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1.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1131: 131-161, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31646509

RESUMO

Calcium (Ca2+) is a fundamental regulator of cell fate and intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis is crucial for proper function of the nerve cells. Given the complexity of neurons, a constellation of mechanisms finely tunes the intracellular Ca2+ signaling. We are focusing on the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum (SR/ER) calcium (Ca2+)-ATPase (SERCA) pump, an integral ER protein. SERCA's well established role is to preserve low cytosolic Ca2+ levels ([Ca2+]cyt), by pumping free Ca2+ ions into the ER lumen, utilizing ATP hydrolysis. The SERCA pumps are encoded by three distinct genes, SERCA1-3, resulting in 12 known protein isoforms, with tissue-dependent expression patterns. Despite the well-established structure and function of the SERCA pumps, their role in the central nervous system is not clear yet. Interestingly, SERCA-mediated Ca2+ dyshomeostasis has been associated with neuropathological conditions, such as bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease. We summarize here current evidence suggesting a role for SERCA in the neurobiology of neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders, thus highlighting the importance of this pump in brain physiology and pathophysiology.


Assuntos
Encéfalo , Retículo Endoplasmático , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso , ATPases Transportadoras de Cálcio do Retículo Sarcoplasmático , Encéfalo/enzimologia , Encéfalo/patologia , Retículo Endoplasmático/enzimologia , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica , Homeostase , Humanos , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/enzimologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/fisiopatologia , ATPases Transportadoras de Cálcio do Retículo Sarcoplasmático/genética , ATPases Transportadoras de Cálcio do Retículo Sarcoplasmático/metabolismo
2.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1131: 243-270, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31646513

RESUMO

The inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) receptor (IP3R) is a Ca2+-release channel mainly located in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Three IP3R isoforms are responsible for the generation of intracellular Ca2+ signals that may spread across the entire cell or occur locally in so-called microdomains. Because of their ubiquitous expression, these channels are involved in the regulation of a plethora of cellular processes, including cell survival and cell death. To exert their proper function a fine regulation of their activity is of paramount importance. In this review, we will highlight the recent advances in the structural analysis of the IP3R and try to link these data with the newest information concerning IP3R activation and regulation. A special focus of this review will be directed towards the regulation of the IP3R by protein-protein interaction. Especially the protein family formed by calmodulin and related Ca2+-binding proteins and the pro- and anti-apoptotic/autophagic Bcl-2-family members will be highlighted. Finally, recently identified and novel IP3R regulatory proteins will be discussed. A number of these interactions are involved in cancer development, illustrating the potential importance of modulating IP3R-mediated Ca2+ signaling in cancer treatment.


Assuntos
Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Receptores de Inositol 1,4,5-Trifosfato , Sinalização do Cálcio , Sobrevivência Celular/genética , Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Humanos , Receptores de Inositol 1,4,5-Trifosfato/química , Receptores de Inositol 1,4,5-Trifosfato/genética , Receptores de Inositol 1,4,5-Trifosfato/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo
3.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1131: 337-370, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31646517

RESUMO

The sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum (SR/ER) is the main intracellular calcium (Ca2+) pool in muscle and non-muscle eukaryotic cells, respectively. The reticulum accumulates Ca2+ against its electrochemical gradient by the action of sarco/endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPases (SERCA pumps), and the capacity of this Ca2+ store is increased by the presence of Ca2+ binding proteins in the lumen of the reticulum. A diversity of physical and chemical signals, activate the main Ca2+ release channels, i.e. ryanodine receptors (RyRs) and inositol (1, 4, 5) trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs), to produce transient elevations of the cytoplasmic calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) while the reticulum is being depleted of Ca2+. This picture is incomplete because it implies that the elements involved in the Ca2+ release process are acting alone and independently of each other. However, it appears that the Ca2+ released by RyRs and IP3Rs is trapped in luminal Ca2+ binding proteins (Ca2+ lattice), which are associated with these release channels, and the activation of these channels appears to facilitate that the trapped Ca2+ ions become available for release. This situation makes the initial stage of the Ca2+ release process a highly efficient one; accordingly, there is a large increase in the [Ca2+]i with minimal reductions in the bulk of the free luminal SR/ER [Ca2+] ([Ca2+]SR/ER). Additionally, it has been shown that active SERCA pumps are required for attaining this highly efficient Ca2+ release process. All these data indicate that Ca2+ release by the SR/ER is a highly regulated event and not just Ca2+ coming down its electrochemical gradient via the open release channels. One obvious advantage of this sophisticated Ca2+ release process is to avoid depletion of the ER Ca2+ store and accordingly, to prevent the activation of ER stress during each Ca2+ release event.


Assuntos
Cálcio , Retículo Endoplasmático , Retículo Sarcoplasmático , Animais , Cálcio/metabolismo , Sinalização do Cálcio , Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Humanos , Receptores de Inositol 1,4,5-Trifosfato/metabolismo , Canal de Liberação de Cálcio do Receptor de Rianodina/metabolismo , Retículo Sarcoplasmático/metabolismo , ATPases Transportadoras de Cálcio do Retículo Sarcoplasmático/metabolismo
4.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1131: 371-394, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31646518

RESUMO

Ca2+ signals are probably the most common intracellular signaling cellular events, controlling an extensive range of responses in virtually all cells. Many cellular stimuli, often acting at cell surface receptors, evoke Ca2+ signals by mobilizing Ca2+ from intracellular stores. Inositol trisphosphate (IP3) was the first messenger shown to link events at the plasma membrane to release Ca2+ from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), through the activation of IP3-gated Ca2+ release channels (IP3 receptors). Subsequently, two additional Ca2+ mobilizing messengers were discovered, cADPR and NAADP. Both are metabolites of pyridine nucleotides, and may be produced by the same class of enzymes, ADP-ribosyl cyclases, such as CD38. Whilst cADPR mobilizes Ca2+ from the ER by activation of ryanodine receptors (RyRs), NAADP releases Ca2+ from acidic stores by a mechanism involving the activation of two pore channels (TPCs). In addition, other pyridine nucleotides have emerged as intracellular messengers. ADP-ribose and 2'-deoxy-ADPR both activate TRPM2 channels which are expressed at the plasma membrane and in lysosomes.


Assuntos
Cálcio , ADP-Ribose Cíclica , Piridinas , Animais , Cálcio/metabolismo , Sinalização do Cálcio , Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Humanos , Espaço Intracelular/metabolismo , NADP/metabolismo , Piridinas/química , Piridinas/metabolismo , Canal de Liberação de Cálcio do Receptor de Rianodina/metabolismo
5.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1131: 547-604, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31646526

RESUMO

Ca2+ release activated Ca2+ (CRAC) channels represent a primary pathway for Ca2+ to enter non-excitable cells. The two key players in this process are the stromal interaction molecule (STIM), a Ca2+ sensor embedded in the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum, and Orai, a highly Ca2+ selective ion channel located in the plasma membrane. Upon depletion of the internal Ca2+ stores, STIM is activated, oligomerizes, couples to and activates Orai. This review provides an overview of novel findings about the CRAC channel activation mechanisms, structure and gating. In addition, it highlights, among diverse STIM and Orai mutants, also the disease-related mutants and their implications.


Assuntos
Canais de Cálcio Ativados pela Liberação de Cálcio , Membrana Celular , Animais , Cálcio/metabolismo , Canais de Cálcio Ativados pela Liberação de Cálcio/sangue , Canais de Cálcio Ativados pela Liberação de Cálcio/genética , Canais de Cálcio Ativados pela Liberação de Cálcio/metabolismo , Sinalização do Cálcio/fisiologia , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Humanos , Mutação , Molécula 1 de Interação Estromal/genética , Molécula 1 de Interação Estromal/metabolismo
6.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1131: 719-746, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31646532

RESUMO

It is generally accepted that interorganellar contacts are central to the control of cellular physiology. Virtually, any intracellular organelle can come into proximity with each other and, by establishing physical protein-mediated contacts within a selected fraction of the membrane surface, novel specific functions are acquired. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) contacts with mitochondria are among the best studied and have a major role in Ca2+ and lipid transfer, signaling, and membrane dynamics.Their functional (and structural) diversity, their dynamic nature as well as the growing number of new players involved in the tethering concurred to make their monitoring difficult especially in living cells. This review focuses on the most established examples of tethers/modulators of the ER-mitochondria interface and on the roles of these contacts in health and disease by specifically dissecting how Ca2+ transfer occurs and how mishandling eventually leads to disease. Additional functions of the ER-mitochondria interface and an overview of the currently available methods to measure/quantify the ER-mitochondria interface will also be discussed.


Assuntos
Cálcio , Retículo Endoplasmático , Mitocôndrias , Doenças Neurodegenerativas , Cálcio/metabolismo , Sinalização do Cálcio , Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Humanos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/fisiopatologia , Transdução de Sinais
7.
Exp Suppl ; 111: 299-315, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31588537

RESUMO

Neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus (DI) is most often caused by trauma, including operations, and infiltrating processes in the hypothalamic-pituitary region. Irradiation, ischemia, infections, or autoimmunity can also underlie the disease. Since the middle of the nineteenth century, familial forms of neurohypophyseal DI have been described. Most commonly, the disease is transmitted in an autosomal dominant fashion; very rarely, autosomal recessive inheritance has been observed. Hereditary neurohypophyseal DI is caused by mutations in the gene encoding the antidiuretic hormone vasopressin (AVP) and its carrier protein neurophysin II (NPII). Symptoms result from the lack of hormone, or from the inability of mutant AVP to activate its renal receptor, and respond to treatment with desmopressin (DDAVP). Dominant mutations cause retention of the hormone precursor in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of vasopressinergic neurons in the hypothalamus, resulting in cellular dysfunction and eventually neuronal death. This so-called neurotoxicity hypothesis was initially established on the basis of autopsy studies in affected humans and has been supported by heterologous cell culture expression experiments and murine knock-in models. Current data show that retained mutants fail to be eliminated by the cell's quality control system and accumulate in fibrillar aggregations within the ER. Autosomal dominant neurohypophyseal DI may thus be viewed as a neurodegenerative disease confined to vasopressinergic neurons.


Assuntos
Diabetes Insípido Neurogênico/genética , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/genética , Animais , Retículo Endoplasmático/patologia , Humanos , Camundongos , Mutação
8.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(41): 11428-11435, 2019 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31589037

RESUMO

Diosgenin and diosgenyl saponins as the major bioactive compounds isolated from dietary fenugreek seeds, yam roots, etc. possessed strong antitumor effects. To understand their detailed antitumor mechanisms, a fluorophore-appended derivative of diosgenin [Glc/CNHphth-diosgenin (GND)] was synthesized, starting from diosgenin and glucosamine hydrochloride in overall yields of 7-12% over 7-10 steps. Co-localization of GND with organelle-specific stains, transmission electron microscopy, and relative protein analyses demonstrated that GND crossed the plasma membrane through organic anion-transporting polypeptide 1B1 and distributed in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), lysosome, and mitochondria. In this process, GND induced ER swelling, mitochondrial damage, and autophagosome and upregulating IRE-1α to induce autophagy and apoptosis. Furthermore, autophagy inhibitor chloroquine delayed the appearance of cleaved poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase and inhibited cleaved caspase 8, which indicated that GND induced autophagy to activate caspase-8-dependent apoptosis. These observations suggested that diosgenyl saponin was a potent anticancer agent that elicited ER stress and mitochondria-mediated apoptotic pathways in liver cancer.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/fisiopatologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Saponinas/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Retículo Endoplasmático/efeitos dos fármacos , Retículo Endoplasmático/genética , Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Lisossomos/efeitos dos fármacos , Lisossomos/genética , Lisossomos/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/genética , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Transportadores de Ânions Orgânicos/genética , Transportadores de Ânions Orgânicos/metabolismo
9.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1159: 49-63, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31502199

RESUMO

The majority of enzymes in the sphingolipid (SL) biosynthetic pathway have been identified over the past couple of decades. Despite significant work, and despite their crucial and central roles in SL synthesis, significant information is still lacking concerning the enzymes that catalyze the N-acylation of sphingoid long chain bases, namely the ceramide synthases (CerS), a family of six mammalian genes originally named longevity assurance (Lass) genes. Each of these six endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane-bound enzymes utilizes a relatively restricted sub-set of fatty acyl-CoAs for N-acylation, but are far more promiscuous about the use of long chain bases. The reason that mammals and other species have multiple CerS, generating a specific subset of ceramides, is not yet known, but implies an important role for ceramides containing specific fatty acids in cell physiology. In this brief chapter, we will stroll down the CerS lane and discuss what is known, and what is not known, about this important enzyme family.


Assuntos
Ceramidas/biossíntese , Retículo Endoplasmático/enzimologia , Esfingosina N-Aciltransferase/fisiologia , Animais , Ácidos Graxos/química , Esfingolipídeos
10.
Anticancer Res ; 39(8): 4199-4206, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31366506

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: We previously synthesized a glucose-conjugated chlorin compound e6 (G-chlorin e6), and reported that it has very strong antitumor effects. The aim of the present study was to synthesize acetylated glucose-conjugated chlorin (AcN003HP) and evaluate its antitumor effect and excretion. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To evaluate the antitumor effect of AcN003HP, its IC50 was calculated as well as its accumulation in cancer cells was examined by flow cytometry. Confocal microscopy was used to observe the intracellular localization of AcN003HP. The excretion and antitumor effects of AcN003HP were also evaluated in vivo. RESULTS: AcN003HP showed stronger antitumor effects and accumulation into cancer cells compared to talaporfin sodium, a conventional photosensitizer. AcN003HP was localized in the endoplasmic reticulum. In a xenograft tumor mouse model, AcN003HP showed longer excretion time from the body than G-chlorin e6, and photodynamic therapy using AcN003HP showed very strong antitumor effects. CONCLUSION: The safety, improved controllability, and robust antitumor effects suggest AcN003HP as a good next-generation photosensitizer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/terapia , Glucose/administração & dosagem , Fotoquimioterapia , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/administração & dosagem , Acetilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Retículo Endoplasmático/efeitos dos fármacos , Citometria de Fluxo , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/patologia , Glucose/síntese química , Glucose/química , Humanos , Camundongos , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/síntese química , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/química , Porfirinas/administração & dosagem , Porfirinas/síntese química , Porfirinas/química , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
11.
Results Probl Cell Differ ; 67: 95-123, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31435794

RESUMO

The Golgi apparatus is a central sorting station in the cell. It receives newly synthesized molecules from the endoplasmic reticulum and directs them to different subcellular destinations, such as the plasma membrane or the endocytic pathway. Importantly, in the last few years, it has emerged that the maintenance of Golgi structure is connected to the proper regulation of membrane trafficking. Rab proteins are small GTPases that are considered to be the master regulators of the intracellular membrane trafficking. Several of the over 60 human Rabs are involved in the regulation of transport pathways at the Golgi as well as in the maintenance of its architecture. This chapter will summarize the different roles of Rab GTPases at the Golgi, both as regulators of membrane transport, scaffold, and tethering proteins and in preserving the structure and function of this organelle.


Assuntos
Complexo de Golgi/metabolismo , Proteínas rab de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo , Transporte Biológico , Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Humanos
12.
Arch Virol ; 164(11): 2789-2792, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31414286

RESUMO

Replication of the dengue virus (DENV) genome occurs in a vesicle in the endoplasmic reticulum by a complex of host and viral proteins. Two host proteins, STT3A and STT3B, as members of the oligosaccharyl transferase complex, have been implicated in playing structural roles in the vesicle in mammalian cells, and the absence of these proteins has been shown to decrease DENV replication. Aedes aegypti is the main vector of the virus and has been used previously as a model organism to study mosquito-virus interactions. In this study, we found that genes of the oligosaccharyl transferase complex have no effect on replication of DENV in mosquito cells.


Assuntos
Aedes/virologia , Vírus da Dengue/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vírus da Dengue/genética , Hexosiltransferases/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Replicação Viral/genética , Animais , Benzamidas/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular , Cercopithecus aethiops , Dengue/virologia , Retículo Endoplasmático/virologia , Genoma Viral/genética , Glicosilação , Hexosiltransferases/antagonistas & inibidores , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Proteínas de Membrana/antagonistas & inibidores , RNA Viral/genética , Sulfonamidas/farmacologia , Células Vero
13.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(72): 10776-10779, 2019 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31432809

RESUMO

Herein, we present a dual-site ratiometric fluorescent probe based on the ICT-PET-FRET mechanism for the detection of pH in the ER. The probe showed a highly sensitive response to pH in the range of 5.0-7.2, and could be applied for the quantitative measurement of the pH values in the ER during ER stress and dexamethanose-induced stimulation.


Assuntos
Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Transferência Ressonante de Energia de Fluorescência , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Dexametasona/farmacologia , Transporte de Elétrons , Retículo Endoplasmático/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio
14.
Cancer Sci ; 110(10): 3275-3287, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31368616

RESUMO

p97/VCP is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated protein that belongs to the AAA (ATPases associated with diverse cellular activities) ATPase family. It has a variety of cellular functions including ER-associated protein degradation, autophagy, and aggresome formation. Recent studies have shown emerging roles of p97/VCP and its potential as a therapeutic target in several cancer subtypes including multiple myeloma (MM). We conducted a cell-based compound screen to exploit novel small compounds that have cytotoxic activity in myeloma cells. Among approximately 2000 compounds, OSSL_325096 showed relatively strong antiproliferative activity in MM cell lines (IC50 , 100-500 nmol/L). OSSL_325096 induced apoptosis in myeloma cell lines, including a bortezomib-resistant cell line and primary myeloma cells purified from patients. Accumulation of poly-ubiquitinated proteins, PERK, CHOP, and IREα, was observed in MM cell lines treated with OSSL_325096, suggesting that it induces ER stress in MM cells. OSSL_325096 has a similar chemical structure to DBeQ, a known p97/VCP inhibitor. Knockdown of the gene encoding p97/VCP induced apoptosis in myeloma cells, accompanied by accumulation of poly-ubiquitinated protein. IC50 of OSSL_325096 to myeloma cell lines were found to be lower (0.1-0.8 µmol/L) than those of DBeQ (2-5 µmol/L). In silico protein-drug-binding simulation suggested possible binding of OSSL_325096 to the ATP binding site in the D2 domain of p97/VCP. In cell-free ATPase assays, OSSL_325096 showed dose-dependent inhibition of p97/VCP ATPase activity. Finally, OSSL_325096 inhibited the growth of subcutaneous myeloma cell tumors in vivo. The present data suggest that OSSL_325096 exerts anti-myeloma activity, at least in part through p97/VCP inhibition.


Assuntos
Adenosina Trifosfatases/metabolismo , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Inibidores Enzimáticos/administração & dosagem , Mieloma Múltiplo/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/administração & dosagem , Adenosina Trifosfatases/antagonistas & inibidores , Adenosina Trifosfatases/química , Animais , Sítios de Ligação , Bortezomib/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Retículo Endoplasmático/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático , Endorribonucleases/metabolismo , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Feminino , Humanos , Camundongos , Modelos Moleculares , Mieloma Múltiplo/metabolismo , Proteínas Nucleares/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Nucleares/química , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/química , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/farmacologia , Fator de Transcrição CHOP/metabolismo , Ubiquitinação , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto , eIF-2 Quinase/metabolismo
15.
Genome Biol ; 20(1): 156, 2019 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31387610

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Methylation of nucleotides, notably in the forms of 5-methylcytosine (5mC) in DNA and N6-methyladenosine (m6A) in mRNA, carries important information for gene regulation. 5mC has been elucidated to participate in the regulation of fruit ripening, whereas the function of m6A in this process and the interplay between 5mC and m6A remain uncharacterized. RESULTS: Here, we show that mRNA m6A methylation exhibits dynamic changes similar to DNA methylation during tomato fruit ripening. RNA methylome analysis reveals that m6A methylation is a prevalent modification in the mRNA of tomato fruit, and the m6A sites are enriched around the stop codons and within the 3' untranslated regions. In the fruit of the ripening-deficient epimutant Colorless non-ripening (Cnr) which harbors DNA hypermethylation, over 1100 transcripts display increased m6A levels, while only 134 transcripts show decreased m6A enrichment, suggesting a global increase in m6A. The m6A deposition is generally negatively correlated with transcript abundance. Further analysis demonstrates that the overall increase in m6A methylation in Cnr mutant fruit is associated with the decreased expression of RNA demethylase gene SlALKBH2, which is regulated by DNA methylation. Interestingly, SlALKBH2 has the ability to bind the transcript of SlDML2, a DNA demethylase gene required for tomato fruit ripening, and modulates its stability via m6A demethylation. Mutation of SlALKBH2 decreases the abundance of SlDML2 mRNA and delays fruit ripening. CONCLUSIONS: Our study identifies a novel layer of gene regulation for key ripening genes and establishes an essential molecular link between DNA methylation and mRNA m6A methylation during fruit ripening.


Assuntos
Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Lycopersicon esculentum/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Adenosina/metabolismo , Metilação de DNA , Retículo Endoplasmático/enzimologia , Frutas/genética , Frutas/metabolismo , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica , Lycopersicon esculentum/enzimologia , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Metilação , Mutação , Motivos de Nucleotídeos , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Estabilidade de RNA , RNA Mensageiro/química
16.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2902, 2019 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31263173

RESUMO

Exogenous metabolites from microbial and dietary origins have profound effects on host metabolism. Here, we report that a sub-population of lipid droplets (LDs), which are conserved organelles for fat storage, is defined by metabolite-modulated targeting of the C. elegans seipin ortholog, SEIP-1. Loss of SEIP-1 function reduces the size of a subset of LDs while over-expression of SEIP-1 has the opposite effect. Ultrastructural analysis reveals SEIP-1 enrichment in an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) subdomain, which co-purifies with LDs. Analyses of C. elegans and bacterial genetic mutants indicate a requirement of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and microbial cyclopropane fatty acids (CFAs) for SEIP-1 enrichment, as confirmed by dietary supplementation experiments. In mammalian cells, heterologously expressed SEIP-1 engages nascent lipid droplets and promotes their subsequent expansion in a conserved manner. Our results suggest that microbial and polyunsaturated fatty acids serve unexpected roles in regulating cellular fat storage by promoting LD diversity.


Assuntos
Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Gotículas Lipídicas/metabolismo , Animais , Caenorhabditis elegans/química , Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Retículo Endoplasmático/química , Retículo Endoplasmático/genética , Subunidades gama da Proteína de Ligação ao GTP/genética , Subunidades gama da Proteína de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo , Humanos , Transporte Proteico
17.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(65): 9629-9632, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31353368

RESUMO

Excessive accumulation of reducing agents in the ER leads to a constitutively high UPR. And the co-function of GSH, Cys and HOCl in biological processes is not well understood. To address this, a TP probe, NPCC, was developed for monitoring reductive stress in the ER. It can also distinguish cancer cells from normal cells.


Assuntos
Cumarínicos/química , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/fisiologia , Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Pirazóis/química , Animais , Cumarínicos/síntese química , Cisteína/química , Cisteína/metabolismo , Corantes Fluorescentes/síntese química , Glutationa/química , Glutationa/metabolismo , Cabras , Células HeLa , Humanos , Ácido Hipocloroso/química , Ácido Hipocloroso/metabolismo , Camundongos , Microscopia Confocal/métodos , Microscopia de Fluorescência/métodos , Oxirredução , Pirazóis/síntese química , Peixe-Zebra
18.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1140: 155-167, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31347047

RESUMO

Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) resident and secretory proteins that fail to reach their native conformation are selected for degradation through the ER-Associated Degradation (ERAD) pathway. The ER degradation-enhancing alpha-mannosidase-like proteins (EDEMs) were shown to be involved in this pathway but their precise role is still under investigation. Mass spectrometry analysis has contributed significantly to the characterization of protein complexes in the last years. The recent advancements in instrumentation, especially within resolution and speed can provide unique insights concerning the molecular architecture of protein-protein interactions in systems biology. Previous reports have suggested that several protein complexes in ERAD are sensitive to the extraction conditions. Indeed, whilst EDEM proteins can be recovered in most detergents, some of their partners are not solubilized, which further emphasizes the importance of the experimental setup. Here, we define such dynamic interactions of EDEM proteins by employing offline protein fractionation, nanoLC-MS/MS and describe how mass spectrometry can contribute to the characterization of such complexes, particularly within a disease context like melanoma.


Assuntos
Retículo Endoplasmático/fisiologia , Melanoma , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Glicoproteínas/análise , Humanos , Proteínas de Membrana/análise , alfa-Manosidase/análise
19.
Life Sci ; 232: 116612, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31260687

RESUMO

AIMS: Accumulating evidence suggest that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is an important mechanism underlying the development of diabetes. We have reported that sustained treatment with N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) results in apoptotic ß-cell death and impairs insulin secretion. However, the molecular mechanism responsible for NMDA-induced ß-cell dysfunction remains largely obscure. Thus, this study aimed to determine whether sustained activation of NMDA receptors (NMDARs) causes ß-cell dysfunction through ER stress. MAIN METHODS: Primary mouse islets and MIN6 mouse pancreatic ß-cells were treated with NMDA for 24 h or high-glucose for 72 h. After the treatment, glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) and the expression of ER stress markers were measured, respectively. In vivo, the expression of ER stress markers was measured in the pancreas of diabetic mice treated with or without NMDARs inhibitor Memantine. KEY FINDINGS: NMDA treatment caused an increase in the expression of ER stress markers (ATF4, CHOP, GRP78, and Xbp1s) in primary islets. While, tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA), an inhibitor of ER stress, significantly attenuated NMDA-induced ß-cell dysfunction, including the loss of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and reduction of pancreas duodenum homeobox factor-1 (Pdx-1) mRNA expression, a transcription factor regulating insulin synthesis. Besides, NMDA-induced ER stress strongly promoted pro-inflammatory cytokines synthesis (IL-1ß and TNF-α) in ß cells. Interestingly, knockdown of CHOP attenuated ß-cell dysfunction evoked by NMDA. Furthermore, we demonstrated that blockade of NMDARs ameliorated high-glucose-induced ER stress in vitro and in vivo. SIGNIFICANCE: This study confirms that ER stress is actively involved in the activation of NMDARs-related ß-cell dysfunction.


Assuntos
Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/fisiologia , Células Secretoras de Insulina/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição CHOP/metabolismo , Fator 4 Ativador da Transcrição/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/efeitos dos fármacos , Glucose/metabolismo , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/metabolismo , Insulina/metabolismo , Secreção de Insulina/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Secretoras de Insulina/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , N-Metilaspartato/farmacologia , Receptores de N-Metil-D-Aspartato/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Proteína 1 de Ligação a X-Box/metabolismo
20.
Eur J Med Chem ; 179: 837-848, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31299492

RESUMO

Type-1 ryanodine receptor (RyR1) is a calcium-release channel localized on sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) of the skeletal muscle, and mediates muscle contraction by releasing Ca2+ from the SR. Genetic mutations of RyR1 are associated with skeletal muscle diseases such as malignant hyperthermia and central core diseases, in which over-activation of RyR1 causes leakage of Ca2+ from the SR. We recently developed an efficient high-throughput screening system based on the measurement of Ca2+ in endoplasmic reticulum, and used it to identify oxolinic acid (1) as a novel RyR1 channel inhibitor. Here, we designed and synthesized a series of quinolone derivatives based on 1 as a lead compound. Derivatives bearing a long alkyl chain at the nitrogen atom of the quinolone ring and having a suitable substituent at the 7-position of quinolone exhibited potent RyR1 channel-inhibitory activity. Among the synthesized compounds, 14h showed more potent activity than dantrolene, a known RyR1 inhibitor, and exhibited high RyR1 selectivity over RyR2 and RyR3. These compounds may be promising leads for clinically applicable RyR1 channel inhibitors.


Assuntos
Cálcio/metabolismo , Retículo Endoplasmático/efeitos dos fármacos , Quinolonas/farmacologia , Canal de Liberação de Cálcio do Receptor de Rianodina/metabolismo , Sinalização do Cálcio/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Estrutura Molecular , Quinolonas/síntese química , Quinolonas/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
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