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1.
Middle East Afr J Ophthalmol ; 27(2): 73-78, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32874038

RESUMO

The novel coronavirus disease COVID-19 caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has resulted in a substantial change in eye care and clinical practice. There has been conflicting information and weak evidence on the virus's transmission through tears. Yet, virus detection on cornea and conjunctiva surface as a gateway for infection is not well-studied. Moreover, there have been no reported cases of SARS-CoV-2 transmission through tonometry to date. Thus, this uncertainty has urged this review on evidence-based guidelines and recommendations on tonometer use in the COVID-19 era. The aim of this article is to provide ophthalmologists with recommendations for tonometry practice based on current evidence and best practice guidelines.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Glaucoma/diagnóstico , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Paciente para o Profissional/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Tonometria Ocular/métodos , Betacoronavirus , Túnica Conjuntiva/virologia , Córnea/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Desinfecção , Reutilização de Equipamento , Humanos , Oftalmologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Lágrimas/virologia
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32932918

RESUMO

The coronavirus outbreak that commenced at the end of 2019 has led to a dramatic increase in the demand for face masks. In countries that are experiencing a shortage of face masks as a result of panic buying or inadequate supply, reusable fabric masks have become a popular option, because they are often considered more cost-effective and environmentally friendly than disposable medical masks. Nevertheless, there remains a significant variation in the quality and performance of existing face masks; not all are simultaneously able to provide protection against the extremely contagious virus and be comfortable to wear. This study aims to examine the influential factors that affect the comfort of reusable face masks, but not to assess the antimicrobial or antiviral potential. Seven types of masks were selected in this study and subjected to air and water vapor permeability testing, thermal conductivity testing and a wear trial. The results indicate that washable face masks made of thin layers of knitted fabric with low density and a permeable filter are more breathable. Additionally, masks that contain sufficient highly thermally conductive materials and have good water vapor permeability are often more comfortable to wear as they can transfer heat and moisture from the body quickly, and thus do not easily dampen and deteriorate.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Reutilização de Equipamento , Máscaras , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Betacoronavirus , Humanos , Têxteis
3.
Rev Lat Am Enfermagem ; 28: e3360, 2020 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32901772

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to identify the factors associated with the use and reuse of masks among Brazilian individuals in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHOD: cross-sectional study conducted in the five Brazilian regions, among adult individuals, via an electronic form disseminated in social media, addressing general information and the use of masks. Bivariate analysis and binary logistic regression were used to identify the factors associated with the use and reuse of masks. RESULTS: 3,981 (100%) individuals participated in the study. In total, 95.5% (CI 95%: 94.8-96.1) reported using masks. Fabric masks were more frequently reported (72.7%; CI 95%: 71.3-74.1), followed by surgical masks (27.8%; CI 95%: 26.5-29.2). The percentage of reuse was 71.1% (CI 95%: 69.7-72.5). Most (55.8%; CI 95%: 51.7-60.0) of those exclusively wearing surgical masks reported its reuse. Being a woman and having had contact with individuals presenting respiratory symptoms increased the likelihood of wearing masks (p≤0.001). Additionally, being a woman decreased the likelihood of reusing surgical masks (p≤0.001). CONCLUSION: virtually all the participants reported the use of masks, most frequently fabric masks. The findings draw attention to a risky practice, that of reusing surgical and paper masks. Therefore, guidelines, public policies, and educational strategies are needed to promote the correct use of masks to control and prevent COVID-19.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Reutilização de Equipamento , Máscaras , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
4.
Appl Opt ; 59(25): 7585-7595, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32902458

RESUMO

We present evidence-based design principles for three different UV-C based decontamination systems for N95 filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs) within the context of the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak of 2019-2020. The approaches used here were created with consideration for the needs of low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) and other under-resourced facilities. As such, a particular emphasis is placed on providing cost-effective solutions that can be implemented in short order using generally available components and subsystems. We discuss three optical designs for decontamination chambers, describe experiments verifying design parameters, validate the efficacy of the decontamination for two commonly used N95 FFRs (3M, #1860 and Gerson #1730), and run mechanical and filtration tests that support FFR reuse for at least five decontamination cycles.


Assuntos
Filtros de Ar , Descontaminação/instrumentação , Desenho de Equipamento/métodos , Máscaras , Raios Ultravioleta , Filtros de Ar/microbiologia , Filtros de Ar/virologia , Reutilização de Equipamento , Umidade , Ozônio/síntese química , Ozônio/toxicidade , Temperatura , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos
5.
Rev. andal. med. deporte ; 13(3): 177-180, sept. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-193037

RESUMO

Desde el 20 de mayo rige en España la obligatoriedad del uso de mascarilla en lugares públicos cerrados o abiertos donde no se pueda mantener la distancia interpersonal de dos metros. Con la llegada hace meses del SARS-CoV-2, se ha suscitado la discusión sobre qué tipo de mascarillas es el más apropiado para la población general y/o sanitaria. A lo anterior, se añaden las dudas sobre su uso en los deportistas, al reincorporarse a los entrenamientos tras el confinamiento provocado por la pandemia. Se ha intentado responder desde distintas instituciones oficiales, periodísticas y/o distintos tipos de investigaciones. Procurando aportar alguna luz a estas cuestiones, planteamos esta revisión de lo publicado con valor científico hasta la fecha en PUBMED, con los siguientes objetivos: 1) comparar la eficacia de las mascarillas caseras, quirúrgicas y FFP2 y/o indicaciones según población de destino; 2) posibilidad para reutilización; 3) indicación o no para deportistas


Since May 20, the mandatory use of a mask in closed or open public places where the distance of two meters cannot be maintained, has been in force in Spain. With the arrival of SARS-CoV-2 months ago, there has been a discussion about which type of mask is most appropriate for the general and / or health population. To this, doubts about its use in the sports population are added after reincorporation into their training after the confinement caused by the pandemic. Attempts have been made to respond from different official, journalistic and / or different types of investigations. Seeking to shed some light on these issues, we propose this review of what has been published with scientific value to date in PUBMED, with the following objectives: 1) to compare the efficacy of homemade, surgical and FFP2 masks and / or indications according to the target population; 2) possibility for reuse; 3) indication or not for athletes


Assuntos
Humanos , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Máscaras/normas , Desinfetantes/normas , Atletas/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Vírus da SARS/patogenicidade , Reutilização de Equipamento/normas
6.
BMJ Open ; 10(8): e039454, 2020 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32753454

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: There are widespread shortages of personal protective equipment as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. Reprocessing filtering facepiece particle (FFP)-type respirators may provide an alternative solution in keeping healthcare professionals safe. DESIGN: Prospective, bench-to-bedside. SETTING: A primary care-based study using FFP-2 respirators without exhalation valve (3M Aura 1862+ (20 samples), Maco Pharma ZZM002 (14 samples)), FFP-2 respirators with valve (3M Aura 9322+ (six samples) and San Huei 2920V (16 samples)) and valved FFP type 3 respirators (Safe Worker 1016 (10 samples)). INTERVENTIONS: All masks were reprocessed using a medical autoclave (17 min at 121°C with 34 min total cycle time) and subsequently tested up to three times whether these respirators retained their integrity (seal check and pressure drop) and ability to filter small particles (0.3-5.0 µm) in the laboratory using a particle penetration test. RESULTS: We tested 33 respirators and 66 samples for filter capacity. All FFP-2 respirators retained their shape, whereas half of the decontaminated FFP-3 respirators showed deformities and failed the seal check. The filtering capacity of the 3M Aura 1862 was best retained after one, two and three decontamination cycles (0.3 µm: 99.3%±0.3% (new) vs 97.0±1.3, 94.2±1.3% or 94.4±1.6; p<0.001). Of the other FFP-2 respirators, the San Huei 2920 V had 95.5%±0.7% at baseline vs 92.3%±1.7% vs 90.0±0.7 after one-time and two-time decontaminations, respectively (p<0.001). The tested FFP-3 respirator (Safe Worker 1016) had a filter capacity of 96.5%±0.7% at baseline and 60.3%±5.7% after one-time decontamination (p<0.001). Breathing and pressure resistance tests indicated no relevant pressure changes between respirators that were used once, twice or thrice. CONCLUSION: This small single-centre study shows that selected FFP-2 respirators may be reprocessed for use in primary care, as the tested masks retain their shape, ability to retain particles and breathing comfort after decontamination using a medical autoclave.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Descontaminação/métodos , Reutilização de Equipamento , Segurança de Equipamentos , Máscaras/normas , Exposição Ocupacional/prevenção & controle , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Dispositivos de Proteção Respiratória/normas , Filtros de Ar , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Tamanho da Partícula , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/normas , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Estudos Prospectivos , Ventiladores Mecânicos
8.
J Occup Environ Hyg ; 17(9): 390-397, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32795221

RESUMO

The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has led to a global decrease in personal protective equipment (PPE), especially filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs). Ultraviolet-C wavelength is a promising way of decontamination, however adequate dosimetry is needed to ensure balance between over and underexposed areas and provide reliable results. Our study demonstrates that UVGI light irradiance varies significantly on different respirator angles and propose a method to decontaminate several masks at once ensuring appropriate dosage in shaded zones. An UVGI irradiator was built with internal dimensions of 69.5 × 55 × 33 cm with three 15 W UV lamps. Inside, a grating of 58 × 41 × 15 cm was placed to hold the masks. Two different flat fold respirator models were used to assess irradiance, four of model Aura 9322 3 M of dimensions 17 × 9 × 4 cm (tri-fold), and two of model SAFE 231FFP3NR (bi-fold) with dimensions 17 × 6 × 5 cm. An STN-SilverNova spectrometer was employed to verify wavelength spectrum and surface irradiance. A simulation was performed to find the irradiance pattern inside the box and the six masks placed inside. These simulations were carried out using the software DIALUX EVO 8.2. The data obtained reveal that the irradiance received inside the manufactured UVGI-irradiator depends not only on the distance between the lamps' plane and the base of the respirators but also on the orientation and shape of the masks. This point becomes relevant to assure that all the respirators inside the chamber receive the correct dosage. Irradiance over FFR surfaces depend on several factors such as distance and angle of incidence of the light source. Careful irradiance measurement and simulation can ensure reliable dosage in the whole mask surface, balancing overexposure. Closed box systems might provide a more reliable, reproducible UVGI dosage than open settings.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Descontaminação/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Dispositivos de Proteção Respiratória/microbiologia , Raios Ultravioleta , Betacoronavirus , Reutilização de Equipamento , Humanos , Pandemias , Doses de Radiação
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32842655

RESUMO

In the COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2, hospitals are often stretched beyond capacity. There are widespread reports of dwindling supplies of personal protective equipment (PPE), particularly N95-type filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs), which are paramount to protect frontline medical/nursing staff, and to minimize further spread of the virus. We carried out a rapid review to summarize the existing literature on the viability of SARS-CoV-2, the efficacy of key potential disinfection procedures against the virus (specifically ultraviolet light and heat), and the impact of these procedures on FFR performance, material integrity, and/or fit. In light of the recent discovery of SARS-CoV-2 and limited associated research, our review also focused on the closely related SARS-CoV-1. We propose a possible whole-of-PPE disinfection solution for potential reuse that could be rapidly instituted in many health care settings, without significant investments in equipment.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Desinfecção , Reutilização de Equipamento , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Vírus da SARS/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Coronavirus , Humanos , Máscaras , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Dispositivos de Proteção Respiratória , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave
10.
J Hosp Infect ; 106(2): 277-282, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32745590

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The shortage of single-use N95 respirator masks (NRMs) during the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has prompted consideration of NRM recycling to extend limited stocks by healthcare providers and facilities. AIM: To assess potential reuse via autoclaving of NRMs worn daily in a major urban Canadian hospital. METHODS: NRM reusability was assessed following collection from volunteer staff after 2-8 h use, sterilization by autoclaving and PortaCount fit testing. A workflow was developed for reprocessing hundreds of NRMs daily. FINDINGS: Used NRMs passed fit testing after autoclaving once, with 86% passing a second reuse/autoclave cycle. A separate cohort of used masks pre-warmed before autoclaving passed fit testing. To recycle 200-1000 NRMs daily, procedures for collection, sterilization and re-distribution were developed to minimize particle aerosolization risk during NRM handling, to reject NRM showing obvious wear, and to promote adoption by staff. NRM recovery ranged from 49% to 80% across 12 collection cycles. CONCLUSION: Reuse of NRMs is feasible in major hospitals and other healthcare facilities. In sharp contrast to studies of unused NRMs passing fit testing after 10 autoclave cycles, we show that daily wear substantially reduces NRM fit, limiting reuse to a single cycle, but still increasing NRM stocks by ∼66%. Such reuse requires development of a comprehensive plan that includes communication across staffing levels, from front-line workers to hospital administration, to increase the collection, acceptance of and adherence to sterilization processes for NRM recovery.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Desenho de Equipamento/normas , Reutilização de Equipamento/normas , Hospitais Urbanos/normas , Controle de Infecções/normas , Máscaras/normas , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Dispositivos de Proteção Respiratória/normas , Ventiladores Mecânicos/normas , Betacoronavirus , Canadá/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Desenho de Equipamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Reutilização de Equipamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais Urbanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Máscaras/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição Ocupacional/normas , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Dispositivos de Proteção Respiratória/estatística & dados numéricos , Ventiladores Mecânicos/estatística & dados numéricos
11.
J Healthc Qual Res ; 35(4): 245-252, 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32680724

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: In the COVID-19 pandemic, the demand of masks has been increased by health professionals and the general population. In this context, it is necessary to summarize the features and indications of the different types of masks. MATERIAL AND METHODS: To consult and to compile the different recommendations disseminated by prestigious institutions such as the World Health Organization, the European Center for Disease Prevention, the Center for Evidence-Based Medicine, or the Ministry of Health of the Government of Spain has been reviewed. RESULTS: The institutions consulted recommend reserving FFP respirators for healthcare workers, especially when carrying out aerosol-generating procedures (AGPs) (minimum FFP2 protection) and consider some reutilization systems during times of scarcity. The use of surgical masks is recommended to professionals who do not perform AGPs and to the symptomatic population but exist variations in its indications intended for the general healthy population. CONCLUSION: In the context of shortage of personal protective equipment due to the COVID-19 pandemic, a prioritization and rationalization of the use of each type of mask should be established according to the user and the activity performed.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Guias como Assunto , Máscaras/normas , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Dispositivos de Proteção Respiratória/normas , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Contaminação de Equipamentos , Reutilização de Equipamento/normas , Filtração/instrumentação , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Higiene/normas , Máscaras/classificação , Máscaras/provisão & distribução , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/normas , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Espanha/epidemiologia
12.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0234851, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32609741

RESUMO

A lack of N95 Filtering Facepiece Respirators (FFRs) during the COVID-19 crisis has placed healthcare workers at risk. It is important for any N95 reuse strategy to determine the effects that proposed protocols would have on the physical functioning of the mask, as well as the practical aspects of implementation. Here we propose and implement a method of heating N95 respirators with moisture (85°C, 60-85% humidity). We test both mask filtration efficiency and fit to validate this process. Our tests focus on the 3M 1860, 3M 1870, and 3M 8210 Plus N95 models. After five cycles of the heating procedure, all three respirators pass both quantitative fit testing (score of >100) and show no degradation of mask filtration efficiency. We also test the Chen Heng V9501 KN95 and HKYQ N95 finding no degradation of mask filtration efficiency, however even for unheated masks these scored <50 for every fit test. The heating method presented here is scalable from individual masks to over a thousand a day with a single industrial convection oven, making this method practical for local application inside health-care facilities.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Descontaminação/métodos , Reutilização de Equipamento , Calefação/métodos , Umidade , Máscaras/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Dispositivos de Proteção Respiratória/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Filtração/instrumentação , Humanos , Teste de Materiais/métodos , Exposição Ocupacional/prevenção & controle , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/virologia
13.
BMJ Open ; 10(7): e039120, 2020 07 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32641368

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To develop and test a new reusable, sterilisable N95 filtering facepiece respirator (FFR)-comparable face mask, known as the Injection Molded Autoclavable, Scalable, Conformable (iMASC) system, given the dire need for personal protective equipment within healthcare settings during the COVID-19 pandemic. DESIGN: Single-arm feasibility study. SETTING: Emergency department and outpatient oncology clinic. PARTICIPANTS: Healthcare workers who have previously undergone N95 fit testing. INTERVENTIONS: Fit testing of new iMASC system. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Primary outcome is success of fit testing using an Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)-approved testing method, and secondary outcomes are user experience with fit, breathability and filter replacement. RESULTS: Twenty-four subjects were recruited to undergo fit testing, and the average age of subjects was 41 years (range of 21-65 years) with an average body mass index of 26.5 kg/m2. The breakdown of participants by profession was 46% nurses (n=11), 21% attending physicians (n=5), 21% resident physicians (n=5) and 12% technicians (n=3). Of these participants, four did not perform the fit testing due to the inability to detect saccharin solution on premask placement sensitivity test, lack of time and inability to place mask over hair. All participants (n=20) who performed the fit test were successfully fitted for the iMASC system using an OSHA-approved testing method. User experience with the iMASC system, as evaluated using a Likert scale with a score of 1 indicating excellent and a score of 5 indicating very poor, demonstrated an average fit score of 1.75, breathability of 1.6, and ease of replacing the filter on the mask was scored on average as 2.05. CONCLUSIONS: The iMASC system was shown to successfully fit multiple different face sizes and shapes using an OSHA-approved testing method. These data support further certification testing needed for use in the healthcare setting.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Desenho de Equipamento , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Paciente para o Profissional/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Dispositivos de Proteção Respiratória , Elastômeros de Silicone , Adulto , Idoso , Pessoal Técnico de Saúde , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Reutilização de Equipamento , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros , Médicos , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Estudos Prospectivos , Esterilização , Adulto Jovem
14.
G Ital Med Lav Ergon ; 42(2): 73-81, 2020 06.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32614536

RESUMO

SUMMARY: During COVID-19 pandemic crisis, Italian Government has approved Law Decree no. 18 of 17 march 2020, in which art. 15 allows enterprises to produce, import and commercialize surgical masks notwithstanding the current rules of product certification. It is just required that the interested enterprises send to the Italian National Institute of Health a selfcertification in which they declare the technical characteristics of the masks and that masks are produced according to the safety requirements. In this context, a technical-scientific unit was established at the University of Napoli Federico II to provide interested enterprises with state-of-the-art consultancy, testing and measurement services, adhering to rigorous scientific protocols. Characterization tests were carried out on 163 surgical masks and/or materials for their construction and they have enabled the identification of pre-screening criteria to simplify the procedure for evaluating surgical masks using methods for assessing the filtration efficiency of particles and aerosols. Based on experimental results, it has been observed that a filtration efficiency for particles with sizes larger that 650 nm (PFE>650) exceeding 35% might guarantees a bacterial filtration efficiency (BFE) higher than 95% while BFE values higher than 98% are obtained when the PFE>650 is larger than 40%. PFE measurement is extremely simpler with respect to BFE, the latter being time-consuming and requiring specific equipment and methods for its realization. Many tested materials have shown the capability to assure high filtration efficiencies but Spundonded-Meltblown-Spunbonded (SMS), that are layers of non-woven fabric with different weights of Meltblown, can simultaneously guarantee high particle filtration efficiencies with pressure drop values (breathability) in the limits to classify the surgical masks as Type II/IIR. In fact, the fabric products analyzed so far have not been able to simultaneously guarantee adequate BFE and breathability values. On the contrary, Spunbonds of adequate weights can virtually verify both requirements and accredit themselves as possible materials for the production of surgical masks, at least of Type I. Further studies are needed to verify the possibility of producing low-cost, reusable surgical masks that could meet the criteria of circular economy.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Filtração/instrumentação , Máscaras/normas , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Têxteis/normas , Desenho de Equipamento , Reutilização de Equipamento , Humanos , Itália , Teste de Materiais , Tamanho da Partícula
15.
Food Chem ; 331: 127326, 2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32674069

RESUMO

A precise and accurate GC-MS/MS method with ng L-1 LLOQs, acceptable recovery (78-107%) and estimated uncertainty (U > 20%, except at LLOQ) was developed following the Eurachem guidelines. We established the migration and stability of twelve bisphenols in two food simulants (C: 20% ethanol, and B: 3% acetic acid) from beverage cans (n = 16) and reusable metal and plastic sports bottles (n = 51). Bisphenols were stable in dried (eight weeks, -20 °C) and derivatised extracts (seven days, 21 °C). Cans leached BPA (<5865 ng L-1), three BPF isomers (8.2-1286 ng L-1) and BPAP (1.6 ng L-1), while bottles leached BPA (<222 ng L-1) and BPF, BPE, BPB and BPZ (1.1-4.6 ng L-1). Simulant C was more aggressive than simulant B, and concentrations of bisphenols decreased with consecutive exposure to simulants. Levels of BPA migrating from cans did not exceed the specific migration limits.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/química , Bebidas/análise , Reutilização de Equipamento , Embalagem de Alimentos , Fenóis/química , Esportes , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise
16.
Am J Infect Control ; 48(9): 1037-1041, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645473

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: One of the serious consequences of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic is the shortage of protective equipment for health personnel. N95 masks are considered one of the essential protective equipment in the management of patients with COVID-19. The shortage of N95 masks implies potential health risks for health personnel and significant economic losses for the health institution. The objective of this work was to investigate the disinfection of N95 masks artificially contaminated with SARS-CoV-2 and ESKAPE bacteria by using hydrogen peroxide plasma. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We examined the disinfection capacity of hydrogen peroxide plasma against the SARS-CoV-2 and 2 members of the ESKAPE bacteria (Acinetobacter baumannii and Staphylococcus aureus) through a study of artificial contamination in situ of N95 masks. Amplification of specific genes by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction of SARS-CoV-2 and microbiological culture of ESKAPE bacteria was performed before and after the disinfection process. RESULTS: SARS-CoV-2 was not detected in all assays using 5 different concentrations of the virus, and A baumannii and S aureus were not cultivable with inoculums of 102 to 106 CFU after disinfection tests of N95 masks with hydrogen peroxide plasma. CONCLUSION: Disinfection of N95 masks by using the hydrogen peroxide plasma technology can be an alternative for their reuse in a shortage situation. Implications for the use of disinfection technologies of N95 masks and the safety of health personnel are discussed.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos Locais/administração & dosagem , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Desinfecção/métodos , Reutilização de Equipamento , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/administração & dosagem , Máscaras/microbiologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Acinetobacter baumannii/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Dispositivos de Proteção Respiratória/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos
17.
J Laryngol Otol ; 134(8): 732-734, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32605665

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Robust personal protective equipment is essential in preventing the transmission of coronavirus disease 2019 to head and neck surgeons who are routinely involved in aerosol generating procedures. OBJECTIVE: This paper describes the collective experience, across 3 institutes, of using a reusable half-face respirator in 72 head and neck surgery cases. METHOD: Cost analysis was performed to demonstrate the financial implications of using a reusable respirator compared to single-use filtering facepiece code 3 masks. CONCLUSION: The reusable respirator is a cost-effective alternative to disposable filtering facepiece code 3 respirators. Supplying reusable respirators to individual staff members may increase the likelihood of them having appropriate personal protective equipment during their clinical duties.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Reutilização de Equipamento/economia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/economia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Aerossóis , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Líquidos Corporais/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Análise Custo-Benefício/métodos , Desenho de Equipamento , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Exposição Ocupacional/prevenção & controle , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Otolaringologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Otorrinolaringológicos/métodos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Otorrinolaringológicos/normas , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/provisão & distribução , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Cirurgiões/estatística & dados numéricos , Ventiladores Mecânicos/efeitos adversos , Ventiladores Mecânicos/virologia
18.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0230767, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32730254

RESUMO

The injection of laboratory animals with pathogenic microorganisms poses a significant safety risk because of the potential for injury by accidental needlestick. This is especially true for researchers using invertebrate models of disease due to the required precision and accuracy of the injection. The restraint of the greater wax moth larvae (Galleria mellonella) is often achieved by grasping a larva firmly between finger and thumb. Needle resistant gloves or forceps can be used to reduce the risk of a needlestick but can result in animal injury, a loss of throughput, and inconsistencies in experimental data. Restraint devices are commonly used for the manipulation of small mammals, and in this manuscript, we describe the construction of two devices that can be used to entrap and restrain G. mellonella larvae prior to injection with pathogenic microbes. These devices reduce the manual handling of larvae and provide an engineering control to protect against accidental needlestick injury while maintaining a high rate of injection.


Assuntos
Injeções/instrumentação , Microbiologia/instrumentação , Mariposas/microbiologia , Prevenção de Acidentes , Animais , Descontaminação/instrumentação , Reutilização de Equipamento , Larva/microbiologia
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