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1.
Food Chem ; 366: 130606, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34311233

RESUMO

A natamycin-based non-migratory antimicrobial packaging for extending shelf-life of yogurt drink (Doogh) was developed. Firstly, the surface of low-density polyethylene film (LDPE) was modified with acrylic acid at different times of UV exposure (0-10 min) to produce carboxylic functional groups. Then, natamycin was applied to the UV-treated films to bind covalently with the pendent functional groups. The maximum grafting efficiency (81.96%) was obtained for the 6 min treated film. Moreover, surface properties of films were evaluated by Attenuated Total Reflectance/Fourier Transfer Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Antifungal activity of different treatments of natamycin grafted film was evaluated against two common spoilage yeasts of Doogh including Rhodotorula mucilaginosa and Candida parapsilosis. Results showed that 6 min treated film provides maximum anti-yeast activity and can be applied to control fungal growth in Doogh. Natamycin-grafted film postponed the yeast spoilage in Doogh and prolonged its shelf-life to 23 days.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Natamicina , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Embalagem de Alimentos , Rhodotorula , Iogurte
2.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(38): 11523-11533, 2021 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34545740

RESUMO

Carotenoids are a group of tetraterpene pigments widely used in the food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries. Torulene, torularhodin, and ß-carotene, three principal carotenoids synthesized by Rhodotorula glutinis ZHK, possess strong health-promoting properties such as antioxidant, provitamin A, and antitumor. Here, the effect of different salt conditions on carotenoids production of R. glutinisZHK was investigated. The results showed that the total carotenoids were significantly enhanced in 0.5 M (3.91 mg/L) and 0.75 M (5.41 mg/L) NaCl treatments than that in 1.0 M (0.35 mg/L) and control (1.42 mg/L) after 120 h of cultivation. Of which, the increase in torulene and torularhodin production acts as the main contributor to the enhancement of total carotenoids. Transcriptome profiling revealed that salt stress efficiently promotes the gene expression of crtI, which could explain the molecular mechanisms of the enhanced torulene and torularhodin production under salt stress. Further experiments indicated that torulene and torularhodin play an important role in quenching excrescent reactive oxygen species induced by salt stress. Together, the present study reports an effective strategy for simultaneously improving torulene and torularhodin production in R. glutinis ZHK.


Assuntos
Rhodotorula , Transcriptoma , Carotenoides , Rhodotorula/genética
3.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 105(19): 7411-7425, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34491401

RESUMO

Rhodosporidium toruloides is an oleaginous yeast capable of producing a variety of biofuels and bioproducts from diverse carbon sources. Despite numerous studies showing its promise as a platform microorganism, little is known about its metabolism and physiology. In this work, we investigated the central carbon metabolism in R. toruloides IFO0880 using transcriptomics and metabolomics during growth on glucose, xylose, acetate, or soybean oil. These substrates were chosen because they can be derived from plants. Significant changes in gene expression and metabolite concentrations were observed during growth on these four substrates. We mapped these changes onto the governing metabolic pathways to better understand how R. toruloides reprograms its metabolism to enable growth on these substrates. One notable finding concerns xylose metabolism, where poor expression of xylulokinase induces a bypass leading to arabitol production. Collectively, these results further our understanding of central carbon metabolism in R. toruloides during growth on different substrates. They may also help guide the metabolic engineering and development of better models of metabolism for R. toruloides.Key points• Gene expression and metabolite concentrations were significantly changed.• Reduced expression of xylulokinase induces a bypass leading to arabitol production.• R. toruloides reprograms its metabolism to allow growth on different substrates.


Assuntos
Carbono , Transcriptoma , Metabolômica , Rhodotorula
4.
J Vet Med Sci ; 83(10): 1545-1548, 2021 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34526416

RESUMO

Rhodotorula mucilaginosa are saprophytic yeast, and opportunistic infections known as human rhodotorulosis are increasing in immunocompromised patients. In this study, we isolated R. mucilaginosa from pet dogs in Japan and determined the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of antifungal drugs on these isolates to investigate the drug susceptibility pattern. All 10 isolates according to the broth microdilution (BM) assay of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) M27-A2 were resistance to azoles and genetically close to fluconazole (FLZ)-resistant human isolates of R. mucilaginosa. Due to resistance, it is expected that treatment will be difficult if they infect humans.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Animais , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Cães , Meato Acústico Externo , Tipagem Molecular/veterinária , Rhodotorula
5.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 22(1): 399, 2021 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34376148

RESUMO

Numerous genomes are sequenced and made available to the community through the NCBI portal. However, and, unlike what happens for gene function annotation, annotation of promoter sequences and the underlying prediction of regulatory associations is mostly unavailable, severely limiting the ability to interpret genome sequences in a functional genomics perspective. Here we present an approach where one can download a genome of interest from NCBI in the GenBank Flat File (.gbff) format and, with a minimum set of commands, have all the information parsed, organized and made available through the platform web interface. Also, the new genomes are compared with a given genome of reference in search of homologous genes, shared regulatory elements and predicted transcription associations. We present this approach within the context of Community YEASTRACT of the YEASTRACT + portal, thus benefiting from immediate access to all the comparative genomics queries offered in the YEASTRACT + portal. Besides the yeast community, other communities can install the platform independently, without any constraints. In this work, we exemplify the usefulness of the presented tool, within Community YEASTRACT, in constructing a dedicated database and analysing the genome of the highly promising oleaginous red yeast species Rhodotorula toruloides currently poorly studied at the genome and transcriptome levels and with limited genome editing tools. Regulatory prediction is based on the conservation of promoter sequences and available regulatory networks. The case-study examined is focused on the Haa1 transcription factor-a key regulator of yeast resistance to acetic acid, an important inhibitor of industrial bioconversion of lignocellulosic hydrolysates. The new tool described here led to the prediction of a RtHaa1 regulon with expected impact in the optimization of R. toruloides robustness for lignocellulosic and pectin-rich residue biorefinery processes.


Assuntos
Regulon , Leveduras , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Rhodotorula , Fatores de Transcrição , Leveduras/genética
6.
Bioresour Technol ; 340: 125534, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34325397

RESUMO

The increasing demand for natural resources has highlighted the need to search for unutilized carbon resource that satisfy the demand and pose a minor threat to the environment. Yeast is a microbe with large industrial applications, and the biomass leftover after fermentation needs utilization for achieving increased efficiency. De-oiled yeast biomass (DYB), the residue after yeast lipid extraction, has not yet been evaluated for its potential application in the pyrolysis process. The present study was performed to understand its detailed pyrolysis kinetics. The observed activation energy (87-216 KJ/mol), random nucleation mechanism, pre-exponential factor (7.87 × 1031-3.24 × 1031/min), and thermodynamic profile showed the DYB pyrolysis process to be feasible. .


Assuntos
Pirólise , Biomassa , Cinética , Rhodotorula , Termodinâmica , Termogravimetria
7.
Bioresour Technol ; 340: 125598, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34330003

RESUMO

This study aimed to select fermentation conditions able to simultaneously maximize the production of lipids and carotenoids by oleaginous yeast cultivated in wheat straw hydrolysate. An evolved strain of Rhodosporidium toruloides with improved tolerance to toxic compounds present in hydrolysate medium was used. Experiments were performed in order to investigate the effect of the temperature and inoculum load on the production of lipids and carotenoids by R. toruloides. Results revealed that the accumulation of both products can be simultaneously maximized when performing the fermentation at 17 °C and using 3.5 g/L of inoculum. This maximum simultaneous production opens up new perspectives for the establishment of a feasible and more sustainable large-scale process for the production of lipids and carotenoids. Even corresponding to only 1% of the cell mass, due to the high market value, carotenoids would account for more than 90% of the total income of the industrial plant.


Assuntos
Basidiomycota , Triticum , Biomassa , Carotenoides , Lipídeos , Rhodotorula
8.
Bioresour Technol ; 337: 125475, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34320755

RESUMO

Currently, deep eutectic solvents (DES) have attracted increasing attention due to their excellent performance in delignification. However, few studies focused on the treatment of DES waste liquid after extraction of lignin. In this work, the fermentation-friendly DES comprised of glycerol, choline chloride (ChCl) and acetic acid (AA) was applied for delignification of lignocellulose. Subsequently, the extraction effects of different DES were investigated, and the DES extraction liquor was used for lipid production. Results shows ChCl made little difference to lipid synthesis, while excessive AA exerted inhibitory effect on the growth of cells. Following pretreatment, the delignification exceeded 63%. When the DES liquid obtained after lignin extraction was used to produce lipid, the delay period was obvious, while the lipid yield and content were unaffected. Not only is the DES prepared in this study effective in delignification of lignocellulose, it is also applicable as raw material to produce lipid.


Assuntos
Lignina , Lipídeos , Fermentação , Rhodotorula , Solventes
9.
Microbiol Immunol ; 65(11): 463-471, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34251696

RESUMO

The International Space Station (ISS) is a closed facility that orbits the earth carrying not only its crew but also microorganisms. We have participated in microbiota analysis projects for the Japanese Experiment Module KIBO (ISS; operations nomenclature: Microbe-I, II, III, and IV) and were in charge of fungal screening. The interior of KIBO was sampled using swabs and microbe detection sheets (MDSs) for fungal detection. The dominant genera obtained by culture were Aspergillus and Penicillium. DNA analyses of the fungal biota using a clone library showed that KIBO was dominated by Malassezia, a fungal inhabitant of human skin. Three fungal species, Aspergillus sydowii, Penicillium palitans, and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, which grew under microgravity in KIBO were observed under a field emission-scanning electron microscope on the ground. No novel phenotypic characteristics were noted. The results of antifungal susceptibility testing of all isolates did not differ significantly from previous reports of corresponding fungi. In Microbe-I (August 2009), MDSs were culture negative, while in the next stages the CFU of MDSs were 10 for Microbe-II (February 2011), 24 for Microbe-III (October 2012), and 151 for Microbe-IV (February 2015). These results indicated that fungi inside KIBO are increasing and expanding over time, and therefore continuous surveillance is crucial.


Assuntos
Fungos , Astronave , Aspergillus , Fungos/genética , Humanos , Japão , Penicillium , Rhodotorula
10.
Biosci Biotechnol Biochem ; 85(8): 1899-1909, 2021 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34124766

RESUMO

Light stimulates carotenoid production in an oleaginous yeast Rhodosporidium toruloides NBRC 10032 by promoting carotenoid biosynthesis genes. These genes undergo two-step transcriptional activation. The potential light regulator, Cryptochrome DASH (CRY1), has been suggested to contribute to this mechanism. In this study, based on KU70 (a component of nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ)) disrupting background, CRY1 disruptant was constructed to clarify CRY1 function. From analysis of CRY1 disruptant, it was suggested that CRY1 has the activation role of the carotenogenic gene expression. To obtain further insights into the light response, mutants varying carotenoid production were generated. Through analysis of mutants, the existence of the control two-step gene activation was proposed. In addition, our data analysis showed the strong possibility that R. toruloides NBRC 10032 is a homo-diploid strain.


Assuntos
Carotenoides/metabolismo , Luz , Rhodotorula/efeitos da radiação , Criptocromos/genética , Criptocromos/metabolismo , Marcação de Genes , Genes Fúngicos , Mutação , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Rhodotorula/genética , Rhodotorula/metabolismo
11.
Bioresour Technol ; 337: 125354, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34098502

RESUMO

Utilizing the undetoxified wood hydrolysate to accumulate maximum lipids in Rhodosporidium toruloides under optimum conditions has been regarded as a renewable and cost-effective strategy. The current investigation aims to identify the best carbon to nitrogen (C/N 20, 70, and 120) ratio for maximum lipid accumulation in R. toruloides-1588 using wood hydrolysate. Additionally, a fed-batch-like condition was employed, where C/N ratios were maintained during the fermentation that inherently decreases in batch fermentation. The C/N ratio 70 has been identified as the best condition with 3 times higher lipid accumulation (43% w/w) than the control. Additionally, >95% and 70% of glucose and xylose consumption were observed, respectively. Moreover, 50% increase in polyunsaturated fatty acids compared to the control media reinforced the potential of R. toruloides-1588 to thrive on undetoxified hydrolysate, high lipid productivity (3.8 mg/g of dry weight per hour) and produce high value monosaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids.


Assuntos
Basidiomycota , Nitrogênio , Biomassa , Carbono , Lipídeos , Rhodotorula
12.
Bioresour Technol ; 337: 125422, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34186333

RESUMO

Oleaginous yeast fermentation process has gained attention for yeast single cell oil production. However, after lipid extraction, the leftover de-oiled yeast biomass has not been investigated in detail for its suitability for thermochemical conversion. To understand the structural and morphological changes, the comparative characterization of yeast and de-oiled yeast biomass before and post lipid extraction is necessary. The present study investigates the characteristics of an oleaginous yeast Rhodotorula mucilaginosa IIPL32's de-oiled biomass for its potential utilization. FTIR, XRD, SEM, EDX, XRF, and TGA analysis were performed to understand the biomass properties. Increased surface area and structural changes were observed in de-oiled yeast biomass with an increase in crystallinity, indicating chitosan availability. Maximum thermal degradation temperature was reduced to 260 °C for de-oiled yeast biomass from 300 °C for dried yeast after lipid extraction. The findings favored de-oiled yeast biomass for multiple applications that merit further detailed investigation with different thermochemical interventions.


Assuntos
Biocombustíveis , Fermento Seco , Biomassa , Óleos , Rhodotorula
13.
Mycopathologia ; 186(3): 411-421, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34120275

RESUMO

Candida yeasts are the most frequent in the vaginal content. This yeast may be a normal microbiota but also causes candidiasis. In symptomatic cases, primary candidiasis (VVC) or recurrence (RVVC) can be considered. This study aims to compare the frequency and in vitro sensitivity profile of Candida species isolated in the vaginal content with the different stages of the presence of yeasts. A total of 258 non-pregnant patients with/without VVC were prospectively screened at a teaching Health Centre of the Faculty of Medicine, in the University of Sao Paulo. The vaginal isolates were identified by traditional and molecular methods. Yeasts were isolated in 160 women. 34% were asymptomatic, 34% with vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC), and 32% recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (RVVC). C. albicans was the most frequent species with 50.1% (82/160), followed by C. parapsilosis 13.7%(22/160), C. glabrata 12.5% (20/160), and C. tropicalis (6.2%). Analysis by the group showed that, in the asymptomatic group, eight yeast species were isolated, C. albicans 44.5% (24/54), C. glabrata 20% (11/54), C. parapsilosis and Rhodotorula rubra being the most frequent. In the VVC group, 11 yeast species were identified. Most isolates were C. albicans 68.5% (37/54), C. tropicalis 7.5% (4/54), and C. parapsilosis 5.5% (3/54). In the RVVC group, ten species were identified, the most frequent being C. albicans 38.5% (20/52), C. parapsilosis 17% (9/52), C. glabrata 4% (8/52), and C. tropicalis 6% (3/52). Less frequent species, such as C. haemulonii and Trichosporon spp, were isolated in the VVC and RVVC groups, C. kefyr was isolated in the three groups studied, and Rhodotorula spp was isolated in the control and RVVC groups. Candida metapsilosis was present in two isolates from the RVVC group. Most isolates were considered sensitive to the tested antifungals. Less sensitivity was seen for caspofungin. In this study, we were able to verify that the most common species of yeasts found in vaginal secretion were isolated in the three groups studied; however, there was the diversity of species in VVC and RVVC. Cryptic species C. haemulonii and were isolated in symptomatic patients. High levels of MICs, some of the antifungals tested, in the control group, draw attention in the group of asymptomatic women. We would like to emphasize that this research aims to assist clinicians and gynecologists, as well as assist in the epidemiological studies of candidiasis, in our country, how to draw attention to the profile of sensitivity/resistance to antifungals.


Assuntos
Candidíase Vulvovaginal , Candidíase , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Candida albicans , Candidíase/tratamento farmacológico , Candidíase Vulvovaginal/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Membrana Mucosa , Rhodotorula
14.
Biodegradation ; 32(5): 551-562, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34046776

RESUMO

In this work, strains of Bacillus subtilis were inoculated in consortium with Rhodotorula mucilaginosa into spent soy oil as aiming to biological treatment and low-cost reuse. The microorganisms were previously isolated and selected for the lipolytic capacity of the alperujo residue generated during the processing of olive oil. For fermentation, bioassays containing Rhodotorula mucilaginosa isolated from alperujo and Candida rugosa CCMA 00371, both co-inoculated with Bacillus subtilis CCMA 0085 in medium containing (% w/v) 0.075 glucose and 0.375 (NH4)3 PO4 in 75 mL of water and 75 mL of spent soy oil. Despite the low biomass productivity, it has favorable characteristics to be used in animal feed supplementation. Spent soy oil was used as a carbon source proven by Bartha respirometer. The strains of R. mucilaginosa UFLA RAS 144 and B. subtilis CCMA 0085 are promising inoculants for oil degradation and can be applied in a waste treatment system.


Assuntos
Consórcios Microbianos , Óleo de Soja , Biodegradação Ambiental , Hidrólise , Rhodotorula , Saccharomycetales , Tecnologia
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34043492

RESUMO

Rhodotorula mucilaginosa is an antagonistic yeast for which our research team has recently reported interesting biocontrol activities against blue mould decay of apples and a strong ability to decrease the patulin concentration in vivo. However, the possible mechanisms of patulin degradation by R. mucilaginosa and the toxicity of patulin degradation products remain unclear. In this study, the effect of R. mucilaginosa on patulin degradation and toxicity of degradation products were investigated, the results showed that viable cells of R. mucilaginosa are essential to patulin degradation. Also, R. mucilaginosa eliminated patulin without adsorbing it through its cell wall. The extracellular metabolites of R. mucilaginosa stimulated by patulin showed little degradation activity for patulin. Cycloheximide addition into the medium significantly decreased the patulin degradation capacity of R. mucilaginosa cells. The main patulin degradation product by R. mucilaginosa was ascladiol, which was proved non-toxic to human hepatoma (HepG2) cells at 0.625-10 g/mL. Furthermore, toxicological analysis using a confocal laser scanning microscope revealed that the degradation product induced cellular apoptosis to a lesser extent than patulin itself. This result offers an innovative method to detoxify patulin and limit the risks of patulin in fruits and vegetables using R. mucilaginosa.


Assuntos
Fungos/metabolismo , Furanos/toxicidade , Patulina/metabolismo , Rhodotorula/metabolismo , Cicloeximida/metabolismo , Aditivos Alimentares/metabolismo , Contaminação de Alimentos , Frutas/microbiologia , Fungos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Malus/microbiologia , Metaboloma , Medição de Risco
16.
Enzyme Microb Technol ; 147: 109783, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33992405

RESUMO

Phlorizin is a low soluble dihydrochalcone with relevant pharmacological properties. In this study, enzymatic fructosylation was approached to enhance the water solubility of phlorizin, and consequently its bioavailability. Three enzymes were assayed for phlorizin fructosylation in aqueous reactions using sucrose as fructosyl donor. Levansucrase (EC 2.4.1.10) from Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus (Gd_LsdA) was 6.5-fold more efficient than invertase (EC 3.2.1.26) from Rhodotorula mucilaginosa (Rh_Inv), while sucrose:sucrose 1-fructosyltransferase (EC 2.4.1.99) from Schedonorus arundinaceus (Sa_1-SST) failed to modify the non-sugar acceptor. Gd_LsdA synthesized series of phlorizin mono- di- and tri-fructosides with maximal conversion efficiency of 73 %. The three most abundant products were identified by ESI-MS and NMR analysis as ß-D-fructofuranosyl-(2→6)-phlorizin (P1a), phlorizin-4'-O-ß-D-fructofuranosyl-(2→6)-D-fructofuranoside (P2c) and phlorizin-4-O-monofructofuranoside (P1b), respectively. Purified P1a was 16 times (30.57 g L-1 at 25 °C) more soluble in water than natural phlorizin (1.93 g L-1 at 25 °C) and exhibited 44.56 % free radical scavenging activity. Gd_LsdA is an attractive candidate enzyme for the scaled synthesis of phlorizin fructosides in the absence of co-solvent.


Assuntos
Gluconacetobacter , Florizina , Rhodotorula , Sacarose
17.
Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek ; 114(8): 1237-1244, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34043114

RESUMO

A set of four strains representing a novel basidiomycetous yeast species Rhodotorula sampaioana f. a., sp. nov. were isolated from two different habitats, subsurface waters of Lake Negra in Argentina, and the gut of a xylophagous termite in India. Phylogenetic analyses of LSU and ITS sequences showed that they belonged to the genus Rhodotorula of the order Sporidiobolales (subphylum Pucciniomycotina) and the closest known relative being R. kratochvilovae. The new species differed from R. kratochvilovae CBS 7436 (AF071436, AF444520) by nine nucleotide substitutions and one deletion (1.7 % sequence variation) in a 593 bp D1/D2 region, and by five nucleotide substitutions and three deletions (1.3 %) in a 592 bp ITS region, respectively. Several morphological and physiological differences were also observed between R. kratochvilovae and the strains obtained during this study. These data support the proposal of Rhodotorula sampaioana as a novel species, with CRUB 1124 as the holotype, CBS 10798 as ex-type, and NFCCI 4872 as an additional strain. The GenBank accession numbers of the LSU and ITS sequences of Rhodotorula sampaioana f. a., sp. nov. are EF595748 and MW879331. The MycoBank number is MB 838533.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos , Rhodotorula , Argentina , DNA Fúngico/genética , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/genética , Técnicas de Tipagem Micológica , Filogenia , Rhodotorula/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
18.
Arch Microbiol ; 203(7): 3839-3849, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34003331

RESUMO

High concentrations of heavy metals in mine soil disturb the interactions between legumes and microorganisms leading to select strains adapted to these specific conditions. In this work, we analyzed the diversity of fifty strains isolated from Trifolium sp. nodules growing on Pb-Zn mine soil, in the Northeastern of Algeria and highlighted their potential symbiotic traits. The phylogeny of the 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed a high bacterial diversity with a predominance of non-rhizobial endophytes. The identified isolates belong to the thirteen following genera Cupriavidus, Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Acinetobacter, Enterobacter, Roseomonas, Paracoccus, Frondihabitans, Microbacterium, Kocuria, Providencia, Micrococcus and Staphylococcus. Regarding rhizobial strains, only isolates affiliated to Rhizobium genus were obtained. The symbiotic gene nodC and the nitrogen fixation gene nifH present showed that Rhizobium isolates belonged to the symbiovar trifolii. In addition to bacterial, one yeast strain was isolated and identified as Rhodotorula mucilaginosa by sequencing the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Endófitos , Chumbo , Rhizobium , Trifolium , Zinco , Argélia , Endófitos/classificação , Endófitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Endófitos/genética , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Chumbo/toxicidade , Mineração , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Rhizobium/classificação , Rhizobium/efeitos dos fármacos , Rhizobium/genética , Rhodotorula/genética , Rhodotorula/isolamento & purificação , Nódulos Radiculares de Plantas/microbiologia , Simbiose , Trifolium/microbiologia , Zinco/toxicidade
19.
Appl Biochem Biotechnol ; 193(9): 2717-2728, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33830424

RESUMO

Polyaluminum chloride (PAC) and cationic polyacrylamide (CPAM) play a crucial role for separating microorganisms from bulk media. However, the mechanism of adsorption between cells and flocculants remain to be further defined to improve the flocculation efficiency (FE) in extreme conditions. This study conducted the flocculation process of Rhodotorula glutinis induced by PAC and CPAM, firstly. The result demonstrated that CPAM possessed more efficient harvesting ability for R. glutinis compared to PAC. The difference of flocculation capacity was then thermodynamically explained by the extended DLVO (eDLVO) theory; it turned out that the poor harvesting efficiency of PAC was attributed to lacking of binding sites as well as low adsorption force within particles. Based on this, the FE of PAC to R. glutinis was mechanically enhanced to 99.84% from 32.89% with 0.2 g/L CPAM modification at an optimum pH of 9. Also, the paper will play a guiding role in the treatment of inorganic salt ions and organic matters in wastewater.


Assuntos
Resinas Acrílicas/química , Hidróxido de Alumínio/química , Modelos Químicos , Rhodotorula/química , Floculação
20.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 37(5): 77, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33792794

RESUMO

Lipids produced by oleaginous microorganisms enrich the supply of feedstock for bio-fuel. In this study, a mutant (Mut) obtained by UV-nitrosoguanidine mutagenesis turned its colony color from orange-red to light-yellow and showed higher lipid productivity at 37 °C than the original strain Rhodotorula sp. U13N3 (Rht) in the glycerol medium. The metabolic changes between Mut and Rht in batch fermentation were investigated by transcriptomic and metabolomic profiling at the biomass accumulation (30 h) and lipid production (96 h) stages. The average base number in each strain was 5.80 × 109 ± 0.38 × 109 bp (mean ± SD) with 62.43% ± 0.13% GC ratio, and 7499 unigenes were assembled after Illumina sequencing. Moreover, 33 metabolites were quantified by 1H NMR-based profiling. The multi-omics results demonstrated that Mut showed increased glycerol transport and utilization capabilities especially at the first stage (30 h). Then the carbon flux shifted from the TCA cycle to lipid production (96 h). The increased lipid productivity of Mut was partially attributed to the down-regulation of mannitol biosynthesis. However, the mechanism for color change was elusive. At 96 h, the low level of cytosol glycerol probably restricted the lipid production. As a result, supplementation of glycerol in fed-batch fermentation remarkably improved the biomass, lipid production, and lipid content to 34.60 g/L, 25.72 g/L, and 74.3% (w/w dcw), respectively. The cell morphology implied that excessively prolonging the fermentation time was detrimental to the final lipid yield due to cell breakage. In conclusion, the Rhodotorula mutant provided a candidate strain for lipid production with glycerol as the carbon source.


Assuntos
Glicerol/metabolismo , Lipídeos/biossíntese , Rhodotorula/genética , Rhodotorula/metabolismo , Biomassa , Carbono/metabolismo , Fermentação , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Microbiologia Industrial , Manitol/metabolismo , Metaboloma , Metabolômica/métodos , Mutação , RNA Fúngico , Rhodotorula/citologia , Transcriptoma
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