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1.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 69(2): 406-408, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33402657

RESUMO

Purpose: Health care workers are susceptible to contracting infection with COVID-19 by aerosol transmission. This is a risk while examining and/or treating an un-sedated neonate in retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) screening and treatment. But screening for neonates for ROP and treating with laser, when required, should not be delayed to avoid the blindness. We describe a cost-effective method of containing aerosols generated during such a procedure in an un-sedated baby. Methods: An acrylic transparent containment box was prepared to accommodate an average-sized infant. The box had four walls and a roof. The floor was open to place the container box over the baby. The walls have two types of openings, large ones to allow passage of hands to examine the baby, small ones to enable passage of oxygen tubing when required. A simulation was created to examine the impact of aerosol spray on examining healthcare personnel. Results: The cost of the acrylic box was negligible. It could be assembled locally with available acrylic sheets and craftsmen. It was not difficult to examine the baby inside the box, and the simulation demonstrated that it protected the health personnel from the aerosol contamination. Conclusion: The described method is likely to increase healthcare personnel's confidence not to delay or deny ROP screening and laser treatment and save the babies from blindness.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Fotocoagulação a Laser/métodos , Triagem Neonatal/instrumentação , Retinopatia da Prematuridade/diagnóstico , Comorbidade , Desenho de Equipamento , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Retinopatia da Prematuridade/epidemiologia , Retinopatia da Prematuridade/cirurgia , Fatores de Risco
2.
Med Sci (Paris) ; 36(10): 900-907, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33026333

RESUMO

Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is one of the leading cause of preventable blindness in children. Its incidence increases with increasing survival of extremely preterm babies. ROP results from a multifactorial impairment of retinal development, the retinal vascular network, involving both oxygen-dependent and nutritional factors. The numerous factors involved in ROP development suggest that preventive strategies should be synergistic and complementary, including tight control of oxygen therapy, optimized nutritional intakes and postnatal growth, breastfeeding, adequate ω-3 PUFAs supply and control of hyperglycemic episodes associated with prematurity. ROP requires a multidisciplinary management, which includes systematic screening, appropriate treatment and long-term follow-up. Current screening modalities are based on wide-field digital retinal imaging systems, which also allow screening by telemedicine. The gold-standard treatment for ROP remains laser photocoagulation. It may be combined with intravitreal anti-VEGF administration, which is currently being evaluated, or surgery for advanced stages.


Assuntos
Retinopatia da Prematuridade/prevenção & controle , Retinopatia da Prematuridade/terapia , Humanos , Incidência , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Monitorização Fisiológica/métodos , Estado Nutricional/fisiologia , Oxigênio/efeitos adversos , Retinopatia da Prematuridade/epidemiologia , Retinopatia da Prematuridade/etiologia , Fatores de Risco
3.
Vestn Oftalmol ; 136(5): 39-45, 2020.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056962

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To study the long-term clinical and functional outcomes of retinopathy in extremely premature infants. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included 42 patients (84 eyes) with retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) at the age of 9-18 years. All patients underwent comprehensive ophthalmological examination, including morphometric (OCT), functional (ERG) and psycho-physical (computer perimetry) methods. RESULTS: A high occurrence of low vision (67%) was revealed in extremely premature children with ROP during school years and adolescence, which depended on the severity of active ROP and the formation of pronounced residual changes in the fundus during the cicatricial phase of the disease, a high occurrence of refractive errors (92%), including high degree myopia (46%), late complications that develop with ROP of any degree (68%), impaired retinal electrogenesis - due to both ROP and deep morphological and functional immaturity of the retina. CONCLUSION: Patients with any degree of cicatricial ROP born in the early stages of gestation and with extremely low body weight need regular complex ophthalmologic examination and lifelong follow-up.


Assuntos
Miopia , Erros de Refração , Retinopatia da Prematuridade , Adolescente , Criança , Humanos , Lactente , Lactente Extremamente Prematuro , Recém-Nascido , Retina/diagnóstico por imagem , Retinopatia da Prematuridade/diagnóstico , Retinopatia da Prematuridade/epidemiologia
4.
Middle East Afr J Ophthalmol ; 27(2): 105-109, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32874043

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is becoming a leading cause of preventable blindness. The current study aimed to assess ROP and its risk factors in Tabuk City, Northern Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted in King Khalid Hospital, Tabuk City, Saudi Arabia. The premature infants' records during the period of January 2016 to April 2018 were approached. One hundred and eight records were eligible; the infants' gestational age, weight, if received oxygen, surfactant use, blood transfusion, intraventricular hemorrhage, and patent ductus arteriosus were reported. Chi-square test was used to compare premature infants and their counterparts regarding various risk factors. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: Out of 108 premature infants, 33.3% had ROP (Many were sightthreatening [stages required treatment] and more than twothirds involving both eyes); a statistically significant difference (P < 0.05) was evident between infants with prematurity, and low birth weight. No significant differences were found regarding other risk factors (P > 0.05). Only 8.3% received interventional therapy. CONCLUSION: ROP is common in King Khalid Hospital, which is the referral tertiary hospital in Tabuk city, KSA . The low birth weight is a significant risk factor to develop ROP. Many of ROP cases were sightthreatening (cases that required treatment) and most cases involving both eyes. Treatment availability at Tabuk city is recommended, instead of referral to another centers especially among those with low weight at birth.


Assuntos
Retinopatia da Prematuridade/epidemiologia , Peso ao Nascer , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Centros de Atenção Terciária/estatística & dados numéricos
5.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236639, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32745146

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a significant morbidity in preterm babies. Multiple risk factors for severe ROP have been extensively studied, however, only a few studies have included maternal diabetes mellitus (MDM) in their assessment. ROP and diabetic retinopathy are both retinal vascular diseases in which there is leakage and/or neovascularization from damaged retinal vessels. Diabetes may affect ROP development; however, there are conflicting results on the association between MDM and ROP. OBJECTIVE: To determine if MDM is an independent risk factor for clinically significant ROP (ROP > Stage II) in neonates weighing less than 1500g. DESIGN/METHOD: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of neonates weighing <1500g who were delivered or transferred into our institution from 2007 through 2017. Logistic regression was used to analyze the association between severe ROP and MDM. The risks for the different stages of ROP from MDM were compared using chi-square linear trend test. RESULTS: We extracted 883 paired maternal-neonatal data. The mean (standard deviation) gestational age and birthweight were 28.5 (2.9) weeks and 1052.7 (300.9) grams, respectively. Of the 883 mothers, 72 (8.2%) had DM. The incidence of ROP and severe ROP was 42.4% (374/883) and 6.5% (57/883) respectively. The odds ratio comparing MDM and severe ROP was 3.47 [95% CI: 1.51-7.96]; p<0.01). Compared to Stage I, the risk of MDM in infants with ROP increased from 1.49 in Stage II ROP to 2.59 in Stages III&IV. Severe ROP was associated with infant steroid use (OR: 5.92 [95% CI: 2.83-12.38]; p <0.01), sepsis (OR: 2.13 [95% CI: 1.09-4.14]; p = 0.03) chorioamnionitis (OR: 1.90 [95% CI: 1.03-3.50]; p = 0.04), and maternal steroid use (OR: 0.51 [95% CI: 0.32-0.79]; p<0.01). CONCLUSION: Maternal diabetes is associated with ROP and the strength of association increased with increasing severity of ROP.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Gestacional/epidemiologia , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Recém-Nascido de muito Baixo Peso , Retinopatia da Prematuridade/epidemiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Gravidez em Diabéticas , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
6.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 7: CD012362, 2020 07 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32639053

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Head position during care may affect cerebral haemodynamics and contribute to the development of germinal matrix-intraventricular haemorrhage (GM-IVH) in very preterm infants. Turning the head toward one side may occlude jugular venous drainage while increasing intracranial pressure and cerebral blood volume. It is suggested that cerebral venous pressure is reduced and hydrostatic brain drainage improved if the infant is cared for in the supine 'head midline' position. OBJECTIVES: To assess whether head midline position is more effective than other head positions for preventing (or preventing extension) of GM-IVH in very preterm infants (< 32 weeks' gestation at birth). SEARCH METHODS: We used the standard search strategy of Cochrane Neonatal to search the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2019, Issue 9), MEDLINE via PubMed (1966 to 12 September 2019), Embase (1980 to 12 September 2019), and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL; 1982 to 12 September 2019). We searched clinical trials databases, conference proceedings, and reference lists of retrieved articles. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing caring for very preterm infants in a supine head midline position versus a prone or lateral decubitus position, or undertaking a strategy of regular position change, or having no prespecified position. We included trials enrolling infants with existing GM-IVH and planned to assess extension of haemorrhage in a subgroup of infants. We planned to analyse horizontal (flat) versus head elevated positions separately for all body positions. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used standard methods of Cochrane Neonatal. For each of the included trials, two review authors independently extracted data and assessed risk of bias. The primary outcomes were GM-IVH, severe IVH, and neonatal death. We evaluated treatment effects using a fixed-effect model with risk ratio (RR) for categorical data; and mean, standard deviation (SD), and mean difference (MD) for continuous data. We used the GRADE approach to assess the certainty of evidence. MAIN RESULTS: Three RCTs, with a total of 290 infants (either < 30 weeks' gestational age or < 1000 g body weight), met the inclusion criteria. Two trials compared supine midline head position versus head rotated 90° with the cot flat. One trial compared supine midline head position versus head rotated 90° with the bed tilted at 30°. We found no trials that compared supine versus prone midline head position. Meta-analysis of three trials (290 infants) did not show an effect on rates of GM-IVH (RR 1.11, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.78 to 1.56; I² = 0%) and severe IVH (RR 0.71, 95% CI 0.37 to 1.33; I² = 0%). Neonatal mortality (RR 0.49, 95% CI 0.25 to 0.93; I² = 0%; RD -0.09, 95% CI -0.16 to -0.01) and mortality until hospital discharge (typical RR 0.50, 95% CI 0.28 to 0.90; I² = 0%; RD -0.10, 95% CI -0.18 to -0.02) were lower in the supine midline head position. The certainty of the evidence was very low for all outcomes because of limitations in study design and imprecision of estimates. We identified one ongoing study. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: We found few trial data on the effects of head midline position on GM-IVH in very preterm infants. Although meta-analyses suggest that mortality might be reduced, the certainty of the evidence is very low and it is unclear whether any effect is due to cot tilting (a co-intervention in one trial). Further high-quality RCTs would be needed to resolve this uncertainty.


Assuntos
Hemorragia Cerebral Intraventricular/prevenção & controle , Cabeça , Doenças do Prematuro/prevenção & controle , Posicionamento do Paciente/métodos , Decúbito Dorsal , Leitos , Hemorragia Cerebral Intraventricular/epidemiologia , Hemorragia Cerebral Intraventricular/etiologia , Circulação Cerebrovascular/fisiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Mortalidade Infantil , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Doenças do Prematuro/epidemiologia , Doenças do Prematuro/etiologia , Viés de Publicação , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Retinopatia da Prematuridade/epidemiologia , Rotação
7.
J Pediatr ; 223: 42-50.e2, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32711750

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether neonatal hyperglycemia is associated with retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), visual outcomes, and ocular growth at 7 years of age. STUDY DESIGN: Children born preterm (<30 weeks of gestational age) at a tertiary hospital in Auckland, New Zealand, who developed neonatal hyperglycemia (2 blood glucose concentrations ≥153 mg/dL [8.5 mmol/L] 4 hours apart) were matched with children who were not hyperglycemic (matching criteria: sex, gestational age, birth weight, age, socioeconomic status, and multiple birth) and assessed at 7 years of corrected age. The primary outcome, favorable overall visual outcome (visual acuity ≤0.3 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution, no strabismus, stereoacuity ≤240 arcsec, not requiring spectacles) was compared between groups using generalized matching criteria-adjusted linear regression models. RESULTS: Assessments were performed on 57 children with neonatal hyperglycemia (hyperglycemia group) and 54 matched children without hyperglycemia (control group). There were no differences in overall favorable visual outcome (OR 0.95, 95% CI 0.42-2.13, P = .90) or severe ROP incidence (OR 2.20, 95% CI 0.63-7.63, P = .21) between groups. Children with hyperglycemia had poorer binocular distance visual acuity (mean difference 0.08, 95% CI 0.03-0.14 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution, P < .01), more strabismus (OR 6.22, 95% CI 1.31-29.45, P = .02), and thicker crystalline lens (mean difference 0.14, 95% CI 0.04-0.24 mm, P < .01). Maximum blood glucose concentration was greater in the ROP-treated group compared with the ROP-not treated and no ROP groups after adjusting for sex, gestational age, and birth weight z score (P = .02). CONCLUSIONS: Neonatal hyperglycemia was not associated with overall visual outcomes at 7 years of age. However, there were between-group differences for specific outcome measures relating to interocular lens growth and binocular vision. Further follow-up is required to determine implications on long-term visual outcome.


Assuntos
Hiperglicemia/epidemiologia , Retinopatia da Prematuridade/epidemiologia , Acuidade Visual , Glicemia/metabolismo , Causalidade , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperglicemia/sangue , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Doenças do Prematuro , Recém-Nascido de muito Baixo Peso , Masculino , Retinopatia da Prematuridade/sangue , Fatores de Risco
8.
J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad ; 32(2): 174-178, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32583989

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a preventable and treatable vasoproliferative disorder of the retina which develops mostly in preterm babies. It is a leading cause of childhood blindness and more common in under developed countries. Prevalence of the severe ROP is 7.7% in Pakistan. We reviewed the characteristics of preterm babies with severe ROP to evaluate the predictors of sight threatening ROP. METHODS: Our study was conducted at the NICU of Aga Khan University Hospital which is a tertiary care private sector hospital in Karachi. Ninety-seven cases of severe ROP were found out of which 83 cases were enrolled. Data on determinants for ROP were collected including gestational age, birth weight, weight gain at two and four weeks, h/o blood transfusion, supplementary oxygen, presence of PDA and its treatment. Data analysis was done by using SPSS version 20.0. RESULTS: Frequency of severe ROP in our cohort was 5.95%. Mean gestational age for severe ROP was 28.27±1.79 and mean birth weight was 1069.16±271.71 grams. The overall mean weight gain per week in these babies was 94.62±75.64 grams. Supplementary oxygen was provided in almost 100% (82/83 cases) of cases. Surfactant was given to 56.6 % babies. PDA was found in 23 cases out of which 19 were treated by medical therapy whereas surgical treatment was done in 4 cases. CONCLUSIONS: Severe Retinopathy of prematurity was directly correlated with low birth weight, and gestational age. An average, weight gain in four weeks was lower in ROP babies (94.62±75.64 grams) than the recommended weight gain (WHO recommended 140-210 gm per week). This could be associated with the development and severity of ROP requiring treatment. Therefore, a prospective case control study is required to further identify risk factors associated with the above cohort. Screening and follow up of all such babies according to the international criteria is the need of the day.


Assuntos
Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Retinopatia da Prematuridade/epidemiologia , Peso ao Nascer , Cegueira , Estudos de Coortes , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Paquistão , Fatores de Risco
9.
Am J Ophthalmol ; 218: 208-213, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32450064

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To discuss the evolution in retinopathy of prematurity since its first description as retrolental fibroplasia in the United States, including the changes in the understanding of pathophysiology; methods of diagnosis; destructive, anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF), and supportive treatments; and differences in retinopathy of prematurity manifestations worldwide. The overall goal is to clarify retinopathy of prematurity currently and formulate questions to optimize future care. STUDY DESIGN: Literature review and synthesis. METHODS: Critical review and consideration of the literature with inclusion of historical articles and those regarding pathophysiologic risk factors, retinopathy of prematurity worldwide, basic and clinical science particularly regarding anti-VEGF mechanisms and agents tested in clinical trials. RESULTS: Retinopathy of prematurity has evolved from affecting infants approximately 2 months premature to affecting extremely premature infants. Worldwide, retinopathy of prematurity differs and, in emerging countries, has features similar to that experienced in the United States when retinopathy of prematurity first manifested. Treatments have evolved from destruction of the peripheral avascular retina to inhibit angiogenic stimuli to anti-VEGF agents, which inhibit pathologic angiogenesis but also extend normal intraretinal angiogenesis by ordering the development of intraretinal vessels. Clinical trial evidence is accruing with the goal to develop less destructive treatments to optimize vision and that are protective to the retina and infant. CONCLUSIONS: Goals for retinopathy of prematurity are to optimize prenatal and perinatal care, improve diagnostic acumen worldwide and refine treatment strategies, including with anti-VEGF agents, to inhibit intravitreal angiogenesis and facilitate vascularization of the previously avascular retina, which include supporting neural and vascular development of the premature infant and retina.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Angiogênese/uso terapêutico , Bevacizumab/uso terapêutico , Retinopatia da Prematuridade/tratamento farmacológico , Saúde Global , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Injeções Intravítreas , Retinopatia da Prematuridade/epidemiologia , Retinopatia da Prematuridade/fisiopatologia , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/antagonistas & inibidores
10.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 3: CD007137, 2020 03 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32232984

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lactoferrin, a normal component of human colostrum and milk, can enhance host defenses and may be effective for prevention of sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm neonates. OBJECTIVES: To assess the safety and effectiveness of lactoferrin supplementation to enteral feeds for prevention of sepsis and NEC in preterm neonates. Secondarily, we assessed the effects of lactoferrin supplementation to enteral feeds on the duration of positive-pressure ventilation, development of chronic lung disease (CLD) or periventricular leukomalacia (PVL), length of hospital stay to discharge among survivors, and adverse neurological outcomes at two years of age or later. SEARCH METHODS: We used the standard search strategy of Cochrane Neonatal to update our search. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL 2019, Issue 9), MEDLINE via PubMed (1966 to 20 January 2020), PREMEDLINE (1996 to 20 January 2020), Embase (1980 to 20 January 2020), and CINAHL (1982 to 20 January 2020). We also searched clinical trials databases, conference proceedings, and the reference lists of retrieved articles for randomized controlled trials and quasi-randomized trials. SELECTION CRITERIA: In our search, we included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating enteral lactoferrin supplementation at any dose or duration to prevent sepsis or NEC in preterm neonates. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used the standard methods of Cochrane Neonatal and the GRADE approach to assess the certainty of evidence. MAIN RESULTS: Meta-analysis of data from twelve randomized controlled trials showed that lactoferrin supplementation to enteral feeds decreased late-onset sepsis (typical RR 0.82, 95% CI 0.74 to 0.91; typical RD -0.04, 95% CI, -0.06, -0.02; NNTB 25, 95% CI 17 to 50; 12 studies, 5425 participants, low-certainty evidence) and decreased length of hospital stay (MD -2.38, 95% CI, -4.67, -0.09; 3 studies, 1079 participants, low-certainty evidence). Sensitivity analysis including only good methodological certainty studies suggested a decrease in late-onset sepsis with enteral lactoferrin supplementation (typical RR 0.87, 95% CI, 0.78, 0.97; typical RD -0.03, 95% CI, -0.05, -0.0; 9 studies, 4702 participants, low-certainty evidence). There were no differences in NEC stage II or III (typical RR 1.10, 95% CI, 0.86, 1.41; typical RD -0.00, 95% CI, -0.02, 0.01; 7 studies, 4874 participants; low-certainty evidence) or 'all-cause mortality' (typical RR 0.90, 95% CI 0.69, 1.17; typical RD -0.00, 95% CI, -0.01, 0.01; 11 studies, 5510 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). One study reported no differences in neurodevelopmental testing by Mullen's or Bayley III at 24 months of age after enteral lactoferrin supplementation (one study, 292 participants, low-certainty evidence). Lactoferrin supplementation to enteral feeds with probiotics decreased late-onset sepsis (RR 0.25, 95% CI 0.14 to 0.46; RD -0.13, 95% CI -0.18 to -0.08; NNTB 8, 95% CI 6 to 13; 3 studies, 564 participants; low-certainty evidence) and NEC stage II or III (RR 0.04, 95% CI 0.00 to 0.62; RD -0.05, 95% CI -0.08 to -0.03; NNTB 20, 95% CI 12.5 to 33.3; 1 study, 496 participants; very low-certainty evidence), but not 'all-cause mortality' (very low-certainty evidence). Lactoferrin supplementation to enteral feeds with or without probiotics had no effect on CLD, duration of mechanical ventilation or threshold retinopathy of prematurity (low-certainty evidence). Investigators reported no adverse effects in the included studies. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: We found low-certainty evidence from studies of good methodological quality that lactoferrin supplementation of enteral feeds decreases late-onset sepsis but not NEC ≥ stage II or 'all cause mortality' or neurodevelopmental outcomes at 24 months of age in preterm infants without adverse effects. Low- to very low-certainty evidence suggests that lactoferrin supplementation of enteral feeds in combination with probiotics decreases late-onset sepsis and NEC ≥ stage II in preterm infants without adverse effects, however, there were few included studies of poor methodological quality. The presence of publication bias and small studies of poor methodology that may inflate the effect size make recommendations for clinical practice difficult.


Assuntos
Nutrição Enteral , Enterocolite Necrosante/prevenção & controle , Doenças do Prematuro/prevenção & controle , Lactoferrina/administração & dosagem , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Sepse/prevenção & controle , Administração Oral , Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/prevenção & controle , Causas de Morte , Doença Crônica , Enterocolite Necrosante/epidemiologia , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Lactobacillus rhamnosus , Pneumopatias/epidemiologia , Micoses/epidemiologia , Micoses/prevenção & controle , Números Necessários para Tratar , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Retinopatia da Prematuridade/epidemiologia
12.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0230346, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32164025

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Twin infants are likely at great risk for ROP, but studies reported conflicting findings and population studies examining the risk of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in twins is limited. We aimed to evaluate the ROP risk in the cohort of one of twins, comparing to singletons. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Using insurance claims data of a half of children in Taiwan ages 18 and less, we established a twin cohort (N = 27830) born in 1998-2009 and a randomly selected singleton cohort (N = 111080) frequency matched by sex, birth year, residential area and parental occupation and followed up to 2012 years. RESULTS: The overall incidence rate of ROP was 13.6-fold greater in the twin cohort than in the singleton cohort (35.1 vs. 2.58 per 10,000 person-years; adjusted HR = 13.4, 95% CI = 11.7-15.3; p <0.0001). The ROP incidence was slightly higher in boys than in girls, higher in children in more urbanized areas and born to mothers without works. The incident ROP increased with decreasing birthweight. For children with birthweight <1000 grams, the ROP incidence was 1.2-fold greater in the twin cohort than in the singleton cohort (1243.2 vs. 1016.3 per 10,000 person-years). The use of mechanical ventilation was associated with increased ROP risk for both cohorts, particularly for infants who were under invasive treatment. CONCLUSION: Infants who were born as twins or born with low birthweight were at an elevated risk of developing ROP. Extreme cautious and close monitor are required for new born with low birthweight and have undergone with mechanical ventilation.


Assuntos
Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Retinopatia da Prematuridade/epidemiologia , Gêmeos , Adolescente , Peso ao Nascer , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Incidência , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Taiwan
13.
Mymensingh Med J ; 29(1): 115-120, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31915346

RESUMO

The purpose of the present study was to early detection and management of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). This observational descriptive/ interventional study was carried out to evaluate 96 babies brought by their parents to BIRDEM General Hospital during the period of January 2016 to June 2016 who fulfilled the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Screening of ROP was performed in all 96 babies after taking informed written consent. After screening of ROP, the babies who had ROP, staging was done and treatment was given as per requirement. Descriptive data in the study were shown by cross table and compared by student paired 't' test and Chi-square test. The study included total 96 babies of preterm low birth weight. Among them 64(66.66%) babies had no ROP, where 32(33.33%) babies had different stages of ROP. In these 32 babies, 18 babies didn't need any treatment, only 14 babies needed treatment according to their requirement (14 babies had 28 eyes, where 16 eyes needed Inj. Anti VEGF and laser and 11 eyes needed only laser and one eye had Stage V ROP, so observed that eye). Early detection of ROP and proper management not only restore the anatomical and functional outcome of the retina, but also restore the vision, prevent childhood blindness and decrease morbidity.


Assuntos
Recém-Nascido de muito Baixo Peso , Retinopatia da Prematuridade/diagnóstico , Criança , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Programas de Rastreamento , Retinopatia da Prematuridade/epidemiologia
14.
Adv Ther ; 37(2): 860-868, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31916031

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Binocular indirect ophthalmoscopy (BIO) is fundamental for screening of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Digital retinal imaging devices with fluorescein angiography (FA) proved to be useful in screening and management of ROP. FA provides valuable additional information that is not detectable through ophthalmoscopy. FA images are relatively easy to interpret even by personnel without specific experience in ROP. The aim of this study is to evaluate reproducibility of FA for the screening and follow-up of ROP. METHODS: A total of 106 pairs of FA images of 30 eyes of 15 premature infants with stage II ROP were evaluated by 5 ophthalmologists: 2 experts, 2 non-experts, and 1 expert in reading FA in adult patients. Each operator gave a score to each of following parameters: leakage, ischemic areas, peripheral plus disease and vascular anomalies. The images were reviewed twice. Intra- and inter-concordance between the readers of the FA findings was evaluated by the means of Cohen's kappa coefficient (κ). RESULTS: The intra-operator concordance was very good (κ > 0.81) for all FA findings. Inter-operator concordance was good (κ > 0.41) for all operators and all FA findings. Global concordance was: substantial (intra-inter readers: κ > 0.61) for leakage, ischemic areas, and plus disease; almost perfect (κ > 0.81) for vascular anomalies; and moderate (κ = 0.41-0.60) for continuity/discontinuity of the ischemic areas. Total FA score was directly correlated to the percentage of treatment: a score ≥ 7 was correlated with 100% treatment and a score ≤ 3 with no treatment. Treatment timing was inversely correlated to FA score: a score ≥ 8 was correlated with a timely treatment (≤ 6 days), and a score ≤ 7 was correlated with a delayed treatment (< 10 days). CONCLUSION: This study showed that FA represents a reproducible imaging technique. It is useful for detecting ROP progression, and to define the treatment timing and type.


Assuntos
Angiofluoresceinografia/métodos , Angiofluoresceinografia/estatística & dados numéricos , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Oftalmoscopia/métodos , Oftalmoscopia/estatística & dados numéricos , Retinopatia da Prematuridade/diagnóstico , Peso ao Nascer , California/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Retinopatia da Prematuridade/epidemiologia
15.
J Perinatol ; 40(3): 481-487, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31911647

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate outcomes of preterm infants <26 weeks gestational age (GA) following postdelivery extensive cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ECPR) compared with airway and breathing support (ABS). STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective review of Canadian Neonatal Network data during January 2010 to December 2016. The primary outcome was death or severe morbidity (intraventricular hemorrhage ≥grade 3 or periventricular leucomalacia, retinopathy of prematurity ≥stage 3, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, or necrotizing enterocolitis). RESULT: Among 3633 infants analyzed, 433 (11.9%) received ECPR. In multivariable analysis, death or severe morbidity was higher in the ECPR versus ABS group [adjusted odds ratio 2.26 (95% confidence interval 1.49, 3.43)]. The majority of the difference was due to increased mortality, which occurred mostly during the first week of life. CONCLUSION: These data from a recent cohort of infants near the limits of viability may be useful for prognostication for health care providers and counseling of parents.


Assuntos
Reanimação Cardiopulmonar , Lactente Extremamente Prematuro , Morte Perinatal , Respiração com Pressão Positiva , Displasia Broncopulmonar/epidemiologia , Canadá , Hemorragia Cerebral/epidemiologia , Enterocolite Necrosante/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Intubação Intratraqueal , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Prognóstico , Retinopatia da Prematuridade/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
16.
Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed ; 105(3): 270-278, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31326921

RESUMO

CONTEXT: The association between small for gestational age (SGA) and retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is unclear. OBJECTIVE: A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the association between ROP and SGA in preterm infants <37 weeks' gestational age (GA) admitted to neonatal intensive care unit. METHODS: Medline, PubMed, Web of Science and Cochrane Central databases were searched from inception through 15 January 2019. Studies reporting outcomes based on SGA as the primary exposure variable were included. Data were extracted independently by two coauthors. Modified Newcastle-Ottawa scale was used for risk of bias assessment. RESULTS: Database search yielded 536 records (Medline=152, PubMed=171, Web of Science=144 and Cochrane Central=69). Twenty-one studies evaluating 190 946 infants were included. SGA was associated with significantly higher odds of any stage of ROP on unadjusted analysis (unadjusted OR (uOR) 1.55; 95% CI 1.22 to 1.98; 10 studies) but not on adjusted analysis (adjusted OR (aOR) 2.16; 95% CI 0.66 to 7.11; 3 studies). SGA was associated with significantly higher odds of severe ROP (aOR 1.92; 95% CI 1.57 to 2.34; nine studies). SGA was also significantly associated with higher odds of treated ROP (aOR 1.39; 95% CI 1.18 to 1.65; three studies). In subgroup analysis of infants <29 weeks' GA, SGA was significantly associated with increased odds of ROP (uOR 1.64; 95% CI 1.19 to 2.26; two studies), severe ROP (aOR 1.61; 95% CI 1.23 to 2.10; four studies) and treated ROP (aOR 1.37; 95% CI 1.16 to 1.62; two studies). CONCLUSION: SGA was associated with increased odds of any stage of ROP, severe ROP and treated ROP in preterm infants. Neonatologists should incorporate SGA into the risk assessment during ROP evaluation and while providing counselling to the families of preterm SGA infants. ROP screening guidelines should look into the frequency of follow-up examination in SGA infants in aim to offer early detection and treatment.


Assuntos
Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional , Retinopatia da Prematuridade/epidemiologia , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Triagem Neonatal , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
17.
J Perinatol ; 40(1): 163-169, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31506527

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Maintaining preterm infants within a goal oxygen saturation range challenges care providers. Through periodic assessment of saturation trends on infants' bedside histogram reports, our initiative aimed to (1) increase time spent at goal saturations and (2) reduce death or severe retinopathy of prematurity. STUDY DESIGN: The initiative integrated histogram monitoring into provider, respiratory, and nursing care. Achieved oxygen saturations, chart audits, and bedside histogram monitoring flowsheets provided process measures with the outcome measure of death or severe retinopathy of prematurity. RESULTS: In infants <29 weeks' gestation (n = 518), the rate of death or severe retinopathy of prematurity prior to hospital discharge decreased from 32.1% to 18.0%. Time at goal saturations (90-95%) increased from 48.7% to 57.6%. CONCLUSION: In infants born at <29 weeks' gestation, periodic, multidisciplinary oxygen saturation histogram monitoring improved time at goal saturations and was associated with a reduction in death or severe retinopathy of prematurity.


Assuntos
Gráficos por Computador , Recém-Nascido Prematuro/sangue , Monitorização Fisiológica/métodos , Oximetria , Oxigênio/sangue , Retinopatia da Prematuridade/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Doenças do Prematuro/mortalidade , Masculino , Melhoria de Qualidade , Retinopatia da Prematuridade/epidemiologia
18.
Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed ; 105(2): 138-144, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31229956

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify achieved oxygen saturations (SpO2) associated with increased risk of severe retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). DESIGN: This is a secondary analysis of the Surfactant Positive Airway Pressure and Pulse Oximetry Trial (SUPPORT)randomised controlled trial. SpO2 was recorded up to 36 weeks' postmenstrual age. Saturations through 9 postnatal weeks were explored graphically, and logistic regression models were created to predict severe ROP. SETTING: 20 centres of the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network. PATIENTS: 984 surviving infants of 24-27 weeks' gestational age born in 2005-2009. INTERVENTIONS: SUPPORT targeted SpO2 to a lower (85%-89%) or higher (91%-95%) range through 36 weeks' postmenstrual age or off respiratory support. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Severe ROP defined as threshold ROP, ophthalmological surgery or bevacizumab treatment. RESULTS: There were statistically significant interactions between duration of oxygen supplementation and percentage of time in certain achieved saturation ranges. Specifically, for infants who spent at least 2 weeks on oxygen in postnatal weeks 1-5, a higher percentage of time at 91%-96% SpO2 was associated with increased odds of severe ROP. For infants who spent at least 3 weeks on oxygen in postnatal weeks 6-9, a higher percentage of time at 97%-100% SpO2 was associated with increased odds of severe ROP. Other significant risk factors were lower gestational age and birth weight, non-Hispanic white versus black race, prospectively defined severe illness, late-onset sepsis or meningitis, and clinical centre. CONCLUSIONS: Among extremely preterm survivors to discharge, the association between SpO2 and severe ROP depended on the timing and duration of oxygen supplementation.


Assuntos
Lactente Extremamente Prematuro , Oxigenoterapia/efeitos adversos , Oxigenoterapia/métodos , Oxigênio/sangue , Retinopatia da Prematuridade/epidemiologia , Retinopatia da Prematuridade/terapia , Peso ao Nascer , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Oximetria , Retinopatia da Prematuridade/sangue , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
19.
J Trop Pediatr ; 66(1): 38-45, 2020 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31074827

RESUMO

When breastmilk is insufficient to meet planned feed volumes, neonatologists need to continue parenteral nutrition (PN) or use formula. This trial conducted at a tertiary care unit in South India between August 2014 and April 2016 compared time to full feeds in preterms fed 'mother's milk alone(MM)' vs. 'hybrid feed-mother's milk supplemented with formula(HF)'. We also compared time to regain birth weights, duration of PN, feed intolerance, Necrotizing Enterocolitis stage 2 or more, all-cause mortality, Extrauterine growth restriction, Healthcare associated infections, exclusive breast milk feeding rates at discharge, Retinopathy of prematurity requiring laser therapy, abnormal neurosonogram and oxygen dependency at 28 days. Neonates between 27 and 32 weeks were randomized into MM/HF when breast milk was insufficient. HF received formula to reach targeted feed volumes. MM received more PN to meet fluid requirements. 54 babies were analyzed in MM and 58 in HF. Time to full feeds were similar-MM (14.1 ± 4 days); HF (13.5 ± 4 days), p = 0.45. Exclusive breast milk feeding rates at discharge were higher in MM when compared to HF (74% vs. 51%). Other secondary outcomes were similar between groups. When mother's milk is unavailable in sufficient quantities, preterm babies may receive hybrid feeds. (Clinical trials registry of India no. REF/2016/02/006622).


Assuntos
Fórmulas Infantis , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Leite Humano , Aleitamento Materno/estatística & dados numéricos , Nutrição Enteral , Enterocolite Necrosante/epidemiologia , Humanos , Índia , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Doenças do Prematuro/epidemiologia , Doenças do Prematuro/mortalidade , Nutrição Parenteral , Retinopatia da Prematuridade/epidemiologia
20.
Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed ; 105(1): 33-40, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31079068

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the risk of mortality and morbidity between outborn and propensity score-matched inborn extremely preterm neonates. SETTING: Multiple neonatal intensive care units (NICU) across the USA. PATIENTS: Singleton neonates born at 22-29 weeks' gestation with no major anomalies who were admitted to a NICU and discharged between 2000 and 2014. Outborn neonates were restricted to those who transferred into a NICU on the day of birth. METHODS: The association between inborn-outborn status and the time-to-event outcomes of in-hospital mortality and necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) were assessed using Cox proportional hazards regression. Logistic regression was used to assess the remaining secondary outcomes: retinopathy of prematurity requiring treatment (tROP), chronic lung disease (CLD), periventricular leucomalacia (PVL) and severe intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH). Since outborn status was not random, we used 1:1 propensity score matching to reduce the imbalance in illness severity. RESULTS: There were 59 942 neonates (7991 outborn) included in the study. Outborn neonates had poorer survival than inborns and higher rates of NEC, severe IVH, tROP and PVL. Inborn-outborn disparities in mortality were reduced over the study period. When analysing the matched cohort (6524 matched pairs), outborns were less likely to die in-hospital compared with inborns (HR 0.84, 95% CI 0.77 to 0.91). However, outborns experienced higher rates of NEC (HR 1.14, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.25), severe IVH (OR 1.52, 95% CI 1.38 to 1.68), tROP (OR 1.45, 95% CI 1.25 to 1.69) and CLD (OR 1.12, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.24). CONCLUSION: Additional research is needed to understand the contributors to increased morbidity for outborn extremely preterm neonates and identify interventions that mitigate this risk.


Assuntos
Lactente Extremamente Prematuro , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Recém-Nascido/epidemiologia , Hemorragia Cerebral Intraventricular/epidemiologia , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Enterocolite Necrosante/epidemiologia , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Leucomalácia Periventricular/epidemiologia , Lesão Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Masculino , Análise por Pareamento , Transferência de Pacientes , Retinopatia da Prematuridade/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
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