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1.
Soins Gerontol ; 26(147): 40-44, 2021.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33549241

RESUMO

The use of physical, as well as chemical, restraints is subject to a medical prescription. It is a medical decision, most often fortunately made as a team. Responsibilities are involved when it is implemented. It is necessary to know them, as well as it is essential to know the alternatives. A study of the caring perception of restraint of hospitalized patients with neurocognitive disorders and excessive ambulation has been carried out. Thus, an ethical approach would make it possible to adopt a fairer approach taking into account the notions of individual and collective freedom, safety and risk.


Assuntos
Liberdade , Restrição Física , Idoso , Humanos , Transtornos Neurocognitivos/terapia
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(50): e23108, 2020 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33327232

RESUMO

To explore the effect of Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) physical restraint standards in improving physical restraint in critical and emergency department patients.Enrolled 300 critical patients admitted in our hospital's emergency department from January to December 2019: 150 patients admitted January to June 2019 as control group and 150 patients admitted July to December 2019 as observation group. Routine restraints were applied in control group. Emergency department nurses in the observation group received thematic and practical JBI standardized training. This included pre-restraint assessment, principles of physical restraint, informed consent, using a restraint decision-making wheel, and alternatives to physical restraint. The incidence of restraint-associated adverse events (e.g., skin bruising, swelling) and restraint utilization rate were examined between 2 groups.The incidence of adverse events and the restraint utilization rate were significantly lower in the observation group (P < .05).The application of JBI physical restraint standards for emergency department patients can effectively reduce the incidence of adverse events and the restraint utilization rate.


Assuntos
Cuidados Críticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem no Hospital/ética , Restrição Física/efeitos adversos , Restrição Física/ética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Cuidados Críticos/tendências , Enfermagem de Cuidados Críticos/normas , Tomada de Decisões , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação em Enfermagem/métodos , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem no Hospital/educação , Estudos Prospectivos , Padrões de Referência
3.
Rev Med Suisse ; 16(708): 1790-1795, 2020 Sep 30.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32997448

RESUMO

Medical care of adults with disabilities, especially those with intellectual disabilities, can be ethically difficult. Several questions arise frequently. Can we administer a life-saving treatment that could impact negatively the patient's quality of life when the patient isn't able to give consent? During this Covid-19 period, can the use of chemical or physical restraints be considered as mistreatment, whereas the aim is to protect others? These are situations where the ethical question holds a central role. Although each clinical situation is unique, this article highlights, through four clinical cases, the ethical principles that should guide physicians in their decision-making process.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisão Clínica/ética , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Pessoas com Deficiência , Deficiência Intelectual , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Qualidade de Vida , Adulto , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido/ética , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Restrição Física/ética
4.
Med Care ; 58(10): 889-894, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925415

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients in inpatient psychiatry settings are uniquely vulnerable to harm. As sources of harm, research and policy efforts have specifically focused on minimizing and eliminating restraint and seclusion. The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid's Inpatient Psychiatric Facility Quality Reporting (IPFQR) program attempts to systematically measure and reduce restraint and seclusion. We evaluated facilities' response to the IPFQR program and differences by ownership, hypothesizing that facilities reporting these measures for the first time will show a greater reduction and that ownership will moderate this effect. METHODS: Using a difference-in-differences design and exploiting variation among facilities that previously reported on these measures to The Joint Commission, we examined the effect of the IPFQR public reporting program on the use and duration of restraint and seclusion from the end of 2012 through 2017. RESULTS: There were a total of 9705 observations of facilities among 1841 unique facilities. Results suggest the IPFQR program reduced duration of restraint by 48.96% [95% confidence interval (95% CI), 16.69%-68.73%] and seclusion by 53.54% (95% CI, 19.71%-73.12%). There was no change in odds of zero restraint and, among for-profits only, a decrease of 36.89% (95% CI, 9.32%-56.07%) in the odds of zero seclusion. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first examination of the effect of the IPFQR program on restraint and seclusion, suggesting the program was successful in reducing their use. We did not find support for ownership moderating this effect. Additional research is needed to understand mechanisms of response and the impact of the program on nontargeted aspects of quality.


Assuntos
Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, U.S./normas , Transtornos Mentais , Isolamento de Pacientes/estatística & dados numéricos , Unidade Hospitalar de Psiquiatria/estatística & dados numéricos , Restrição Física/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Pacientes Internados , Propriedade , Registros Públicos de Dados de Cuidados de Saúde , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32947851

RESUMO

This review assesses the effectiveness of interventions to reduce physical restraint (PR) use in older people living in nursing homes or residential care facilities. A systematic search of studies published in four electronic databases (MEDLINE, CINHAL, PsycINFO, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials). The review included individual and cluster randomized controlled trials that compared educational training and multicomponent programs to avoid PR use. Risk bias of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was assessed according to the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. This review includes 16 studies in a qualitative synthesis that met the inclusion criteria, nine of them offered a multicomponent program and seven offered only educational training. The results of the 12 studies included in the meta-analysis showed a significant trend in favor of intervention over time and intensity of PR use tends to decrease. The review indicates that educational programs and other supplementary interventions should be effective, but the heterogeneous operative definition of physical restraints can make difficult data generalization.


Assuntos
Casas de Saúde , Qualidade de Vida , Restrição Física , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Método Simples-Cego
6.
Tijdschr Gerontol Geriatr ; 51(1)2020 Mar 16.
Artigo em Holandês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32951392

RESUMO

Physical restraint is frequently used in healthcare institutions, usually in situations where the safety of the person (e.g. fall risk) or that of others (e.g. aggressive behaviour) is compromised, or where essential medical treatment is at stake. The implementation has a major impact with possible psychological consequences, physical injury and even fatal outcomes. In this retrospective study, fifteen deaths due to physical restraint are described. These have been investigated by the Forensic Medicine departments of UZ Leuven (1998 - 2018) and UZ Antwerpen (1999 - 2018). Death was caused by mechanical suffocation in all instances, mainly as a result of inadequate use of bedrails or belt restraint. These avoidable deaths are an urgent plea for a cautious and careful policy on physical restraint. Institutional guidelines and (further) training of health care personnel are of utmost importance. Central aspects are multidisciplinarity (deliberate decision-making), treatment (provoking factors), reticence (search for alternatives), proportionality (least intrusive method), due care (technical implementation), safety (increased supervision), temporality (re-evaluation of moment and duration), registration (accountability and liability) and communication (with all involved).


Assuntos
Asfixia/etiologia , Asfixia/mortalidade , Restrição Física , Acidentes por Quedas , Agressão , Humanos , Restrição Física/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos
7.
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol ; 319(4): H893-H905, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32886003

RESUMO

Heart rate variability (HRV) is a measure of variation in time interval between heartbeats and reflects the influence of autonomic nervous system and circulating/locally released factors on sinoatrial node discharge. Here, we tested whether electrocardiograms (ECGs) obtained in conscious, restrained mice, a condition that affects sympathovagal balance, reveal alterations of heart rhythm dynamics with aging. Moreover, based on emergence of sodium channels as modulators of pacemaker activity, we addressed consequences of altered sodium channels on heart rhythm. C57Bl/6 mice and mice with enhanced late sodium current due to Nav1.5 mutation at Ser571 (S571E) at ~4 to ~24 mo of age, were studied. HRV was assessed using time- and frequency-domain and nonlinear parameters. For C57Bl/6 and S571E mice, standard deviation of RR intervals (SDRR), total power of RR interval variation, and nonlinear standard deviation 2 (SD2) were maximal at ~4 mo and decreased at ~18 and ~24 mo, together with attenuation of indexes of sympathovagal balance. Modulation of sympathetic and/or parasympathetic divisions revealed attenuation of autonomic tone at ~24 mo. At ~4 mo, S571E mice presented lower heart rate and higher SDRR, total power, and SD2 with respect to C57Bl/6, properties reversed by late sodium current inhibition. At ~24 mo, heart rate decreased in C57Bl/6 but increased in S571E, a condition preserved after autonomic blockade. Collectively, our data indicate that aging is associated with reduced HRV. Moreover, sodium channel function conditions heart rate and its age-related adaptations, but does not interfere with HRV decline occurring with age.NEW & NOTEWORTHY We have investigated age-associated alterations of heart rate properties in mice using conscious electrocardiographic recordings. Our findings support the notion that aging is coupled with altered sympathovagal balance with consequences on heart rate variability. Moreover, by using a genetically engineered mouse line, we provide evidence that sodium channels modulate heart rate and its age-related adaptations.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Frequência Cardíaca , Coração/inervação , Periodicidade , Sistema Nervoso Simpático/fisiologia , Nervo Vago/fisiologia , Fatores Etários , Animais , Relógios Biológicos , Estado de Consciência , Eletrocardiografia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Mutantes , Mutação , Canal de Sódio Disparado por Voltagem NAV1.5/genética , Canal de Sódio Disparado por Voltagem NAV1.5/metabolismo , Restrição Física , Nó Sinoatrial/inervação , Nó Sinoatrial/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo
8.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 23(9): 1318-1323, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32913174

RESUMO

Background: Preparation for surgery has traditionally included the removal of body hair from the intended surgical wound site. The effect of this practice on postoperative wound infection is yet to be fully elucidated. Aims: This study sought to determine if preoperative chemical depilation reduces the risk of surgical site infection (SSI). Methodology: Two methods of preoperative hair removal: razor shaving and depilatory cream were compared. The eligible patients were randomized into two groups and the presence of postoperative wound infection was evaluated using the Southampton wound grading system. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 21 Chicago-Illinois, statistical significance was inferred at Pvalue ≤ 0.05. Results: In total 100 patients were analyzed with 20 patients excluded due to co-morbidities and noncompletion of the study. The overall prevalence of SSI was 18.0% (7 (14.0%) and 11 (22.0%) in the depilatory cream and razor shaving groups, respectively). The difference in the rate of SSI was not statistically significant (P = 0.436). Hair was completely removed in 47 (94.0%) compared to 38 (76.0%) patients in the razor shaving group (P = 0.012) while skin injuries were noted in 21 (42.0%) vs 1 (2.0%) patients who had razor shaving and chemical depilation(P = <0.0001), respectively. Conclusion: There was no significant difference in SSI rates in patients that had preoperative chemical depilation when compared with razor shaving.


Assuntos
Remoção de Cabelo/métodos , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/métodos , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle , Cicatrização/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Remoção de Cabelo/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Restrição Física , Lesões dos Tecidos Moles/complicações , Lesões dos Tecidos Moles/epidemiologia , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
Neuron ; 107(3): 580-589.e6, 2020 08 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32778224

RESUMO

To induce brain plasticity in humans, we casted the dominant upper extremity for 2 weeks and tracked changes in functional connectivity using daily 30-min scans of resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI). Casting caused cortical and cerebellar regions controlling the disused extremity to functionally disconnect from the rest of the somatomotor system, while internal connectivity within the disused sub-circuit was maintained. Functional disconnection was evident within 48 h, progressed throughout the cast period, and reversed after cast removal. During the cast period, large, spontaneous pulses of activity propagated through the disused somatomotor sub-circuit. The adult brain seems to rely on regular use to maintain its functional architecture. Disuse-driven spontaneous activity pulses may help preserve functionally disconnected sub-circuits.


Assuntos
Córtex Motor/diagnóstico por imagem , Plasticidade Neuronal/fisiologia , Restrição Física , Atividades Cotidianas , Moldes Cirúrgicos , Feminino , Lateralidade Funcional , Neuroimagem Funcional , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Córtex Motor/fisiologia , Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Vias Neurais/diagnóstico por imagem , Vias Neurais/fisiologia , Extremidade Superior
10.
Clin J Sport Med ; 30(4): 296-304, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32639439

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Sports participation is among the leading causes of catastrophic cervical spine injury (CSI) in the United States. Appropriate prehospital care for athletes with suspected CSIs should be available at all levels of sport. The goal of this project was to develop a set of best-practice recommendations appropriate for athletic trainers, emergency responders, sports medicine and emergency physicians, and others engaged in caring for athletes with suspected CSIs. METHODS: A consensus-driven approach (RAND/UCLA method) in combination with a systematic review of the available literature was used to identify key research questions and develop conclusions and recommendations on the prehospital care of the spine-injured athlete. A diverse panel of experts, including members of the National Athletic Trainers' Association, the National Collegiate Athletic Association, and the Sports Institute at UW Medicine participated in 4 Delphi rounds and a 2-day nominal group technique (NGT) meeting. The systematic review involved 2 independent reviewers and 4 rounds of blinded review. RESULTS: The Delphi process identified 8 key questions to be answered by the systematic review. The systematic review comprised 1544 studies, 49 of which were included in the final full-text review. Using the results of the systematic review as a shared evidence base, the NGT meeting created and refined conclusions and recommendations until consensus was achieved. CONCLUSIONS: These conclusions and recommendations represent a pragmatic approach, balancing expert experiences and the available scientific evidence.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas/terapia , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/métodos , Traumatismos da Coluna Vertebral/terapia , Traumatismos em Atletas/prevenção & controle , Técnica Delfos , Remoção de Dispositivo , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/normas , Socorristas/educação , Dispositivos de Proteção da Cabeça , Humanos , Equipamentos de Proteção , Restrição Física , Traumatismos da Coluna Vertebral/prevenção & controle , Transporte de Pacientes , Estados Unidos
11.
Life Sci ; 258: 118107, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32682919

RESUMO

Cognitive impairment has been widely recognized as a common symptom of chronic stress. Ginsenoside Rd (GRd), the major active compound in Panax ginseng, was previously reported in various neurological researches. However, little research is available regarding on the effect of GRd on cognitive improvement in mice subjected to chronic stress. In the present study, we investigated the neuroprotective effects of GRd in chronic restraint stress (CRS)-induced cognitive deficits and explored the potential mechanism in male C57BL/6J mice. Our results demonstrated that oral administration of GRd for 28 days markedly increased the spontaneous alternation in Y-maze and the relative discrimination index in novel object or location recognition tests following CRS. Additionally, GRd treatment considerably increased the antioxidant enzymes activities in the hippocampus. The expression levels of hippocampus and serum inflammation factors in the CRS groups were also counter-regulated by GRd treatment. Meanwhile, GRd treatment could reverse CRS-induced the decrease in phosphorylated phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), camp-reflecting element binding protein (CREB), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and tyrosine kinase B (TrkB) expression in the hippocampus. These findings provided evidences that GRd improves cognitive impairment in CRS mice by mitigating oxidative stress and inflammation, while upregulating the hippocampal BDNF-mediated CREB signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/metabolismo , Disfunção Cognitiva/tratamento farmacológico , Disfunção Cognitiva/metabolismo , Proteína de Ligação ao Elemento de Resposta ao AMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Ginsenosídeos/uso terapêutico , Restrição Física , Transdução de Sinais , Estresse Psicológico/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Doença Crônica , Disfunção Cognitiva/sangue , Disfunção Cognitiva/fisiopatologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ginsenosídeos/química , Ginsenosídeos/farmacologia , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipocampo/enzimologia , Hipocampo/patologia , Hipocampo/fisiopatologia , Inflamação/sangue , Masculino , Aprendizagem em Labirinto/efeitos dos fármacos , Memória de Curto Prazo/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Modelos Biológicos , Atividade Motora/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptor trkB/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Psicológico/sangue , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia
13.
Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol ; 319(1): R106-R113, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32493036

RESUMO

Electroacupuncture (EA) is widely used as an effective method to treat stress-related disorders. However, its mechanisms remain largely unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects and mechanisms of EA on gastric slow wave (GSW) dysrhythmia and c-Fos expression in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) induced by stress in a rodent model of functional dyspepsia (FD). Rats in the neonatal stage were treated using intragastric iodoacetamide. Eight weeks later, the rats were implanted with electrodes in the stomach for the measurement of GSW and electrodes into accupoints ST36 for EA. Autonomic functions were assessed by spectral analysis of heart rate variability. Rats were placed for 30 min in a cylindrical plastic tube for acute restraint stress. The involvement of a central afferent pathway was assessed by measuring c-Fos-immunoreactive cells in the NTS. 1) EA normalized restraint stress-induced impairment of GSW in FD rats. 2) EA significantly increased vagal activity (P = 0.002) and improved sympathovagal balance (P = 0.004) under stress in FD rats. 3) In FD rats under restraint stress, plasma norepinephrine concentration was increased substantially (P < 0.01), which was suppressed with EA. 4) The EA group showed increased c-Fos-positive cell counts in the NTS compared with the sham EA group (P < 0.05) in FD rats. Acute restraint stress induces gastric dysrhythmia in a rodent model of FD. EA at ST36 improves GSW under stress in FD rats mediated via the central and autonomic pathways, involving the NTS and vagal efferent pathway.


Assuntos
Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/fisiopatologia , Sistema Nervoso Central/fisiopatologia , Dispepsia/fisiopatologia , Dispepsia/terapia , Eletroacupuntura , Gastropatias/terapia , Estresse Psicológico/complicações , Vias Aferentes/fisiopatologia , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Esvaziamento Gástrico , Iodoacetamida , Masculino , Norepinefrina/sangue , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-fos/biossíntese , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Restrição Física , Núcleo Solitário/metabolismo , Gastropatias/induzido quimicamente , Nervo Vago/fisiopatologia
14.
Vet J ; 259-260: 105472, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32553235

RESUMO

D-dimer is a peptide found in serum and is derived from the degradation of blood clots. Even though it has been analysed in human saliva, D-dimer has not been previously evaluated in the saliva of any veterinary species, and its source and role remain unknown. The objectives of this research were firstly, to validate the use of an automated method for the measurement of D-dimer in porcine saliva, and secondly, to evaluate whether D-dimer concentration changes in pig saliva after an acute stress stimulus. For this purpose, a complete analytical validation of a commercially-available immunoturbidimetric assay was carried out. In addition, an experimental acute stress model was induced in 11 pigs based on a technique involving restraint by nose-snare immobilisation for 1 min. Saliva samples were subsequently collected at different times and D-dimer, salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) and cortisol were assessed in order to evaluate changes in its concentrations after the stress induction. The D-dimer automated assay showed adequate reproducibility and sensitivity, with coefficients of variation below 10% and a limit of quantification of 0.167 µg/mL fibrinogen equivalent units (FEU). It also showed a high accuracy, determined by linearity under dilution and recovery tests. In the stress model, a significant increase (P < 0.05) in salivary D-dimer 15 min after the stress stimulus and a positive correlation between D-dimer and sAA (r = 0.51; P < 0.001) were observed. These results indicate that D-dimer can be measured in porcine saliva with an automated method and suggest that its concentration can be influenced by stressful conditions.


Assuntos
Produtos de Degradação da Fibrina e do Fibrinogênio/metabolismo , Saliva/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico , Doenças dos Suínos/metabolismo , Animais , Bioensaio/veterinária , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Feminino , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Restrição Física/veterinária , Suínos
16.
J Clin Nurs ; 29(17-18): 3183-3200, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32558091

RESUMO

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To describe the characteristics of interventions for reducing physical restraints in general hospital settings. BACKGROUND: Physical restraints, such as bedrails and belts in beds and chairs, are commonly used in general hospital settings. However, there is no clear evidence on their effectiveness but some evidence on potential risks for harm. DESIGN: Scoping review. METHODS: We conducted a systematic database search (MEDLINE via PubMed, CINAHL, Cochrane Library; March 2020) and snowballing techniques. We included both interventional studies and quality improvement projects conducted in general hospital settings and published in English or German language. Two reviewers independently performed the study selection and data extraction. The Scoping Reviews (PRISMA-ScR) Checklist was used. RESULTS: We included 31 articles (published between 1989 and 2018), 15 quality improvement projects and 16 intervention studies. Only five studies used a controlled design. Most studies and quality improvement projects investigated multicomponent interventions including education (predominantly for nursing staff) and additional components (e.g. case conferences). Three studies examined simple educational programmes without additional components. CONCLUSIONS: A large number of multicomponent interventions for preventing and reducing physical restraints in general hospital settings have been developed. The interventions differed widely regarding the components, contents and settings. Well-designed evaluation studies investigating the effects of such interventions are lacking. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: Multicomponent educational interventions might be one approach to change clinical practice, but only insufficient information is available about potential effects of these approaches.


Assuntos
Hospitais Gerais/organização & administração , Restrição Física/métodos , Hospitalização , Humanos , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem no Hospital/educação , Melhoria de Qualidade , Restrição Física/efeitos adversos
17.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2221, 2020 05 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32376858

RESUMO

Dysregulated prefrontal control over amygdala is engaged in the pathogenesis of psychiatric diseases including depression and anxiety disorders. Here we show that, in a rodent anxiety model induced by chronic restraint stress (CRS), the dysregulation occurs in basolateral amygdala projection neurons receiving mono-directional inputs from dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC→BLA PNs) rather than those reciprocally connected with dmPFC (dmPFC↔BLA PNs). Specifically, CRS shifts the dmPFC-driven excitatory-inhibitory balance towards excitation in the former, but not latter population. Such specificity is preferential to connections made by dmPFC, caused by enhanced presynaptic glutamate release, and highly correlated with the increased anxiety-like behavior in stressed mice. Importantly, low-frequency optogenetic stimulation of dmPFC afferents in BLA normalizes the enhanced prefrontal glutamate release onto dmPFC→BLA PNs and lastingly attenuates CRS-induced increase of anxiety-like behavior. Our findings thus reveal a target cell-based dysregulation of mPFC-to-amygdala transmission for stress-induced anxiety.


Assuntos
Tonsila do Cerebelo/fisiologia , Ansiedade/fisiopatologia , Ácido Glutâmico/metabolismo , Vias Neurais/fisiologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia , Estresse Psicológico , Animais , Ansiedade/metabolismo , Complexo Nuclear Basolateral da Amígdala/fisiologia , Corticosterona/farmacologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Neurônios/metabolismo , Optogenética , Restrição Física
18.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13382, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32378301

RESUMO

This study was conducted to evaluate the Salvia officinalis hydroalcoholic extract on fertility capacity and behavioral features in rats exposed to immobilization stress. Male rats were randomly divided into five groups; Control; Stressed rats; and Stressed rats received 50, 100 and/or 200 mg/kg bw S. officinalis hydroalcoholic extract. To induce stress, rats were immobilized for 49 days and received S. officinalis extract orally. On day 56, we analyzed behavioral tests and evaluated reproduction capacity by measuring LH, FSH, and testosterone. Sperm parameters such as motility, viability, and total count were also determined. Bodyweight changes were also calculated on day 56. Male rats from different groups were mated with healthy female rats. Data showed that the use of 100 and 200 mg/kg bw S. officinalis extract in stressed rats increased bodyweight gain and improved behavioral disorders compared to control-matched groups (p < .05). Besides, administration of 100 and 200 mg/kg bw S. officinalis extract had the potential to improve sperm parameters and fertility capacity in stressed rats (p < .05). Decreased testosterone levels were blunted in the stressed rats that received plant extract coincided with the reduction of LH and FSH compared to control-matched stressed rats (p < .05). We found neutral effects in stressed rats that received 50 mg/kg bw plant extract. Collectively, the hydroalcoholic extract of S. officinalis could improve the fertility capacity and behavioral features under stressful conditions in a dose-dependent manner.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Etanol , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos , Restrição Física/efeitos adversos , Salvia officinalis/química , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia , Animais , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Fertilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Ratos Wistar , Estimulação Química
19.
Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi ; 155(3): 135-139, 2020.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32378629

RESUMO

Stress potentiates craving for addictive drugs including cocaine. To elucidate neural mechanisms underlying this effect of stress, we developed an experimental paradigm combining cocaine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) with a restraint stress. Acute restraint stress exposure immediately before posttest significantly increased cocaine CPP scores. It has been suggested that the extracellular noradrenaline (NA) level is increased by stress in the laterodorsal tegmental nucleus (LDT), which sends cholinergic projections to dopamine (DA) neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), which receives DA input from the VTA. Thus, we investigated the roles of NA in these brain regions. Intra-LDT injection of an α2 or a ß adrenoceptor antagonist attenuated the stress-induced enhancement of cocaine CPP. In vitro whole-cell recordings revealed that α2 adrenoceptor stimulation reduced GABAergic inputs to LDT cholinergic neurons that were obtained from cocaine-, but not saline-, treated rats. On the other hand, α1, but not α2 or ß, adrenoceptor stimulation excited mPFC pyramidal neurons. Intra-mPFC injection of an α1 adrenoceptor antagonist attenuated the stress-induced enhancement of cocaine CPP. Additionally, chemogenetic silencing of mPFC excitatory neurons also reduced the stress-induced enhancement of cocaine CPP. These findings suggest that stress-induced increases in neuronal activity of the LDT and mPFC may contribute to the enhancement of cocaine craving.


Assuntos
Neurônios Colinérgicos/patologia , Cocaína , Fissura , Estresse Psicológico , Animais , Condicionamento Psicológico , Norepinefrina/análise , Córtex Pré-Frontal , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Restrição Física , Tegmento Mesencefálico
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