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1.
J Consult Clin Psychol ; 88(2): 137-148, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31894995

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This research evaluates changes in perceived military and civilian drinking norms as mechanisms of the effects of a motivational enhancement therapy (MET) intervention on changes in alcohol consumption among active-duty military personnel with a substance use disorder. We also evaluate the value of providing tolerance and family history risk-related personalized feedback by testing whether those receiving feedback indicating higher risk reduce their drinking more than those receiving feedback indicating lower risk or receiving no feedback. METHOD: Participants (N = 242; Mage = 28 years; 92% male; 59% Caucasian) completed a baseline questionnaire and were randomly assigned to a MET or educational control condition. Both conditions were single session and took place over the telephone. Outcomes were assessed 3 and 6 months later. The study was preregistered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01128140). RESULTS: We found evidence that reductions in perceived norms for other military personnel, but not for civilians, mediated intervention efficacy on reductions in alcohol use. Further, the MET intervention was successful at reducing drinking among soldiers who reported higher levels of baseline tolerance and family history risk, but not succuessful at reducing drinking among those who reported low or medium levels of risk. CONCLUSIONS: Systematic evaluation of whether and how individual intervention components contribute to efficacy is a promising approach for refining and improving interventions. This research suggests that MET interventions may wish to target focal perceived norms and provides support for discussion of feedback indicating elevated risks due to tolerance and family history. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Alcoolismo/terapia , Retroalimentação Psicológica , Militares/psicologia , Entrevista Motivacional , Adulto , Alcoolismo/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Normas Sociais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Telefone , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
2.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31880767

RESUMO

The paper presents a review of the literature data reflecting the relevance and current views on the problem of facial feedback. It considers the relationship between the bioelectric activity of facial muscles and neuropsychic stress. The modern issues dedicated to the study of the correlation between the indicators assessing the tonic activity of facial muscles and psycho-emotional stress are highlighted. Particular emphasis is placed on the scientific concept of emotional proprioception, according to which facial muscle activity through the trigeminal and facial nerves affects the emotional centers of the brain, by improving or worsening the emotional state. The currently known methods for the correction of psychoemotional states, which are based on the feedback mechanism, are analyzed. The possibilities of using neuromuscular relaxation of the facial muscles to correct psychoemotional conditions are considered.


Assuntos
Emoções/fisiologia , Músculos Faciais/fisiologia , Retroalimentação Psicológica/fisiologia , Humanos , Propriocepção/fisiologia , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia
3.
Pap. psicol ; 40(3): 182-189, sept.-dic. 2019. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-186992

RESUMO

En los últimos años el uso de información normativa-normas sociales para la promoción de la conducta proambiental ha recibido una atención notable, mostrando un gran potencial para la intervención psicosocial. Este artículo pretende transferir y hacer accesible los principales resultados de los estudios sobre información normativa para incentivar el desarrollo de programas de intervención de carácter medioambiental. Se revisan los conceptos de normas sociales descriptivas y prescriptivas, así como las principales recomendaciones para su uso adecuado en aplicaciones prácticas. Se atiende también a factores que afectan la efectividad de las normas sociales en la promoción de la conducta proambiental: uso de retroalimentación conductual, carácter dinámico de la norma, identidad social e implicación personal. Las normas sociales suponen una importante aportación de la psicología ambiental para la intervención en la problemática ambiental


In recent years, the use of normative information-social norms for promoting pro-environmental behaviour- has received remarkable attention, showing great potential for psychosocial interventions. This paper makes research on normative information accessible with the aim of translating it into pro-environmental programs and public policy. The concepts of descriptive and prescriptive social norms are reviewed, as well as the main recommendations for their effective use in applied contexts. Some factors found relevant for effective normative interventions on pro-environmental behavior are discussed: the use of behavioral feedback, the dynamic character of the norms, and personal involvement. Social norms represent an important contribution of environmental psychology to the intervention on environmental problems


Assuntos
Humanos , Meio Ambiente , Comportamento Social , Normas Sociais , Psicologia Ambiental/normas , Retroalimentação Psicológica , Política Pública
4.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 28(11): 104337, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31522886

RESUMO

AIM: This study aimed to determine the effects of repeated use of the 6-minute walk test (6MWT) with immediate knowledge of results (KR) on the walking capacity by comparing fast and slow walkers in patients with chronic hemiparesis. METHODS: Twenty-five subjects were allocated to 2 groups depending on their walking speed1: Group 1 (fast walkers, n1 = 11): greater than equal to .8 m/s and2 Group 2 (slow walkers, n2 = 14): less than .8 m/s. All subjects underwent the 6MWT once a day, 5 days a week, for 4 weeks (a total of 20 sessions). The 6MWT was performed on a 30-m path with immediate KR; subjects informed the time taken to walk each 30-m path. Outcome measures included the 6MWT and 10-meter walk test (10MWT). Measurements were taken before and after 4 weeks. Results of within-group comparisons showed significant improvements in the 10MWT and 6MWT for both groups pre- and post-test (P < .05). Furthermore, in between-group comparison, results of Group 1 differences were greater between pre- and post-test in the 10MWT and 6MWT values as compared to Group 2 (P < .05). These findings indicate that repeated use of the 6MWT with immediate KR may be beneficial to enhance walking capacity in patients with chronic stroke, with more favorable changes in better poststroke walking speed.


Assuntos
Retroalimentação Psicológica , Paresia/diagnóstico , Paresia/reabilitação , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral/métodos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Teste de Caminhada , Velocidade de Caminhada , Doença Crônica , Avaliação da Deficiência , Tolerância ao Exercício , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paresia/etiologia , Paresia/fisiopatologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/psicologia , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
Percept Mot Skills ; 126(6): 1178-1194, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31422740

RESUMO

Allowing learners to control feedback has been an effective strategy in motor skills learning. However, most studies of self-controlled (SC) feedback have used simple tasks that may be dissimilar to sports skills that generally demand more degrees of freedom and cognition. Thus, this study investigated the effects of SC knowledge of results (KR) on learning a complex Taekwondo skill. Twenty-four undergraduate volunteers of both sexes, aged 18-35 years, practiced a specific serial Taekwondo skill that was novel to them. We divided participants randomly into SC and yoked groups and compared their performance after they learned a specific displacement sequence, finishing with a lateral kick (bandal-tchagui) at a punching bag within a target time span. During acquisition, all participants performed 48 trials divided into six blocks and, on a retention test 24 hours later, they performed 10 more trials. We found that both groups reduced their errors from the first to the last block of the acquisition phase and that the SC group showed a better performance on the retention test, relative to the yoked control group. SC KR participants requested KR mainly after good trials, though they showed no statistically significant differences between trials with and without KR. Their inefficiency in estimating their own errors may have been due to task complexity, since many aspects of the task beyond its temporal requirement demanded the learners' attention. Our results, using a novel Taekwondo serial skill, confirm and extend the benefits of SC KR from just simple motor learning in past studies to learning complex motor skills.


Assuntos
Artes Marciais , Destreza Motora , Autocontrole , Adolescente , Adulto , Atenção , Cognição , Retroalimentação , Retroalimentação Psicológica , Feminino , Glicoesfingolipídeos , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
6.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 199: 102897, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31365896

RESUMO

Sense of agency (SoA) is a subjective feeling that a person controls his/her own actions and causes changes in the external world. In continuous action such as controlling a dot by keypresses, SoA is influenced by actual actions during the task. Additionally, it is known that even though the actual actions were almost identical, outcome feedback (e.g., success or fail) could modulate SoA, indicating a retrospective modulation of SoA. However, it was unclear whether the SoA modulated by outcome feedback would influence SoA for an up-coming action. Here, we investigated the effects of outcome feedback in one-back trial on SoA in the present trial (i.e., prospective modulation). We conducted three experiments where participants controlled a dot to a target whose color changed unpredictably between white and blue. If the dot reached the target when the color was white (blue), participants received a text feedback of "Success" ("Fail"). However, in fact, we predetermined the outcome feedback to remove the effects of the actual performance of participants on SoA. The results showed that if the outcome feedback of the one-back trial was successful, SoA of the present trial became higher (i.e., prospective modulation) until they received the outcome feedback. Moreover, the prospectively modulated SoA was retrospectively overwritten by the outcome feedback of the present trial and likely converged to a constant level. These findings indicated that SoA was not produced by a mere sum of the prospective and retrospective factors, but rather that these factors independently influenced SoA with differential time courses.


Assuntos
Logro , Emoções/fisiologia , Retroalimentação Psicológica/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
7.
Trials ; 20(1): 426, 2019 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31300028

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adherence to tuberculosis (TB) treatment is challenging because of many factors. The World Health Organization has recommended the use of digital adherence monitoring technologies in its End TB Strategy. However, evidence on improving adherence is limited. EvriMED is a real-time medication-monitoring device which was found to be feasible and acceptable in a few studies in Asia. In Tanzania, however, there may be challenges in implementing evriMED due to stigmatization, network and power access, accuracy, and cost effectiveness, which may have implications for treatment outcome. We propose a pragmatic cluster randomized trial to investigate the effectiveness of evriMED with reminder cues and tailored feedback on adherence to TB treatment in Kilimanjaro, Tanzania. METHODS/DESIGN: We will create clusters in Kilimanjaro based on level of health care facility. Clusters will be randomized in an intervention arm, where evriMED will be implemented, or a control arm, where standard practice directly observed treatment will be followed. TB patients in intervention clusters will take their medication from the evriMED pillbox and receive tailored feedback. We will use the 'Stages of Change' model, which assumes that a person has to go through the stages of pre-contemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, and evaluation to change behavior for tailored feedback on adherence reports from the device. DISCUSSION: If the intervention shows a significant effect on adherence and the devices are accepted, accurate, and sustainable, the intervention can be scaled up within the National Tuberculosis Programmes. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Pan African Clinical Trials Registry, PACTR201811755733759 . Registered on 8 November 2018.


Assuntos
Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Retroalimentação Psicológica , Adesão à Medicação , Sistemas de Alerta , Envio de Mensagens de Texto , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Sinais (Psicologia) , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Ensaios Clínicos Pragmáticos como Assunto , Tanzânia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Tuberculose/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
Cells ; 8(7)2019 06 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31262067

RESUMO

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic and relapsing intestinal inflammatory condition, hallmarked by a disturbance in the bidirectional interaction between gut and brain. In general, the gut/brain axis involves direct and/or indirect communication via the central and enteric nervous system, host innate immune system, and particularly the gut microbiota. This complex interaction implies that IBD is a complex multifactorial disease. There is increasing evidence that stress adversely affects the gut/microbiota/brain axis by altering intestinal mucosa permeability and cytokine secretion, thereby influencing the relapse risk and disease severity of IBD. Given the recurrent nature, therapeutic strategies particularly aim at achieving and maintaining remission of the disease. Alternatively, these strategies focus on preventing permanent bowel damage and concomitant long-term complications. In this review, we discuss the gut/microbiota/brain interplay with respect to chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract and particularly shed light on the role of stress. Hence, we evaluated the therapeutic impact of stress management in IBD.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/imunologia , Sistema Nervoso Entérico/imunologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/imunologia , Estresse Psicológico/imunologia , Terapia Comportamental/métodos , Doença Crônica/psicologia , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Retroalimentação Psicológica , Humanos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/psicologia , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/terapia , Mucosa Intestinal/imunologia , Mucosa Intestinal/inervação , Vias Neurais/imunologia , Qualidade de Vida , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/terapia , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Dev Neuropsychol ; 44(5): 429-442, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31353953

RESUMO

Prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) has ramifications for feedback processing. Measuring neural oscillatory dynamics (during electroencephalography) provides insight into the time signatures and neural processes of feedback processing in adolescents with PCE. We measured spectral power in alpha and theta frequency bands while 49 adolescents with PCE and 34 non-drug exposed (NDE) performed a task with win/no-win feedback. Compared to NDE individuals, those with PCE showed reduced alpha power and increased theta power in response to no-win feedback. These findings suggest altered reactivity in PCE adolescents.


Assuntos
Ritmo alfa , Ritmo beta , Cocaína/efeitos adversos , Retroalimentação Psicológica/fisiologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/psicologia , Adolescente , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Gravidez
10.
Biol Psychol ; 146: 107735, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31352030

RESUMO

Trait extraversion has been theorized to emerge from functioning of the dopaminergic reward system. Recent evidence for this view shows that extraversion modulates the scalp-recorded Reward Positivity, a putative marker of dopaminergic signaling of reward-prediction-error. We attempt to replicate this association amid several improvements on previous studies in this area, including an adequately-powered sample (N = 100) and thorough examination of convergent-divergent validity. Participants completed a passive associative learning task presenting rewards and non-rewards that were either predictable or unexpected. Frequentist and Bayesian analyses confirmed that the scalp recorded Reward Positivity (i.e., the Feedback-Related-Negativity contrasting unpredicted rewards and unpredicted non-rewards) was significantly associated with three measures of extraversion and unrelated to other basic traits from the Big Five personality model. Narrower sub-traits of extraversion showed similar, though weaker associations with the Reward Positivity. These findings consolidate previous evidence linking extraversion with a putative marker of dopaminergic reward-processing.


Assuntos
Eletroencefalografia , Recompensa , Adolescente , Adulto , Antecipação Psicológica , Aprendizagem por Associação , Dopamina/fisiologia , Retroalimentação Psicológica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Personalidade , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
Clin Dermatol ; 37(3): 282-283, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31178110

RESUMO

Corporate studies have consistently shown that millennials prefer more frequent and detailed feedback in the workplace. With most dermatology residents fitting the description of a millennial, we sought to study their preferences in feedback and then compare this to current feedback practices and cultures. Our study supports that residents prefer more frequent informal feedback, especially compared with residency program directors. We also showed a desire for formal feedback training programs, which can help to overcome some of the noted barriers to providing feedback. Building a strong, positive, and open feedback culture can help to set the stage for giving and receiving constructive feedback in a safe environment. The results of this study can help to improve residency training moving forward.


Assuntos
Cultura , Dermatologia/educação , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina , Retroalimentação Psicológica , Internato e Residência , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Local de Trabalho/psicologia , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina/tendências , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
Biol Psychol ; 146: 107715, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31212006

RESUMO

Intelligence mindset, which denotes individual beliefs about whether intelligence is fixed versus malleable, shapes academic success, but the neural mechanisms underlying mindset-related differences in learning are unknown. Here, we probe the effects of individual differences in mindset on neural responses to negative feedback after a competence threat manipulation. We hypothesized that when their competence was threatened, participants with fixed mindsets would interpret further negative feedback as punishing. After receiving either no score or a competence-threatening IQ score, participants performed a learning task with feedback that emphasized either the evaluative or informational weight of negative feedback. Participants who experienced the competence threat had the strongest predictive relationships between mindset, performance, and caudate activation. The competence threat may have compounded the subjective punishment of negative feedback for fixed mindsets relative to growth mindsets, causing poorer learning from negative feedback in the evaluative context and inflexible striatal responses to negative feedback across feedback contexts.


Assuntos
Inteligência , Aprendizagem , Memória , Competência Mental/psicologia , Retroalimentação Psicológica , Feminino , Humanos , Individualidade , Masculino
13.
Trials ; 20(1): 268, 2019 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31088531

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Children requiring hospitalization for psychiatric care have serious disorders, high use of psychotropic medication, and frequent readmissions. The development and implementation of therapies focused on incorporating primary caregivers or attachment figures is necessary for working with children with severe psychiatric disorders. Mentalization or parental reflective functioning (PRF) is the ability of parents to understand their children's behaviors as an expression of internal emotional states and act accordingly to help them regulate their emotions; in this way mentalizing is a key component of sensitive parenting. Video-assisted therapies have proven to be effective in promoting change in parent-child relationships. The majority of studies have been carried out with mothers of pre-school children and in an outpatient setting. Video intervention therapy (VIT) is a flexible manualized therapy, which allows the intervention to be individualized to the context where it is applied, according to the needs and resources of the people who participate in it. The objective of the study is to evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of applying VIT to improve the PRF of the parents as primary carers of children hospitalized in a psychiatric service. METHODS: This is a pilot randomized, single-masked (outcome assessor) study with a qualitative component. It will involve a block randomization procedure to generate a 2:1 allocation (with more people allocated to the intervention arm). The intervention consists of four modules; every module has both one video-recorded play session and one VIT session per week. People assigned to the control group will receive treatment as usual plus weekly play sessions. Feasibility and acceptability of the study will be quantitatively and qualitatively assessed. Evaluation of the caregivers will include assessments of PRF, wellbeing and personality structure; assessments of children will include parent-ratings and clinician-ratings of symptomatology and general functioning. After every video feedback (VF) session, PRF, the caregiver's wellbeing and children's general functioning will be reassessed. DISCUSSION: This study will contribute to the currently scarce evidence on how to provide family attachment-based interventions in a child inpatient psychiatric unit. It will also inform the design and implementation of a future randomized clinical trial. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03374904 . Registered on 14 December 2017 (retrospectively registered).


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Cuidadores/psicologia , Comportamento Infantil , Retroalimentação Psicológica , Pacientes Internados/psicologia , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/terapia , Pais/psicologia , Gravação em Vídeo , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Criança , Emoções , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mentalização , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/psicologia , Relações Pais-Filho , Poder Familiar , Projetos Piloto , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
14.
Cuad. psicol. deporte ; 19(2): 70-82, mayo 2019. tab
Artigo em Português | IBECS | ID: ibc-183270

RESUMO

Comportamentos antissociais tornaram-se recorrentes no ambiente escolar e se manifestado por meio de agressões físicas, verbais e simbólicas. O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar o efeito de uma intervenção, fundamentada no atendimento das necessidades psicológicas básicas (NPB), nos comportamentos pró e antissociais em aulas de Educação Física escolar. Participaram deste estudo 45 alunos e 2 professores de educação Física (PEF) divididos em Grupo Controle (GC) e Grupo Intervenção (GI). Os alunos responderam o Questionário de Atitudes no Esporte (QAE-23) e uma entrevista semiestruturada nos momentos pré e pós intervenção. A intervenção consistiu em uma orientação semanal com o PEF do GI durante 10 semanas, com objetivo de realizar adaptações na aula a fim de levar ao cumprimento das NPB. Para verificar diferença entre os grupos, em relação às respostas do QAE-23, nos momentos pré e pós, foi utilizado o teste T de Student e adotado nível de significância 5%. Na análise qualitativa, as entrevistas foram gravadas, transcritas e, posteriormente, categorizadas e analisadas. Mediante análise dos relatos obtidos pela entrevista foi possível observar percepção do atendimento das NPB e redução de comportamentos antissociais. Contudo, não foi observada diferença estatisticamente significativa entre os grupos para as respostas do QAE-2. Conclui-se, por meio dos relatos obtidos na entrevista, que a intervenção pautada no cumprimento das NPB possibilitou um efeito positivo em relação à redução dos comportamentos antissociais, porém, os dados quantitativos sugerem que a duração do estudo pode ter sido um fator limitante de maior efeito em relação à ausência internalização dos comportamentos


Los comportamientos antissociales se tornaron recurrentes en el ambiente escolar y se manifestaron por medio de agresiones físicas, verbales y simbólicas. El objetivo de este estudio fue verificar el efecto de una intervención, fundamentada en la atención de las necesidades psicológicas básicas (NPB), en los comportamientos pro y antisociales en clases de Educación Física escolar. En este estudio participaron 45 alumnos y 2 profesores de educación Física (PEF) divididos en Grupo Control (GC) y Grupo Intervención (GI). Los alumnos respondieron el Cuestionario de Actitudes en el Deporte (QAE-23) y una entrevista semiestructurada en los momentos pre y post intervención. La intervención consistió en una orientación semanal con el PEF del GI durante 10 semanas, con el objetivo de realizar adaptaciones en la clase a fin de llevar al cumplimiento de las NPB. Para verificar la diferencia entre los grupos, en relación a las respuestas del QAE-23, en los momentos pre y post, se utilizó la prueba T de Student y se adoptó un nivel de significancia del 5%. En el análisis cualitativo, las entrevistas fueron grabadas, transcritas y posteriormente clasificadas y analizadas. Mediante el análisis de los relatos obtenidos por la entrevista fue posible observar percepción de la atención de las NPB y reducción de comportamientos antisociales. Sin embargo, no se observó diferencia estadísticamente significativa entre los grupos para las respuestas del QAE-2. Se concluye, por medio de los relatos obtenidos en la entrevista, que la intervención pautada en el cumplimiento de las NPB posibilitó un efecto positivo en relación a la reducción de los comportamientos antisociales, sin embargo, los datos cuantitativos sugieren que la duración del estudio puede haber sido un factor limitante de mayor efecto en relación a la ausencia de internalización de los comportamientos


The objective was to verify the effect of an intervention, based on the attendance of the basic psychological needs (NPB) and pro and antisocial behaviors in school physical education classes. Thirty-five students and two teachers of Physical Education, divided into Control Group (CG) and Intervention (GI) participated in this study. The students answered the Attitudes Questionnaire in Sport (QAE-23) and participated in a semi-structured interview in the pre-and post-intervention moments. The intervention was performed with the GI teacher for 10 weeks, aiming to promote NPB during class. The Student's t-test was used and adopted p <0.05. The interviews were categorized and analyzed. It was observed perception of NPB care and reduction of antisocial behaviors. It was concluded that intervention based on NPB compliance enabled a reduction of antisocial behavior, but the duration of the study may have been a limiting factor of greater effect in relation to the internalization of these behaviors


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Comportamento Social , Habilidades Sociais , Educação Física e Treinamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Esportes/psicologia , Autonomia Pessoal , Retroalimentação Psicológica , Avaliação de Eficácia-Efetividade de Intervenções , Técnicas Psicológicas/estatística & dados numéricos
15.
Cuad. psicol. deporte ; 19(2): 209-226, mayo 2019. ilus, tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-183281

RESUMO

El estudio de las variables psicológicas en el deporte es un punto clave para entender los diferentes comportamientos y resultados en el mundo del deporte, así como para desarrollar diferentes estrategias de intervención psicológica para mejorar el rendimiento. Recoger información de variables psicológicas de una forma sencilla y práctica nos permitirá conocer, en mayor profundidad, el campo de la psicología deportiva. Por ello, el objetivo del presente estudio fue reducir y validar el Cuestionario de Necesidades Psicológicas del Deportista (CNPD) de Dosil (2005) de 30 ítems que se dividen en 4 factores: Concentración, Activación, Confianza y Motivación. Se recogió una muestra de 327 deportistas de 18 deportes diferentes y con edades comprendidas entre los 11 y los 54 años (M = 18.47 ; DT = 7.1). Los resultados de los análisis psicométricos mostraron una buena validez y una alta fiabilidad, obteniendo un instrumento reducido a 15 ítems y 4 factores, adecuado para su aplicación en el ámbito del deporte


The studying of psychological factors is a key element for understanding different behaviours and results in the Sports world, and also for developing different strategies of psychological intervention in order to improve the performance. Collecting data of psychological factors in a simple and practical way will allow us to have a deeper understanding of the Sports Psychology field. Therefore, the goal of this study was to simplify and validate a Cuestionario de Necesidades Psicológicas del Deportistas (CNPD) by Dosil (20015), composed of 30 items, and divided in 4 factors: focus, activation, confidence and motivation. In order to do that, we collected a sample of 327 sportsmen and women of 18 different sports, with ages ranging between 11 and 54 (M = 18.47 ; DT = 7.1). The results of the psychometric analysis showed a good validity and a high reliability, yielding an instrument reduced just to 15 items and 4 factors, which is suitable for the Sports scope


O estudo das variáveis psicológicas no esporte é um ponto chave para perceber os diferentes comportamentos e resultados do mundo do esporte assim como para desenvolver diferentes estratégias de intervenção psicológica e para melhorar o rendimento. Recolher informação de variáveis psicólogas de um jeito simples e prático permitirá conhecer com maior profundidade o ramo da psicologia esportiva. Por isto, o objetivo deste estudo foi reduzir e validar el Cuestionario de Necesidades Psicológicas del Deportista(CNPD) de 30 itens que são divididos em 4 fatores: Foco, ativação, confiança e motivação. Para isso foi realizada uma amostra de 327 esportistas de 18 esportes diferentes e com idades entre 11 e 54 anos(M= 18.47 ; DP= 7.1). Os resultados das análises psicométricas mostraram validez e alta fiabilidades obtendo assim um instrumento reduzido a 15 itens e 4 fatores, adequado ao ramo da Psicologia Esportiva


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Esportes/psicologia , Psicometria/instrumentação , Retroalimentação Psicológica/classificação , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Testes Psicológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Técnicas Psicológicas/instrumentação
16.
Biol Psychol ; 145: 76-83, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30965093

RESUMO

It has long been supposed that the confirmation bias plays a role in the prevalence and maintenance of misconceptions. However, this has been supported more by argument than by empirical evidence. In the present paper, we show how different types of belief-feedback evoke physiological responses consistent with the presence of a confirmation bias. Participants were presented with misconceptions and indicated whether they believed each misconception to be true or false, as well as how committed they were to the misconception. Each response was followed by feedback that was either clear (i.e., "correct" or "incorrect") or ambiguous (i.e., "partly correct" or "partly incorrect"). Pupillary response to each feedback condition was assessed. The results show an interaction between feedback accuracy and feedback clarity on pupil size. The largest pupil size was found in response to clear disconfirmatory feedback. The smallest pupil size was found in response to both clear and ambiguous confirmatory feedback. Crucially, the pupil responded to ambiguous confirmatory feedback as though it were wholly confirmatory. Moreover, pupil size in response to ambiguous disconfirmatory feedback was significantly smaller than response to clear disconfirmatory feedback, showing an overall trend towards confirmatory processing in the absence of clear disconfirmation. Additionally, we show a moderation by commitment towards the misconception. The greater the commitment, the larger the effect of belief-violating feedback on pupil size. These findings support recent theorizing in the field of misconceptions and, more generally, the field of inconsistency-compensation.


Assuntos
Retroalimentação Psicológica/fisiologia , Teoria Psicológica , Pupila/fisiologia , Adulto , Viés , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Pers Soc Psychol ; 117(2): 282-309, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30958023

RESUMO

Psychological researchers often use powerful experimental manipulations to temporarily reduce participants' well-being. Postexperimental debriefings are intended to eliminate such detrimental effects. However, experimentally induced beliefs can persevere even when the underlying information is explicitly discredited. The present research investigates, in the context of ego-threatening manipulations, whether postexperimental debriefings reestablish participants' prestudy conditions. In 6 studies, participants received false feedback about their intelligence (Studies 1 and 5) or their attractiveness and likability (Studies 2-4 and 6), completed dependent variables indicative of well-being (Studies 1, 2, and 4-6), or aggressive behavior and hostile attributions (Study 3), and were thoroughly debriefed. Participants reported lower well-being and exhibited more hostile attributions after receiving negative compared with neutral or positive feedback. These effects were not eliminated when participants had been debriefed before completing the dependent variables, either in writing (Studies 1-6), in person (Studies 4 and 5), or when additionally writing a self-affirming essay (Studies 4 and 5). A prolonged and extensive personal debriefing (Study 6) was most effective in reducing the aversive effects of ego threat. Follow-up assessments revealed that affective consequences of the ego threat persevered for 2 weeks and longer. Internal meta-analyses corroborated these results, but also showed that all debriefing versions, even if not fully effective, ameliorated the effects of ego threat at least to some extent. Taken together, the present findings illustrate the only partial effectiveness of different debriefing procedures, stress the importance of carefully designing postexperimental debriefings to avoid ethical concerns, and more generally point to potentially effective ways to deal with negative feedback and personal threats. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Ego , Retroalimentação Psicológica , Psicologia Social/métodos , Autoimagem , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Psicologia Social/normas , Adulto Jovem
18.
Biol Psychol ; 144: 103-114, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30940477

RESUMO

Performance feedback during a speech-nonspeech discrimination task was used to investigate (neuro-)cognitive processes underlying feedback processing under uncertainty. Sensory uncertainty was manipulated by creating stimuli that were stepwise morphs of the German vowels /a/ and /a:/ (speech) and their spectrally rotated counterparts (non-speech). The anterior N1 associated with early attentional modulation was largest following negative feedback. Both negative and uninformative feedback showed larger FRN amplitudes, suggesting a classification as worse than expected. Sensory uncertainty affected only the feedback-P3, in terms of larger amplitudes for (1) stimuli with high uncertainty and (2) positive feedback. Confidence ratings revealed that sensory uncertainty reduced the accuracy of stimulus categorization, but did not modulate participants' response confidence. Results suggest that feedback processing follows three distinct and successive stages, starting with initial screening for behavioral relevance (anterior N1, enhanced for unexpected negative feedback), followed by a binary valence distinction (FRN), and a more detailed analysis (P3).


Assuntos
Retroalimentação Psicológica/fisiologia , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia , Incerteza , Adulto , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Masculino , Fonética , Psicolinguística , Adulto Jovem
19.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 199: 92-100, 2019 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31029880

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Web-based personalized normative feedback (PNF) interventions are less effective than their laboratory versions. Participant motivation may account for this reduced effect, but there is only a limited amount of research into the influence of motivation on PNF effectiveness. We evaluated the effectiveness of a web-based PNF in reducing alcohol use and consequences among college students with different motivation levels. METHODS: Pragmatic randomized controlled trial among Brazilian college drinkers aged 18-30 years (N = 4460). Participants were randomized to a Control or PNF group and followed-up after one (T1), three (T2) and six (T3) months. Outcomes were: AUDIT score (primary outcome), the number of consequences, and the typical number of drinks. Motivation for receiving the intervention was assessed with a visual analog scale (range: 0-10). Generalized mixed models assessed intervention effects via two paradigms: observed cases and attrition models. RESULTS: PNF reduced the number of typical drinks at T1 (OR = 0.71, p = 0.002), T2 (OR = 0.60, p < 0.001) and T3 (OR = 0.68, p = 0.016), compared to the control. Motivated students (score ≥3) receiving PNF also reduced the number of typical drinks at T1 (OR = 0.60, p < 0.001), T2 (OR = 0.55, p < 0.001) and T3 (OR = 0.56, p = 0.001), compared to the control. However, the attrition models were more robust at T1 and T2. In contrast, low-motivated students receiving the PNF increased AUDIT score at T3 (b = 1.49, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The intervention reduced alcohol use, and motivation for receiving the intervention moderated the intervention effects. Motivated students reduced their typical alcohol use, whereas low-motivated students increased their AUDIT score.


Assuntos
Consumo de Álcool na Faculdade/psicologia , Retroalimentação Psicológica , Internet , Motivação , Estudantes/psicologia , Universidades , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiologia , Intervenção Médica Precoce/métodos , Intervenção Médica Precoce/tendências , Retroalimentação Psicológica/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Internet/tendências , Masculino , Motivação/fisiologia , Universidades/tendências , Adulto Jovem
20.
Rev. psicol. trab. organ. (1999) ; 35(1): 1-8, abr. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-183532

RESUMO

The recession suffered in the western world since 2007 has left thousands of people unemployed. One of the countries most affected by unemployment is Spain and specially its young population (34.7%). Considering this context, we try to find out the role of psychological resources, well-being, distress, and eustress, among young employed and unemployed graduates. We worked with a sample of 542 young graduates, of whom 48.3% were unemployed, and those employed held job positions related to their academic background. Our results suggest that: 1) it is somewhat likely for young recent graduates to find a job if they score high in optimism; 2) resilience, optimism, autonomy, self-efficacy, environmental mastery, and overall life satisfaction are deteriorated in unemployment youth, while negative affect is increased in this group; and 3) environmental mastery plays a fundamental role among young unemployed graduates, for its loss is related to distress while its gain is related to eustress. The results of this research are relevant with regards to the implementation of training programs that contribute to the improvement of the well-being and life quality of these unemployed individuals, therefore allowing them to be in a better position to find a job


La situación de crisis que ha vivido el mundo occidental desde 2007 ha generado miles de desempleados. Uno de los países más afectados por el desempleo es España, en especial los jóvenes (34.7%). A la vista de este contexto intentamos analizar el rol de los recursos psicológicos, el bienestar, el distrés y el eustrés en jóvenes graduados empleados y desempleados. Hemos utilizado una muestra de 542 jóvenes graduados, de los cuales el 48.3% estaban desempleados y los que trabajaban ocupaban puestos relacionados con su formación académica. Nuestros resultados sugieren que: 1) es algo más probable que los jóvenes recién graduados encuentren trabajo si tienen puntuaciones altas en optimismo, 2) la resiliencia, el optimismo, la autonomía, la autoeficacia, el dominio del entorno y la satisfacción general con la vida están deteriorados en los jóvenes sin trabajo, a la par que aumenta en ellos el afecto negativo y 3) el dominio del entorno juega un papel fundamental en los jóvenes graduados desempleados, dado que su pérdida guarda relación con el distrés mientras que su ganancia se relaciona con el eustrés. Los resultados de esta investigación son relevantes para implementar programas de entrenamiento que contribuyan a mejorar el bienestar y la calidad de vida de estas personas desempleadas, lo que les permitirá estar en una mejor disposición para encontrar trabajo


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Adaptação Psicológica , Retroalimentação Psicológica , Desemprego/psicologia , Ajustamento Emocional , Esgotamento Psicológico/psicologia , Psicometria/instrumentação , Teoria Psicológica , Candidatura a Emprego
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