Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 20.549
Filtrar
1.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1131: 337-370, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31646517

RESUMO

The sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum (SR/ER) is the main intracellular calcium (Ca2+) pool in muscle and non-muscle eukaryotic cells, respectively. The reticulum accumulates Ca2+ against its electrochemical gradient by the action of sarco/endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPases (SERCA pumps), and the capacity of this Ca2+ store is increased by the presence of Ca2+ binding proteins in the lumen of the reticulum. A diversity of physical and chemical signals, activate the main Ca2+ release channels, i.e. ryanodine receptors (RyRs) and inositol (1, 4, 5) trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs), to produce transient elevations of the cytoplasmic calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) while the reticulum is being depleted of Ca2+. This picture is incomplete because it implies that the elements involved in the Ca2+ release process are acting alone and independently of each other. However, it appears that the Ca2+ released by RyRs and IP3Rs is trapped in luminal Ca2+ binding proteins (Ca2+ lattice), which are associated with these release channels, and the activation of these channels appears to facilitate that the trapped Ca2+ ions become available for release. This situation makes the initial stage of the Ca2+ release process a highly efficient one; accordingly, there is a large increase in the [Ca2+]i with minimal reductions in the bulk of the free luminal SR/ER [Ca2+] ([Ca2+]SR/ER). Additionally, it has been shown that active SERCA pumps are required for attaining this highly efficient Ca2+ release process. All these data indicate that Ca2+ release by the SR/ER is a highly regulated event and not just Ca2+ coming down its electrochemical gradient via the open release channels. One obvious advantage of this sophisticated Ca2+ release process is to avoid depletion of the ER Ca2+ store and accordingly, to prevent the activation of ER stress during each Ca2+ release event.


Assuntos
Cálcio , Retículo Endoplasmático , Retículo Sarcoplasmático , Animais , Cálcio/metabolismo , Sinalização do Cálcio , Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Humanos , Receptores de Inositol 1,4,5-Trifosfato/metabolismo , Canal de Liberação de Cálcio do Receptor de Rianodina/metabolismo , Retículo Sarcoplasmático/metabolismo , ATPases Transportadoras de Cálcio do Retículo Sarcoplasmático/metabolismo
2.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1131: 371-394, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31646518

RESUMO

Ca2+ signals are probably the most common intracellular signaling cellular events, controlling an extensive range of responses in virtually all cells. Many cellular stimuli, often acting at cell surface receptors, evoke Ca2+ signals by mobilizing Ca2+ from intracellular stores. Inositol trisphosphate (IP3) was the first messenger shown to link events at the plasma membrane to release Ca2+ from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), through the activation of IP3-gated Ca2+ release channels (IP3 receptors). Subsequently, two additional Ca2+ mobilizing messengers were discovered, cADPR and NAADP. Both are metabolites of pyridine nucleotides, and may be produced by the same class of enzymes, ADP-ribosyl cyclases, such as CD38. Whilst cADPR mobilizes Ca2+ from the ER by activation of ryanodine receptors (RyRs), NAADP releases Ca2+ from acidic stores by a mechanism involving the activation of two pore channels (TPCs). In addition, other pyridine nucleotides have emerged as intracellular messengers. ADP-ribose and 2'-deoxy-ADPR both activate TRPM2 channels which are expressed at the plasma membrane and in lysosomes.


Assuntos
Cálcio , ADP-Ribose Cíclica , Piridinas , Animais , Cálcio/metabolismo , Sinalização do Cálcio , Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Humanos , Espaço Intracelular/metabolismo , NADP/metabolismo , Piridinas/química , Piridinas/metabolismo , Canal de Liberação de Cálcio do Receptor de Rianodina/metabolismo
3.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1131: 547-604, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31646526

RESUMO

Ca2+ release activated Ca2+ (CRAC) channels represent a primary pathway for Ca2+ to enter non-excitable cells. The two key players in this process are the stromal interaction molecule (STIM), a Ca2+ sensor embedded in the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum, and Orai, a highly Ca2+ selective ion channel located in the plasma membrane. Upon depletion of the internal Ca2+ stores, STIM is activated, oligomerizes, couples to and activates Orai. This review provides an overview of novel findings about the CRAC channel activation mechanisms, structure and gating. In addition, it highlights, among diverse STIM and Orai mutants, also the disease-related mutants and their implications.


Assuntos
Canais de Cálcio Ativados pela Liberação de Cálcio , Membrana Celular , Animais , Cálcio/metabolismo , Canais de Cálcio Ativados pela Liberação de Cálcio/sangue , Canais de Cálcio Ativados pela Liberação de Cálcio/genética , Canais de Cálcio Ativados pela Liberação de Cálcio/metabolismo , Sinalização do Cálcio/fisiologia , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Humanos , Mutação , Molécula 1 de Interação Estromal/genética , Molécula 1 de Interação Estromal/metabolismo
4.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1131: 719-746, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31646532

RESUMO

It is generally accepted that interorganellar contacts are central to the control of cellular physiology. Virtually, any intracellular organelle can come into proximity with each other and, by establishing physical protein-mediated contacts within a selected fraction of the membrane surface, novel specific functions are acquired. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) contacts with mitochondria are among the best studied and have a major role in Ca2+ and lipid transfer, signaling, and membrane dynamics.Their functional (and structural) diversity, their dynamic nature as well as the growing number of new players involved in the tethering concurred to make their monitoring difficult especially in living cells. This review focuses on the most established examples of tethers/modulators of the ER-mitochondria interface and on the roles of these contacts in health and disease by specifically dissecting how Ca2+ transfer occurs and how mishandling eventually leads to disease. Additional functions of the ER-mitochondria interface and an overview of the currently available methods to measure/quantify the ER-mitochondria interface will also be discussed.


Assuntos
Cálcio , Retículo Endoplasmático , Mitocôndrias , Doenças Neurodegenerativas , Cálcio/metabolismo , Sinalização do Cálcio , Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Humanos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/fisiopatologia , Transdução de Sinais
5.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1131: 243-270, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31646513

RESUMO

The inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) receptor (IP3R) is a Ca2+-release channel mainly located in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Three IP3R isoforms are responsible for the generation of intracellular Ca2+ signals that may spread across the entire cell or occur locally in so-called microdomains. Because of their ubiquitous expression, these channels are involved in the regulation of a plethora of cellular processes, including cell survival and cell death. To exert their proper function a fine regulation of their activity is of paramount importance. In this review, we will highlight the recent advances in the structural analysis of the IP3R and try to link these data with the newest information concerning IP3R activation and regulation. A special focus of this review will be directed towards the regulation of the IP3R by protein-protein interaction. Especially the protein family formed by calmodulin and related Ca2+-binding proteins and the pro- and anti-apoptotic/autophagic Bcl-2-family members will be highlighted. Finally, recently identified and novel IP3R regulatory proteins will be discussed. A number of these interactions are involved in cancer development, illustrating the potential importance of modulating IP3R-mediated Ca2+ signaling in cancer treatment.


Assuntos
Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Receptores de Inositol 1,4,5-Trifosfato , Sinalização do Cálcio , Sobrevivência Celular/genética , Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Humanos , Receptores de Inositol 1,4,5-Trifosfato/química , Receptores de Inositol 1,4,5-Trifosfato/genética , Receptores de Inositol 1,4,5-Trifosfato/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo
6.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(41): 11428-11435, 2019 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31589037

RESUMO

Diosgenin and diosgenyl saponins as the major bioactive compounds isolated from dietary fenugreek seeds, yam roots, etc. possessed strong antitumor effects. To understand their detailed antitumor mechanisms, a fluorophore-appended derivative of diosgenin [Glc/CNHphth-diosgenin (GND)] was synthesized, starting from diosgenin and glucosamine hydrochloride in overall yields of 7-12% over 7-10 steps. Co-localization of GND with organelle-specific stains, transmission electron microscopy, and relative protein analyses demonstrated that GND crossed the plasma membrane through organic anion-transporting polypeptide 1B1 and distributed in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), lysosome, and mitochondria. In this process, GND induced ER swelling, mitochondrial damage, and autophagosome and upregulating IRE-1α to induce autophagy and apoptosis. Furthermore, autophagy inhibitor chloroquine delayed the appearance of cleaved poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase and inhibited cleaved caspase 8, which indicated that GND induced autophagy to activate caspase-8-dependent apoptosis. These observations suggested that diosgenyl saponin was a potent anticancer agent that elicited ER stress and mitochondria-mediated apoptotic pathways in liver cancer.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/fisiopatologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Saponinas/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Retículo Endoplasmático/efeitos dos fármacos , Retículo Endoplasmático/genética , Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Lisossomos/efeitos dos fármacos , Lisossomos/genética , Lisossomos/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/genética , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Transportadores de Ânions Orgânicos/genética , Transportadores de Ânions Orgânicos/metabolismo
7.
Life Sci ; 237: 116944, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31604108

RESUMO

AIMS: Endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) is an evolutionarily conserved cell stress response. Recently, it was found that ERS induces not only apoptosis but also endoplasmic reticulophagy (ER-phagy). A previous study demonstrated that inhibition of ER-phagy alleviates cell injury. The purpose of this study was to investigate the involvement of the protein kinase R-like ER kinase (PERK)/nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) pathway in ERS-induced ER-phagy in H9c2 cardiomyoblasts. To address this aim, cells were treated with ERS inhibitors and a Nrf2 inhibitor before establishment of thapsigargin (TG)- or tunicamycin (TM)-induced ERS models in H9c2 cardiomyoblasts. MAIN METHODS: Transmission electron microscopy and immunofluorescence staining were used to detect ER-phagy. Western blotting was employed to detect the levels of calreticulin (CRT), total and phosphorylated PERK, nuclear Nrf2, activated transcription factor 4 (ATF4), light chain 3B (LC3B)-II and Beclin 1. Immunofluorescence staining was used to assess subcellular location of Nrf2. KEY FINDING: TG or TM induced H9c2 cell injury and ER-phagy and upregulated CRT expression, PERK phosphorylation, Nrf2 nuclear translocation, and expression of ATF4, Beclin 1, and LC3B-II compared with control cells. Treatment with ERS inhibitors decreased TG- or TM-induced ER-phagy, downregulated CRT expression, PERK phosphorylation, Nrf2 nuclear translocation and the expression of ATF4, Beclin 1 and LC3B-II. Moreover, a Nrf2 inhibitor downregulated the expression of ATF4, Beclin 1 and LC3B-II and alleviated TG- or TM-induced ER-phagy and H9c2 cell injury. SIGNIFICANCE: These findings suggest that the PERK/Nrf2 pathway mediates upregulation of ER-phagy, thereby inducing cell injury in H9c2 cardiomyoblasts.


Assuntos
Apoptose , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático , Retículo Endoplasmático/patologia , Miócitos Cardíacos/patologia , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , eIF-2 Quinase/metabolismo , Fator 4 Ativador da Transcrição/metabolismo , Animais , Proteína Beclina-1/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Fosforilação , Ratos , Transdução de Sinais
8.
Nat Cell Biol ; 21(10): 1206-1218, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31548609

RESUMO

Cholesterol activates the master growth regulator, mTORC1 kinase, by promoting its recruitment to the surface of lysosomes by the Rag guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases). The mechanisms that regulate lysosomal cholesterol content to enable mTORC1 signalling are unknown. Here, we show that oxysterol binding protein (OSBP) and its anchors at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), VAPA and VAPB, deliver cholesterol across ER-lysosome contacts to activate mTORC1. In cells lacking OSBP, but not other VAP-interacting cholesterol carriers, the recruitment of mTORC1 by the Rag GTPases is inhibited owing to impaired transport of cholesterol to lysosomes. By contrast, OSBP-mediated cholesterol trafficking drives constitutive mTORC1 activation in a disease model caused by the loss of the lysosomal cholesterol transporter, Niemann-Pick C1 (NPC1). Chemical and genetic inactivation of OSBP suppresses aberrant mTORC1 signalling and restores autophagic function in cellular models of Niemann-Pick type C (NPC). Thus, ER-lysosome contacts are signalling hubs that enable cholesterol sensing by mTORC1, and targeting the sterol-transfer activity of these signalling hubs could be beneficial in patients with NPC.


Assuntos
Colesterol/metabolismo , Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Lisossomos/metabolismo , Alvo Mecanístico do Complexo 1 de Rapamicina/metabolismo , Doenças de Niemann-Pick/metabolismo , Receptores de Esteroides/metabolismo , Animais , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Alvo Mecanístico do Complexo 1 de Rapamicina/genética , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/genética , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Camundongos , Receptores de Esteroides/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Proteínas de Transporte Vesicular/genética , Proteínas de Transporte Vesicular/metabolismo
9.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(72): 10776-10779, 2019 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31432809

RESUMO

Herein, we present a dual-site ratiometric fluorescent probe based on the ICT-PET-FRET mechanism for the detection of pH in the ER. The probe showed a highly sensitive response to pH in the range of 5.0-7.2, and could be applied for the quantitative measurement of the pH values in the ER during ER stress and dexamethanose-induced stimulation.


Assuntos
Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Transferência Ressonante de Energia de Fluorescência , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Dexametasona/farmacologia , Transporte de Elétrons , Retículo Endoplasmático/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio
10.
Cancer Sci ; 110(10): 3275-3287, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31368616

RESUMO

p97/VCP is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated protein that belongs to the AAA (ATPases associated with diverse cellular activities) ATPase family. It has a variety of cellular functions including ER-associated protein degradation, autophagy, and aggresome formation. Recent studies have shown emerging roles of p97/VCP and its potential as a therapeutic target in several cancer subtypes including multiple myeloma (MM). We conducted a cell-based compound screen to exploit novel small compounds that have cytotoxic activity in myeloma cells. Among approximately 2000 compounds, OSSL_325096 showed relatively strong antiproliferative activity in MM cell lines (IC50 , 100-500 nmol/L). OSSL_325096 induced apoptosis in myeloma cell lines, including a bortezomib-resistant cell line and primary myeloma cells purified from patients. Accumulation of poly-ubiquitinated proteins, PERK, CHOP, and IREα, was observed in MM cell lines treated with OSSL_325096, suggesting that it induces ER stress in MM cells. OSSL_325096 has a similar chemical structure to DBeQ, a known p97/VCP inhibitor. Knockdown of the gene encoding p97/VCP induced apoptosis in myeloma cells, accompanied by accumulation of poly-ubiquitinated protein. IC50 of OSSL_325096 to myeloma cell lines were found to be lower (0.1-0.8 µmol/L) than those of DBeQ (2-5 µmol/L). In silico protein-drug-binding simulation suggested possible binding of OSSL_325096 to the ATP binding site in the D2 domain of p97/VCP. In cell-free ATPase assays, OSSL_325096 showed dose-dependent inhibition of p97/VCP ATPase activity. Finally, OSSL_325096 inhibited the growth of subcutaneous myeloma cell tumors in vivo. The present data suggest that OSSL_325096 exerts anti-myeloma activity, at least in part through p97/VCP inhibition.


Assuntos
Adenosina Trifosfatases/metabolismo , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Inibidores Enzimáticos/administração & dosagem , Mieloma Múltiplo/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/administração & dosagem , Adenosina Trifosfatases/antagonistas & inibidores , Adenosina Trifosfatases/química , Animais , Sítios de Ligação , Bortezomib/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Retículo Endoplasmático/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático , Endorribonucleases/metabolismo , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Feminino , Humanos , Camundongos , Modelos Moleculares , Mieloma Múltiplo/metabolismo , Proteínas Nucleares/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Nucleares/química , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/química , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/farmacologia , Fator de Transcrição CHOP/metabolismo , Ubiquitinação , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto , eIF-2 Quinase/metabolismo
11.
Results Probl Cell Differ ; 67: 95-123, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31435794

RESUMO

The Golgi apparatus is a central sorting station in the cell. It receives newly synthesized molecules from the endoplasmic reticulum and directs them to different subcellular destinations, such as the plasma membrane or the endocytic pathway. Importantly, in the last few years, it has emerged that the maintenance of Golgi structure is connected to the proper regulation of membrane trafficking. Rab proteins are small GTPases that are considered to be the master regulators of the intracellular membrane trafficking. Several of the over 60 human Rabs are involved in the regulation of transport pathways at the Golgi as well as in the maintenance of its architecture. This chapter will summarize the different roles of Rab GTPases at the Golgi, both as regulators of membrane transport, scaffold, and tethering proteins and in preserving the structure and function of this organelle.


Assuntos
Complexo de Golgi/metabolismo , Proteínas rab de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo , Transporte Biológico , Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Humanos
12.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2902, 2019 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31263173

RESUMO

Exogenous metabolites from microbial and dietary origins have profound effects on host metabolism. Here, we report that a sub-population of lipid droplets (LDs), which are conserved organelles for fat storage, is defined by metabolite-modulated targeting of the C. elegans seipin ortholog, SEIP-1. Loss of SEIP-1 function reduces the size of a subset of LDs while over-expression of SEIP-1 has the opposite effect. Ultrastructural analysis reveals SEIP-1 enrichment in an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) subdomain, which co-purifies with LDs. Analyses of C. elegans and bacterial genetic mutants indicate a requirement of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and microbial cyclopropane fatty acids (CFAs) for SEIP-1 enrichment, as confirmed by dietary supplementation experiments. In mammalian cells, heterologously expressed SEIP-1 engages nascent lipid droplets and promotes their subsequent expansion in a conserved manner. Our results suggest that microbial and polyunsaturated fatty acids serve unexpected roles in regulating cellular fat storage by promoting LD diversity.


Assuntos
Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Gotículas Lipídicas/metabolismo , Animais , Caenorhabditis elegans/química , Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Retículo Endoplasmático/química , Retículo Endoplasmático/genética , Subunidades gama da Proteína de Ligação ao GTP/genética , Subunidades gama da Proteína de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo , Humanos , Transporte Proteico
13.
Life Sci ; 232: 116612, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31260687

RESUMO

AIMS: Accumulating evidence suggest that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is an important mechanism underlying the development of diabetes. We have reported that sustained treatment with N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) results in apoptotic ß-cell death and impairs insulin secretion. However, the molecular mechanism responsible for NMDA-induced ß-cell dysfunction remains largely obscure. Thus, this study aimed to determine whether sustained activation of NMDA receptors (NMDARs) causes ß-cell dysfunction through ER stress. MAIN METHODS: Primary mouse islets and MIN6 mouse pancreatic ß-cells were treated with NMDA for 24 h or high-glucose for 72 h. After the treatment, glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) and the expression of ER stress markers were measured, respectively. In vivo, the expression of ER stress markers was measured in the pancreas of diabetic mice treated with or without NMDARs inhibitor Memantine. KEY FINDINGS: NMDA treatment caused an increase in the expression of ER stress markers (ATF4, CHOP, GRP78, and Xbp1s) in primary islets. While, tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA), an inhibitor of ER stress, significantly attenuated NMDA-induced ß-cell dysfunction, including the loss of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and reduction of pancreas duodenum homeobox factor-1 (Pdx-1) mRNA expression, a transcription factor regulating insulin synthesis. Besides, NMDA-induced ER stress strongly promoted pro-inflammatory cytokines synthesis (IL-1ß and TNF-α) in ß cells. Interestingly, knockdown of CHOP attenuated ß-cell dysfunction evoked by NMDA. Furthermore, we demonstrated that blockade of NMDARs ameliorated high-glucose-induced ER stress in vitro and in vivo. SIGNIFICANCE: This study confirms that ER stress is actively involved in the activation of NMDARs-related ß-cell dysfunction.


Assuntos
Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/fisiologia , Células Secretoras de Insulina/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição CHOP/metabolismo , Fator 4 Ativador da Transcrição/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/efeitos dos fármacos , Glucose/metabolismo , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/metabolismo , Insulina/metabolismo , Secreção de Insulina/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Secretoras de Insulina/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , N-Metilaspartato/farmacologia , Receptores de N-Metil-D-Aspartato/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Proteína 1 de Ligação a X-Box/metabolismo
14.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(65): 9629-9632, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31353368

RESUMO

Excessive accumulation of reducing agents in the ER leads to a constitutively high UPR. And the co-function of GSH, Cys and HOCl in biological processes is not well understood. To address this, a TP probe, NPCC, was developed for monitoring reductive stress in the ER. It can also distinguish cancer cells from normal cells.


Assuntos
Cumarínicos/química , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/fisiologia , Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Pirazóis/química , Animais , Cumarínicos/síntese química , Cisteína/química , Cisteína/metabolismo , Corantes Fluorescentes/síntese química , Glutationa/química , Glutationa/metabolismo , Cabras , Células HeLa , Humanos , Ácido Hipocloroso/química , Ácido Hipocloroso/metabolismo , Camundongos , Microscopia Confocal/métodos , Microscopia de Fluorescência/métodos , Oxirredução , Pirazóis/síntese química , Peixe-Zebra
15.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2516, 2019 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31175287

RESUMO

Store-operated Ca2+ entry, involving endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ sensing STIM proteins and plasma membrane Orai1 channels, is a widespread and evolutionary conserved Ca2+ influx pathway. This form of Ca2+ influx occurs at discrete loci where peripheral endoplasmic reticulum juxtaposes the plasma membrane. Stimulation evokes numerous STIM1-Orai1 clusters but whether distinct signal transduction pathways require different cluster numbers is unknown. Here, we show that two Ca2+-dependent transcription factors, NFAT1 and c-fos, have different requirements for the number of STIM1-Orai1 clusters and on the Ca2+ flux through them. NFAT activation requires fewer clusters and is more robustly activated than c-fos by low concentrations of agonist. For similar cluster numbers, transcription factor recruitment occurs sequentially, arising from intrinsic differences in Ca2+ sensitivities. Variations in the number of STIM1-Orai1 clusters and Ca2+ flux through them regulate the robustness of signalling to the nucleus whilst imparting a mechanism for selective recruitment of different Ca2+-dependent transcription factors.


Assuntos
Sinalização do Cálcio , Cálcio/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição NFATC/metabolismo , Proteína ORAI1/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-fos/metabolismo , Molécula 1 de Interação Estromal/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Ratos , Transdução de Sinais
16.
Biochemistry (Mosc) ; 84(4): 346-357, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31228926

RESUMO

Sterols are important components of biological membranes that determine the physicochemical properties of lipid bilayer and regulate the functioning of membrane proteins. Being insoluble in water, sterols cannot diffuse between the membrane compartments separated by an aqueous phase. For this reason, distribution of sterols across cellular membranes is rather uneven. Membrane-to-membrane transport of sterols occurs mainly in a non-vesicular fashion and is provided by Lam and Osh proteins. In this review, we discuss the consequences of impairments in sterol biosynthesis and transport mostly relying on the studies performed on the model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Despite the fact that molecular mechanisms underlying the functioning of Lam and Osh proteins are well established, the biological roles of these proteins are still unclear, because deletions of corresponding genes do not affect yeast phenotype. At the same time, disruptions in the biosynthesis of ergosterol, the major sterol of S. cerevisiae, lead to either cell death or reduced stress resistance. However, under certain conditions (e.g., mild salt or thermal stresses), a decrease in the ergosterol levels causes an increase in cell resistance. This suggests that the cells possess a mechanism facilitating rapid adjustment of the plasma membrane sterol content. We argue that the biological role of Lam proteins is, in particular, fast optimization of sterol composition of cell membranes.


Assuntos
Ergosterol/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Transporte Biológico , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Ergosterol/biossíntese , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Esqualeno/metabolismo , Esteróis/metabolismo
17.
Cell Physiol Biochem ; 53(1): 121-140, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31230428

RESUMO

Infections with Coxsackievirus B3 and other members of the enterovirus genus are a common reason for myocarditis and sudden cardiac death in modern society. Despite intensive scientific efforts to cure enterovirus infections, there is still no standardized treatment option. The complexity of Coxsackievirus B3´s effects on the host cell make well defined studies on this topic very challenging. However, recent publications report newly found effects of CVB3´s structural and non-structural proteins on infected cells. For the first time, the viral capsid protein VP1 was shown to have direct influence on the viral life-cycle. By shortening the G0 and the G2 phase and simultaneously prolonging the G1 and G1-S phase, the translation of viral proteins is enhanced and the production of viable CVB3 particles is promoted. Coxsackievirus B3´s viroporin, protein 2B, was recently studied in more detail as well. Structural and physiological analyses identified two hydrophilic α-helices in the structure of 2B, enabling it to insert into cellular membranes of host cells. As main target of 2B the endoplasmatic reticulum was identified. The insertion of 2B into the ER membranes leads to an uncontrolled calcium outflow into the cytoplasm. Additional insertion of 2B into the cell membrane leads to host cell destabilization and in the end to release of viral progeny. The importance of the Coxsackievirus B3´s proteases 2A and 3C in pathogenicity is observed since years. Recently, DAP5 and eIf4G were identified as new cleavage targets for protease 2A. Cleavage of DAP-5 into DAP5-N and DAP5-C changes the gene expression of the host cell and promotes cell death. Additionally, protease 3C targets and cleaves procaspase 8 promoting the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway and cell death. Recent studies identified significant effects of CVB3 on mitochondria of infected cells. Mouse cardiomyocytes showed decreased activities of respiratory chain complexes I-III and changed transcription of important subunits of the complexes I-IV. A disrupted energy metabolism may be one of the main causes of cardiac insufficiency and death in CVB3 infected patients. In addition to a modified energy metabolism, CVB3 affects cardiac ion channels, KCNQ1 in particular. SGK1, which is an important mediator in KCNQ1 membrane insertions, is highly upregulated during CVB3 infections. This results in an increased insertion of KCNQ1 into the cell membrane of cardiac cells. Under stress conditions, this KCNQ1 overshoot may lead to a disturbed cardiac action potential and therefore to sudden cardiac death, as it is often observed in CVB3 infected persons.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coxsackievirus/patologia , Enterovirus Humano B/fisiologia , Animais , Proteínas do Capsídeo/metabolismo , Infecções por Coxsackievirus/metabolismo , Complexo de Proteínas da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/metabolismo , Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Retículo Endoplasmático/virologia , Enterovirus Humano B/patogenicidade , Humanos , Canal de Potássio KCNQ1/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/virologia , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/metabolismo
18.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2702, 2019 06 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31221991

RESUMO

Most cationic vectors are difficult to avoid the fate of small interfering RNA (siRNA) degradation following the endosome-lysosome pathway during siRNA transfection. In this study, the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane isolated from cancer cells was used to fabricate an integrative hybrid nanoplexes (EhCv/siRNA NPs) for improving siRNA transfection. Compared to the undecorated Cv/siEGFR NPs, the ER membrane-decorated EhCv/siRNA NPs exhibits a significantly higher gene silencing effect of siRNA in vitro and a better antitumor activity in nude mice bearing MCF-7 human breast tumor in vivo. Further mechanistic studies demonstrate that functional proteins on the ER membrane plays important roles on improving cellular uptake and altering intracellular trafficking pathway of siRNA. It is worth to believe that the ER membrane decoration on nanoplexes can effectively transport siRNA through the endosome-Golgi-ER pathway to evade lysosomal degradation and enhance the silencing effects of siRNA.


Assuntos
Portadores de Fármacos/química , Interferência de RNA , RNA Interferente Pequeno/administração & dosagem , Transfecção/métodos , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Membrana Celular , Portadores de Fármacos/efeitos adversos , Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Endossomos/metabolismo , Receptores ErbB/genética , Feminino , Terapia Genética/métodos , Complexo de Golgi/metabolismo , Hemólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Nanopartículas/química , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/terapia , RNA Interferente Pequeno/efeitos adversos , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Resultado do Tratamento , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
19.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 157: 152-160, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31153463

RESUMO

Malathion, one of commonly used organophosphate insecticides, has a wide range of toxic actions in different models. However, the effect of this compound on Ca2+ homeostasis and its related cytotoxicity in glial cells is elusive. This study examined whether malathion evoked intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) rises and established the relationship between Ca2+ signaling and cytotoxicity in normal human astrocytes, rat astrocytes and human glioblastoma cells. The data show that malathion induced concentration-dependent [Ca2+]i rises in Gibco® Human Astrocytes (GHA cells), but not in DI TNC1 normal rat astrocytes and DBTRG-05MG human glioblastoma cells. In GHA cells, this Ca2+ signal response was reduced by removing extracellular Ca2+. In Ca2+-free medium, pretreatment with the endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ pump inhibitor thapsigargin abolished malathion-induced [Ca2+]i rises. Conversely, incubation with malathion abolished thapsigargin-induced [Ca2+]i rises. Inhibition of phospholipase C (PLC) with U73122 also blocked malathion-induced [Ca2+]i rises. In Ca2+-containing medium, malathion-induced [Ca2+]i rises was inhibited by store-operated Ca2+ channel blockers (2-APB, econazole or SKF96365) and the protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor GF109203X. Malathion (5-25 µM) concentration-dependently caused cytotoxicity in GHA, DI TNC1 and DBTRG-05MG cells. This cytotoxic effect was partially prevented by prechelating cytosolic Ca2+ with BAPTA-AM (a selective Ca2+ chelator) only in GHA cells. Together, in GHA but not in DI TNC1 and DBTRG-05MG cells, malathion induced [Ca2+]i rises by inducing PLC-dependent Ca2+ release from the endoplasmic reticulum and Ca2+ entry via PKC-sensitive store-operated Ca2+ channels. Furthermore, malathion induced Ca2+-associated cytotoxicity, suggesting that Ca2+ chelating may have a protective effect on malathion-induced cytotoxicity in normal human astrocytes.


Assuntos
Cálcio/metabolismo , Malation/farmacologia , Animais , Sinalização do Cálcio/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Quelantes , Retículo Endoplasmático/efeitos dos fármacos , Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Humanos , Neuroglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Neuroglia/metabolismo , Ratos
20.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2370, 2019 05 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31147549

RESUMO

FAM134B/RETREG1 is a selective ER-phagy receptor that regulates the size and shape of the endoplasmic reticulum. The structure of its reticulon-homology domain (RHD), an element shared with other ER-shaping proteins, and the mechanism of membrane shaping remain poorly understood. Using molecular modeling and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we assemble a structural model for the RHD of FAM134B. Through MD simulations of FAM134B in flat and curved membranes, we relate the dynamic RHD structure with its two wedge-shaped transmembrane helical hairpins and two amphipathic helices to FAM134B functions in membrane-curvature induction and curvature-mediated protein sorting. FAM134B clustering, as expected to occur in autophagic puncta, amplifies the membrane-shaping effects. Electron microscopy of in vitro liposome remodeling experiments support the membrane remodeling functions of the different RHD structural elements. Disruption of the RHD structure affects selective autophagy flux and leads to disease states.


Assuntos
Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Forma das Organelas/genética , Autofagia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Membrana Celular/ultraestrutura , Retículo Endoplasmático/ultraestrutura , Humanos , Lipossomos/metabolismo , Lipossomos/ultraestrutura , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Microscopia Eletrônica , Modelos Moleculares , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Domínios Proteicos , Transporte Proteico/genética
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA