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1.
Pan Afr Med J ; 32: 119, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31223409

RESUMO

Scholarly publication in a peer-reviewed journal is the highest form of disseminating research findings. However, the process of publishing in peer-reviewed journals remains a daunting task for researchers and academics in Africa. This commentary will assist authors in Africa to understand the peer-review process, to appreciate the length of time it takes for a manuscript to be published and to encourage them to publish in local peer-review journals. The authors argue that the peer-review process is essential because it acts as a quality control mechanism to ensure that valid and reliable research is published. Although peer review does not guarantee exclusive publication of reliable and valid research, it remains central in the scientific activity. Authors need to take the comments from reviewers and editors, even in cases of rejection seriously and in the positive sense, inorder to improve upon the quality of their work. Rejections by some journals happen not to be scientifically grounded. It happens that African authors suffer more from this flaw. This could justify why some naïve authors easily turn to publish in predatory journals. The authors argue that publishing in local journals is imperative for Africans scholars. Therefore, initiatives to encourage publication in these journals are highly needed.


Assuntos
Revisão por Pares/métodos , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto/normas , Editoração/normas , Pesquisa , África , Humanos , Pesquisadores
2.
Infant Behav Dev ; 55: 69-76, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30933839

RESUMO

Replicable research and open science are of value to our field and to society at large, but most universities provide no incentives to adopt these practices. Instead, current incentive structures favor novel research, which has led to a situation in which few researchers take the time to do replications, share protocols, or share data. Obviously, several approaches to remedy this situation are possible. However, little progress can be made if becoming involved in such activities reduces a researcher's chances of rank and status advancement and other rewards. I describe in this article the way my department has modified our incentive structure to tackle this problem, including how the changes influence my research as a developmental psychologist. Finally, I offer suggestions for faculty who wish to initiate similar changes in their institutions.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/normas , Motivação , Revisão por Pares/normas , Psicologia do Desenvolvimento/normas , Universidades/normas , Pesquisa Biomédica/métodos , Humanos , Revisão por Pares/métodos , Psicologia do Desenvolvimento/métodos
4.
Perm J ; 232019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30939287

RESUMO

The goal of physician peer review has been to assess and improve the quality of care by individual physicians. Unfortunately, this enshrined piece of medical practice suffers from deep flaws that hamper the achievement of assessment and improvement. This institution is in serious need of disruption, both for the safety of patients and for the wellness of practicing physicians. This commentary describes the inherent flaws of physician practice review and how physicians and health care organizations can address them.


Assuntos
Revisão por Pares/métodos , Médicos/normas , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/normas , Humanos , Padrões de Prática Médica
7.
J Oncol Pharm Pract ; 25(1): 94-100, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29498322

RESUMO

For pharmacists, the first years after graduation are spent developing their knowledge base, advancing as a practitioner, and honing their abilities as healthcare providers and drug information experts. New practitioners encounter many challenges during this time, which for many include publishing original research or reviewing manuscripts for colleagues and medical journals. Inexperience navigating the publication process, from submission to receipt of (and response to) peer review commentary, is often cited as a major barrier to timely publication of resident and new practitioner research. Serving as a peer reviewer in turn provides the new practitioner with insight on this process and can be an enlightening experience used to garner confidence in subsequently submitting their own formal manuscripts. A number of publications describing steps for peer review are available, however, many of these articles address more experienced reviewers or critique the peer review process itself. No definitive resource exists for new pharmacy practitioners interested in developing their peer review skills. The information presented in this summative guide should be used in conjunction with practice opportunities to help new practitioners develop proficiency at peer review.


Assuntos
Revisão por Pares , Pesquisa Farmacêutica , Assistência Farmacêutica , Humanos , Revisão por Pares/métodos , Revisão por Pares/normas , Editoração/normas
10.
Reumatol. clín. (Barc.) ; 14(2): 90-96, mar.-abr. 2018. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-171559

RESUMO

Objetivo. Existen pacientes con artritis reumatoide (AR) que no responden de la forma deseada a la terapia biológica. Nuestro objetivo fue reconocer los atributos del FAME biológico (FAMEb) que podrían identificar al más adecuado en las primeras líneas de tratamiento de la AR. Métodos. Para reconocer los atributos que podrían definir el FAMEb, se realizó una búsqueda sistemática de la literatura acerca de aspectos generales, farmacología, eficacia, seguridad, administración y coste. A continuación, se realizó un proceso Delphi a 2 rondas entre un grupo de reumatólogos expertos en el manejo de la AR para determinar el grado de acuerdo con los atributos identificados, indicando el grado de importancia que se le daba a cada atributo. Se aplicaron 2 criterios para determinar la consistencia de los resultados: 1) sobre la base de la mediana y el rango intercuartílico, y 2) el cumplimiento simultáneo de media, mediana, desviación estándar, rango intercuartílico y coeficiente de variación. Se determinaron también la concordancia y la ratificación final del panel de expertos. Resultados. Ochenta y tres reumatólogos españoles completaron las 2 circulaciones del proceso Delphi. Ninguno de los 77 atributos identificados se consideró de baja importancia, 75 de los 77 (97,4%) se consideraron de alta importancia y 76 de los 77 (98,7%) fueron ratificados. Quince tuvieron el apoyo del 100% del grupo de trabajo. Conclusiones. Quince atributos tuvieron el apoyo del 100% del grupo de trabajo y podrían considerarse los que definirían el FAMEb ideal en las primeras líneas de tratamiento de la AR (AU)


Objective. To date, between 17% and 35% of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) do not respond as expected to the initial biological therapy. The objective of this project is to recognize and weigh the attributes of biologic DMARD (bDMARD) to identify the most appropriate for each case, in the first lines of treatment of RA (after inadequate response to at least one synthetic DMARD or previous bDMARD). Methods. To recognize the possible attributes that could define the bDMARD, we performed a systematic search of the literature that recognized the possible attributes involving general aspects, pharmacology, efficacy, safety, management, and cost. Then a Delphi process was conducted with two rounds among a group of selected expert rheumatologists in the management of RA indicating the degree of agreement with the attributes identified in the literature. The project was completed between February and September 2015, indicating the degree of importance that was ascribed to each attribute. Two criteria were applied to determine the consistency of results: 1) based on the median and interquartile range; and 2) on the simultaneous compliance with mean, median, standard deviation, interquartile range and coefficient of variation. The agreement and final ratification of the expert panel were also determined. Results. Eighty-three Spanish rheumatologists participated and completed both rounds of the Delphi process. In no case was the importance of the 77 attributes identified considered to be low; 75 of 77 (97.4%) were considered highly important and 76 of 77 (98.7%) were ratified. Fifteen attributes had the support of 100% of the working group. Conclusions. There was a high degree of agreement concerning the selected attributes. Fifteen of them had the support of 100% of the working group and could be considered the definition of the ideal bDMARD in the first lines of RA treatment (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Terapia Biológica , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Medicina de Precisão/tendências , Revisão por Pares/métodos
11.
Radiat Oncol ; 13(1): 55, 2018 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29587867

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Peer review, especially prospective peer review, has been supported by professional organizations as an important element in optimal Radiation Oncology practice based on its demonstration of efficacy at detecting and preventing errors prior to patient treatment. Implementation of peer review is not without barriers, but solutions do exist to mitigate or eliminate some of those barriers. METHODS: Peer review practice at our institution involves three key elements: new patient conference, treatment planning conference, and chart rounds. The treatment planning conference is an adaptation of the group consensus peer review model from radiology which utilizes a group of peers reviewing each treatment plan prior to implementation. The peer group in radiation oncology includes Radiation Oncologists, Physician Residents, Medical Physicists, Dosimetrists, and Therapists. Thus, technical and clinical aspects of each plan are evaluated simultaneously. RESULTS: Though peer review is held in high regard in Radiation Oncology, many barriers commonly exist preventing optimal implementation such as time intensiveness, repetition, and distraction from clinic time with patients. Through the use of automated review tools and commitment by individuals and administration in regards to staffing, scheduling, and responsibilities, these barriers have been mitigated to implement this Group Consensus Peer Review model into a Radiation Oncology Clinic. CONCLUSION: A Group Consensus Peer Review model has been implemented with strategies to address common barriers to effective and efficient peer review.


Assuntos
Revisão por Pares/métodos , Garantia da Qualidade dos Cuidados de Saúde/normas , Radioterapia (Especialidade)/normas , Consenso , Humanos
12.
PLoS One ; 13(2): e0193148, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29466467

RESUMO

This paper examines research on peer review between 1969 and 2015 by looking at records indexed from the Scopus database. Although it is often argued that peer review has been poorly investigated, we found that the number of publications in this field doubled from 2005. A half of this work was indexed as research articles, a third as editorial notes and literature reviews and the rest were book chapters or letters. We identified the most prolific and influential scholars, the most cited publications and the most important journals in the field. Co-authorship network analysis showed that research on peer review is fragmented, with the largest group of co-authors including only 2.1% of the whole community. Co-citation network analysis indicated a fragmented structure also in terms of knowledge. This shows that despite its central role in research, peer review has been examined only through small-scale research projects. Our findings would suggest that there is need to encourage collaboration and knowledge sharing across different research communities.


Assuntos
Resumos e Indexação como Assunto/métodos , Mineração de Dados/métodos , Bases de Dados Bibliográficas , Revisão por Pares/métodos , Resumos e Indexação como Assunto/história , Animais , Mineração de Dados/história , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos
13.
Reumatol. clín. (Barc.) ; 14(1): 9-19, ene.-feb. 2018. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-170367

RESUMO

Objetivo. Establecer recomendaciones, basadas en la evidencia, sobre el uso de la ecografía (US) y la resonancia magnética (RM) en pacientes con artritis reumatoide (AR). Métodos. Las recomendaciones se consensuaron mediante metodología basada en grupos nominales. Un grupo de expertos (15 reumatólogos y 3 radiólogos) definió el alcance, usuarios, apartados del documento, posibles recomendaciones, revisiones sistemáticas a realizar (se utilizaron y actualizaron las revisiones de documentos de consenso previos de EULAR), y de la asignación de tareas. Los expertos delimitaron los apartados y redactaron las recomendaciones. El nivel de evidencia y grado de recomendación se realizó utilizando el sistema del Center for Evidence Based Medicine de Oxford. El grado de acuerdo se estableció mediante un Delphi a 2 rondas. Las recomendaciones se votaron según una escala de 1 (total desacuerdo) a 10 (total acuerdo), definiéndose el acuerdo como una puntuación ≥ 7 por al menos el 70% de los participantes. El documento completo fue revisado por los expertos y el proyecto coordinado por un metodólogo experto. Resultados. Se emitieron 20 recomendaciones que cubren: la validez de la US y RM para la detección de actividad y daño estructural, capacidad diagnóstica, predictora (de progresión de daño estructural, de brote de la enfermedad, respuesta al tratamiento, etc.), utilidad en la evaluación y monitorización de estos pacientes que están en tratamiento, y uso de la US como guía (para infiltraciones o biopsias). Conclusiones. Se presentan recomendaciones útiles para el manejo de la US y RM por los clínicos en pacientes con AR (AU)


Objective. To develop evidence-based recommendations on the use of ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods. Recommendations were generated following a nominal group technique. A panel of experts, consisting of 15 rheumatologists and 3 radiologists, was established in the first panel meeting to define the scope and purpose of the consensus document, as well as chapters, potential recommendations and systematic literature reviews (we used and updated those from previous EULAR documents). A first draft of recommendations and text was generated. Then, an electronic Delphi process (2 rounds) was carried out. Recommendations were voted from 1 (total disagreement) to 10 (total agreement). We defined agreement if at least 70% of experts voted ≥7. The level of evidence and grade or recommendation was assessed using the Oxford Centre for Evidence-based Medicine Levels of Evidence. The full text was circulated and reviewed by the panel. The consensus was coordinated by an expert methodologist. Results. A total of 20 recommendations were proposed. They include the validity of US and MRI regarding inflammation and damage detection, diagnosis, prediction (structural damage progression, flare, treatment response, etc.), monitoring and the use of US guided injections/biopsies. Conclusions. These recommendations will help clinicians use US and MRI in RA patients (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Artrite Reumatoide/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Padrões de Prática Médica/tendências , Revisão por Pares/métodos
14.
Early Hum Dev ; 117: 110-112, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29366534

RESUMO

The plotting of data into graphs should be a mandatory step in all data analysis as part of a descriptive statistics exercise, since it gives the researcher an overview of the shape and nature of the data. Moreover, outlier values may be identified, which may be incorrect data, or true outliers, from which important findings (and publications) may arise. This exercise should always precede inferential statistics, when possible, and this paper in the Early Human Development WASP series provides some pointers for doing so in Microsoft Excel™.


Assuntos
Bioestatística/métodos , Escrita Médica/normas , Software , Algoritmos , Revisão por Pares/métodos , Revisão por Pares/normas , Relatório de Pesquisa/normas
15.
Early Hum Dev ; 117: 98-103, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29361329

RESUMO

Data collection for the purposes of analysis, after the planning and execution of a research study, commences with data input and validation. The process of data entry and analysis may appear daunting to the uninitiated, but as pointed out in the 1970s in a series of papers by British Medical Journal Deputy Editor TDV Swinscow, modern hardware and software (he was then referring to the availability of hand calculators) permits the performance of statistical testing outside a computer laboratory. In this day and age, modern software, such as the ubiquitous and almost universally familiar Microsoft Excel™ greatly facilitates this process. This first paper comprises the first of a collection of papers which will emulate Swinscow's series, in his own words, "addressed to readers who want to start at the beginning, not to those who are already skilled statisticians." These papers will have less focus on the actual arithmetic, and more emphasis on how to actually implement simple statistics, step by step, using Excel, thereby constituting the equivalent of Swinscow's papers in the personal computer age. Data entry can be facilitated by several underutilised features in Excel. This paper will explain Excel's little-known form function, data validation implementation at input stage, simple coding tips and data cleaning tools.


Assuntos
Bioestatística/métodos , Escrita Médica/normas , Software , Revisão por Pares/métodos , Revisão por Pares/normas , Relatório de Pesquisa/normas
16.
Early Hum Dev ; 117: 113-117, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29338976

RESUMO

Plotting data into graphs is a crucial step in data analysis as part of an initial descriptive statistics exercise since it gives the researcher an overview of the shape and nature of the data. Outlier values may also be identified, and these may be incorrect data, or true and important outliers. This paper explains how to access Microsoft Excel's Analysis Toolpak and provides some pointers for the utilisation of the histogram tool within the Toolpak.


Assuntos
Bioestatística/métodos , Escrita Médica/normas , Software , Algoritmos , Revisão por Pares/métodos , Revisão por Pares/normas , Relatório de Pesquisa/normas
17.
Early Hum Dev ; 117: 104-109, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29338977

RESUMO

Data analysis at the descriptive stage and the eventual presentation of results requires the tabulation and summarisation of data. This exercise should always precede inferential statistics. Pivot tables and pivot charts are one of Excel's most powerful and underutilised features, with tabulation functions that immensely facilitate descriptive statistics. Pivot tables permit users to dynamically summarise and cross-tabulate data, create tables in several dimensions, offer a range of summary statistics and can be modified interactively with instant outputs. Large and detailed datasets are thereby easily manipulated making pivot tables arguably the best way to explore, summarise and present data from many different angles. This second paper in the WASP series in Early Human Development provides pointers for pivot table manipulation in Excel™.


Assuntos
Bioestatística/métodos , Escrita Médica/normas , Software , Revisão por Pares/métodos , Revisão por Pares/normas , Relatório de Pesquisa/normas
20.
J Interprof Care ; 32(1): 101-103, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28949810

RESUMO

Despite numerous studies on formal interprofessional education programes, less attention has been focused on informal interprofessional learning opportunities. To provide such an opportunity, a collaborative peer review process (CPRP) was created as part of a peer-reviewed journal. Replacing the traditional peer review process wherein two or more reviewers review the manuscript separately, the CPRP brings together students from different professions to collaboratively review a manuscript. The aim of this study was to assess whether the CPRP can be used as an informal interprofessional learning tool using an exploratory qualitative approach. Eight students from Counselling Psychology, Occupational and Physical Therapy, Nursing, and Rehabilitation Sciences were invited to participate in interprofessional focus groups. Data were analysed inductively using thematic analysis. Two key themes emerged, revealing that the CPRP created new opportunities for interprofessional learning and gave practice in negotiating feedback. The results reveal that the CPRP has the potential to be a valuable interprofessional learning tool that can also enhance reviewing and constructive feedback skills.


Assuntos
Comportamento Cooperativo , Práticas Interdisciplinares , Relações Interprofissionais , Revisão por Pares/métodos , Estudantes de Ciências da Saúde/psicologia , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Pesquisa Qualitativa
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