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1.
Front Immunol ; 13: 886611, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35711419

RESUMO

Rhinoviruses (RV) have been shown to inhibit subsequent infection by heterologous respiratory viruses, including influenza viruses and severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). To better understand the mechanisms whereby RV protects against pulmonary coronavirus infection, we used a native murine virus, mouse hepatitis virus strain 1 (MHV-1), that causes severe disease in the lungs of infected mice. We found that priming of the respiratory tract with RV completely prevented mortality and reduced morbidity of a lethal MHV-1 infection. Replication of MHV-1 was reduced in RV-primed mouse lungs although expression of antiviral type I interferon, IFN-ß, was more robust in mice infected with MHV-1 alone. We further showed that signaling through the type I interferon receptor was required for survival of mice given a non-lethal dose of MHV-1. RV-primed mice had reduced pulmonary inflammation and hemorrhage and influx of leukocytes, especially neutrophils, in the airways upon MHV-1 infection. Although MHV-1 replication was reduced in RV-primed mice, RV did not inhibit MHV-1 replication in coinfected lung epithelial cells in vitro. In summary, RV-mediated priming in the respiratory tract reduces viral replication, inflammation, and tissue damage, and prevents mortality of a pulmonary coronavirus infection in mice. These results contribute to our understanding of how distinct respiratory viruses interact with the host to affect disease pathogenesis, which is a critical step in understanding how respiratory viral coinfections impact human health.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Coinfecção , Infecções por Enterovirus , Vírus da Hepatite Murina , Pneumonia , Animais , Pulmão , Camundongos , Rhinovirus , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35725310

RESUMO

Objective: To explore the relationship between pathogens in the olfactory cleft area and olfactory disorders in patients with upper respiratory inflammation (URI) during the prevention and control of 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Methods: A total of 234 URI patients including acute upper respiratory infection, chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS), allergic rhinitis (AR) were continuously selected from September 2020 to March 2021 in Beijing Anzhen Hospital and 98 healthy adults were enrolled as controls. The secretions from the olfactory cleft of all subjects were collected with nasal swabs under nasal endoscopy. Multiple real-time fluorescent quantitative polymerase chain reaction detection method was used to detect nucleic acids of 33 types of respiratory pathogenic microorganism. Sniffin' Sticks olfactory test was performed on all patients with URI. URI patients with olfactory dysfunction were followed up for 9 (8, 10) months (M (Q1, Q3)). SPSS 20.0 software was used for statistical analysis. Results: Among the 98 controls, 9 (9.18%) were positive for pathogenic microorganisms, including 1 (1.02%) rhinovirus, 1 (1.02%) parainfluenza virus type 3, 3 (3.06%) enterovirus, 1 (1.02%) staphylococcus aureus and 3 (3.06%) Moraxella catarrhalis. Among the 234 URI patients, 111 (47.44%) had olfactory disorders and 123 (52.56%) had normal sense of smell. In the olfactory disorder group (111 cases), 38 cases (34.23%) were positive for pathogenic microorganisms, and 4 cases (3.60%) were mixed infection, including 11 cases of rhinovirus (9.91%), 5 cases of coronavirus 229E (4.50%), 2 cases of coronavirus OC43/NL63 (1.80%), 3 cases of parainfluenza virus type 1 (2.70%), 2 cases of enterovirus (1.80%), 1 case of influenza B virus type BV (0.90%), 11 cases of Staphylococcus aureus (9.91%), 7 cases of Moraxella catarrhalis (6.31%), and 1 case of Klebsiella pneumoniae (0.90%). In the normal smell group (123 cases), 18 cases (14.63%) were positive for pathogenic microorganisms, and 1 case (0.81%) was mixed infection, including 3 cases of rhinovirus (2.44%), 4 cases of coronavirus 229E (3.25%), 1 case of Influenza virus type 3 (0.81%), 3 cases of enterovirus (2.44%), 3 cases of Staphylococcus aureus (2.44%), 4 cases of Moraxella catarrhalis (3.25%), and 1 case of Klebsiella pneumoniae (0.81%). Univariate analysis between the two groups found that there were significant differences in the detection rate of pathogenic microorganisms, rhinovirus and Staphylococcus aureus between the groups (all P<0.05). The detection rate of parainfluenza virus type 1, Staphylococcus aureus, and rhinovirus were different between the patients with olfactory disorder and normal olfactory function in the three subgroups of acute upper respiratory tract infection, CRS and AR, respectively (χ2 value was 3.88, 4.53 and 4.73, respectively, all P<0.05). During the follow-up period, among the 111 patients with olfactory disorder, 71 (63.96%) patients' olfactory function returned to normal, 32 (28.83%) patients' olfactory function improved but not completely returned to normal, 8 (7.21%) patients' olfactory function did not improve. Conclusions: During the prevention and control of COVID-19, rhinovirus or Staphylococcus aureus infection or colonization of URI patients is closely related to olfactory disorders. Parainfluenza virus type 1 infection can cause relatively persistent olfactory disorders in patients with acute upper respiratory tract infection. Staphylococcus aureus and rhinovirus colonization are related to the occurrence of olfactory dysfunction in CRS and AR patients respectively.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Coinfecção , Transtornos do Olfato , Infecções Respiratórias , Sinusite , Adulto , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Humanos , Inflamação , Rhinovirus , Olfato
3.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1167, 2022 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35690802

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lower respiratory tract infections are among the main causes of death. Although there are many respiratory viruses, diagnostic efforts are focused mainly on influenza. The Respiratory Viruses Network (RespVir) collects infection data, primarily from German university hospitals, for a high diversity of infections by respiratory pathogens. In this study, we computationally analysed a subset of the RespVir database, covering 217,150 samples tested for 17 different viral pathogens in the time span from 2010 to 2019. METHODS: We calculated the prevalence of 17 respiratory viruses, analysed their seasonality patterns using information-theoretic measures and agglomerative clustering, and analysed their propensity for dual infection using a new metric dubbed average coinfection exclusion score (ACES). RESULTS: After initial data pre-processing, we retained 206,814 samples, corresponding to 1,408,657 performed tests. We found that Influenza viruses were reported for almost the half of all infections and that they exhibited the highest degree of seasonality. Coinfections of viruses are frequent; the most prevalent coinfection was rhinovirus/bocavirus and most of the virus pairs had a positive ACES indicating a tendency to exclude each other regarding infection. CONCLUSIONS: The analysis of respiratory viruses dynamics in monoinfection and coinfection contributes to the prevention, diagnostic, treatment, and development of new therapeutics. Data obtained from multiplex testing is fundamental for this analysis and should be prioritized over single pathogen testing.


Assuntos
Coinfecção , Infecções Respiratórias , Viroses , Vírus , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Rhinovirus , Viroses/epidemiologia
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35648987

RESUMO

This study aims to assess COVID-19 and other respiratory viruses in pediatric patients. Between April 17 and September 30, 2020, we collected 1,566 respiratory samples from 1,044 symptomatic patients who were younger than 18 years old to assess SARS-CoV-2 infection. Of these, 919 were analyzed for other respiratory pathogens (ORP). Patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 or ORP were included. We evaluated 76 pediatric COVID-19 infections and 157 other respiratory virus infections. Rhinovirus occurred in 132/157 (84%). COVID-19 patients who were significantly older, had more fevers, headaches and pneumonia than those with ORP. The median white blood cell count was lower in patients with SARS-CoV-2 than in those with ORP (6,470 versus 8,170; p=0.02). COVID-19 patients had significantly worse symptoms than those with ORP.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Doenças Transmissíveis , Adolescente , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Criança , Humanos , Rhinovirus , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(9)2022 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35563505

RESUMO

Rhinoviruses (RVs) are major causes of the common cold, but they can also trigger exacerbations of asthma. More than 160 different RV strains exist and can be classified into three genetic species (RV-A, RV-B and RV-C) which bind to different receptors on human cells including intracellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) or the cadherin-related family member 3 (CDHR3). Epitopes located in the RV capsid have mainly been determined for RV2, a minor-group RV-A strain binding to LDLR, and for RV14, a major-group RV-B strain binding to ICAM-1. In order to study epitopes involved in the neutralization of RV89, an ICAM-1-binding RV-A strain which is highly different from RV2 and RV14 in terms of receptor specificity and sequence, respectively, we analyzed the specificity and epitopes of a highly neutralizing antiserum using recombinantly produced RV89 capsid proteins (VP1, VP2, VP3 and VP4), recombinant fragments and synthetic overlapping peptides thereof. We found that the antiserum which neutralized in vitro RV89 infection up to a dilution of 1:24,000 reacted with the capsid proteins VP1 and VP2 but not with VP3 and VP4. The neutralizing antibodies recognized recombinant fragments comprising approximately 100 amino acids of the N- and C-terminus of VP1 and the middle part of VP2, in particular, three peptides which, according to molecular modeling based on the three-dimensional structure of RV16, were surface-exposed on the viral capsid. Two recombinant fusion proteins containing the identified peptides fused to hepatitis B (HBV)-derived preS as a carrier protein induced upon immunization of rabbits antibodies capable of neutralizing in vitro RV89 infections. Interestingly, the virus-neutralizing epitopes determined for RV89 corresponded to those determined for minor-group RV2 binding to LDL and major-group RV14 belonging to the RV-B species, which are highly different from RV89. Our results indicate that highly different RV strains, even when reacting with different receptors, seem to engage similar parts of their capsid in the infection process. These results may be important for the design of active and passive immunization strategies for RV.


Assuntos
Infecções por Enterovirus , Rhinovirus , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes , Anticorpos Antivirais , Proteínas do Capsídeo/química , Epitopos , Molécula 1 de Adesão Intercelular/metabolismo , Peptídeos , Coelhos
7.
Antivir Chem Chemother ; 30: 20402066221103960, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35611441

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV). and bovine coronavirus (BCV) threaten the productivity of cattle worldwide. Development of therapeutics that can control the spread of these viruses is an unmet need. The present research was designed to explore the in vitro antiviral activity of the Nerium oleander derived cardiac glycoside oleandrin and a defined N. oleander plant extract (PBI-05204) containing oleandrin. METHODS: Madin Darby Bovine Kidney (MDBK) cells, Bovine Turbinate (BT) cells, and Human Rectal Tumor-18 (HRT-18) cells were used as in vitro culture systems for BVDV, BRSV and BCV, respectively. Cytotoxicity was established using serial dilutions of oleandrin or PBI-05204. Noncytotoxic concentrations of each drug were used either prior to or at 12 h and 24 h following virus exposure to corresponding viruses. Infectious virus titers were determined following each treatment. RESULTS: Both oleandrin as well as PBI-05204 demonstrated strong antiviral activity against BVDV, BRSV, and BCV, in a dose-dependent manner, when added prior to or following infection of host cells. Determination of viral loads by PCR demonstrated a concentration dependent decline in virus replication. Importantly, the relative ability of virus produced from treated cultures to infect new host cells was reduced by as much as 10,000-fold at noncytotoxic concentrations of oleandrin or PBI-05204. CONCLUSIONS: The research demonstrates the potency of oleandrin and PBI-05204 to inhibit infectivity of three important enveloped bovine viruses in vitro. These data showing non-toxic concentrations of oleandrin inhibiting infectivity of three bovine viruses support further investigation of in vivo antiviral efficacy.


Assuntos
Vírus da Diarreia Viral Bovina , Nerium , Vírus Sincicial Respiratório Bovino , Animais , Antivirais/farmacologia , Cardenolídeos/farmacologia , Cardenolídeos/uso terapêutico , Bovinos , Compostos Heterocíclicos de 4 ou mais Anéis , Rhinovirus
8.
Commun Biol ; 5(1): 415, 2022 05 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35508632

RESUMO

IL-25 is implicated in the pathogenesis of viral asthma exacerbations. However, the effect of IL-25 on antiviral immunity has yet to be elucidated. We observed abundant expression and colocalization of IL-25 and IL-25 receptor at the apical surface of uninfected airway epithelial cells and rhinovirus infection increased IL-25 expression. Analysis of immune transcriptome of rhinovirus-infected differentiated asthmatic bronchial epithelial cells (BECs) treated with an anti-IL-25 monoclonal antibody (LNR125) revealed a re-calibrated response defined by increased type I/III IFN and reduced expression of type-2 immune genes CCL26, IL1RL1 and IL-25 receptor. LNR125 treatment also increased type I/III IFN expression by coronavirus infected BECs. Exogenous IL-25 treatment increased viral load with suppressed innate immunity. In vivo LNR125 treatment reduced IL-25/type 2 cytokine expression and increased IFN-ß expression and reduced lung viral load. We define a new immune-regulatory role for IL-25 that directly inhibits virus induced airway epithelial cell innate anti-viral immunity.


Assuntos
Asma , Interleucina-17/imunologia , Viroses , Antivirais/farmacologia , Asma/metabolismo , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Rhinovirus
9.
Immun Inflamm Dis ; 10(6): e632, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35634957

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To analyze the epidemic characteristics of the human rhinovirus (HRV) outbreaks in Guangzhou, China, in 2020. METHODS: Descriptive epidemiological methods were used to analyze the HRV-related outbreaks in Guangzhou, 2020. RESULTS: Seventeen outbreaks were reported in 2020 during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in Guangzhou, a total of 465 patients (290 males and 175 females) were enrolled, with a median age of 10. A total of 223 (47.96%) had been tested for HRV, 89 (39.91%) of which were positive; 344/465 (73.98%) had a fever, 138/465 (29.68%) had a runny nose, 139/465 (29.89%) had a sore throat, 86/465 (18.49%) had a cough, 41/465 (8.82%) had a headache, and 37/465 (7.96%) had a sneeze. Patients at age of 13-15 had the highest rate of sore throat and runny nose, patients aged 11-12 had the highest rate of sneezing, and patients at age of 12-14 had the highest rate of positive rate. Patients tested positive had a higher rate of fever (χ2 = 11.271, p = .001), cough (χ2 = 6.987, p = .008), runny nose (χ2 = 7.980, p = .005), and sneeze (χ2 = 4.676, p = .031). CONCLUSION: The HRV was restored during the fighting of the COVID-19 pandemic. The conventional COVID-19 control measures were not effective enough in preventing rhinovirus. More appropriate control measures should be used to control HRV.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Faringite , COVID-19/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Tosse/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Faringite/epidemiologia , Rinorreia , Rhinovirus
10.
Int J Infect Dis ; 121: 130-137, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35577249

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Acute respiratory tract infections (ARIs) due to human rhinoviruses (HRVs) are common in pilgrims during the annual Hajj pilgrimage. The objective of this study was to investigate the genetic diversity of HRV among pilgrims with respiratory symptoms during Hajj 2019. METHODS: HRV infection was detected using multiplex real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Cycle sequencing was performed on positive samples and the sequences were subjected to phylogenetic analysis. RESULTS: A total of 19 HRV-positive respiratory samples were sequenced. All three serotypes of HRV were identified: HRV-A (13; 68.42%) was more common than HRV-B (2; 10.53%) and HRV-C (4; 21.05%). HRV-A species were found to be of genotypes A101, A21, A30, A57, A23, A60, and A11. HRV-B species belonged to genotypes B4 and B84, and HRV-C species were of genotypes C15, C3, and C56. CONCLUSION: Sequencing studies of respiratory tract viruses in pilgrims are important. We provide preliminary evidence of high diversity of HRV genotypes circulating in pilgrims in a restricted area during Hajj. This requires further clinical and sequencing studies of viral pathogens in larger cohorts of overseas and local pilgrims.


Assuntos
Infecções Respiratórias , Rhinovirus , Variação Genética , Humanos , Islamismo , Filogenia , Rhinovirus/genética , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Estações do Ano , Viagem
11.
Virol J ; 19(1): 81, 2022 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35570279

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human rhinovirus C (HRV-C) accounts for a large proportion of HRV-related illnesses, but the immune response to HRV-C infection has not been elucidated. Our objective was to assess the effect of HRV-C on cytokine secretion in human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells grown at air-liquid interface (ALI) and compare it with that of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). METHODS: HBE cells were differentiated at ALI culture and the full-length cDNA clones of HRV-C651 and HRV-C15, clinical isolates of HRV-C79 and HRV-C101, and two RSV isolates were inoculated in the HBE cells. The effect of HRV-C on cytokine secretion was assessed and compared with that of RSV. RESULTS: HRV-Cs infect and propagate in fully differentiated HBE cells and significantly increase the secretion of IFN-λ1, CCL5, IP10, IL-6, IL-8, and MCP-1. The virus loads positively correlated with the levels of the cytokines. HRV-C induced lower secretion of CCL5 (P = 0.048), IL-6 (P = 0.016), MCP-1 (P = 0.008), and IL-8 (P = 0.032), and similar secretion of IP10 (P = 0.214) and IFN-λ1 (P = 0.214) when compared with RSV. CONCLUSION: HBE ALI culture system supported HRV-C infection and propagation and HRV-C induced relatively weaker cytokine expression than RSV.


Assuntos
Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial , Vírus Sincicial Respiratório Humano , Quimiocina CXCL10 , Citocinas , Enterovirus , Células Epiteliais , Humanos , Imunidade , Interleucina-6 , Interleucina-8 , Rhinovirus
12.
J Theor Biol ; 545: 111145, 2022 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35490763

RESUMO

The many respiratory viruses that cause influenza-like illness (ILI) are reported and tracked as one entity, defined by the CDC as a group of symptoms that include a fever of 100 degrees Fahrenheit, a cough, and/or a sore throat. In the United States alone, ILI impacts 9-49 million people every year. While tracking ILI as a single clinical syndrome is informative in many respects, the underlying viruses differ in parameters and outbreak properties. Most existing models treat either a single respiratory virus or ILI as a whole. However, there is a need for models capable of comparing several individual viruses that cause respiratory illness, including ILI. To address this need, here we present a flexible model and simulations of epidemics for influenza, RSV, rhinovirus, seasonal coronavirus, adenovirus, and SARS/MERS, parameterized by a systematic literature review and accompanied by a global sensitivity analysis. We find that for these biological causes of ILI, their parameter values, timing, prevalence, and proportional contributions differ substantially. These results demonstrate that distinguishing the viruses that cause ILI will be an important aspect of future work on diagnostics, mitigation, modeling, and preparation for future pandemics.


Assuntos
Epidemias , Influenza Humana , Viroses , Vírus , Humanos , Influenza Humana/diagnóstico , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Rhinovirus , Viroses/epidemiologia
13.
J Clin Microbiol ; 60(5): e0006622, 2022 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35387475

RESUMO

As the incidence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) begins to overlap with the traditional respiratory season in the Northern Hemisphere, simultaneous testing for SARS-CoV-2 and the other common causes of respiratory infections is imperative. This has led to the development of multiplex respiratory assays that include SARS-CoV-2 as a target. One such assay is the BioFire respiratory panel 2.1 (RP2.1), which is an expansion of the original BioFire FilmArray respiratory panel 2 (RP2) to include SARS-CoV-2. In this multicenter evaluation, we assessed the performance characteristics of the BioFire RP2.1 for the detection of SARS-CoV-2. One or more targets on the panel were detected in 19.3% (101/524) of specimens tested, with SARS-CoV-2 detected in 12.6% (66/524) of specimens. Human rhinovirus/enterovirus was also detected in 32.7% (33/101) and adenovirus in 3.0% (3/101) of positive specimens, with one dual positive for both SARS-CoV-2 and adenovirus being detected. A further breakdown of pathogens by age revealed a 4-fold predominance of human rhinovirus/enterovirus in subjects 0 to 18 years of age, whereas in all other age groups, SARS-CoV-2 was clearly the predominant pathogen. Overall, SARS-CoV-2 results obtained from the BioFire RP2.1 were highly concordant with the composite result, exhibiting 98.4% (61/62) positive percent agreement (95% confidence interval [CI], 91.4 to 99.7%) and 98.9% (457/462) negative percent agreement (95% CI, 97.5 to 99.5%) with further analysis of discordant results suggesting that the concentration of SARS-CoV-2 in the specimens was near the limit of detection (LoD) for both the BioFire RP2.1 and the comparator assays. Overall, the BioFire RP2.1 exhibited excellent performance in the detection of SARS-CoV-2.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Infecções Respiratórias , Vírus , Adolescente , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Proteínas de Ligação ao GTP , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Proteínas de Membrana , Nasofaringe , Infecções Respiratórias/diagnóstico , Rhinovirus , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
14.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 350, 2022 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35395744

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI) remains the leading cause of death in children worldwide, and viruses have been the major cause of ALRI. In Myanmar, ALRI is associated with high morbidity and mortality in children, and detailed information on ALRI is currently lacking. METHODS: This prospective study investigated the viral aetiologies, clinical manifestations, and outcomes of ALRI in hospitalised children aged 1 month to 12 years at the Yankin Children Hospital, Yangon, Myanmar from May 2017 to April 2019. The sample size was set to 300 patients for each year. Two nasopharyngeal swabs were obtained for the patients with suspected viral ALRI; one for rapid tests for influenza and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), and the other for real-time PCR for the 16 ALRI-causing viruses. Pneumococcal colonization rates were also investigated using real-time PCR. Clinical information was extracted from the medical records, and enrolled patients were categorised by age and severity for comparison. RESULTS: Among the 5463 patients admitted with a diagnosis of ALRI, 570 (10.4%) were enrolled in this study. The median age of the patients was 8 months (interquartile range, 4-15 months). The most common symptoms were cough (93%) and difficulty in breathing (73%), while the most common signs of ALRI were tachypnoea (78%) and chest indrawing (67%). A total of 16 viruses were detected in 502 of 570 patients' samples (88%), with RSV B (36%) and rhinovirus (28%) being the most commonly detected. Multiple viruses were detected in 221 of 570 samples (37%) collected from 570 patients. Severe ALRI was diagnosed in 107 of 570 patients (19%), and RSV B and human rhinovirus were commonly detected. The mortality rate was 5%; influenza virus A (29%) and RSV B (21%) were commonly detected, and stunting and lack of immunization were frequently observed in such cases. Additionally, 45% (259/570) of the patients had pneumococcal colonization. CONCLUSIONS: Viral ALRI in hospitalised children with a median of 8 months has significant morbidity and mortality rates in Myanmar. RSV and rhinovirus were the most commonly detected from nasopharyngeal swabs, while influenza virus and RSV were the most frequently associated with fatal cases.


Assuntos
Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial , Vírus Sincicial Respiratório Humano , Infecções Respiratórias , Viroses , Vírus , Criança , Criança Hospitalizada , Humanos , Lactente , Mianmar/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Vírus Sincicial Respiratório Humano/genética , Infecções Respiratórias/diagnóstico , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Rhinovirus , Viroses/diagnóstico
15.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 411, 2022 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35484482

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of virus positivity in the upper respiratory tract of asymptomatic community-dwelling older people remains elusive. Our objective was to investigate the prevalence of respiratory virus PCR positivity in asymptomatic community-dwelling older people using saliva samples and nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal swabs. METHODS: We analyzed 504 community-dwelling adults aged ≥ 65 years who were ambulatory and enrolled in a cross-sectional study conducted from February to December 2018 in Nagasaki city, Japan. Fourteen respiratory viruses were identified in saliva, nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal samples using multiplex PCR assays. RESULTS: The prevalences of PCR positivity for rhinovirus, influenza A, enterovirus and any respiratory virus were 12.9% (95% CI: 10.1-16.1%), 7.1% (95% CI: 5.1-9.8%), 6.9% (95% CI: 4.9-9.5%) and 25.2% (95% CI: 21.5-29.2%), respectively. Rhinovirus was detected in 21.5% of subjects, influenza A in 38.9% of subjects, enterovirus in 51.4% of subjects and any virus in 32.3% of subjects using only saliva sampling. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalences of several respiratory viruses were higher than the percentages reported previously in pharyngeal samples from younger adults. Saliva sampling is a potentially useful method for respiratory virus detection in asymptomatic populations.


Assuntos
Infecções por Enterovirus , Influenza Humana , Infecções Respiratórias , Vírus , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Vida Independente , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex/métodos , Nasofaringe , Infecções Respiratórias/diagnóstico , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Rhinovirus , Vírus/genética
16.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 6972, 2022 04 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35484173

RESUMO

Common alphacoronaviruses and human rhinoviruses (HRV) induce type I and III interferon (IFN) responses important to limiting viral replication in the airway epithelium. In contrast, highly pathogenic betacoronaviruses including SARS-CoV-2 may evade or antagonize RNA-induced IFN I/III responses. In airway epithelial cells (AECs) from children and older adults we compared IFN I/III responses to SARS-CoV-2 and HRV-16, and assessed whether pre-infection with HRV-16, or pretreatment with recombinant IFN-ß or IFN-λ, modified SARS-CoV-2 replication. Bronchial AECs from children (ages 6-18 years) and older adults (ages 60-75 years) were differentiated ex vivo to generate organotypic cultures. In a biosafety level 3 (BSL-3) facility, cultures were infected with SARS-CoV-2 or HRV-16, and RNA and protein was harvested from cell lysates 96 h. following infection and supernatant was collected 48 and 96 h. following infection. In additional experiments cultures were pre-infected with HRV-16, or pre-treated with recombinant IFN-ß1 or IFN-λ2 before SARS-CoV-2 infection. In a subset of experiments a range of infectious concentrations of HRV-16, SARS-CoV-2 WA-01, SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant, and SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant were studied. Despite significant between-donor heterogeneity SARS-CoV-2 replicated 100 times more efficiently than HRV-16. IFNB1, INFL2, and CXCL10 gene expression and protein production following HRV-16 infection was significantly greater than following SARS-CoV-2. IFN gene expression and protein production were inversely correlated with SARS-CoV-2 replication. Treatment of cultures with recombinant IFNß1 or IFNλ2, or pre-infection of cultures with HRV-16, markedly reduced SARS-CoV-2 replication. In addition to marked between-donor heterogeneity in IFN responses and viral replication, SARS-CoV-2 (WA-01, Delta, and Omicron variants) elicits a less robust IFN response in primary AEC cultures than does rhinovirus, and heterologous rhinovirus infection, or treatment with recombinant IFN-ß1 or IFN-λ2, reduces SARS-CoV-2 replication, although to a lesser degree for the Delta and Omicron variants.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Interferons , Adolescente , Idoso , Antivirais , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Criança , Humanos , Interferons/farmacologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , RNA , Rhinovirus , SARS-CoV-2
17.
J Med Virol ; 94(8): 3829-3839, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35403229

RESUMO

Respiratory infections are often caused by enteroviruses (EVs). The aim of this study was to identify whether certain types of EV were more likely to cause severe illness in 2016, when an increasing spread of upper respiratory infections was observed in Gothenburg, Sweden. The EV strain in 137 of 1341 nasopharyngeal samples reactive for EV by polymerase chain reaction could be typed by sequencing the viral 5'-untranslated region and VP1 regions. Phylogenetic trees were constructed. Patient records were reviewed. Hospital care was needed for 46 of 74 patients with available medical records. The majority of the patients (83) were infected with the rhinovirus (RV). The remaining 54 were infected with EV A, B, C, and D strains of 13 different types, with EV-D68 and CV-A10 being the most common (17 vs. 14). Significantly more patients with EV-D68 presented with dyspnea, both when compared with other EV types (p = 0.003) and compared to all other EV and RV infections (p = 0.04). Phylogenetic analysis of the sequences revealed the spread of both Asian and European CV-A10 strains and 12 different RV C types. This study showed an abundance of different EV types spreading during a year with increased upper respiratory increased infections. EV-D68 infections were associated with more severe disease manifestation. Other EV and RV types were more evenly distributed between hospitalized and nonhospitalized patients. The EV type CV-A10 was also found in infected patients, which warrants further studies and surveillance, as this pathogen could cause more severe disease and outbreaks of hand, foot, and mouth disease.


Assuntos
Enterovirus Humano D , Infecções por Enterovirus , Enterovirus , Infecções Respiratórias , Surtos de Doenças , Enterovirus/genética , Humanos , Lactente , Filogenia , Rhinovirus/genética
18.
Virol J ; 19(1): 72, 2022 04 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35459180

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rhinovirus is a common viral aetiology of upper respiratory infection and is mostly associated with common cold or flu-like illness. Although rhinovirus has been recognized as a pathogen for lower respiratory infections in severe cases credited to advances in molecular detection, central nervous system involvement and multiorgan dysfunction are extremely rare. CASE PRESENTATION: A previously healthy 10-year-old girl developed fever, sore throat and conjunctive injection after contact with an upper respiratory infection patient, followed by seizures, haematuria, and severe diarrhoea. She experienced viral sepsis and multiorgan dysfunction after admission. Cerebral computed tomography showed significant diffuse encephaledema. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis showed significantly elevated protein levels. After her consciousness disturbance improved, she still took a long time to recover from haematuria and diarrhoea. We identified a rarely reported rhinovirus A45 in her oropharyngeal and anal swabs by metagenomic next-generation sequencing, and bacterial culture of blood specimens yielded negative results. CONCLUSIONS: This case presents a patient with severe rhinovirus infection, which was very likely responsible for her central nervous system symptoms and viral sepsis.


Assuntos
Enterovirus , Infecções por Picornaviridae , Infecções Respiratórias , Sistema Nervoso Central , Criança , Diarreia , Feminino , Hematúria/complicações , Humanos , Masculino , Infecções por Picornaviridae/complicações , Infecções por Picornaviridae/diagnóstico , Rhinovirus , Viremia
19.
Viruses ; 14(3)2022 02 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35336898

RESUMO

Respiratory viruses play an important role in asthma exacerbation, and early exposure can be involved in recurrent bronchitis and the development of asthma. The exact mechanism is not fully clarified, and pathogen-to-host interaction studies are warranted to identify biomarkers of exacerbation in the early phase. Only a limited number of international exacerbation cohorts were studied. Here, we have established a local pediatric exacerbation study in Germany consisting of children with asthma or chronic, recurrent bronchitis and analyzed the viriome within the nasopharyngeal swab specimens derived from the entire cohort (n = 141). Interestingly, 41% of exacerbated children had a positive test result for human rhinovirus (HRV)/human enterovirus (HEV), and 14% were positive for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). HRV was particularly prevalent in asthmatics (56%), wheezers (50%), and atopic (66%) patients. Lymphocytes were decreased in asthmatics and in HRV-infected subjects, and patients allergic to house dust mites were more susceptible to HRV infection. Our study thus confirms HRV infection as a strong 'biomarker' of exacerbated asthma. Further longitudinal studies will show the clinical progress of those children with a history of an RSV or HRV infection. Vaccination strategies and novel treatment guidelines against HRV are urgently needed to protect those high-risk children from a serious course of disease.


Assuntos
Asma , Bronquite , Infecções por Enterovirus , Enterovirus , Infecções por Picornaviridae , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial , Vírus Sincicial Respiratório Humano , Infecções Respiratórias , Viroses , Vírus , Asma/epidemiologia , Biomarcadores , Criança , Humanos , Lactente , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Rhinovirus
20.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 1406, 2022 03 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35301296

RESUMO

Human rhinovirus (HRV), like coronavirus (HCoV), are positive-strand RNA viruses that cause both upper and lower respiratory tract illness, with their replication facilitated by concentrating RNA-synthesizing machinery in intracellular compartments made of modified host membranes, referred to as replication organelles (ROs). Here we report a non-canonical, essential function for stimulator of interferon genes (STING) during HRV infections. While the canonical function of STING is to detect cytosolic DNA and activate inflammatory responses, HRV infection triggers the release of STIM1-bound STING in the ER by lowering Ca2+, thereby allowing STING to interact with phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI4P) and traffic to ROs to facilitates viral replication and transmission via autophagy. Our results thus hint a critical function of STING in HRV viral replication and transmission, with possible implications for other RO-mediated RNA viruses.


Assuntos
Enterovirus , Vírus de RNA , Humanos , Organelas , Rhinovirus , Replicação Viral/fisiologia
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