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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36078850

RESUMO

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are ubiquitous flame retardants and are environmentally persistent. PBDEs show endocrine disruption, neurotoxicity, and lower birth weight in infants, and their human body burden has become a public health concern. The infants' exposure begins in the prenatal period and continues via breast milk ingestion, although, little is known about the factors that may influence this exposure. In this study, PBDE levels in Brazilian breast milk were assessed in 200 lactating women. The risk assessment of infants' exposure to PBDE was performed through the estimated daily intake (EDI) calculation. The geometric mean (GM) of ∑PBDEs levels was 2.33 (0.14-6.05) ng/g wet weight. At least one PBDE congener was detected in the samples, and the 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) showed a 100% of detection rate (GM of 1.05 ng/g). Location of residence, maternal level education, monthly salary, and race were positively associated with PBDE levels (p < 0.05). The EDI of BDE-47 was higher in Belo Horizonte (8.29 ng/kg/day) than in Viçosa (6.36 ng/kg/day), as well as for the ∑PBDEs (19.77 versus 12.78 ng/kg/day) (p < 0.05). Taking the high detection rate of PBDEs in breast milk and their toxicity, continuous studies on infant exposure, fetal growth, and child neurodevelopment are requested.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Retardadores de Chama , Brasil , Criança , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Feminino , Retardadores de Chama/análise , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/análise , Humanos , Lactente , Lactação , Exposição Materna , Leite Humano/química , Gravidez
2.
Molecules ; 27(17)2022 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36080245

RESUMO

The synthesis of MMT and poly(o-anisidine) (MMT/POA) clay nanocomposites was carried out by using the chemical oxidative polymerization of POA and MMT clay with POA, respectively. By maintaining the constant concentration of POA, different percentage loads of MMT clay were used to determine the effect of MMT clay on the properties of POA. The interaction between POA and MMT clay was investigated by FTIR spectroscopy, and, to reveal the complete compactness and homogeneous distribution of MMT clay in POA, were assessed by using scanning-electron-microscope (SEM) analysis. The UV-visible spectrum was studied for the optical and absorbance properties of MMT/POA ceramic nanocomposites. Furthermore, the horizontal burning test (HBT) demonstrated that clay nanofillers inhibit POA combustion.


Assuntos
Retardadores de Chama , Nanocompostos , Compostos de Anilina , Bentonita/química , Argila , Nanocompostos/química , Compostos Organometálicos
3.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 241: 113778, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36068737

RESUMO

Organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) are alternatives to brominated flame retardants (BFRs) and have recently gained wide acceptance in various materials. For the treatment and prevention of diseases, it is also important to clarify the relationship between OPFRs and tumors, despite the fact that OPFRs are less toxic than BFRs. This research used the TCGA and CTD databases for transcriptome profiling and identifying OPFRs-related genes. GO and KEGG analyses suggested that OPFRs may be closely related to colorectal cancer (CRC), and genes correlated with OPFRs were significantly and differently expressed between tumor and normal group. Further, OPFRs-related genes were associated with a good prognosis in CRC patients. The deeper research demonstrated that one of the OPFRs-triphenyl phosphate could significantly increased the viability and proliferation of CRC cell lines compared with the control group. In addition, Our research also found that melatonin at 50 µM could significantly impact CRC cell proliferation and migration ability induced by TPP.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Retardadores de Chama , Linhagem Celular , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Retardadores de Chama/metabolismo , Retardadores de Chama/toxicidade , Humanos , Organofosfatos/metabolismo , Organofosfatos/toxicidade , Compostos Organofosforados/toxicidade
4.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 241: 113813, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36068742

RESUMO

The potential accumulation of chlorinated organophosphorus flame retardants (Cl-OPFRs) in aquatic environments sparked interest in studying the effects of Cl-OPFRs on cyanobacterial blooms. In this work, two common Cl-OPFRs, tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP) and tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), induced dose-dependent biphasic effect on bloom-forming M. aeruginosa. The hormetic response to low-dose Cl-OPFRs was associated with the upregulation of the type I NADH dehydrogenase (NDH-1) complex and its mediated cyclic electron transfer (CET) pathway, as reflected by a transient post-illumination increase in chlorophyll fluorescence, the dark reduction of P700+ and the change of NDH-1-related gene expression. The increased CET activity and carotenoid content jointly reduced the intracellular ROS production, facilitating cyanobacterial growth. Conversely, a higher concentration of both Cl-OPFRs induced severe inhibition of growth and photosynthetic oxygen-evolving activity through an imbalance between PSII and PSI. Toxic-dose Cl-OPFRs inhibited state transition and fixed cells into the State I with a higher PSII/PSI ratio, as indicated by chlorophyll fluorescence induction, 77 K fluorescence emission spectra and photosystem stoichiometry. The elevated PSII/PSI ratio created an imbalance between the two photosystems and eventually lead to ROS overproduction, which generate adverse effects on cell growth. This work provides important insights into the hormetic mechanism of Cl-OPFRs on Microcystis aeruginosa and their potential roles in harmful cyanobacteria blooms.


Assuntos
Retardadores de Chama , Microcystis , Clorofila , Retardadores de Chama/toxicidade , Organofosfatos , Compostos Organofosforados/toxicidade , Fosfatos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio
5.
J Inorg Biochem ; 236: 111972, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36087434

RESUMO

Excessive organophosphate flame retardant (OPFR) use in consumer products has been reported to increase human disease susceptibility. However, the adverse effects of tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP) (a chlorinated alkyl OPFR) on the heart remain unknown. In this study, we tested whether cardiac fibrosis occurred in animal models of TCEP (10 mg/kg b.w./day) administered continuously by gavage for 30 days and evaluated the specific role of sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase (SERCA). First, we confirmed that TCEP could trigger cardiac fibrosis by histopathological observation and cardiac fibrosis markers. We further verified that cardiac fibrosis occurred in animal models of TCEP exposure accompanied by SERCA2a, SERCA2b and SERCA2c downregulation. Notably, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis revealed that the cardiac concentrations of Ca2+ increased by 45.3% after TCEP exposure. Using 4-Isopropoxy-N-(2-methylquinolin-8-yl)benzamide (CDN1163, a small molecule SERCA activator), we observed that Ca2+ overload and subsequent cardiac fibrosis caused by TCEP were both alleviated. Simultaneously, the protein levels of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) markers (protein kinase R-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK), inositol requiring protein 1α (IRE1α), eukaryotic initiation factor 2 α (eIF2α)) were upregulated by TCEP, which could be abrogated by CDN1163 pretreatment. Furthermore, we observed that CDN1163 supplementation prevented overactive autophagy induced by TCEP in the heart. Mechanistically, TCEP could lead to Ca2+ overload by inhibiting the expression of SERCA, thereby triggering ER stress and overactive autophagy, eventually resulting in cardiac fibrosis. Together, our results suggest that the Ca2+ overload/ER stress/autophagy axis can act as a driver of cardiotoxicity induced by TCEP.


Assuntos
Endorribonucleases , Retardadores de Chama , Aminoquinolinas , Animais , Autofagia , Benzamidas/metabolismo , Cálcio/metabolismo , Retículo Endoplasmático , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático , Endorribonucleases/metabolismo , Endorribonucleases/farmacologia , Fator de Iniciação 2 em Eucariotos/metabolismo , Fator de Iniciação 2 em Eucariotos/farmacologia , Fibrose , Retardadores de Chama/metabolismo , Retardadores de Chama/farmacologia , Humanos , Inositol/metabolismo , Inositol/farmacologia , Organofosfatos , Fosfatos/metabolismo , Fosfinas , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases , ATPases Transportadoras de Cálcio do Retículo Sarcoplasmático/metabolismo , ATPases Transportadoras de Cálcio do Retículo Sarcoplasmático/farmacologia
6.
Environ Health ; 21(1): 82, 2022 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36076289

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are flame-retardant compounds widely used in household products until phase out in 2004. PBDEs are endocrine disruptors and are suggested to influence signaling related to weight control. Prenatal exposures to PBDEs may alter childhood adiposity, yet few studies have examined these associations in human populations. METHODS: Data were collected from a birth cohort of Dominican and African American mother-child pairs from New York City recruited from 1998 to 2006. PBDE congeners BDE-47, - 99, - 100, and - 153 were measured in cord plasma (ng/µL) and dichotomized into low (< 80th percentile) and high (>80th percentile) exposure categories. Height and weight were collected at ages 5, 7, 9, 11, and an ancillary visit from 8 to 14 years (n = 289). Mixed-effects models with random intercepts for participant were used to assess associations between concentrations of individual PBDE congeners or the PBDE sum and child BMI z-scores (BMIz). To assess associations between PBDEs and the change in BMIz over time, models including interactions between PBDE categories and child age and (child age)2 were fit. Quantile g-computation was used to investigate associations between BMIz and the total PBDE mixture. Models were adjusted for baseline maternal covariates: ethnicity, age, education, parity, partnership status, and receipt of public assistance, and child covariates: child sex and cord cholesterol and triglycerides. RESULTS: The prevalence of children with obesity at age 5 was 24.2% and increased to 30% at age 11. Neither cord levels of individual PBDEs nor the total PBDE mixture were associated with overall BMIz in childhood. The changes in BMIz across childhood were not different between children with low or high PBDEs. Results were similar when adjusting for postnatal PBDE exposures. CONCLUSIONS: Prenatal PBDE exposures were not associated with child growth trajectories in a cohort of Dominican and African American children.


Assuntos
Retardadores de Chama , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Éteres Difenil Halogenados , Humanos , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia
7.
Carbohydr Polym ; 296: 119945, 2022 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36087993

RESUMO

Translation of the high mechanical properties of cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) to macroscopic fibers represents a great challenge due to difficulties in the assembly of CNFs into well-ordered structures. In this study, we report the ultrastrong and flame-retardant microfibers via the microfluidic wet spinning of phosphorylated cellulose nanofibrils (PCNFs) with high charge content. The macroscopic stress is effectively transferred to the individual PCNFs and results in a Young's modulus of 29 GPa and a tensile strength of 654 MPa. The as-prepared microfibers retain >85 % strength in the wet hydration state, exceeding most natural or synthetic microfibers. Furthermore, glycerol and egg yolk were introduced to the microfibers for enhancing the modulus (31 GPa), strength (865 MPa) and the strain to failure (10.95 %). In addition, the PCNFs microfibers have good flame retardancy. This study expands the potential applications of nanocellulose microfibers in biomedical and flame-retardant materials.


Assuntos
Retardadores de Chama , Nanofibras , Celulose/química , Microfluídica , Nanofibras/química , Resistência à Tração
8.
Chem Res Toxicol ; 35(9): 1512-1518, 2022 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35950316

RESUMO

Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are ubiquitous industrial chemicals. In China, BFRs that are applied in large quantities include decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209), tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD). Although findings are not always unequivocal, mounting evidence in vivo suggests that the BFRs have potential neurotoxicity. The present study aimed to assess and compare the neurotoxic effects of these three BFRs' exposure. Male mice were orally exposed to BDE-209, TBBPA, or HBCD at 50 and 100 mg/kg bw/day for 28 days. The cognitive behavior, oxidative stress (ROS, MDA, and GSH), apoptosis-related genes (caspase-3, bax, and bcl-2), memory-related proteins (BDNF and PSD-95), and neurotransmitters (AChE and ChAT) were detected comparatively. Results showed that high doses of BDE-209, TBBPA, and HBCD exposure impaired spatial memory of mice, elevated ROS and MDA and reduced GSH levels of hippocampus, upregulated caspase-3 and bax expressions, decreased BDNF and PSD-95 levels, and disordered AChE and ChAT levels. Notably, BDE-209 caused greater adverse effects > HBCD > TBBPA. This study confirms and extends that these three BFRs had similar neurotoxic effects at current concentrations, although they may be more or less toxic.


Assuntos
Retardadores de Chama , Bifenil Polibromatos , Animais , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo , Caspase 3 , Retardadores de Chama/toxicidade , Éteres Difenil Halogenados , Hidrocarbonetos Bromados , Masculino , Camundongos , Bifenil Polibromatos/toxicidade , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/genética
9.
Neurotoxicology ; 92: 131-155, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35914637

RESUMO

Investigation of the toxicity triggered by chemicals on the human brain has traditionally relied on approaches using rodent in vivo models and in vitro cell models including primary neuronal cultures and cell lines from rodents. The issues of species differences between humans and rodents, the animal ethical concerns and the time and cost required for neurotoxicity studies on in vivo animal models, do limit the use of animal-based models in neurotoxicology. In this context, human cell models appear relevant in elucidating cellular and molecular impacts of neurotoxicants and facilitating prioritization of in vivo testing. The SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cell line (ATCC® CRL-2266™) is one of the most used cell lines in neurosciences, either undifferentiated or differentiated into neuron-like cells. This review presents the characteristics of the SH-SY5Y cell line and proposes the results of a systematic review of literature on the use of this in vitro cell model for neurotoxicity research by focusing on organic environmental pollutants including pesticides, 2, 3, 7, 8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), flame retardants, PFASs, parabens, bisphenols, phthalates, and PAHs. Organic environmental pollutants are widely present in the environment and increasingly known to cause clinical neurotoxic effects during fetal & child development and adulthood. Their effects on cultured SH-SY5Y cells include autophagy, cell death (apoptosis, pyroptosis, necroptosis, or necrosis), increased oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, disruption of neurotransmitter homeostasis, and alteration of neuritic length. Finally, the inherent advantages and limitations of the SH-SY5Y cell model are discussed in the context of chemical testing.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Retardadores de Chama , Fluorcarbonetos , Neuroblastoma , Síndromes Neurotóxicas , Praguicidas , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas , Adulto , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular , Criança , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Retardadores de Chama/farmacologia , Fluorcarbonetos/farmacologia , Humanos , Neuroblastoma/metabolismo , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/etiologia , Parabenos/farmacologia , Praguicidas/farmacologia , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/farmacologia
10.
Environ Pollut ; 311: 120012, 2022 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36007786

RESUMO

Legacy [e.g., brominated- (BFRs)] and alternative [e.g., organophosphate- (OPFRs) and nitrogenous- (NFRs)] flame retardants have a propensity to migrate out of consumer products, and thus are dispersed in indoor microenvironments. In this study, simultaneous presence of 11 BFRs, 18 OPFRs and 11 NFRs were measured in house dust collected from Tianjin, China. OPFRs were found at the highest concentrations, with a median value of 3200 ng/g, followed by NFRs (2600) and BFRs (1600). Tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (median: 1800 ng/g), melamine (1100), and BDE-209 (870) were the top three most abundant chemicals in the respective groups. Location-specific patterns of flame retardant concentrations were found with 30%, 20% and 10% of samples were predominated by OPFRs, NFRs and BFRs, respectively, and the remaining samples contained by two or more of the chemical groups occurring concurrently. Network and cluster analysis results indicated the existence of multiple sources of flame retardants in the indoor microenvironment. Estimated human daily intakes via indoor dust ingestion were approximately several tens of ng/kg bw/day and were below their respective reference dose values. Our results indicate widespread occurrence of multiple flame retardant families in indoor dust and suggest need for continued monitoring and efforts to reduce exposures through dust ingestion.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Retardadores de Chama , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , China , Poeira/análise , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Retardadores de Chama/análise , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/análise , Humanos , Nitrogênio/análise , Organofosfatos/análise
11.
J Environ Manage ; 321: 116034, 2022 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36027733

RESUMO

In this study, dithionite (DTN) was used to degrade Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), a widely applied brominated flame retardants, under anaerobic conditions with the reaction terminator of nitrate. The optimization of reaction parameters including TBBPA concentration, DTN concentration and pH value were conducted by response surface methodology (RSM) based on central composite design (CCD). The degradation process could be simulated accurately by a quadratic model with the correlation coefficient R2 of 0.9550. The interaction between pH and DTN concentration was significant with the p-value of 0.0017. Moreover, the maximum TBBPA removal was 87.6 ± 3.2% and obtained at TBBPA concentration of 2.00 µM, the DTN concentration of 322.31 µM, and the pH of 6.14 under anaerobic conditions. It was found that the factors influenced TBBPA removal followed the order: pH > DTN concentration > TBBPA concentration. The major active products from DTN are SO32- and S2O32-. In addition, different inhibitions of natural water matrix including chloride, bicarbonate, sulfide and humic acid on TBBPA degradation had been confirmed. According to the identified six intermediates via gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), two steps of the degradation pathways were speculated, including the breakage of C-Br bond and C-C bond. This study provides a convenient way to degrade TBBPA.


Assuntos
Retardadores de Chama , Bifenil Polibromatos , Anaerobiose , Ditionita , Retardadores de Chama/metabolismo , Bifenil Polibromatos/química , Bifenil Polibromatos/metabolismo
12.
Environ Pollut ; 310: 119918, 2022 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35952990

RESUMO

Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) have been identified as emerging contaminants, which poses a great threat to human health and ecosystem. Pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, dioxins, brominated flame retardants, steroid hormones and alkylphenols are representative of this type of contaminant, which are closely related to daily life. Unfortunately, many wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) do not treat EDCs as targets in the normal treatment process, resulting in EDCs entering the environment. Few studies have systematically reviewed the related content of EDCs in terms of occurrence, harm and remediation. For this reason, in this article, the sources and exposure routes of common EDCs are systematically described. The existence of EDCs in the environment is mainly related to human activities (Wastewater discharges and industrial activities). The common hazards of these EDCs are clarified based on available toxicological data. At the same time, the mechanism and effect of some mainstream EDCs remediation technologies (such as adsorption, advanced oxidation, membrane bioreactor, constructed wetland, etc.) are separately mentioned. Moreover, our perspectives are provided for further research of EDCs.


Assuntos
Disruptores Endócrinos , Retardadores de Chama , Purificação da Água , Ecossistema , Humanos , Águas Residuárias
13.
Environ Pollut ; 310: 119912, 2022 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35961570

RESUMO

Soil polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) generated from industrial processes are highly spatially heterologous, with limited quantitative studies on their main influencing factors. The present study evaluated the soil PAHs in three types of industrial parks (a petrochemical industrial park, a brominated flame retardant manufacturing park, and an e-waste dismantling park) and their surroundings. The total concentrations of 16 PAHs in the parks were 340-2.43 × 103, 26.2-2.63 × 103, and 394-2.01 × 104 ng/g, which were significantly higher than those in the surrounding areas by 1-2 orders of magnitude, respectively. The highest soil PAH contamination was observed in the e-waste dismantling park. Nap can be considered as characteristic pollutant in the petrochemical industrial park, while Phe in the flame retardant manufacturing park and e-waste dismantling park. Low molecular weight PAHs (2-3 rings) predominated in the petrochemical industrial park (73.0%) and the surrounding area of brominated flame retardant manufacturing park (80.3%). However, high molecular weight PAHs (4-6 rings) were enriched in the other sampling sites, indicating distinct sources and determinants of soil PAHs. Source apportionment results suggested that PAHs in the parks were mainly derived from the leakage of petroleum products in the petroleum manufacturing process and pyrolysis or combustion of fossil fuels. Contrarily, the PAHs in the surrounding areas could have been derived from the historical coal combustion and traffic emissions. Source emissions, wind direction, and local topography influenced the PAH spatial distributions.


Assuntos
Retardadores de Chama , Petróleo , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Poluentes do Solo , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Medição de Risco , Solo
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(16)2022 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36012407

RESUMO

The use of flexible polyurethane foam (FPUF) is severely limited due to its flammability and dripping, which can easily cause major fire hazards. Therefore, choosing an appropriate flame retardant to solve this problem is an urgent need. A coating was prepared on the FPUF surface by dipping with phytic acid (PA), Fe2(SO4)3·xH2O, and laponite (LAP). The influence of PA-Fe/LAP coating on FPUF flame-retardant performance was explored by thermal stability, flame retardancy, combustion behavior, and smoke density analysis. FPUF/PA-Fe/LAP has a good performance in the small fire test, which can pass the UL-94 V-0 rating and the limiting oxygen index reaches 24.5%. Meanwhile, the peak heat release rate values and maximum smoke density of FPUF/PA-Fe/LAP are reduced by 38.7% and 38.5% compared with those of neat FPUF. After applying PA-Fe/LAP coating, the value of fire growth rate index decreases from 10.5 kW/(m2·s) to 5.1 kW/(m2·s), dramatically reducing the fire risk. Encouragingly, the effect of PA-Fe/LAP coating on cyclic compression and permanent deformation is small, which is close to that of neat FPUF. This work provides an effective strategy for making a flame-retardant FPUF with antidripping and keeping mechanical properties.


Assuntos
Retardadores de Chama , Ácido Fítico , Ferro , Poliuretanos , Silicatos , Fumaça
15.
Molecules ; 27(16)2022 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36014294

RESUMO

(1) Background: 2,4,6-Tribromophenol (2,4,6-TBP) and pentabromophenol (PBP) are utilized as brominated flame retardants (BFRs) in order to reduce the combustion of materials used in various utility products. The presence of 2,4,6-TBP and PBP has been reported in environmental samples as well as in inhaled air, dust, food, drinking water, and the human body. To date, there are limited data concerning the toxic action of 2,4,6-TBP and particularly PBP, and no study has been conducted to assess the apoptotic mechanism of action of these substances in human leukocytes. (2) Methods: PBMCs were isolated from leukocyte-platelet buffy coat and treated with tested substances in concentrations ranging from 0.01 to 50 µg/mL for 24 h. The apoptotic mechanism of action of the tested BFRs was assessed by the determination of phosphatidylserine exposure on the PBMCs surface, the evaluation of mitochondrial potential and cytosolic calcium ion levels, and the determination of caspase-8, -9, and -3 activation. Moreover, poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) cleavage, DNA fragmentation, and chromatin condensation were analyzed. (3) Results: 2,4,6-TBP and, more strongly, PBP induced apoptosis in PBMCs, changing all tested parameters. It was also found that the mitochondrial pathway was mainly involved in the apoptosis of PBMCs exposed to the studied compounds. (4) Conclusions: 2,4,6-TBP and PBP triggered apoptosis in human PBMCs, and some observed changes occurred at 2,4,6-TBP concentrations that were detected in humans occupationally exposed to this substance.


Assuntos
Retardadores de Chama , Apoptose , Humanos , Leucócitos Mononucleares , Fenóis
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35954739

RESUMO

Organophosphate esters (OPEs) are widely used as an additive in flame retardants, plasticizers, lubricants, consumer chemicals, and foaming agents. They can accumulate in aquatic organisms from water (waterborne exposure) and food (dietary exposure). However, the bioaccumulation characteristics and relative importance of different exposure routes to the bioaccumulation of OPEs are relatively poorly understood. In this study, Daphnia magna were exposed to fo typical OPEs (tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCIPP), tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBOEP), and triphenyl phosphate (TPHP)), and their toxicokinetics under waterborne and dietary exposure routes were analyzed. For the waterborne exposure route, the bioconcentration factors (BCFs) increased in the order of TBOEP, TCEP, TDCPP, and TPHP, which were consistent with their uptake rate constants. TPHP might have the most substantial accumulation potential while TBOEP may have the smallest potential. In dietary exposure, the depuration rate constants of four OPEs were different from those in the waterborne experiment, which may indicate other depuration mechanisms in two exposure routes. The biomagnification factors (BMFs) of fur OPEs were all below 1, suggesting trophic dilution in the transfer of four OPEs from Scenedesmus obliquus to D. magna. Except for TBOEP, the contributions of dietary exposure were generally lower than waterborne exposure in D. magna under two exposure concentrations. This study provides information on the bioaccumulation and contribution of OPEs in D. magna via different exposure routes and highlights the importance of considering different exposure routes in assessing the risk of OPEs.


Assuntos
Daphnia , Retardadores de Chama , Animais , Bioacumulação , Monitoramento Ambiental , Ésteres , Retardadores de Chama/análise , Retardadores de Chama/toxicidade , Organofosfatos/toxicidade , Fosfatos , Zooplâncton
17.
Environ Res ; 214(Pt 3): 113981, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35952739

RESUMO

Silicone wristbands act as passive environmental samplers capable of detecting and measuring concentrations of a variety of chemicals. They offer a noninvasive method to collect complex exposure data in large-scale epidemiological studies. We evaluated the inter-method reliability of silicone wristbands and urinary biomarkers in the New Hampshire Birth Cohort Study. A subset of study participants (n = 96) provided a urine sample and wore a silicone wristband for 7 days at approximately 12 gestational weeks. Women were instructed to wear the wristbands during all their normal activities. Concentrations of urinary compounds and metabolites in the urine and parent compounds in wristbands were compared. High detection rates were observed for triphenyl phosphate (76.0%) and benzophenone (78.1%) in wristbands, although the distribution of corresponding urinary concentrations of chemicals did not differ according to whether chemicals were detected or not detected in wristbands. While detected among only 8.3% of wristbands, median urinary triclosan concentrations were higher among those with triclosan detected in wristbands (9.04 ng/mL) than without (0.16 ng/mL). For most chemicals slight to fair agreement was observed across exposure assessment methods, potentially due to low rates of detection in the wristbands for chemicals where observed urinary concentrations were relatively low as compared to background concentrations in the general population. Our findings support the growing body of research in support of deploying silicone wristbands as an important exposure assessment tool.


Assuntos
Expossoma , Retardadores de Chama , Triclosan , Biomarcadores , Estudos de Coortes , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Feminino , Retardadores de Chama/análise , Humanos , Gravidez , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Silicones/química
18.
Environ Pollut ; 311: 119980, 2022 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35985432

RESUMO

China has been in a rapid development period in recent decades, the mass production and use of chemical industrial products and pesticides have resulted in a large amount of pollutants in the environment. These pollutants enter the human body through environmental exposure and dietary intake, causing adverse health effects. Although many of them have been banned and restricted in the production and use in China, these pollutants still remain in the human body due to their high persistence and strong bioaccumulation. In this review, we aim to reveal the accumulation levels and profiles, as well as the temporal and spatial distribution of common chemical pollutants including chlorinated paraffins (CPs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers, organophosphorus flame retardants (OPFRs), new halogenated flame retardants (NHFRs), polychlorinated biphenyls, phthalic acid esters, perfluorinated compounds, bisphenols, organophosphorus pesticides and pyrethroid insecticides in the blood (including whole blood, serum and plasma) of Chinese adults by extracting 93 related studies published from 1990 to 2021. Results have shown that CPs, OCPs and PAHs were the main pollutants in China, the levels of short-chain chlorinated paraffin, p,p'-DDE and phenanthrene in blood even reached 11,060.58, 740.41 and 498.28 ng/g lipid respectively. Under the strict control of pollutants in China, the levels of most pollutants have been on a downward trend except for perfluoro octanoate and perfluoro nonanoate. Besides, OPFRs, NHFRs and PAHs may have a potential upward trend, requiring further research and observation. As for spatial distribution, East China (Bohai Bay and Yangtze River Delta) and South China (Pearl River Delta) were the major polluted regions due to their fast development of industry and agriculture.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Retardadores de Chama , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados , Praguicidas , Bifenilos Policlorados , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Adulto , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Retardadores de Chama/análise , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Compostos Organofosforados , Praguicidas/análise , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
19.
Environ Sci Technol ; 56(17): 12003-12013, 2022 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35948419

RESUMO

Transformation of organophosphate esters (OPEs) in natural ambient air and potential health risks from coexposure to OPEs and their transformation products are largely unclear. Therefore, a novel framework combining field-based investigation, in silico prediction, and target and suspect screening was employed to understand atmospheric persistence and health impacts of OPEs. Alkyl-OPE transformation products ubiquitously occurred in urban ambient air. The transformation ratios of tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate were size-dependent, implying that transformation processes may be affected by particle size. Transformation products of chlorinated- and aryl-OPEs were not detected in atmospheric particles, and atmospheric dry deposition might significantly contribute to their removal. Although inhalation risk of coexposure to OPEs and transformation products in urban ambient air was low, health risks related to OPEs may be underestimated as constrained by the identification of plausible transformation products and their toxicity testing in vitro or in vivo at current stage. The present study highlights the significant impact of particle size on the atmospheric persistence of OPEs and suggests that health risk assessments should be conducted with concurrent consideration of both parental compounds and transformation products of OPEs, in view of the nonnegligible abundances of transformation products in the air and their potential toxicity in silico.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Retardadores de Chama , China , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Ésteres , Retardadores de Chama/análise , Organofosfatos , Medição de Risco
20.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol ; 452: 116194, 2022 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35961412

RESUMO

The health risks of Decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE) with its cardiovascular toxicity, liver toxicity and cytotoxicity had been generally acknowledged. However, the influence on gut microbiome and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) metabolism caused by DBDPE exposure remained unknown. In this study, three exposure groups (5, 50, 500 mg/L) and control group were used to investigate the effect of DBDPE by using simulator of the human intestinal microbial ecosystem (SHIME). 16S rRNA gene high-throughput sequencing illustrated that high dose DBDPE exposure increased the α-diversity of gut microbiota, while reduced the abundance of Firmicutes and Proteobacteria. In addition, the low dose (5 mg/L) DBDPE inhibited the increasing of SCFAs, but the medium and high dose (50 and 500 mg/L) DBDPE promoted the advancement, especially in ascending colon. Notably, DBDPE exposure lead a similar changing of acetic acid and butyric acid contents in different sections of the colon. This study confirmed the alternation of composition and metabolic function in gut microbial community due to DBDPE exposure, indicating an intestinal damage and appealing for more attention concentrated on the health effects of DBDPE exposure.


Assuntos
Retardadores de Chama , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Bromobenzenos , Ecossistema , Retardadores de Chama/toxicidade , Humanos , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
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