before clinical guidelines are issued.


Assuntos
Oclusão com Balão/métodos , Procedimentos Endovasculares/métodos , Ressuscitação/métodos , Choque Hemorrágico/terapia , Ferimentos e Lesões/terapia , Animais , Aorta/cirurgia , Oclusão com Balão/efeitos adversos , Oclusão com Balão/instrumentação , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Procedimentos Endovasculares/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Endovasculares/instrumentação , Humanos , Masculino , Ressuscitação/efeitos adversos , Ressuscitação/instrumentação , Choque Hemorrágico/etiologia , Choque Hemorrágico/mortalidade , Análise de Sobrevida , Sus scrofa , Fatores de Tempo , Índices de Gravidade do Trauma , Resultado do Tratamento , Ferimentos e Lesões/complicações , Ferimentos e Lesões/diagnóstico
2.
Am J Surg ; 219(1): 140-144, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31076074

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA) is an adjunct used to temporize uncontrolled abdominopelvic hemorrhage. No published clinical data exist that describe average catheter lengths or balloon fill volumes necessary to occlude the aorta. METHODS: A prospective, single-institution registry was queried for patients who underwent placement of a Prytime ER-REBOA™ catheter. Demographic, catheter, hemodynamic, and morphometric data were measured. Linear regression analyses were performed to identify variables associated with insertion distances and balloon volumes. RESULTS: 45 patients underwent supraceliac REBOA: median catheter insertion distance 45 cm [IQR 42-46], balloon inflation volume 14 mL [IQR 8-19], systolic blood pressure (SBP) augmentation 50 mmHg [IQR 35-55]. 14 patients underwent infrarenal deployment: median catheter insertion distance 28.5 cm [IQR 26.5-32.5], balloon volume 10 mL [IQR 5-15]; SBP augmentation 55 mmHg [IQR 40-65]. Patient body metrics were not associated with catheter length or balloon volume. CONCLUSION: A wide range of catheter insertion distances and balloon fill volumes were necessary for correct REBOA positioning and occlusion. No single patient metric accurately correlated with catheter distance or balloon volume. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level IV, Prognostic.


Assuntos
Aorta Abdominal , Oclusão com Balão , Cateteres , Hemorragia/terapia , Ressuscitação/instrumentação , Ressuscitação/métodos , Abdome , Adulto , Cateterismo/métodos , Desenho de Equipamento , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pelve , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
3.
Pediatr Emerg Care ; 36(1): 39-42, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31851078

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The EZ-IO intraosseous (IO) needle is available in 2 needle sizes for children based on the patient weight. To date, there is no published evidence validating the use of weight-based scaling in children. We hypothesized that pretibial subcutaneous tissue thickness (PSTT) does not correspond with patient weight but rather with age and body mass index (BMI). Our objective was to describe the relationship of a patient's PSTT to their weight, age, and BMI in children less than 40 kg. METHOD: One hundred patients who weighed less than 40 kg were recruited prospectively from October 2013 to April 2015 at a tertiary care pediatric emergency department. All sonographic assessments were performed by 1 of 2 emergency physicians certified in point-of-care ultrasound. A single sonographic image was taken over the proximal tibia corresponding to the site of IO insertion. In patients where both sonographers performed independent measurements, a Pearson correlation coefficient was determined. Univariate linear regression was performed to determine the relationship between age, weight, and BMI with PSTT. RESULTS: One hundred participants were recruited and ranged in age from 10 days to 14 years (mean [SD], 5.01 [3.14] years). Fifty-seven percent of participants were male. Patients' weights ranged from 3.5 to 39.3 kg (mean [SD], 21.42 [9.12] kg), and BMI ranged from 12.1 to 45.0 kg/m (mean [SD], 17.31 [4.00]). The mean (SD) PSTT across participants was 0.68 (0.2) cm. The intraclass correlation coefficient for agreement between the 2 sonographers was moderate (intraclass correlation coefficient, 0.602 [confidence interval, 0.385-0.757]). There were significant positive correlations between BMI and PSTT (r = 0.562, P = <0.001) as well as weight and PSTT (r = 0.293, P < 0.003). There was a weak correlation between age and PSTT (0.065, P = 0.521). CONCLUSIONS: Pretibial subcutaneous tissue thickness correlates most strongly with BMI, followed by weight, and weakly with age. Our findings suggest that current IO needle length recommendations should be based on BMI rather than weight. This would suggest that clinicians need to be aware that young patients in particular with large BMIs may pose problems with current weight-based needle length recommendations.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Infusões Intraósseas/instrumentação , Agulhas , Ressuscitação/instrumentação , Tela Subcutânea/anatomia & histologia , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Desenho de Equipamento , Feminino , Hidratação/instrumentação , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Tíbia
5.
Emerg Med J ; 36(9): 520-528, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31320332

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intubation is an essential, life-saving skill but associated with a high risk for adverse outcomes. Intubation protocols have been implemented to increase success and reduce complications, but the impact of protocol conformance is not known. Our study aimed to determine association between conformance with an intubation process model and outcomes. METHODS: An interdisciplinary expert panel developed a process model of tasks and sequencing deemed necessary for successful intubation. The model was then retrospectively used to review videos of intubations from 1 February, 2014, to 31 January, 2016, in a paediatric emergency department at a time when no process model or protocol was in existence. RESULTS: We evaluated 113 patients, 77 (68%) were successfully intubated on first attempt. Model conformance was associated with a higher likelihood of first attempt success when using direct laryngoscopy (OR 1.09, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.18). The use of video laryngoscopy was associated with an overall higher likelihood of success on first attempt (OR 2.54, 95% CI 1.10 to 5.88). Thirty-seven patients (33%) experienced adverse events. Model conformance was the only factor associated with a lower odds of adverse events (OR 0.94, 95% CI 0.88 to 0.99). CONCLUSIONS: Conformance with a task-based expert-derived process model for emergency intubation was associated with a higher rate of success on first intubation attempt when using direct laryngoscopy and a lower odds of associated adverse events. Further evaluation of the impact of human factors, such as teamwork and decision-making, on intubation process conformance and success and outcomes is needed.


Assuntos
Protocolos Clínicos/normas , Estado Terminal/terapia , Intubação Intratraqueal/normas , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Ressuscitação/normas , Adolescente , Bradicardia/epidemiologia , Bradicardia/etiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/normas , Feminino , Humanos , Hipóxia/epidemiologia , Hipóxia/etiologia , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Intubação Intratraqueal/efeitos adversos , Intubação Intratraqueal/instrumentação , Laringoscópios/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Ressuscitação/efeitos adversos , Ressuscitação/instrumentação , Estudos Retrospectivos , Gravação em Vídeo , Adulto Jovem
6.
Trials ; 20(1): 444, 2019 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31324213

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intrapartum-related death is the third leading cause of under-5 mortality. Effective ventilation during neonatal resuscitation has the potential to reduce 40% of these deaths. Face-mask ventilation performed by midwives is globally the most common method of resuscitating neonates. It requires considerable operator skills and continuous training because of its complexity. The i-gel® is a cuffless supraglottic airway which is easy to insert and provides an efficient seal that prevents air leakage; it has the potential to enhance performance in neonatal resuscitation. A pilot study in Uganda demonstrated that midwives could safely resuscitate newborns with the i-gel® after a short training session. The aim of the present trial is to investigate whether the use of a cuffless supraglottic airway device compared with face-mask ventilation during neonatal resuscitation can reduce mortality and morbidity in asphyxiated neonates. METHODS: A randomized phase III open-label superiority controlled clinical trial will be conducted at Mulago Hospital, Kampala, Uganda, in asphyxiated neonates in the delivery units. Prior to the intervention, health staff performing resuscitation will receive training in accordance with the Helping Babies Breathe curriculum with a special module for training on supraglottic airway insertion. A total of 1150 to 1240 babies (depending on cluster size) that need positive pressure ventilation and that have an expected gestational age of more than 34 weeks and an expected birth weight of more than 2000 g will be ventilated by daily unmasked randomization with a supraglottic airway device (i-gel®) (intervention group) or with a face mask (control group). The primary outcome will be a composite outcome of 7-day mortality and admission to neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) with neonatal encephalopathy. DISCUSSION: Although indications for the beneficial effect of a supraglottic airway device in the context of neonatal resuscitation exist, so far no large studies powered to assess mortality and morbidity have been carried out. We hypothesize that effective ventilation will be easier to achieve with a supraglottic airway device than with a face mask, decreasing early neonatal mortality and brain injury from neonatal encephalopathy. The findings of this trial will be important for low and middle-resource settings where the majority of intrapartum-related events occur. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov. Identifier: NCT03133572 . Registered April 28, 2017.


Assuntos
Asfixia Neonatal/terapia , Países em Desenvolvimento , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Intubação Intratraqueal/instrumentação , Máscaras Laríngeas , Respiração Artificial/instrumentação , Ressuscitação/instrumentação , Asfixia Neonatal/diagnóstico , Asfixia Neonatal/mortalidade , Ensaios Clínicos Fase III como Assunto , Países em Desenvolvimento/economia , Desenho de Equipamento , Estudos de Equivalência como Asunto , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/economia , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Lactente , Mortalidade Infantil , Recém-Nascido , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal , Intubação Intratraqueal/efeitos adversos , Intubação Intratraqueal/mortalidade , Respiração Artificial/efeitos adversos , Respiração Artificial/mortalidade , Ressuscitação/efeitos adversos , Ressuscitação/mortalidade , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Uganda
7.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 55(6)2019 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31146497

RESUMO

Background and objectives: To compare the first pass success (FPS) rate of the C-MAC video laryngoscope (C-MAC) and conventional Macintosh-type direct laryngoscopy (DL) during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in the emergency department (ED). Materials and Methods: This study was a single-center, retrospective study conducted from April 2014 to July 2018. Patients were categorized into either the C-MAC or DL group, according to the device used on the first endotracheal intubation (ETI) attempt. The primary outcome was the FPS rate. A multiple logistic regression model was developed to identify factors related to the FPS. Results: A total of 573 ETIs were performed. Of the eligible cases, 263 and 310 patients were assigned to the C-MAC and DL group, respectively. The overall FPS rate was 75% (n = 431/573). The FPS rate was higher in the C-MAC group than in the DL group, but there was no statistically significant difference (total n = 431, 79% compared to 72%, p = 0.075). In the multiple logistic regression analysis, the C-MAC use had higher FPS rate (adjusted odds ratio: 1.80; 95% CI, 1.17-2.77; p = 0.007) than that of the DL use. Conclusions: The C-MAC use on the first ETI attempt during cardiopulmonary resuscitation in the emergency department had a higher FPS rate than that of the DL use.


Assuntos
Intubação Intratraqueal/instrumentação , Laringoscópios/normas , Ressuscitação/instrumentação , Idoso , Manuseio das Vias Aéreas , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/organização & administração , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Intubação Intratraqueal/métodos , Laringoscópios/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , /estatística & dados numéricos , Ressuscitação/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos
8.
J Perinat Med ; 47(6): 665-670, 2019 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31103996

RESUMO

Background Airway obstruction can occur during facemask (FM) resuscitation of preterm infants at birth. Intubation bypasses any upper airway obstruction. Thus, it would be expected that the occurrence of low expiratory tidal volumes (VTes) would be less in infants resuscitated via an endotracheal tube (ETT) rather than via an FM. Our aim was to test this hypothesis. Methods Analysis was undertaken of respiratory function monitoring traces made during initial resuscitation in the delivery suite to determine the peak inflating pressure (PIP), positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP), the VTe and maximum exhaled carbon dioxide (ETCO2) levels and the number of inflations with a low VTe (less than 2.2 mL/kg). Results Eighteen infants were resuscitated via an ETT and 11 via an FM, all born at less than 29 weeks of gestation. Similar inflation pressures were used in both groups (17.2 vs. 18.8 cmH2O, P = 0.67). The proportion of infants with a low median VTe (P = 0.6) and the proportion of inflations with a low VTe were similar in the groups (P = 0.10), as was the lung compliance (P = 0.67). Infants with the lowest VTe had the stiffest lungs (P < 0.001). Conclusion Respiratory function monitoring during initial resuscitation can objectively identify infants who may require escalation of inflation pressures.


Assuntos
Obstrução das Vias Respiratórias/diagnóstico , Lactente Extremamente Prematuro/fisiologia , Monitorização Fisiológica/métodos , Ressuscitação , Volume de Ventilação Pulmonar , Obstrução das Vias Respiratórias/etiologia , Obstrução das Vias Respiratórias/terapia , Testes Respiratórios/métodos , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Intubação Intratraqueal/instrumentação , Intubação Intratraqueal/métodos , Londres , Masculino , Respiração com Pressão Positiva/métodos , Gravidez , Testes de Função Respiratória/métodos , Ressuscitação/efeitos adversos , Ressuscitação/instrumentação , Ressuscitação/métodos , Ressuscitação/normas , Estudos Retrospectivos
9.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 87(3): 571-581, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31136525

RESUMO

The Gurd Family surgical legacy was deeply intertwined with National service in both World Wars. My own personal research mission has attempted to emulate such service, by enhancing the tools and techniques available to facilitate point-of-care diagnosis and resuscitation in extreme and adverse environments. Our efforts involving point-of-care diagnosis/resuscitation and the telementored guidance of those remotely responding to catastrophic injury have included collaborations with National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) the Canadian Space Agency, the Canadian Forces, its democratic allies, and non-governmental surgical organizations. Research has been conducted in resuscitative suites and operating theaters, research laboratories, parabolic flight aircraft, on humanitarian surgical missions, and from ski-hills and firehalls. The initial phases of these efforts involved inaugural studies in resuscitative sonography including defining the Extended Focused Assessment with Sonography for Trauma (EFAST) examination. Although the original work was commissioned for Space Medicine, generalization to mainstream practice further justifies space medicine research. Iterative steps in advancing telementored resuscitation have subsequently involved the maturation of space-mandated telementored ultrasound support (TMUS), exploration of TMUS in terrestrial clinical practice, and the creation of increasingly mobile (hand-held) TMUS solutions. Subsequently it was recognized that teleultrasound is simply one informatic dimension of remote telemedicine, and current efforts are focused in a Program known as TeleMentored Ultrasound Supported Medical Interactions (TMUSMI) of remote responders required to intervene with catastrophic trauma. While this research program has yielded many techniques and findings that have benefited mainstream terrestrial practice, these investigations are currently ongoing, and we hope to demonstrate that TMUSMI may benefit all Canadians especially those in remote areas, as well as potentially every global inhabitant without immediate access to care. Further, we propose that to fully utilize these techniques, a new specialty, that of the remote medical mentor will be required, a new specialty that will require the creation and scientific validation of its principles and techniques.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito , Ressuscitação/métodos , Ferimentos e Lesões/terapia , Medicina Aeroespacial , Pesquisa Biomédica/métodos , Humanos , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Minimamente Invasivos , Ressuscitação/instrumentação , Robótica , Telemedicina , Ultrassonografia , Estados Unidos , United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration , Ausência de Peso
11.
Can J Surg ; 62(2): 142-144, 2019 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30907995

RESUMO

Summary: Noncompressible hemorrhagic control remains one of the most challenging areas in damage control medicine and continues to be a leading cause of preventable death. For decades, emergency thoracotomy or laparotomy and aortic cross clamping have remained the gold standard intervention. Recently, there has been a movement toward less invasive techniques for noncompressible hemorrhagic control, such as resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA). The REBOA technique involves inflation of an endovascular balloon within the abdominal aorta proximal to the vascular injury to temporarily inhibit bleeding. Although the literature is robust on this new technique, skepticism remains about whether REBOA is superior to aortic cross clamping, as it has been associated with complications including organ and limb ischemia, limb amputation, femoral aneurysm, and thrombosis.


Assuntos
Oclusão com Balão/métodos , Procedimentos Endovasculares/métodos , Hemorragia/terapia , Ressuscitação/métodos , Acidentes por Quedas , Aorta/cirurgia , Oclusão com Balão/instrumentação , Procedimentos Endovasculares/instrumentação , Hemorragia/etiologia , Humanos , Hipotensão/etiologia , Hipotensão/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Traumatismo Múltiplo/complicações , Traumatismo Múltiplo/terapia , Ressuscitação/instrumentação , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Emerg Med J ; 36(1): 33-38, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30446504

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVES: Near-infrared spectroscopy is a modality that can monitor tissue oxygenation index (TOI) and has potential to evaluate return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). This study's objectives were to evaluate whether TOI could be associated with ROSC and used to help guide the decision to either terminate CPR or proceed to extracorporeal CPR (ECPR). METHODS: In this observational study, we assessed the patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest with non-traumatic cause receiving CPR on arrival at our ED between 2013 and 2016. TOI monitoring was discontinued either on CPR termination after ROSC was reached or on patient death. Patients were classified into two groups: ROSC and non-ROSC group. RESULTS: Out of 141 patients, 24 were excluded and the remaining 117 were classified as follows: ROSC group (n=44) and non-ROSC group (n=73). ROSC group was significantly younger and more likely to have their event witnessed and bystander CPR. ROSC group showed a higher initial TOI than non-ROSC group (60.5%±17.0% vs 37.9%±13.7%: p<0.01). Area under the curve analysis was more accurate with the initial TOI than without it for predicting ROSC (0.88, 95% CI 0.82 to 0.95 vs 0.79, 95% CI 0.70 to 0.87: p<0.01). TOI cut-off value ≥59% appeared to favour survival to hospital discharge whereas TOI ≤24% was associated with non-ROSC. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated an association between higher initial TOI and ROSC. Initial TOI could increase the accuracy of ROSC prognosis and may be a clinical factor in the decision to terminate CPR and select patients who are to proceed to ECPR.


Assuntos
Cérebro/irrigação sanguínea , Monitorização Fisiológica/métodos , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/fisiopatologia , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho/instrumentação , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Cérebro/fisiopatologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monitorização Fisiológica/instrumentação , Ressuscitação/instrumentação , Ressuscitação/métodos , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho/métodos , Fatores de Tempo
13.
Mil Med ; 184(3-4): e285-e289, 2019 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30085219

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Non-compressible torso hemorrhage accounts for 70% of battlefield deaths. Resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA) is an emerging technology used to mitigate massive truncal hemorrhage. Use of REBOA on the battlefield is limited by the need for radiographic guided balloon placement. Radiofrequency identification (RFID) is a simple, portable, real-time technology utilized to detect retained sponges during surgery. We investigated the feasibility of RFID to confirm the placement of ER-REBOA. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a single-arm prospective proof-of-concept experimental study approved by the institutional review board at Naval Medical Center San Diego. The ER-REBOA (Prytime Medical Devices, Inc, Boerne, TX, USA) was modified by placement of a RFID tag. The tagged ER-REBOA was placed in zone I or zone III of the aorta in a previously perfused cadaver. Exact location was documented with X-ray. Five blinded individuals used the RF Assure Detection System (Medtronic, Minneapolis, MN, USA) handheld detection wand to predict catheter tip location from the xiphoid process (zone I) or pubic tubercle (zone III). RESULTS: In zone I, actual distance (Da) of the catheter tip was 11 cm from the xiphoid process. Mean predicted distance (Dp) from Da was 1.52 cm (95% CI 1.19-1.85). In zone III, Da was 14 cm from the pubic tubercle. Mean Dp from Da was 4.11 cm (95% CI 3.68-4.54). Sensitivity of detection was 100% in both zones. Specificity (Defined as Dp within 2 cm of Da) was 86% in zone I and 16% in zone III. CONCLUSIONS: Using RFID to confirm the placement of ER-REBOA is feasible with specificity highest in zone I. Future work should focus on refining this technology for the forward-deployed setting.


Assuntos
Oclusão com Balão/normas , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/terapia , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Aorta/diagnóstico por imagem , Aorta/fisiopatologia , Oclusão com Balão/instrumentação , Oclusão com Balão/métodos , Cadáver , Feminino , Fluoroscopia/métodos , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Dispositivo de Identificação por Radiofrequência/métodos , Ressuscitação/instrumentação , Ressuscitação/métodos
14.
J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med ; 32(8): 1359-1367, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29117819

RESUMO

Tracheal intubation (TI) is a commonly done procedure in neonatal intensive care unit and delivery room during resuscitation. The confirmation of endotracheal tube (ETT) position should be done quickly as tube malposition is associated with various serious adverse outcomes like hypoxemia, right upper lobe collapse, atelectasis, air leak syndromes and esophageal intubation. ETT position can be confirmed by various methods like clinical sign, chest radiography, capnography, external digital tracheal palpation, ultrasonography (USG), respiratory function monitor, video-laryngoscope and fiberoptic devices. The current gold standard test to confirm ETT position is a chest radiograph, but it has many fallacies thus presently there is the need for a modality that helps in detection of endotracheal intubation and tube position with minimal complications. USG has been used in adult and pediatric population for detecting ETT position but there are very less studies in neonates. In this review, we analyze all the published studies, case reports and personal experiences that have sought the use of USG in neonatal population for detection of ETT position.


Assuntos
Intubação Intratraqueal/métodos , Ultrassonografia/métodos , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Intubação Intratraqueal/efeitos adversos , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito , Ressuscitação/instrumentação
15.
Am J Surg ; 217(6): 1126-1129, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30579686

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A lower profile, FDA-approved device for aortic occlusion (AO) is available for REBOA. METHODS: Patients who received AO with the new device from February 2016 to February 2017 at 2 urban tertiary care centers were enrolled. RESULTS: 60 consecutive patients underwent REBOA; 44 (73.3%) following blunt trauma. 52 (88.1%) were male; mean age of 40 ±â€¯18 years. 49 REBOAs were deployed in Zone 1, 11 in Zone 3.67.7% of patients in arrest achieved return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). Overall in-hospital survival was 43%; 19% for patients in arrest and 69% for patients with refractory hypotension. Access and vascular procedural complications included iliac intimal injury requiring stent-graft (1), patch angioplasty of the CFA (1), and balloon ruptures (3). 5 amputations were required; 2 immediate completion amputations due to initial injury, and 3 delayed amputations after efforts to salvage severely mangled extremities were unsuccessful. CONCLUSION: Smaller introducer sheaths for REBOA are safe and effective but do not eliminate the need for surgical common femoral artery access. Patients can benefit from REBOA with acceptable survival rates.


Assuntos
Aorta , Oclusão com Balão/instrumentação , Procedimentos Endovasculares/instrumentação , Hemorragia/terapia , Ressuscitação/instrumentação , Ferimentos e Lesões/complicações , Adulto , Idoso , Oclusão com Balão/métodos , Procedimentos Endovasculares/métodos , Feminino , Hemorragia/etiologia , Hemorragia/mortalidade , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Ressuscitação/métodos , Método Simples-Cego , Resultado do Tratamento , Ferimentos e Lesões/mortalidade , Ferimentos e Lesões/terapia
16.
Can J Surg ; 61(6): S188-S194, 2018 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30417720

RESUMO

Background: Lower torso hemorrhage is a significant cause of death from injuries in combat. Resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA) has been used to rescue patients successfully in the hospital setting, but its prehospital use is controversial. We designed a device that would be easy to use, safer in injured vessels, migration-resistant and amenable to a prehospital environment. Methods: We designed a novel, balloon-led device using common commercial materials. Thin latex rubber was reassembled in cylindrical conformation aligned to the shape of the aorta and invaginated into vinyl tubing. The catheter is placed into the femoral vessel, followed by expression of the balloon with CO2 inflation in a proximal direction to navigate and treat damaged pelvic vasculature, occluding the distal aorta. The system was tested on model aortas (both intact and injured cadaveric porcine aorta) with inline fluid flow and pressure monitoring to determine the maximum pressure the balloons could occlude. The device was also tested on a perfused human cadaveric model. Results: Flow was occluded with the balloon up to an average of 561.1 ± 124.3 mm Hg. It always ruptured before causing damage to the porcine aorta and was able to occlude injured iliac vessels and proceed to occlude the distal aorta. The device was effective in occluding the distal aorta of a perfused human cadaver. Conclusion: This novel, high-volume, low-pressure device can occlude the distal aorta in a simulated human aorta model, cadaveric porcine model and perfused human cadaver. It can occlude fluid flow to supraphysiologic pressures. It is easy to use, migration-resistant, able to navigate and treat injured pelvic vessels, and amenable to prehospital care.


Assuntos
Oclusão com Balão/instrumentação , Hemorragia/terapia , Ressuscitação/instrumentação , Lesões Relacionadas à Guerra/terapia , Animais , Aorta/anatomia & histologia , Oclusão com Balão/métodos , Cadáver , Desenho de Equipamento , Artéria Femoral , Hemorragia/etiologia , Humanos , Modelos Anatômicos , Modelos Animais , Ressuscitação/métodos , Suínos , Lesões Relacionadas à Guerra/complicações
17.
World J Emerg Surg ; 13: 49, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30386415

RESUMO

Background: Although resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA) may be effective in trauma management, its effect in patients with severe multiple torso trauma remains unclear. Methods: We performed a retrospective study to evaluate trauma management with REBOA in hemodynamically unstable patients with severe multiple trauma. Of 5899 severe trauma patients admitted to our hospital between January 2011 and January 2018, we selected 107 patients with severe torso trauma (Injury Severity Score > 16) who displayed persistent hypotension [≥ 2 systolic blood pressure (SBP) values ≤ 90 mmHg] regardless of primary resuscitation. Patients were divided into two groups: trauma management with REBOA (n = 15) and without REBOA (n = 92). The primary endpoint was the effectiveness of trauma management with REBOA with respect to in-hospital mortality. Secondary endpoints included time from arrival to the start of hemostasis. Multivariable logistic regression analysis, adjusted for clinically important variables, was performed to evaluate clinical outcomes. Results: Trauma management with REBOA was significantly associated with decreased mortality (adjusted odds ratio of survival, 7.430; 95% confidence interval, 1.081-51.062; p = 0.041). The median time (interquartile range) from admission to initiation of hemostasis was not significantly different between the two groups [with REBOA 53.0 (40.0-80.3) min vs. without REBOA 57.0 (35.0-100.0) min ]. The time from arrival to the start of balloon occlusion was 55.7 ± 34.2 min. SBP before insertion of REBOA was 48.2 ± 10.5 mmHg. Total balloon occlusion time was 32.5 ± 18.2 min. Conclusions: The use of REBOA without a delay in initiating resuscitative hemostasis may improve the outcomes in patients with multiple severe torso trauma. However, optimal use may be essential for success.


Assuntos
Oclusão com Balão/métodos , Ressuscitação/métodos , Tronco/lesões , Adulto , Idoso , Aorta/lesões , Aorta/cirurgia , Oclusão com Balão/instrumentação , Oclusão com Balão/normas , Procedimentos Endovasculares/instrumentação , Procedimentos Endovasculares/métodos , Feminino , Hemodinâmica/fisiologia , Humanos , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ressuscitação/instrumentação , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos , Ferimentos e Lesões/cirurgia
18.
Paediatr Anaesth ; 28(9): 788-794, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30175433

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Positive-pressure ventilation in critically ill patients is commonly administered via a manual resuscitation device or a mechanical ventilator during transport. Our group previously compared delivered ventilation parameters between a self-inflating resuscitator and a flow-inflating resuscitator during simulated in-hospital pediatric transport. However, unequal group access to inline pressure manometry may have biased our results. In this study, we examined the performance of the self-inflating resuscitator and the flow-inflating resuscitator, both equipped with inline manometry, and several mechanical ventilators to deliver prescribed ventilation parameters during simulated pediatric transport. METHODS: Thirty anesthesia providers were randomized to initial resuscitator device used to hand ventilate a test lung. The resuscitators studied were a Jackson-Rees circuit (flow-inflating resuscitator) or a Laerdal pediatric silicone resuscitator (self-inflating resuscitator), both employing manometers. The scenario was repeated using several mechanical transport ventilators (Hamilton-T1, LTV® 1000, and LTV® 1200). The primary outcome was the proportion of total breaths delivered within the predefined target PIP/PEEP range (30 ± 3, 10 ± 3 cm H2 O). RESULTS: The Hamilton-T1 outperformed the other ventilators for breaths in the recommended range (χ2  = 2284, df = 2, P < .001) and with no breaths in the unacceptable range (χ2  = 2333, df = 2, P < .001). Hamilton-T1 also outperformed all human providers in proportion of delivered acceptable and unacceptable breaths (χ2  = 4540, df = 3, P < .001 and χ2  = 639, df = 3, P < .001, respectively). Compared with the flow-inflating resuscitator, the self-inflating resuscitator was associated with greater odds of breaths falling outside the recommended range (Odds ratio (95% CI): 1.81 (1.51-2.17)) or unacceptable (Odds ratio (95% CI): 1.63 (1.48-1.81)). CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that a majority of breaths delivered by manual resuscitation device fall outside of target range regardless of provider experience or device type. The mechanical ventilator (Hamilton-T1) outperforms the other positive-pressure ventilation methods with respect to delivery of important ventilation parameters. In contrast, 100% of breaths delivered by the LTV 1200 were deemed unacceptable.


Assuntos
Respiração Artificial/instrumentação , Ressuscitação/instrumentação , Transporte de Pacientes/métodos , Ventiladores Mecânicos , Simulação por Computador , Estudos Cross-Over , Desenho de Equipamento , Humanos , Pulmão/fisiologia , Manometria/instrumentação , Respiração com Pressão Positiva/instrumentação , Respiração , Ressuscitação/métodos
19.
Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med ; 26(1): 80, 2018 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30223859

RESUMO

The hybrid emergency room (hybrid ER) system was first established in 2011 in Japan. It is defined as an integrated system including an ER, emergency computed tomography (CT) and interventional radiology (IVR) rooms, and operating rooms. Severe trauma patients can undergo emergency CT examinations and therapies (surgeries) without being transferred. The hybrid ER system is attracting attention because trauma resuscitation using this system has been reported to potentially improve the mortality rate in severe trauma patients. In August 2017, we established a new table-rotated-type hybrid ER to facilitate surgical functions. Herein, we introduce a new table-rotated-type hybrid ER consisting of an IVR-CT-operating room system and discuss its efficiency and feasibility for trauma resuscitation, including surgery and IVR. This system includes four new concepts: (1) to secure a wide working space during trauma resuscitation by reconsidering the arrangement of the C-arm, (2) ensure an air-conditioned operating room in the hybrid ER, (3) adopt an operating table but not interventional radiology table, and (4) prepare a trauma bay with three additional beds for multiple victims. This hybrid ER system also adopted the rotated-type table to secure a wide working space during the resuscitation phase. The C-arm was located away from the patients and placed on the wall opposite to the CT gantry, in contrast to that in previous systems. If patients needed an emergency IVR, the table was just rotated, and the IVR could be conducted immediately. This improvement can secure a wide working space in the hybrid ER. Moreover, the patient table was also a surgical operating table, and the hybrid ER system had an air-conditioned operating room (class 10,000). In the anticipation of many trauma patients being transported to the ER, a new trauma bay with three additional beds next to the hybrid ER was established, which also had an air-conditioned operating room. This new rotated-type hybrid ER system facilitates efficient surgical functions during trauma resuscitation and can secure a wide working space for the medical team to immediately perform resuscitative procedures and IVRs without delay.


Assuntos
Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/organização & administração , Salas Cirúrgicas/provisão & distribução , Mesas Cirúrgicas , Ressuscitação/instrumentação , Desenho de Equipamento , Humanos , Japão
20.
Pediatr Int ; 60(10): 954-956, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30074665

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In neonatal resuscitation, laryngeal mask airway (LMA) is recommended when both face mask ventilation and endotracheal intubation fail. Experience of LMA among obstetricians, nurses and midwives in Japan, however, is limited. The aims of the present study were to (i) offer an LMA training course to professionals dealing with low-risk pregnancies at institutions across Japan; and (ii) assess the subsequent use and value of LMA at the participating institutions. METHODS: Between August 2016 and March 2017, a total of 18 training courses for 60 min were provided for around 350 medical personnel from 51 institutes. LMA use over the subsequent 12 months was assessed via a postal questionnaire. RESULTS: After training, a total of 38 institutes introduced LMA. Of 13 254 live births, seven cases of rescue use LMA in "cannot ventilate, cannot intubate" situations were reported. None of these seven newborns had any malformation of the upper airway. LMA insertion resulted in adequate ventilation in all seven cases. CONCLUSION: LMA can be a life-saving tool in neonatal resuscitation. All medical institutions dealing with low-risk pregnancies in Japan should be equipped with this device.


Assuntos
Educação Médica Continuada , Educação Continuada em Enfermagem , Máscaras Laríngeas , Tocologia/educação , Assistência Perinatal/métodos , Ressuscitação/educação , Ressuscitação/métodos , Competência Clínica , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Japão , Máscaras Laríngeas/estatística & dados numéricos , Ressuscitação/instrumentação , Risco
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