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2.
Z Psychosom Med Psychother ; 65(3): 224-238, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31476994

RESUMO

App-controlled feedback devices can support sustainability of weight loss. Multicentre QUANT-study shows additional weight loss and gain of QoL via multiple feedback-devices in OPTIFAST®52-program Objective: Are three app-controlled feedback devices, tested against a simple pedometer in a weight reduction program, supporting sustainable therapy success and quality of life (QoL)? Methods: In this multi-centre randomised controlled study adults with obesity (n = 89, m = 46.5 years, women n = 54), achieved high weight loss (from 42.7 kg/m² to 35.2 kg/m²) while completing the first three month of the OPTIFAST®52-program. Thereafter the intervention group (IG) used feedback devices (BIA scale, blood pressure monitor, step counter), the control group a mechanical pedometer without app for another year. Intention-to-treat analysis (ITT) and As-treated analysis (AT) were carried out. Results: Feedback devices had a positive effect on fat-loss and secondary study objectives like QoL, leading to a better sustainability of these improvements. Participants in IG (AT for t2-t0) had improvements for Waist-to-Height-ratio (WHtR) and physically and mentally quality of life. Conclusion: The results are presumably based on an increase in self-efficacy and the experience of control. Future studies should be preceded by a pilot study to analyse acceptance problems.


Assuntos
Manutenção do Peso Corporal , Retroalimentação , Aplicativos Móveis , Obesidade/terapia , Qualidade de Vida , Perda de Peso , Programas de Redução de Peso/métodos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
3.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 264: 1791-1792, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31438346

RESUMO

The biomechanical relationship between the body and teeth suggested that posture imbalance can lead to dentoalveolar malocclusion. A randomized crossover trial was conducted to compare body posture measure using tilt angles of the neck and center of pressure of the malocclusion patients that received vibrotactile biofeedback from the posture trainer device with those who received no feedback. The results showed that the system is associated with quantitative improvements of the body posture in malocclusion patients.


Assuntos
Má Oclusão , Equilíbrio Postural , Biorretroalimentação Psicológica , Retroalimentação , Humanos , Postura
4.
J Vet Med Educ ; 46(3): 340-352, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31460844

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Entrustable Professional Activities (EPAs) combine feedback and evaluation with a permission to act under a specified level of supervision and the possibility to schedule learners for clinical service. This literature review aims to identify workplace-based assessment tools that indicate progression toward unsupervised practice, suitable for entrustment decisions and feedback to learners. METHODS: A systematic search was performed in the PubMed, Embase, ERIC, and PsycINFO databases. Based on title/abstract and full text, articles were selected using predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Information on workplace-based assessment tools was extracted using data coding sheets. The methodological quality of studies was assessed using the medical education research study quality instrument (MERSQI). RESULTS: The search yielded 6,371 articles (180 were evaluated in full text). In total, 80 articles were included, identifying 67 assessment tools. Only a few studies explicitly mentioned assessment tools used as a resource for entrustment decisions. Validity evidence was frequently reported, and the MERSQI score was 10.0 on average. CONCLUSIONS: Many workplace-based assessment tools were identified that potentially support learners with feedback on their development and support supervisors with providing feedback. As expected, only few articles referred to entrustment decisions. Nevertheless, the existing tools or the principals could be used for entrustment decisions, supervision level, or autonomy.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões , Educação em Veterinária , Local de Trabalho , Animais , Competência Clínica , Educação Baseada em Competências , Currículo , Retroalimentação , Humanos
5.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 264: 1308-1312, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31438137

RESUMO

Improving visualizations in clinical quality reports and dashboards may improve the visualization influence on clinical practice. Tailored displays could accommodate individual and situational differences, but these diplays introduce complex requirements across healthcare professionals and teams. We applied user stories, a method for managing complex software requirements, to a user-centered design process for tailored visual displays about postpartum contraception care. We mapped user stories to tailored displays to identify the quantity of displays that were supported by each user story. We developed 9 tailored displays and 11 user stories. Displays varied in their mappings to user stories (mean 5, max 9, min 0), revealing differences in healthcare professionals and teams preferences and information needs. User stories and user-centered design may be useful for healthcare organizations to manage complex requirements of tailored displays in clinical practice feedback.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde , Software , Retroalimentação , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos
6.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 264: 1126-1130, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31438100

RESUMO

"Journalen" is a patient accessible electronic health record (PAEHR) and the national eHealth service for Sweden's citizens to gain access to their EHR. The Swedish national eHealth organization Inera, responsible for Journalen, created an inbox to receive voluntary user feedback about Journalen in order to improve the service from the user perspective. Based on voluntary user feedback via email. This study explored patients' experiences of using the national eHealth service and identified pros and cons. A mixed method content analysis was performed. In total, 1084 emails from 2016-2017 have been analyzed. 9 categories were identified, the most frequent ones related to questions about why some information was not accessible (due to regional differencies), feedback (including only positive or negative comments as well as constructive improvement suggestions), and emails about errors that user found in their record. These data can be successfully used to continuously improve an already implemented eHealth service.


Assuntos
Registros de Saúde Pessoal , Telemedicina , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Retroalimentação , Humanos , Suécia
7.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 263: 159-170, 2019 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31411161

RESUMO

Control theory is about the processes underlying the behaviour of self-regulating agents. It proposes that behaviour is regulated by a negative feedback loop, in which the agent compares the perception of its current state against a goal state and will strive to reduce perceived discrepancies by modifying its behaviour. Although studies in health informatics often do not report the use of this theory, the principle of a negative feedback loop underlies many applications in the field. This chapter describes how control theory fits within health informatics, discussing its role in the development and assessment of audit and feedback interventions in healthcare. Control theory has been used to synthesise evidence of audit and feedback, and to design and evaluate interventions to improve the quality of blood transfusion practice, cardiac rehabilitation, and intensive care. This has driven progress in our understanding of the underlying mechanisms of audit and feedback for improving health care, and has helped to design better interventions.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde , Retroalimentação , Auditoria Médica , Transfusão de Sangue , Cuidados Críticos , Humanos
9.
Nature ; 571(7763): 99-102, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31270485

RESUMO

The long-term cooling, decline in the partial pressure of carbon dioxide, and the establishment of permanent polar ice sheets during the Neogene period1,2 have frequently been attributed to increased uplift and erosion of mountains and consequent increases in silicate weathering, which removes atmospheric carbon dioxide3,4. However, geological records of erosion rates are potentially subject to averaging biases5,6, and the magnitude of the increase in weathering fluxes-and even its existence-remain debated7-9. Moreover, an increase in weathering scaled to the proposed erosional increase would have removed nearly all carbon from the atmosphere10, which has led to suggestions of compensatory carbon fluxes11-13 in order to preserve mass balance in the carbon cycle. Alternatively, an increase in land surface reactivity-resulting from greater fresh-mineral surface area or an increase in the supply of reactive minerals-rather than an increase in the weathering flux, has been proposed to reconcile these disparate views8,9. Here we use a parsimonious carbon cycle model that tracks two weathering-sensitive isotopic tracers (stable 7Li/6Li and cosmogenic 10Be/9Be) to show that an increase in land surface reactivity is necessary to simultaneously decrease atmospheric carbon dioxide, increase seawater 7Li/6Li and retain constant seawater 10Be/9Be over the past 16 million years. We find that the global silicate weathering flux remained constant, even as the global silicate weathering intensity-the fraction of the total denudation flux that is derived from silicate weathering-decreased, sustained by an increase in erosion. Long-term cooling during the Neogene thus reflects a change in the partitioning of denudation into weathering and erosion. Variable partitioning of denudation and consequent changes in silicate weathering intensity reconcile marine isotope and erosion records with the need to maintain mass balance in the carbon cycle and without requiring increases in the silicate weathering flux.


Assuntos
Atmosfera/química , Ciclo do Carbono , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Dióxido de Carbono/história , Temperatura Baixa , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Geologia/história , Retroalimentação , Sedimentos Geológicos/análise , História Antiga , Camada de Gelo/química , Modelos Teóricos , Rios/química , Água do Mar/química , Silicatos/análise
10.
Rev Bras Enferm ; 72(3): 663-670, 2019 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31269130

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Construct and validate instrument content for nursing consultation in an adult chemotherapy outpatient clinic. METHOD: Methodological study composed of two stages: elaboration of the instrument and validation of content. A literary review of the dimensions of customer care was carried out in the light of Theory of Basic Human Needs Theory, culminating in two instruments: one for admission consultation and other for follow-up. The content was validated by the evaluation of listed experts based on the adapted Fehring's Validation Model. RESULTS: In the first round, two items of the admission instrument and three items of follow-up required reformulation. In the second round, there was an increase in agreement rate: 11% in the instrument of admission and 10% in follow-up. FINAL CONSIDERATION: The instrument represents a guideline for the Nursing Process and future research, but it cannot be seen as a substitute for nurses' knowledge and clinical reasoning.


Assuntos
Retroalimentação , Cuidados de Enfermagem/normas , Adulto , Feminino , Grupos Focais/métodos , Humanos , Cuidados de Enfermagem/métodos , Psicometria/instrumentação , Psicometria/métodos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
Rev Bras Enferm ; 72(3): 788-794, 2019 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31269147

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the contribution of debriefing after clinical simulations for nursing students. METHOD: Quantitative study, conducted with 35 nursing students who participated in five clinical simulation scenarios with planned debriefings based on the model of the National League Nursing/Jeffries Simulation Theory. After the fifth scenario, students answered the Debriefing Evaluation Scale associated with the Simulation. RESULTS: The items evaluated involved the psychosocial, cognitive, and affective values, and within a scale from one to five, the highest mean was found in cognitive value with 4.23 (±0.56) points, then in psychosocial value with 3.77 (±0.53), and finally in affective value with 3.71 (±0.63) points. CONCLUSION: The debriefing conducted after the clinical simulation scenarios was a reflective exercise that contributed to the student integrating multiple knowledges in affective, cognitive and psychosocial values, and thus develop the competencies required.


Assuntos
Avaliação Educacional/normas , Retroalimentação , Treinamento por Simulação/métodos , Treinamento por Simulação/normas , Estudantes de Enfermagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Brasil , Competência Clínica/normas , Competência Clínica/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Bacharelado em Enfermagem/métodos , Bacharelado em Enfermagem/normas , Avaliação Educacional/métodos , Avaliação Educacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
12.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 262: 296-299, 2019 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31349326

RESUMO

The goal of this project was to assess usability and acceptance of a web-based tool after iterative development based on cognitive walkthroughs. The website is a "Research Roadmap", modeled after the NYC Subway map, and designed to help the user navigate the complex structure of research at a large multi-institution organization. A mixed process of evaluation and design was applied; after an initial survey phase, the website was revised, then another cycle of feedback was implemented. Surveys consisted of standardized questions with answers arranged as Likert-type scales and additional written responses. The first phase of survey feedback shaped overall design of the tool. The second phase measured task performance (time-to-completion), perceived ease-of-use, and satisfaction. These ongoing cycles of cognitive walkthroughs provided actionable data that led to redesign of the tool, an improved interface, improved user satisfaction, and 'above average' usability (top 10th percentile) as measured by the System Usability Scale.


Assuntos
Cognição , Pesquisa , Interface Usuário-Computador , Retroalimentação , Humanos , Internet , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 674, 2019 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31151390

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The HealthyFood (HF) program offers members up to 25% cash back monthly on healthy food purchases. In this randomized controlled trial, we tested the efficacy of financial incentives combined with text messages in increasing healthy food purchases among HF members. METHODS: Members receiving the lowest (10%) cash back level were randomized to one of six arms: Arm 1 (Usual Care): 10% cash back, no weekly text, standard monthly text; Arm 2: 10% cash back, generic weekly text, standard monthly text; Arm 3: 10% cash back, personalized weekly text, standard monthly text; Arm 4: 25% cash back, personalized weekly text, standard monthly text; Arm 5: 10 + 15%NET cash back, personalized weekly text, standard monthly text; and, Arm 6: 10 + 15%NET cash back, personalized weekly text, unbundled monthly text. In the 10 + 15%NET cash back, the cash back amount was the baseline 10% plus 15% of the net difference between healthy and unhealthy spending. The generic text included information on HF and healthy eating, while the personalized text had individualized feedback on purchases. The standard monthly text contained the cash back amount. The unbundled monthly text included the amount lost due to unhealthy purchases. The primary outcome was the average monthly percent healthy food spending. Secondary outcomes were the percent unhealthy food spending, and the percent healthy and unhealthy food items. RESULTS: Of the members contacted, 20 opted out, and 2841 met all inclusion criteria. There were no between-arm differences in the examined outcomes. The largest mean (standard deviation) difference in percent healthy spending was between Arm 1 (24.8% [11%]) and Arm 2 (26.8% [13%]), and the largest mean difference in percent unhealthy spending was also between Arm 1 (24.4% [20%]) and Arm 2 (21.7% [17%]), but no differences were statistically significant after correction for multiple comparisons. CONCLUSIONS: None of the tested financial incentive structures or text strategies differentially affected food purchasing. Notably, more than doubling the cash back amount and introducing a financial disincentive for unhealthy purchases did not affect purchasing. These findings speak to the difficulty of changing shopping habits and to the need for innovative strategies to shift complex health behaviors. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT02486588 Increasing Engagement with a Healthy Food Benefit. The trial was prospectively registered on July 1, 2015.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Consumidor/economia , Retroalimentação , Dieta Saudável/economia , Motivação , Mensagem de Texto , Adulto , Comportamento do Consumidor/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde
14.
Forensic Sci Int ; 301: 231-239, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31181408

RESUMO

The increasing use of non-laboratory-based DNA and protein detection methods promise to provide rapid investigative intelligence and support sample prioritisation. Primarily developed for human forensic or medical applications, current systems may also show utility in the field of wildlife forensic science. However, it is currently unknown whether the requirements of the wildlife forensic community can be met by current non-laboratory based tools. Given the diverse array of stakeholders and sample types commonly encountered, it is necessary to first identify the needs of the community and then try and map their needs to current instrumentation. By using a market research style questionnaire, this study identified key requirements for a non-laboratory-based system following feedback from the wildlife forensic community. Data showed that there is strong support for field-based detection methods while highlighting concerns including contamination risks and reduced quality assurance associated with non-laboratory testing. Key species and applications were identified alongside hurdles to implementation and adoption. Broadly, the requirements align with many of the developmental drivers that have led to the rise of in-field portable detection instrumentation, specifically rapid detection within one hour, ease-of-use, and ≥95% accuracy. Several existing platforms exist that met some of the identified requirements but not all. With further collaboration between industry partners and the wildlife forensic community it is possible that new field-based systems can be developed and applied routinely.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/genética , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Impressões Digitais de DNA/instrumentação , Retroalimentação , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Inquéritos e Questionários , Animais , Comércio , Crime , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Humanos , Competência Profissional , Especificidade da Espécie
15.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 19(1): 419, 2019 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31234916

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The use of clinical performance feedback to support quality improvement (QI) activities is based on the sound rationale that measurement is necessary to improve quality of care. However, concerns persist about the reliability of this strategy, known as Audit and Feedback (A&F) to support QI. If successfully implemented, A&F should reflect an iterative, self-regulating QI process. Whether and how real-world A&F initiatives result in this type of feedback loop are scarcely reported. This study aimed to identify barriers or facilitators to implementation in a team-based primary care context. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with key informants from team-based primary care practices in Ontario, Canada. At the time of data collection, practices could have received up to three iterations of the voluntary A&F initiative. Interviews explored whether, how, and why practices used the feedback to guide their QI activities. The Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research was used to code transcripts and the resulting frameworks were analyzed inductively to generate key themes. RESULTS: Twenty-five individuals representing 18 primary care teams participated in the study. Analysis of how the A&F intervention was used revealed that implementation reflected an incomplete feedback loop. Participation was facilitated by the reliance on an external resource to facilitate the practice audit. The frequency of feedback, concerns with data validity, the design of the feedback report, the resource requirements to participate, and the team relationship were all identified as barriers to implementation of A&F. CONCLUSIONS: The implementation of a real-world, voluntary A&F initiative did not lead to desired QI activities despite substantial investments in performance measurement. In small primary care teams, it may take long periods of time to develop capacity for QI and future evaluations may reveal shifts in the implementation state of the initiative. Findings from the present study demonstrate that the potential mechanism of action of A&F may be deceptively clear; in practice, moving from measurement to action can be complex.


Assuntos
Auditoria Clínica , Retroalimentação , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Melhoria de Qualidade/organização & administração , Humanos , Ontário , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Programas Voluntários
16.
Nurse Educ Today ; 80: 34-39, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31228659

RESUMO

AIMS: To examine the usefulness of the annotated exemplar as an academic support strategy, and explore the characteristics of students who were more likely to engage with this academic support tool. Additionally, to identify if there was any influence on the academic performance in the assessment activity among those who engaged with the annotated exemplar. BACKGROUND: Annotated exemplars have the potential to target students en masse and provide meaningful, task specific comments that guide students prior to assessment submission. Effective strategies to support student learning are needed as nursing students are increasingly entering tertiary studies from non-traditional backgrounds. DESIGN: A cohort study was used to collect administrative data, academic grades and annotated exemplar usage statistics. SETTING: A large multi-campus university in NSW, Australia during Spring semester 2016. PARTICIPANTS: Second year undergraduate students enrolled in a single unit in the Bachelor of Nursing Program. METHODS: Quantitative data related to marks, grades and usage information; and demographic data and contact details were extracted from the online learning management system and student electronic records. RESULTS: Of the 1120 students enrolled in the unit, 49.5% of students engaged with the annotated exemplar. Students more likely to engage with the tool were older, female, born outside of Australia and had higher hit rates on the online learning management site. Of those who engaged with the annotated exemplar, there was no demonstrated increase in assessment mark. CONCLUSION: To improve student performance it is essential that feedback is engaging and effective. While, in this study, use of the annotated exemplar was not reflected in student marks, it is unclear how students may have performed without access to the exemplar. Further research is required to explore the reasons why students did not engage with the annotated exemplar and, for those who did, why the intervention did not impact on assessment mark.


Assuntos
Desempenho Acadêmico/normas , Bacharelado em Enfermagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes de Enfermagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Desempenho Acadêmico/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Bacharelado em Enfermagem/métodos , Avaliação Educacional/métodos , Avaliação Educacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Retroalimentação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , New South Wales , Pesquisa Qualitativa
17.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 19(1): 270, 2019 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31035992

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long length of stays (LOS) in emergency departments (ED) negatively affect quality of care. Ordering of inappropriate diagnostic tests contributes to long LOS and reduces quality of care. One strategy to change practice patterns is to use performance feedback dashboards for physicians. While this strategy has proven to be successful in multiple settings, the most effective ways to deliver such interventions remain unknown. Involving end-users in the process is likely important for a successful design and implementation of a performance dashboard within a specific workplace culture. This mixed methods study aimed to develop design requirements for an ED performance dashboard and to understand the role of culture and social networks in the adoption process. METHODS: We performed 13 semi-structured interviews with attending physicians in different roles within a single public ED in the U.S. to get an in-depth understanding of physicians' needs and concerns. Principles of human-centered design were used to translate these interviews into design requirements and to iteratively develop a front-end performance feedback dashboard. Pre- and post- surveys were used to evaluate the effect of the dashboard on physicians' motivation and to measure their perception of the usefulness of the dashboard. Data on the ED culture and underlying social network were collected. Outcomes were compared between physicians involved in the human-centered design process, those with exposure to the design process through the ED social network, and those with limited exposure. RESULTS: Key design requirements obtained from the interviews were ease of access, drilldown functionality, customization, and a visual data display including monthly time-trends and blinded peer-comparisons. Identified barriers included concerns about unintended consequences and the veracity of underlying data. The surveys revealed that the ED culture and social network are associated with reported usefulness of the dashboard. Additionally, physicians' motivation was differentially affected by the dashboard based on their position in the social network. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates the feasibility of designing a performance feedback dashboard using a human-centered design approach in the ED setting. Additionally, we show preliminary evidence that the culture and underlying social network are of key importance for successful adoption of a dashboard.


Assuntos
Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/organização & administração , Auditoria Médica , Corpo Clínico Hospitalar/normas , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/normas , Retroalimentação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Melhoria de Qualidade
18.
S Afr J Commun Disord ; 66(1): e1-e9, 2019 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31038330

RESUMO

BACKGROUND:  Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common psychiatric disorders in children and is generally identified and diagnosed during the preschool years. Preschool learners with ADHD are at risk of developing emergent literacy difficulties, crucial for the development of reading and writing. Many teachers have insufficient training to identify and address barriers to learning, such as ADHD. AIM:  The aim of this article was to report on the process followed in the development of a specific support programme for Grade R teachers on ADHD and on the piloting of the programme. METHOD:  An adapted version of the intervention research model provided the structure and phases for the development, implementation and evaluation of the support programme. Current literature on ADHD training programmes, adult learning principles and Bronfenbrenners' ecosystemic framework was explored to develop the programme, training material, manual and method of presentation (Phase 1). Workshops were presented to 65 Grade R teachers working in an urban and semi-rural context (Phase 2). Participants were made aware of the symptoms of ADHD, and early identification and management of specific barriers to learning, such as ADHD, in order to reduce the risk of educational complications. Participants provided feedback (Phase 3) on the training, training material and manner of presentation following the workshops. RESULTS:  The results obtained in phases 1 and 2 of the adapted intervention research model included the compilation of the information presented in the workshops and the training manual, as well as the instructional phase and piloting of the programme. The results obtained for Phase 3 include a summary of the feedback provided by the Grade R teachers on how they experienced the training. Participants' feedback confirmed that the programme was valued and that their training expectations were met. CONCLUSION:  The intervention research model provided a valuable structure for the development and piloting of a specific support programme. This study can be replicated, and may pave the way for future support programmes for teachers. Capacity building of teachers is of the utmost importance in raising education standards in South Africa.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Docentes/educação , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/reabilitação , Docentes/psicologia , Retroalimentação , Feminino , Educação em Saúde , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Alfabetização , Projetos Piloto , Instituições Acadêmicas
19.
Behav Processes ; 164: 157-166, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31059764

RESUMO

Sensory substitution refers to a process whereby an agent, by means of a removable specialized instrumentation, becomes capable of exploiting an available sensory modality in order to perceive properties of the environment which are normally accessible by means of a different modality. We describe a situation of visual-auditory sensory substitution in the rat. Rats were placed in complete darkness, and trained to follow a virtual path whose position was signalled by a sound activated by a video-tracking device. Our hypothesis was that the rats would be able to succeed in this task of spatial navigation, following the sound contour by means of sensory-motor coupling based on seeking the sound (all-or-none) and mastering the relation between their own actions and the expected sensory feedback. Our results confirm this hypothesis and show the progressive structuring of meaningful exploratory activity, leading from the appearance of stopping behaviour when the sound is lost or acceleration when the sound is discovered, up to a veritable sensory-motor strategy which maximizes the possibilities for discovering and following the sound path. Thus, the animals seem to have developed a new form of perception which translates in particular into motor behaviour adapted to the search for sound.


Assuntos
Percepção Auditiva , Ratos , Navegação Espacial , Estimulação Acústica , Animais , Escuridão , Retroalimentação , Feminino , Masculino , Recompensa
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