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1.
Aquat Toxicol ; 230: 105688, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33316748

RESUMO

Organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) are (re-)emergent environmental pollutants increasingly being used because of the restriction of other flame retardants. The chlorinated OPFR, tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP) is among those of highest environmental concern, but its potential effects in the marine environment have rarely been investigated. We exposed a widely used sentinel marine mussel species, Mytilus galloprovincialis, to 10 µg L-1 of TDCPP during 28 days and studied: (i) the kinetics of bioaccumulation and elimination of the compound, (ii) the effect on two molecular biomarkers, glutathione S-transferase (GST) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activities, and (iii) proteomic alterations in the gills, following an isobaric labeling quantitative shotgun proteomic approach, at two exposure times (7 and 28 days). Uptake and elimination of TDCPP by mussels were very fast, and the bioconcentration factor of this compound in mussels was 147 L kgww-1, confirming that this compound is not very bioaccumulative, as predicted by its chemical properties. GST activity was not affected by TDCPP exposure, but AChE activity was inhibited by TDCPP at both 7 and 28 days of exposure. Proteomic analysis revealed subtle effects of TDCPP in mussel gills, since few proteins (less than 2 % of the analysed proteome) were significantly affected by TDCPP, and effect sizes were low. The most relevant effects detected were the up-regulation of epimerase family protein SDR39U1, an enzyme that could be involved in detoxification processes, at both exposure times, and the down-regulation of receptor-type tyrosine-protein phosphatase N2-like (PTPRN2) after 7 days of exposure, which is involved in neurotransmitter secretion and might be related to the neurotoxicity described for this compound. Exposure time rather than TDCPP exposure was the most important driver of protein abundance changes, with 33 % of the proteome being affected by this factor, suggesting that stress caused by laboratory conditions could be an important confounding factor that needs to be controlled in similar ecotoxicology studies. Proteomic data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD019720.


Assuntos
Bioacumulação/efeitos dos fármacos , Retardadores de Chama/toxicidade , Brânquias/metabolismo , Mytilus/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos Organofosforados/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Acetilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Retardadores de Chama/metabolismo , Brânquias/efeitos dos fármacos , Glutationa Transferase/metabolismo , Cinética , Modelos Biológicos , Mytilus/metabolismo , Compostos Organofosforados/metabolismo , Proteômica , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo
2.
Environ Health ; 19(1): 100, 2020 09 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32938446

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are used in consumer products for their water repellent and flame retardant properties, respectively. However, there is widespread prenatal exposure and concern about their potential harm to the developing fetus. Here, we utilized data from a demographically diverse cohort of women in San Francisco, CA to examine associations between prenatal exposure to PFAS and PBDEs with gestational age and birth weight for gestational age z-scores. METHODS: Women included in this analysis were enrolled in the Chemicals in our Bodies (CIOB) cohort study (N = 506). PFAS and PBDEs were measured in serum obtained during the second trimester of pregnancy. Linear regression models were used to calculate crude and adjusted ß coefficients for the association between PFAS and PBDE concentrations in tertiles and gestational age and birth weight z-scores. Individual PFAS and PBDE concentrations, as well as their sums, were examined in separate models. RESULTS: The highest compared to lowest tertile of BDE-47 was associated with shorter gestational age (ß = - 0.49, 95% confidence interval [CI] = - 0.95, - 0.02). Additionally, exposure to BDE-47 and BDE-99 in the middle tertile was also associated with a reduction in birth weight z-scores (ß = - 0.26, 95% CI = -0.48, - 0.04; ß = - 0.25, 95% CI = -0.47, - 0.04, respectively) compared to those in the lowest tertile of exposure. No consistent associations were observed between increasing PFAS concentrations and gestational age or birth weight z-scores. DISCUSSION: Among a diverse group of pregnant women in the San Francisco Bay Area, we found non-linear associations between prenatal exposure to PBDEs during the second trimester of pregnancy and birth weight z-scores. However, most PFAS congeners were not associated with adverse birth outcomes. PFAS and PBDE concentrations were lower in our cohort relative to other studies. Future research should assess the effects of emerging and persistent PFAS and PBDEs on birth outcomes, as some congeners are being phased out and replaced by chemically similar structures.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Retardadores de Chama/efeitos adversos , Fluorcarbonetos/efeitos adversos , Idade Gestacional , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/efeitos adversos , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Feminino , Retardadores de Chama/metabolismo , Fluorcarbonetos/sangue , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/sangue , Humanos , Gravidez , São Francisco , Adulto Jovem
3.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 12247, 2020 07 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32699379

RESUMO

Prenatal polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) exposures are a public health concern due to their persistence and potential for reproductive and developmental harm. However, we have little information about the extent of fetal exposures during critical developmental periods and the variation in exposures for groups that may be more highly exposed, such as communities of color and lower socioeconomic status (SES). To characterize maternal-fetal PBDE exposures among potentially vulnerable groups, PBDE levels were examined in the largest sample of matched maternal serum, placenta, and fetal liver tissues during mid-gestation among a geographically, racially/ethnically, and socially diverse population of pregnant women from Northern California and the Central Valley (n = 180; 2014-16). Maternal-fetal PBDE levels were compared to population characteristics using censored Kendall's tau correlation and linear regression. PBDEs were commonly detected in all biomatrices. Before lipid adjustment, wet-weight levels of all four PBDE congeners were highest in the fetal liver (p < 0.001), whereas median PBDE levels were significantly higher in maternal serum than in the fetal liver or placenta after lipid-adjustment (p < 0.001). We also found evidence of racial/ethnic disparities in PBDE exposures (Non-Hispanic Black > Latina/Hispanic > Non-Hispanic White > Asian/Pacific Islander/Other; p < 0.01), with higher levels of BDE-100 and BDE-153 among non-Hispanic Black women compared to the referent group (Latina/Hispanic women). In addition, participants living in Fresno/South Central Valley had 34% (95% CI: - 2.4 to 84%, p = 0.07) higher wet-weight levels of BDE-47 than residents living in the San Francisco Bay Area. PBDEs are widely detected and differentially distributed in maternal-fetal compartments. Non-Hispanic Black pregnant women and women from Southern Central Valley geographical populations may be more highly exposed to PBDEs. Further research is needed to identify sources that may be contributing to differential exposures and associated health risks among these vulnerable populations.


Assuntos
Feto/metabolismo , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/metabolismo , Placenta/metabolismo , Adulto , Grupos de Populações Continentais , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Grupos Étnicos , Feminino , Retardadores de Chama/metabolismo , Humanos , Exposição Materna , Troca Materno-Fetal/fisiologia , Bifenil Polibromatos/metabolismo , Gravidez , São Francisco , Adulto Jovem
4.
Environ Health ; 19(1): 55, 2020 05 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32448197

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Organophosphate esters (OPEs) are synthetic chemicals used as flame retardants and plasticizers in a variety of goods. Despite ubiquitous human exposures and laboratory evidence that prenatal OPE exposures may disrupt offspring metabolism, perinatal studies of OPE health effects are limited. The objectives of this study were to: 1) Determine predictors and reproducibility of urinary OPE biomarker concentrations during pregnancy, and 2) Estimate the relation of prenatal OPE exposures with birth outcomes and cord blood adipokine and insulin concentrations. METHODS: We analyzed five OPE metabolites in urine samples collected at up to three visits during pregnancy from 90 women enrolled in the ORigins of Child Health And Resilience in Development (ORCHARD) pregnancy cohort in Baltimore, MD from 2017 to 2019. To quantify the variability of metabolite concentrations during pregnancy, we calculated intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) for each metabolite using mixed effects regression models. Using self-reported questionnaire data collected during gestation, we assessed possible sociodemographic and environmental/behavioral predictors of each OPE metabolite using generalized estimating equations to account for repeated exposure measures. We ascertained birth outcomes of 76 offspring from medical records, including weight-for-gestational age, length, ponderal index, and gestational age. In a subset of 37 infants, we measured cord blood concentrations of leptin, adiponectin, and insulin. To account for repeated exposure measures, we used linear structural equation models to assess the relations of standard deviation (SD) increases in prenatal OPE metabolite factor scores with continuous birth outcomes and cord blood biomarker concentrations. RESULTS: ICCs ranged from 0.09 for isopropylphenyl-phenyl phosphate (ip-PPP) to 0.59 for bis(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (BDCIPP). We observed little consistency in environmental or behavioral predictors of OPE exposures, although concentrations were generally lower for samples collected in the afternoon compared to morning and winter compared to other seasons. In adjusted analyses, a SD increase in BDCIPP concentration was associated with a 0.06 g/cm3 (95% CI: 0.00, 0.12) greater ponderal index. A SD increase in BDCIPP was associated with a 0.37 (95% CI: - 0.62, - 0.13) SD lower insulin concentration and 0.24 (95% CI: - 0.39, - 0.08) SD lower leptin concentration. Other OPEs were not associated with infant outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest some OPEs may be metabolic disruptors warranting investigation in larger studies.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Poluentes Ambientais/urina , Ésteres/urina , Sangue Fetal/química , Organofosfatos/urina , Gravidez/urina , Adolescente , Adulto , Baltimore , Feminino , Retardadores de Chama/metabolismo , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Exposição Materna , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Plastificantes/metabolismo , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
5.
Environ Health ; 19(1): 54, 2020 05 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32434563

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are lipophilic substances with endocrine-disrupting properties. To date, only few investigations, mainly retrospective case-control studies, have explored the link between internal levels of BFRs and the risk of breast cancer, leading to conflicting results. We investigated the associations between plasma concentrations of two main groups of BFRs, PBDEs (pentabromodiphenyl ethers) and PBBs (polybrominated biphenyls), and the risk of breast cancer in a nested case-control study. METHODS: A total of 197 incident breast cancer cases and 197 controls with a blood sample collected in 1994-1999 were included. Plasma levels of PBDE congeners (BDE-28, BDE-47, BDE-99, BDE-100, BDE153, BDE-154) and of PBB-153 were measured by gas chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry. Conditional logistic regression models, adjusted for potential confounders, were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS: Women were aged 56 years on average at blood draw. All cases, except for one, were diagnosed after menopause, with an average age at diagnosis of 68 years. Overall, we found no evidence of an association between plasma levels of PBDEs and PBB-153 and postmenopausal breast cancer risk (log-concentrations of BFRs yielding non-statistically significant ORs of 0.87 to 1.07). The analysis showed a non-linear inverse association for BDE-100 and BDE-153 and postmenopausal breast cancer risk; nevertheless, these findings were statistically significant only when the exposure was modeled as ng/L plasma (third vs. first quintile: OR = 0.42, 95%CI = 0.19-0.93 and OR = 0.42, 95%CI = 0.18-0.98, respectively) and not when modeled as ng/gr of lipids (OR = 0.58, 95%CI = 0.27-1.25 and OR = 0.53, 95%CI = 0.25-1.17). These results were unchanged in stratified analyses by tumor hormone receptor expression or body mass index. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest no clear association between internal levels of PBDEs and PBB-153 and the risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women. However, these findings need to be carefully interpreted, taking into account limitations due to the limited number of women included in the study, the lack of information concerning genetic susceptibility of cases, and the unavailability of exposure assessment during critical windows of susceptibility for breast cancer. More studies are warranted to further investigate the relationships between PBDE and PBB exposure and breast cancer risk.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Disruptores Endócrinos/sangue , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Retardadores de Chama/metabolismo , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/sangue , Bifenil Polibromatos/sangue , Pós-Menopausa , Neoplasias da Mama/induzido quimicamente , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
6.
Chemosphere ; 254: 126843, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32339796

RESUMO

In a 3-day duplicate diet study of a nursing mother-infant cohort (n = 20), the levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD), and 5 novel brominated flame retardants (BFRs) were measured in 60 24-h duplicate diet samples and 20 breast milk samples provided by the mothers. The dietary BFR intake and related health risks of the mothers and their babies due to food consumption or human milk ingestion were subsequently assessed. At median concentrations of 284, 264 and 177 pg/g wet weight (ww) in the diet, decabrominated diphenyl ethers (BDE-209), decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE) and HBCDD were predominant among the total BFRs. In human milk, HBCDD was the most abundant BFR, followed by BDE-209 and DBDPE, which indicates that BDE-209 and HBCDD have remained ubiquitous in the environment because of their continuous production and use in China. Meanwhile, concentrations of DBDPE were comparative to those of PBDEs and HBCDD in both diet and human milk, and DBDPE also had much higher concentrations than any other NBFRs, which indicates that the BFR consumption pattern in China is shifting from legacy BFRs to NBFRs. The median estimated dietary intakes (EDIs) of BDE-209, HBCDD and DBDPE for the mothers were 6.83, 3.73 and 5.44 ng/kg bw/day, respectively, and EDIs for their nursing babies were 24.7, 41.9 and 7.83 ng/kg bw/day, respectively. The nursing infants showed higher BFR body burden than the mothers. However, the EDIs obtained for both mothers and their babies discloses a low health risk to this mother-infant cohort.


Assuntos
Exposição Dietética/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo , Retardadores de Chama/metabolismo , Exposição Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Pequim , Bromobenzenos , China , Estudos de Coortes , Dieta , Feminino , Retardadores de Chama/análise , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/análise , Halogenação , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos Bromados , Lactente , Leite Humano/química , Mães
7.
Chemosphere ; 253: 126653, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32302898

RESUMO

Novel brominated flame retardants (NBFRs) have been widely used and frequently detected in various environmental matrices. In this study, 2-ethylhexyl-2,3,4,5-tetrabromobenzoate (TBB), bis-(2-ethylhexyl) tetrabromophthalate (TBPH) and their metabolites (namely 2,3,4,5-tetra-bromo benzoic acid (TBBA) and mono(2-ethylhexyl) tetrabromophthalate (TBMEHP)) were exposed to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Metabolites can induce stronger cytotoxicity than parent compounds with EC50 at 47.3 (TBBA), 8.6 µg/ml (TBMEHP) vs > 200 µg/mL for parent compounds. Gene expression of platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1, the gene associated with blood platelet kinetics, was significantly induced under TBBA and TBMEHP exposure. The in vivo test was consistent with gene expression result that the number of platelets in mouse blood was significantly increased after gavaged with 0.8 µg/mL TBBA and TBMEHP. In addition, TBB or TBPH were exposed to mice via gavage, and higher concentrations of TBBA (4 h, 60.8 ± 12.9 ng/mL, 8 h, 69.4 ± 2.24 ng/mL) in mouse blood were found than those of TBMEHP (4 h, 17.2 ± 4.01 ng/mL, 8 h, 12.8 ± 3.20 ng/mL), indicating that TBB was more readily in vivo metabolized than TBPH. The in vivo metabolism of TBB and TBPH and the stronger toxicity of their metabolites underscore the potential risk through NBFR exposure and the importance of understanding NBFR metabolism process.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Retardadores de Chama/análise , Animais , Ácido Benzoico , Monitoramento Ambiental , Retardadores de Chama/metabolismo , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/fisiologia , Humanos , Cinética , Camundongos , Ácidos Ftálicos/química , Testes de Toxicidade , Veias Umbilicais
8.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 104(5): 701-706, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32236703

RESUMO

The accumulation and transformation of 2,2',4,4'-tetrabrominated diphenyl ether (BDE47), one congener of the flame retardants polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), in soil-feeding fauna are still unknown. Using radioactivity tracer, we incubated 14C-labelled BDE47 in soil for 21 days in the presence and absence of the geophagous earthworm Metaphire vulgaris. BDE47 accumulated in the earthworm predominantly via oral ingestion of soil, giving a biota-soil accumulation factor (BSAF) value of 1.3 for radioactivity at the end of incubation, and was mostly located in intestine, followed by clitellum (organs region) and skin of earthworms. Accumulation was accompanied by significant decrease of BDE47 concentration in soil porewater and BDE47 mineralization in soil. BDE47 was transformed in the earthworm gut into two metabolites with higher polarities than BDE47. The results provide for the first time insights into accumulation and transformation of lower-brominated congeners of PBDEs in geophagous earthworms, being helpful for environmental risk assessment of PBDEs.


Assuntos
Bioacumulação , Retardadores de Chama/análise , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/análise , Oligoquetos/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Solo/química , Animais , Retardadores de Chama/metabolismo , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo
9.
Chemosphere ; 250: 126320, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32126331

RESUMO

While persistent organic pollutant (POP) contamination within Antarctica is largely caused by long-range atmospheric transport (LRAT), Antarctic research bases have been shown to be local sources of POPs such as brominated flame retardants (BFRs). This study compared concentrations of seven polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) congeners and five novel flame retardants (NBFRs) found in Adélie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) colony soils near the Australian research stations, Mawson and Davis, to assess the stations as local sources of these contaminants and provide a much needed baseline for contamination of BFRs in East Antarctica. Soil samples (n = 46) were collected from Adélie colonies at close proximity to the research stations as well as further afield during the 2016-17 austral summer. Samples were analysed using selective pressurised liquid extraction (S-PLE) and gas chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). PBDEs (BDE-28, -47, -99, -100, -153, -154 and -183) were detected in 45/46 samples with ∑7PBDE concentrations ranging from <0.01 to 1.63 ng/g dry weight (dw) and NBFRs (2,3,4,5,6-pentabromotoluene (PBT), 2,3,4,5,6-pentabromoethylbenzene (PBEB), hexabromobenzene (HBB), 2-ethylhexyl-2,3,4,5-tetrabromobenzoate (EH-TBB) and bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy) ethane (BTBPE)) detected in 20/46 samples, with a range of ∑5NBFR from not detected (ND) to 0.16 ng/g dw. Soils taken from around the Davis and Mawson research stations were more highly contaminated (n = 10) than penguin colonies (n = 27) and control areas not affiliated with breeding seabirds (n = 8). The most common congener detected was BDE-99, reflecting inputs from LRAT. However, the congener profiles of station soils supported the hypothesis that research stations are a local source of PBDEs to the Antarctic environment. In addition, the NBFR pentabromoethylbenzene (PBEB) was quantified for the first time in Antarctic soils, providing essential information for baseline contamination within the region and highlighting the need for ongoing monitoring as global regulations for the use of BFRs continuously change.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo , Retardadores de Chama/metabolismo , Spheniscidae/metabolismo , Animais , Regiões Antárticas , Austrália , Bromobenzenos , Retardadores de Chama/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/análise , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/metabolismo , Halogenação , Bifenil Polibromatos , Solo/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
10.
Biochemistry ; 59(12): 1273-1288, 2020 03 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32167750

RESUMO

Organophosphate flame retardants are used to inhibit combustion and increase plasticity in plastics and durable foams. While not neurotoxic, these compounds are potential carcinogens, endocrine disrupters, and developmental toxins. The phosphotriesterase from Sphingobium sp. TCM1 (Sb-PTE) is unique among phosphotriesterase enzymes for its ability to hydrolyze these compounds and its ability to hydrolyze any one of the three different ester bonds within a given substrate. In some cases, the extent of hydrolysis of a methyl ester exceeds that of a p-nitrophenyl ester within a single substrate. There is a stereochemical component to this hydrolysis where the two enantiomers of chiral substrates give different product ratios. To investigate the stereoselectivity for the product distribution of Sb-PTE, a series of 24 phosphotriesters were synthesized with all possible combinations of methyl, cyclohexyl, phenyl, and p-nitrophenyl esters. Prochiral compounds were made chiral by differential isotopic labeling using a chemo/enzymatic strategy, which allowed the differentiation of hydrolysis for each ester in all but two compounds. The rate equations for this unique enzymatic mechanism were derived; the product ratios were determined for each substrate, and the individual kinetic constants for hydrolysis of each ester within each substrate were measured. The findings are consistent with the rate-limiting step for substrate hydrolysis catalyzed by Sb-PTE being the formation of a phosphorane-like intermediate and the kinetic constants and product ratios being dictated by a combination of transition state energies, inductive effects, and stereochemical constraints.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo , Retardadores de Chama/metabolismo , Organofosfatos/metabolismo , Hidrolases de Triester Fosfórico/metabolismo , Sphingomonadaceae/enzimologia , Biocatálise , Biodegradação Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Retardadores de Chama/toxicidade , Hidrólise , Cinética , Organofosfatos/toxicidade , Estereoisomerismo , Especificidade por Substrato
11.
Chemosphere ; 252: 126569, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32220724

RESUMO

Plastic litter pollution is increasing in the seas and oceans worldwide, raising concern on the potential effects of plasticizer additives on marine fauna. In this study, muscle samples of 30 bogues (Boops boops; Linneaus, 1758) from the North Western Mediterranean Sea were analysed to assess the concentrations of 19 organophosphate flame retardant (OPFR) compounds and to inspect any relationship with microplastic ingestion and relative levels of anthropization. Out of the 19 OPFRs analysed, 6 compounds were detected, being tri-n-butyl phosphate (TNBP), 2-ethylhexyldiphenyl phosphate (EHDPP) and triphenylphosphine oxide (TPPO) the most abundant. As expected, OPFR concentrations were higher in samples collected off the most anthropized area of the city of Barcelona than in those from the Cap de Creus Marine Protected Area, while no significant correlation was detected between OPFR concentrations and microplastic ingestion. The results of this manuscript provide a first evidence of OPFR presence in the muscle of the bogue and identify the coastal area off Barcelona as a possible concentration area for contaminants, further supporting the use of the bogue as an indicator species of plastic pollution in the Mediterranean Sea.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Retardadores de Chama/metabolismo , Microplásticos/análise , Organofosfatos/metabolismo , Perciformes/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Animais , Retardadores de Chama/análise , Mar Mediterrâneo , Organofosfatos/análise , Compostos Organofosforados , Plastificantes/análise , Plásticos/análise
12.
Chemosphere ; 248: 126109, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32041076

RESUMO

This study investigates the occurrence of polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), a legacy flame retardant, in fishery products such as medicinal grade cod liver oils and canned liver products, sourced from the North Atlantic during 1972-2017. It also assesses the dietary and supplementary (the oils were commonly administered as dietary supplements to children and youth) intake of PBBs from these products. Summed ortho-PBB concentrations ranged from 770 to 1400 pg g-1 fat in the oils and from 99 to 240 pg g-1 whole weight in canned livers, with PBB-49, 52, 101 and 153 accounting for most of these levels. Among the more toxic non-ortho-PBBs, PBB-126 and PBB-169 were not detected, but PBB-77 concentrations ranged from 0.6 to 5.78 pg g-1 fat in the oils and 0.06-0.126 pg g-1 whole weight in canned livers. During 1972-1993, PBB contamination levels were similar for cod liver oils from the Baltic Sea and other North Atlantic regions, but over the timescale of the study, Baltic Sea products appear to show a decline in PBB concentrations. As PBB-77 was the only dioxin-like PBB detected in the samples, the corresponding supplementary (oils, 1972-2001) and dietary (cod liver from 2017) intakes were very low, at < 0.001 pg TEQ kg-1 bm d-1 (or < 0.01 pg TEQ kg-1 bm d-1 upper bound) for the sum of all the measured dioxin-like PBBs -four to six orders of magnitude lower than that arising from other dioxin-like contaminants that were shown to occur in these products, from earlier studies.


Assuntos
Óleo de Fígado de Bacalhau/química , Alimentos em Conserva/análise , Gadus morhua/metabolismo , Fígado/química , Bifenil Polibromatos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Adolescente , Animais , Países Bálticos , Criança , Dioxinas/metabolismo , Retardadores de Chama/metabolismo , Humanos , Fígado/metabolismo , Bifenil Polibromatos/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química
13.
Chemosphere ; 246: 125738, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31918085

RESUMO

Organophosphate triesters are used worldwide as additives in flame retardants and plasticizer as a replacement of polybrominated diphenyl ethers. Increasing evidence on human exposure to and environmental contamination with organophosphorus flame retardants (OPFRs) requires an adequate toxicity assessment for this class of chemicals. While developmental toxicity of several OPFRs has been reported, developmental effects of OPFR metabolites have still to be understood. The present study aimed at characterizing developmental effects of OPFR metabolites using zebrafish embryos (Danio rerio). Triphenyl phosphate (TPHP) and two of its metabolites, 3-hydroxylphenyl diphenyl phosphate and 4-hydroxylphenyl diphenyl phosphate, were most potent for inducing pericardial edema and reduction in blood flow in trunk vessels. Other TPHP metabolites, such as diphenyl phosphate and 4-hydroxylphenyl phenyl phosphate, showed no substantial increase in circulatory failure at concentrations up to 30 µM. Tris (1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate showed circulatory failure at 30 µM, but its metabolite bis(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate did not. Neither tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate nor its metabolite bis(2-chloroethyl) phosphate, induced circulatory failure. The circulatory failure appeared to be enhanced with the increase in the octanol-water partition coefficients of OPFRs and their metabolites, suggesting that developmental circulatory failure posed by these chemicals could be estimated by their bioaccumulative potential. The present study demonstrated developmental circulatory failure of hydroxylated TPHP metabolites, which was almost equipotent to TPHP. Diester OPFR metabolites showed no major developmental toxicity at the concentrations used in this study. The current results establish the foundation for further understanding the similarities and differences in the toxic mechanisms between OPFRs and their metabolites.


Assuntos
Circulação Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Retardadores de Chama/toxicidade , Compostos Organofosforados/toxicidade , Animais , Compostos de Bifenilo , Retardadores de Chama/metabolismo , Éteres Difenil Halogenados , Humanos , Organofosfatos , Compostos Organofosforados/metabolismo , Fosfatos , Plastificantes , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo , Peixe-Zebra/fisiologia
14.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(3): 2721-2729, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31836969

RESUMO

Organophosphate esters (OPEs), as a class of emerging flame retardant and plasticizers, have attracted particular attention due to their ubiquitous existence in the environment and potential effects on human health. Here, we investigated the levels of OPEs in human serum and examined the role of demographic variables on the body burden of such compounds. Of 11 OPEs screened, 8 were detected in human serum samples collected from a population (n = 89) in Bohai Bay, North China. The ∑OPE concentrations ranged from 4.7 to 948 ng/g lipid weight (lw), with a median concentration of 243 ng/g lw. Tris(2-chloroethyl)phosphate (TCEP) was identified as the most abundant OPEs with a median concentration of 214 ng/g lw. The concentrations of the triphenyl phosphate (TPhP) in older adults were higher than those in young adults (p < 0.05), and lower concentrations of tri-iso-butyl phosphate (TIBP) were observed in female samples compared to males. Furthermore, significant differences were observed in tri-n-propyl phosphate (TPrP) concentrations between urban and rural residence groups (p < 0.05). This study provides important information on the accumulation potential of OPEs in human bodies and suggests the need for further investigation to understand the potential human health risk.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Organofosfatos/sangue , Idoso , Baías , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Ésteres/sangue , Feminino , Retardadores de Chama/metabolismo , Humanos , Gravidez , Adulto Jovem
15.
Environ Toxicol Chem ; 39(3): 565-573, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31756765

RESUMO

The toxicokinetics of triphenyl phosphate (TPHP) in vivo including the uptake, deposition, and biotransformation into the metabolite diphenyl phosphate (DPHP) is presently reported in embryonated eggs and chicks of Japanese quail. Quail were dosed with TPHP at 3 concentrations by air cell egg injection on embryonic day 0, followed by daily oral dosing after chicks hatched (5 d). Vehicle-only exposed controls were also used. In dosed eggs, only 33% of the TPHP remained 2 d after injection (no hepatic development); after 10 d (post-hepatogenesis), only 2% remained. The estimated TPHP half-lives in the eggs ranged from 1.1 to 1.8 d for the 3 dosed groups. In all exposed eggs and chicks, DPHP significantly increased with dose (0.001 < p < 0.044). It appears that DPHP is an important metabolite in quail, making up 41 to 74% of all metabolites formed in embryonated eggs. In chicks, at medium and high doses, DPHP concentrations significantly exceeded those of TPHP (p ≤ 0.007), making up 67 and 76% of the total burden, respectively. Our findings suggest that rapid TPHP metabolism occurred in chicks and embryonated quail eggs but that this may vary with the age of the embryonated egg and the stage of embryo development, which should be considered when evaluating concentrations of TPHP and DPHP measured in eggs of wild birds. Environ Toxicol Chem 2020;39:565-573. © 2019 Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry © 2019 SETAC.


Assuntos
Coturnix/metabolismo , Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo , Organofosfatos/metabolismo , Animais , Bioacumulação , Transporte Biológico , Coturnix/embriologia , Coturnix/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Retardadores de Chama/metabolismo , Óvulo/metabolismo , Plastificantes/metabolismo
16.
Environ Pollut ; 257: 113633, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31761590

RESUMO

Organophosphate esters (OPEs) are widely used as flame retardants, plasticizers and defoamers and their exposure are likely associated with a number of adverse effects in humans. In this study, tris(chloroethyl) phosphate and thirteen OPE metabolites including six hydroxylated OPEs (HO-OPEs) were analyzed in 46 urine samples, collected from 8 provinces located across different regions in China. 1-Hydroxy-2-propyl bis(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (BCIPHIPP) and 2-hydroxyethyl bis(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (BBOEHEP) were major metabolites of their parent compounds with detection frequencies of 54.3%-89.1%, which were all higher than their corresponding OPE diesters (2.2%-6.5%). The urine-based estimated daily intake (EDI) of OPEs ranged from 0.06 ng/kg·bw for tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBOEP) to 273 ng/kg·bw for 2-ethylhexyl phenyl phosphate. Analyzed with concentrations in paired dust samples, dust exposure to OPEs and their diesters may explain 0.28%-23.8% of the urine-based EDI of OPEs and the contribution of dust TBOEP was the highest. Although direct exposure to OPE diesters in dust showed a minor contribution, their intake via food and drinking water may account for a larger portion of urinary OPE metabolites. Overall, the hazard quotients of four OPEs indicated no immediate exposure risk for the investigated Chinese residents but the cumulative and long-term chronic effects involving exposure to other OPEs and OPE diesters are worth further concerns.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental , Ésteres , Retardadores de Chama , Organofosfatos , Plastificantes , China , Poeira , Ésteres/metabolismo , Ésteres/urina , Retardadores de Chama/análise , Retardadores de Chama/metabolismo , Humanos , Organofosfatos/metabolismo , Organofosfatos/urina , Plastificantes/análise , Plastificantes/metabolismo , Vigilância da População
17.
Chemosphere ; 244: 125524, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31812044

RESUMO

Two currently used brominated flame retardants (BFRs), α, ß, γ-hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD) and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), were measured in 111 breast milk samples from 37 Beijing mothers. Each mother provided one milk sample per month for 3 months. HBCDD was detected in almost all samples, and the median level reached 5.67 ng g-1 lipid weight (lw). α- HBCDD was the most abundant isomer (median: 4.23 ng g-1 lw), followed by γ- and ß-HBCDD. For TBBPA, a relatively lower detecting frequency (64%) and contamination level (median: 1.57 ng g-1 lw) were obtained. A comparison to our previous study revealed that the occurrence of TBBPA and HBCDD in Beijing human milk significantly rose from 2011 to 2014, whereas another commonly used class of BFRs, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), showed significantly decreased during this period. However, a comparison among currently used BFRs showed that levels of some BFRs, such as HBCDD, surpassed those of PBDEs, which indicated that PBDEs were no longer the primarily used BFR in China. However, no significant temporal trends for BFR levels were observed over the 3 months of lactation. Daily intakes of TBBPA and HBCDD were calculated for nursing infants and the median TBBPA and HBCDD intakes via breastfeeding were 6.62 and 26.4 ng kg-1 bw day-1, respectively. These values were several times higher than those for adults via food consumption. However, risk assessment using the margin of exposure approach indicated that intakes of TBBPA and HBCDD via breastfeeding can scarcely cause significant health risks to infants.


Assuntos
Exposição Dietética/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo , Hidrocarbonetos Bromados/metabolismo , Exposição Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Leite Humano/metabolismo , Bifenil Polibromatos/metabolismo , Adulto , Pequim , Peso Corporal , China , Feminino , Retardadores de Chama/análise , Retardadores de Chama/metabolismo , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/análise , Humanos , Lactente , Isomerismo , Leite Humano/química , Mães , Medição de Risco
18.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 188: 109882, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31698175

RESUMO

Microplastics attract widespread attention, including for their potential to transport toxic chemicals in the form of plasticisers and associated hydrophobic organic chemicals, such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The aims of this study were to investigate how nylon (polyamide) microplastics may affect PBDE accumulation in snails, and the acute effects of nylon particles and PBDEs on survival, weight change and inherent microbiome diversity and community composition of the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis. Snails were exposed for 96 h to BDEs-47, 99, 100 and 153 in the presence and absence of 1% w/w nylon microplastics in quartz sand sediment. No mortality was observed over the exposure period. Snails not exposed to microplastics lost significantly more weight compared to those exposed to microplastics. Increasing PBDE concentration in the sediment resulted in an increased PBDE body burden in the snails, however microplastics did not significantly influence total PBDE uptake. Based on individual congeners, uptake of BDE 47 by snails was significantly reduced in the presence of microplastics. The diversity and composition of the snail microbiome was not significantly altered by the presence of PBDEs nor by the microplastics, singly or combined. Significant effects on a few individual operational taxonomic units (OTUs) occurred when comparing the highest PBDE concentration with the control treatment, but in the absence of microplastics only. Overall within these acute experiments, only subtle effects on weight loss and slight microbiome alterations occurred. These results therefore highlight that L. stagnalis are resilient to acute exposures to microplastics and PBDEs, and that microplastics are unlikely to influence HOC accumulation or the microbiome of this species over short timescales.


Assuntos
Éteres Difenil Halogenados/metabolismo , Lymnaea/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Microplásticos/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Animais , Carga Corporal (Radioterapia) , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Retardadores de Chama/análise , Retardadores de Chama/metabolismo , Retardadores de Chama/toxicidade , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/análise , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/toxicidade , Lymnaea/metabolismo , Lymnaea/microbiologia , Nylons/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
19.
Environ Pollut ; 258: 113661, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31796314

RESUMO

While a large body of studies have examined polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and alternative brominated flame retardants (ABFRs) in wildlife, information on the bioaccumulation of these contaminants in reptiles in general, and snakes in particular, are scarce. We investigated the bioaccumulation characteristics of PBDEs and several ABFRs including decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE), 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy) ethane (BTBPE), hexabromobenzene (HBB) and pentabromotoluene (PBT) in a frog-eating snake, the striped keelback snake (Amphiesma stolata), from an e-waste recycling site in South China. The concentrations of ∑PBDEs and ∑ABFRs in the snakes ranged 53-5200 and 3.1-87 ng/g lipid weight, respectively; with higher levels in males than females. Additionally, the concentrations of BDE-28, -47, and -66 were positively correlated with snake size (snout-vent length and body mass), while negative correlations were found for most of the higher brominated PBDE congeners and HBB, PBT and BTBPE. The biomagnification factors (BMFs) estimated in the snake/frog relationship indicated a mild to moderate biomagnification of BDE-28, -47, -66, -100, -153 and -154 (with mean BMFs of 1.1-5.3), while a lack of magnification for the other PBDE congeners and all the ABFRs. This is the first report on the sex- and size-related accumulation and biomagnification potentials of PBDEs and ABFRs in snakes.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Retardadores de Chama/metabolismo , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/metabolismo , Serpentes/metabolismo , Animais , Bioacumulação , China , Hidrocarbonetos Bromados
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