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1.
Nature ; 584(7820): 234-237, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32788738

RESUMO

Tropical soils contain one-third of the carbon stored in soils globally1, so destabilization of soil organic matter caused by the warming predicted for tropical regions this century2 could accelerate climate change by releasing additional carbon dioxide (CO2) to the atmosphere3-6. Theory predicts that warming should cause only modest carbon loss from tropical soils relative to those at higher latitudes5,7, but there have been no warming experiments in tropical forests to test this8. Here we show that in situ experimental warming of a lowland tropical forest soil on Barro Colorado Island, Panama, caused an unexpectedly large increase in soil CO2 emissions. Two years of warming of the whole soil profile by four degrees Celsius increased CO2 emissions by 55 per cent compared to soils at ambient temperature. The additional CO2 originated from heterotrophic rather than autotrophic sources, and equated to a loss of 8.2 ± 4.2 (one standard error) tonnes of carbon per hectare per year from the breakdown of soil organic matter. During this time, we detected no acclimation of respiration rates, no thermal compensation or change in the temperature sensitivity of enzyme activities, and no change in microbial carbon-use efficiency. These results demonstrate that soil carbon in tropical forests is highly sensitive to warming, creating a potentially substantial positive feedback to climate change.


Assuntos
Ciclo do Carbono , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Florestas , Aquecimento Global , Solo/química , Clima Tropical , Retroalimentação , Ilhas , Panamá , Fatores de Tempo , Água/análise
2.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237826, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32797107

RESUMO

Piano is a complex instrument, which humans learn to play after many years of practice. This paper investigates the complex dynamics of the embodied interactions between a human and piano, in order to gain insights into the nature of humans' physical dexterity and adaptability. In this context, the dynamic interactions become particularly crucial for delicate expressions, often present in advanced music pieces, which is the main focus of this paper. This paper hypothesises that the relationship between motor control for key-pressing and the generated sound is a manifold problem, with high-degrees of non-linearity in nature. We employ a minimalistic experimental platform based on a robotic arm equipped with a single elastic finger in order to systematically investigate the motor control and resulting outcome of piano sounds. The robot was programmed to run 3125 key-presses on a physical digital piano with varied control parameters. The obtained data was applied to a Gaussian Process (GP) inference modelling method, to train a network in terms of 10 playing styles, corresponding to different expressions generated by a Musical Instrument Digital Interface (MIDI). By analysing the robot control parameters and the output sounds, the relationship was confirmed to be highly nonlinear, especially when the rich expressions (such as a broad range of sound dynamics) were necessary. Furthermore this relationship was difficult and time consuming to learn with linear regression models, compared to the developed GP-based approach. The performance of the robot controller was also compared to that of an experienced human player. The analysis shows that the robot is able to generate sounds closer to humans' in some expressions, but requires additional investigations for others.


Assuntos
Modelos Teóricos , Música , Robótica , Retroalimentação , Humanos , Distribuição Normal , Som
3.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237926, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32853214

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: At present, current didactic teaching delivery method help nursing students apply theory to clinical situations in an inefficient way. The flipped classroom (FC), a novel teaching mode emphasizing self-study and critical thinking, has generated interest in nursing education in China. However, there are a gap in the literature and no consistent outcomes of current studies which compared FC and lecture-based learning (LBL), and no systematic review has comprehensively compared theoretical scores as an affected outcome in FC versus LBL modes. METHODS: In this review, we analyze flipped-learning nursing students' scores, and aim to assess the efficacy and provide a deeper understanding of the FC in nursing education. Following the inclusion criteria, articles were obtained by searching PubMed, Embase and Chinese data, including the China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang Data, and VIP database until 3 January 2020. Data were extracted from eligible articles and quality was assessed. A meta-analysis was then performed using a random effects model with a standardized mean value (SMD) and a 95% confidence interval (CI).32 studies were included after reviewing 2,439 citations. All studies were randomized controlled trials (RCTs). The FC theoretical knowledge scores in FC were significantly positively affected compared to those of the traditional classroom (SMD = 1.33, 95% CI: 1.02-1.64; P < 0.001). In addition, 23 studies reported skill scores, indicating significant difference between the FC mode and LBL mode (SMD = 1.58, 95%CI: 1.23-1.93; P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The results of this meta-analysis suggest that compared to the LBL teaching method, the FC mode dose significantly improve Chinese nursing students' theoretical scores. However, the problems of heterogeneity and publication bias in this study need to be remedied high-quality future studies.


Assuntos
Educação Médica , Aprendizagem , Estudantes de Enfermagem , China , Avaliação Educacional , Retroalimentação , Humanos , Conhecimento , Viés de Publicação , Risco
4.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 272: 407-410, 2020 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32604688

RESUMO

This study represents a post-implementation qualitative inquiry for a maturing flowsheet design that aims to replace multiple disparate devices used for data entry. The flowsheet has already experienced multiple iterative development cycles based on formal feedback from formative and summative usability studies. This next phase focused on a semi-structured qualitative interview to provide new feedback that will be used to further refine the product. Results of the 9-item interview were both actionable and provocative, revealing multiple avenues of improvement and a new usability map that can inform future studies and design plans.


Assuntos
Equipamentos e Provisões , Retroalimentação
5.
J Am Dent Assoc ; 151(8): 589-595, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32718488

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antibiotic resistance is a global public health problem that is responsible for increased patient morbidity and mortality and financial burden. Dental antibiotic prescribing contributes to approximately 10% of all antibiotic prescriptions, and an estimated 80% of that prescribing is deemed inappropriate. Dental antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) has an important role to play in international efforts to tackle antibiotic resistance. The aim of the authors was to comment on the implementation of AMS strategies in outpatient dental practices. METHODS: The authors included previous studies regarding outpatient antibiotic stewardship, longitudinal studies quantifying dispensed dental antibiotic prescription use, and interventional studies aimed at implementing AMS interventions in dentistry. RESULTS: Researchers in several studies conducted trials regarding the use of various interventions, mostly comprising a combination of audit, feedback, dissemination of guidelines, and educational components to improve dental prescribing. CONCLUSIONS AND PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: In regard to the establishment of an AMS strategy, aspects to be considered should include raising awareness about the risks of unnecessary use of antibiotics. Engaging and educating the entire dental team and patients, as well as collaborating with other specialized professionals, are important elements. Context-specific interventions with a methodical and measured approach are ideal.


Assuntos
Gestão de Antimicrobianos , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Retroalimentação , Humanos , Pacientes Ambulatoriais
6.
Appl Clin Inform ; 11(3): 452-459, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32610350

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Relaxation of laws and regulations around privacy and billing during the COVID-19 pandemic provide expanded opportunities to use telehealth to provide patient care at a distance. Many health systems have transitioned to providing outpatient care via telehealth; however, there is an opportunity to utilize telehealth for inpatients to promote physical distancing. OBJECTIVE: This article evaluates the use of a rapidly implemented, secure inpatient telehealth program. METHODS: We assembled a multidisciplinary team to rapidly design, implement, and iteratively improve an inpatient telehealth quality improvement initiative using an existing videoconferencing system at our academic medical center. We assigned each hospital bed space a unique meeting link and updated the meeting password for each new patient. Patients and families were encouraged to use their own mobile devices to join meetings when possible. RESULTS: Within 7 weeks of go-live, we hosted 1,820 inpatient telehealth sessions (13.3 sessions per 100 bedded days). We logged 104,647 minutes of inpatient telehealth time with a median session duration of 22 minutes (range 1-1,961). There were 5,288 participant devices used with a mean of 3 devices per telehealth session (range 2-22). Clinicians found they were able to build rapport and perform a reasonable physical exam. CONCLUSION: We successfully implemented and scaled a secure inpatient telehealth program using an existing videoconferencing system in less than 1 week. Our implementation provided an intuitive naming convention for providers and capitalized on the broad availability of smartphones and tablets. Initial comments from clinicians suggest the system was useful; however, further work is needed to streamline initial setup for patients and families as well as care coordination to support clinician communication and workflows. Numerous use cases identified suggest a role for inpatient telehealth will remain after the COVID-19 crisis underscoring the importance of lasting regulatory reform.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Implementação de Plano de Saúde , Pacientes Internados , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Telemedicina , Retroalimentação , Hospitais , Humanos
7.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1262: 217-237, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32613586

RESUMO

Knowledge of the anatomy of the skull and its bones forms an important part of the understanding required for the study and practice of safe clinical dentistry. The use of serious games in healthcare education is well-documented, but there is comparatively little evidence for their use in dental education. Intrinsically integrated rewards are a game mechanic that can be motivational for serious game users. A research gap was identified in the delivery of skull anatomy education to dental undergraduate students via a serious game with intrinsically integrated rewards. A serious game, titled Visualisation Studio Sim, was developed with Unity, featuring three-dimensional models and assets designed and modified with 3ds Max and Instant Meshes. Two versions of the game were built, one with the addition of intrinsically integrated rewards and one without it, and the game versions were tested by a convenience sample to gather open-ended feedback on the usability and suitability of the game mechanic for dental undergraduate education. Feedback suggested that it was straightforward to interact with the skull models but that the rewards were not as well integrated into the flow and immersion of the game as intended, and the game might not have been as challenging as desired for the intended cohort warranting future refinements in these aspects.


Assuntos
Educação em Odontologia , Crânio , Estudantes de Odontologia , Jogos de Vídeo , Educação em Odontologia/métodos , Retroalimentação , Humanos , Motivação , Crânio/anatomia & histologia , Jogos de Vídeo/normas
8.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 16(7): e1008007, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32702019

RESUMO

Biomedical research is becoming increasingly data driven. New technologies that generate large-scale, complex data are continually emerging and evolving. As a result, there is a concurrent need for training researchers to use and understand new computational tools. Here we describe an efficient and effective approach to developing curriculum materials that can be deployed in a research environment to meet this need.


Assuntos
Biologia Computacional/educação , Currículo , Algoritmos , Pesquisa Biomédica/educação , Gráficos por Computador , Retroalimentação , Internet , Aprendizagem , Desenvolvimento de Programas , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Software
9.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234992, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32603382

RESUMO

Renewable energy resources connected to a single utility grid system require highly nonlinear control algorithms to maintain efficient operation concerning power output and stability under varying operating conditions. This research work presents a comparative analysis of different adaptive Feedback Linearization (FBL) embedded Full Recurrent Adaptive NeuroFuzzy (FRANF) control schemes for maximum power point tracking (MPPT) of PV subsystem tied to a smart microgrid hybrid power system (SMG-HPS). The proposed schemes are differentiated based on structure and mathematical functions used in FRANF embedded in the FBL model. The comparative analysis is carried out based on efficiency and performance indexes obtained using the power error between the reference and the tracked power for three cases; a) step change in solar irradiation and temperature, b) partial shading condition (PSC), and c) daily field data. The proposed schemes offer enhanced convergence compared to existing techniques in terms of complexity and stability. The overall performance of all the proposed schemes is evaluated by a spider chart of multivariate comparable parameters. Adaptive PID is used for the comparison of results produced by proposed control schemes. The performance of Mexican hat wavelet-based FRANF embedded FBL is superior to the other proposed schemes as well as to aPID based MPPT scheme. However, all proposed schemes produce better results as compared to conventional MPPT control in all cases. Matlab/Simulink is used to carry out the simulations.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Fontes de Energia Elétrica , Energia Solar , Simulação por Computador , Eletrodos , Retroalimentação , Modelos Lineares , Temperatura
10.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 272: 267-271, 2020 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32604653

RESUMO

The EDUVAC project aims to develop and implement a web-based course on educating vaccination competence among health sciences students. In the current study students' feedback and evaluation is assessed which guided the partners' efforts to improve the final course content and learning material that will be available for open access. After completing the web-based course, most of the students (N=103, 75.1%) perceived their vaccination knowledge was up to date and their overall participating experience was "above average or excellent (N=119, 86.9%). While, almost all of the students (N=127, 92.7%) found that the web-based course has benefitted them and their future career. Our findings support that the web-based courses can provide satisfactory learning experience to University students and offer flexibility when needed especially in times that remote education is the only option.


Assuntos
Educação a Distância , Retroalimentação , Humanos , Internet , Aprendizagem , Estudantes , Vacinação
11.
Rev Bras Ter Intensiva ; 32(2): 308-311, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32667435

RESUMO

The disease pandemic caused by the novel coronavirus has triggered significant changes in the medical decision-making process relating to critically ill patients. Admissions to intensive care units have suddenly increased, but many of these patients do not present with clinical manifestations related to the viral infection but rather exacerbation of preexisting diseases. In this context, we must prevent intuitive decision-making and insecurity from leading us to exhaust the available critical-care beds before they are truly necessary, while still recognizing the importance of rapid decision-making in emergency situations. One of the best ways to achieve this goal may be by practicing metacognition and establishing ways for regular feedback to be provided to professionals engaged in inherently rapid decision-making processes.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Tomada de Decisão Clínica/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Metacognição , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Progressão da Doença , Emergências , Retroalimentação , Heurística , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Pandemias
13.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235274, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32628688

RESUMO

The aim of this study is to explore participants' views and experiences of an eHealth phase 3 cardiac rehabilitation (CR) intervention: Physical Activity Towards Health (PATHway). Sixty participants took part in the PATHway intervention. Debriefs were conducted after the six-month intervention. All interviews were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were analysed with Braun and Clarke's thematic analysis. Forty-four (71%) debriefs were conducted (n = 34 male, mean (SD) age 61 (10) years). Five key themes were identified: (1) Feedback on the components of the PATHway system, (2) Motivation, (3) Barriers to using PATHway, (4) Enablers to using PATHway, and (5) Post programme reflection. There were a number of subthemes within each theme, for example motivation explores participants motivation to take part in PATHway and participants motivation to sustain engagement with PATHway throughout the intervention period. Participant engagement with the components of the PATHway system was variable. Future research should focus on optimising participant familiarisation with eHealth systems and employ an iterative approach to development and evaluation.


Assuntos
Reabilitação Cardíaca/psicologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/psicologia , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Telemedicina/métodos , Idoso , Reabilitação Cardíaca/métodos , Convalescença/psicologia , Retroalimentação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Motivação/fisiologia , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233603, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32479507

RESUMO

Input devices such as motor-imagery brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) are often unreliable. In theory, channel coding can be used in the human-machine loop to robustly encapsulate intention through noisy input devices but standard feedforward error correction codes cannot be practically applied. We present a practical and general probabilistic user interface for binary input devices with very high noise levels. Our approach allows any level of robustness to be achieved, regardless of noise level, where reliable feedback such as a visual display is available. In particular, we show efficient zooming interfaces based on feedback channel codes for two-class binary problems with noise levels characteristic of modalities such as motor-imagery based BCI, with accuracy <75%. We outline general principles based on separating channel, line and source coding in human-machine loop design. We develop a novel selection mechanism which can achieve arbitrarily reliable selection with a noisy two-state button. We show automatic online adaptation to changing channel statistics, and operation without precise calibration of error rates. A range of visualisations are used to construct user interfaces which implicitly code for these channels in a way that it is transparent to users. We validate our approach with a set of Monte Carlo simulations, and empirical results from a human-in-the-loop experiment showing the approach operates effectively at 50-70% of the theoretical optimum across a range of channel conditions.


Assuntos
Interfaces Cérebro-Computador/normas , Calibragem , Simulação por Computador , Retroalimentação , Humanos , Movimento , Razão Sinal-Ruído
16.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0235209, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32598359

RESUMO

CohViz is a feedback system that provides students with concept maps as feedback on the cohesion of their writing. Although previous studies demonstrated the effectiveness of CohViz, the accuracy of CohViz remains unclear. Thus, we conducted two comprehensive validation studies to assess the accuracy of CohViz in terms of its reliability and validity. In a reliability study, we compared the concept maps generated by CohViz with concept maps generated by four human expert raters based on a text corpus comprising students' explanatory texts (N = 100). Regarding the depiction of cohesion gaps, we obtained high accordance between the CohViz concept maps and the concept maps generated by the human expert raters. However, CohViz tended to overestimate the number of relations within the concept maps. In a validity study, we examined the validity of CohViz and compared central features of the CohViz concept maps with convergent linguistic features and divergent linguistic features based on a Wikipedia text corpus (N = 1020). We found medium to high agreement with the convergent cohesion features and low agreement with the divergent features. Together, these findings suggest that CohViz can be regarded as an accurate feedback system to provide feedback on the cohesion of students' writing.


Assuntos
Retroalimentação , Validação de Programas de Computador , Redação , Adulto , Avaliação Educacional , Alemanha , Humanos , Linguística/métodos , Estudantes , Adulto Jovem
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32485808

RESUMO

Procedural training is relevant for physicians who perform surgical procedures. In the medical education field, instructors who teach surgical procedures need to understand how their students are learning to give them feedback and assess them objectively. The sequence of steps of surgical procedures is an aspect rarely considered in medical education, and state-of-the-art tools for giving feedback and assessing students do not focus on this perspective. Process Mining can help to include this perspective in this field since it has recently been used successfully in some applications. However, these previous developments are more centred on students than on instructors. This paper presents the use of Process Mining to fill this gap, generating a taxonomy of activities and a process-oriented instrument. We evaluated both tools with instructors who teach central venous catheter insertion. The results show that the instructors found both tools useful to provide objective feedback and objective assessment. We concluded that the instructors understood the information provided by the instrument since it provides helpful information to understand students' performance regarding the sequence of steps followed.


Assuntos
Cateteres Venosos Centrais , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/educação , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção , Competência Clínica , Retroalimentação , Humanos , Ensino , Ultrassonografia
18.
Acad Med ; 95(7): 1057-1065, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32576764

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Feedback is important for medical students' development. Recent conceptualizations of feedback as a dialogue between feedback provider and recipient point to longitudinal relationships as a facilitator of effective feedback discussions. This study illuminates how medical students experience feedback within a longitudinal relationship with a physician coach. METHOD: In this qualitative study, second-year medical students from the University of California, San Francisco, School of Medicine participated in semistructured interviews that explored their experiences discussing feedback within longitudinal, nonevaluative coaching relationships. Interviews occurred between May and October 2018. Interview questions addressed students' experiences receiving feedback from their coach, how and when they used this feedback, and how their relationship with their coach influenced engagement in feedback discussions. Interviews were analyzed using constructivist grounded theory. RESULTS: Seventeen students participated. The authors identified 3 major themes. First, students' development of a feedback mindset: Over time, students came to view feedback as an invaluable component of their training. Second, setting the stage for feedback: Establishing feedback routines and a low-stakes environment for developing clinical skills were important facilitators of effective feedback discussions. Third, interpreting and acting upon feedback: Students described identifying, receiving, and implementing tailored and individualized feedback in an iterative fashion. As students gained comfort and trust in their coaches' feedback, they reported increasingly engaging in feedback conversations for learning. CONCLUSIONS: Through recurring feedback opportunities and iterative feedback discussions with coaches, students came to view feedback as essential for growth and learning. Longitudinal coaching relationships can positively influence how students conceptualize and engage in feedback discussions.


Assuntos
Retroalimentação , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Tutoria/métodos , Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Adulto , Competência Clínica/estatística & dados numéricos , Comunicação , Educação de Graduação em Medicina/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Tutoria/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , São Francisco/epidemiologia , Universidades/estatística & dados numéricos
19.
J Infect Public Health ; 13(9): 1297-1303, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32554035

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Antibiotic overuse is one of the major prescription problems in rural China and a major risk factor for antibiotic resistance. Low antibiotic prescription rates can effectively reduce the risk of antibiotic resistance. We hypothesized that under a paperless, computer-based feedback system the rates of antibiotic prescriptions among primary care physicians can be reduced. METHODS: A cluster randomized crossover open controlled trial was conducted in 31 hospitals. These hospitals were randomly allocated to two groups to receive the intervention for three months followed by no intervention for three months in a random sequence. The feedback intervention information, which displayed the physicians' antibiotic prescription rates and ranking, was updated every 10 days. The primary outcome was the 10-day antibiotic prescription rate of the physicians. RESULTS: There were 82 physicians in group 1 (intervention first followed by control) and 81 in group 2 (control first followed by intervention). Baseline comparison showed no significant difference in antibiotic prescription rate between the two groups (30.8% vs 35.2%, P-value=0.07). At the crossover point, the relative reduction in antibiotic prescription rate was significantly higher among physicians in the intervention group than in the control group (33.1% vs 20.3%, P-value<0.001). After a further 3 months, the rate of decline in antibiotic prescriptions was also significantly greater in the intervention group compared to the control group (14.2% vs 4.6%, P-value<0.001). The characteristics of physicians did not significantly determine the change in rate of antibiotic prescriptions. CONCLUSION: A computer network-based feedback intervention can significantly reduce the antibiotic prescription rates of primary care outpatient physicians and continuously affected their prescription behavior for up to six months. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ChiCTR1900021823.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Retroalimentação , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , China , Análise por Conglomerados , Estudos Cross-Over , Prescrição Eletrônica , Feminino , Sistemas de Informação em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Médicos de Atenção Primária , Uso Excessivo de Medicamentos Prescritos/prevenção & controle , Software , Adulto Jovem
20.
Eur J Dent Educ ; 24(3): 580-589, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32363680

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chairside teaching is one of the teaching-learning methods in clinical dental education in which direct care is provided to patients. When students have been deemed competent in carrying out procedures on a dental phantom, they need clinical experience on patients, with guidance and constructive feedback from clinical teachers. Constructive feedback is an important learning platform in helping students analyse the strong and the weak aspects of their performance in order to identify required improvements. This study aimed to explore the practice of giving constructive feedback in chairside teaching. METHOD: A qualitative method with a case study design. Data were collected through in-depth interviews and focus group discussions (FGDs) with clinical teachers and students in clinical rotation. Data triangulation was carried out by observing the practice of giving constructive feedback in chairside teaching and document analysis from January to April 2019. Results of the in-depth interviews and FGDs were transcribed verbatim and analysed using a thematic analysis approach. RESULT: In-depth interviews with five programme coordinators and FGDs with two groups of clinical teachers (N = 8 and N = 6) and two clinical student groups (N = 8 each). Three main themes emerged in this study: ways to provide feedback, challenges on feedback provision and challenges on feedback follow-up. CONCLUSION: Differences in perception between clinical teachers and students were identified, influenced by students' interactions with the learning environment. Interventions are to be encouraged that involve teachers, students and institutions, and the interactions amongst the three.


Assuntos
Educação em Odontologia , Feedback Formativo , Retroalimentação , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Ensino
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