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1.
Trials ; 21(1): 866, 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33081849

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: 1. To compare the safety and efficacy of Hydroxychloroquine with Ribavirin and standard treatment in patients with non-severe COVID-19 infection 2. To compare the safety and efficacy of standard treatment, Lopinavir-ritonavir with Ribavarin, and Hydroxychloroquine with Ribavirin in patients with severe COVID-19 infection TRIAL DESIGN: The study is an Open label, Parallel arm design, stratified randomised controlled trial. Patients will be categorised as non-severe or severe based on predefined criteria. Those who satisfy all inclusion criteria and no exclusion criteria in the respective categories, will be randomly assigned to one of the three treatment groups in a ratio of 1:1 in the non-severe category and 1:1:1 in the severe category. PARTICIPANTS: The trial will be undertaken in a tertiary care center of the country where both Covid and non-Covid patients are getting treated. All patients who are confirmed positive and admitted will be screened for the eligibility criteria and will be enrolled in the study after a written informed consent. Patients will be categorised as non-severe or severe based on predefined criteria. INCLUSION CRITERIA (ALL REQUIRED): 1. Age ≥18 years at time of participation in the study 2. Laboratory (RT-PCR) confirmed infection with SARS-CoV-2 3. Symptomatic (severe or non-severe) Covid-19 disease 4. Willingness of study participant to accept randomization to any assigned treatment arm EXCLUSION CRITERIA: 1. Use of medications that are contraindicated with Lopinavir/Ritonavir, Hydroxychloroquine/Chloroquine, or Ribavirin and that cannot be replaced or stopped 2. Patient already on antiretroviral therapy with Lopinavir-Ritonavir based regimen or on Hydroxychloroquine/Chloroquine or on Ribavirin 3. Any known contraindication to test drugs such as retinopathy and QT prolongation 4. Known allergic reaction or inability to take orally of Lopinavir-ritonavir, Hydroxychloroquine/ Chloroquine, Ribavarin 5. Pregnant or breastfeeding females 6. Receipt of any experimental treatment for 2019-nCoV (off-label, compassionate use, or trial related) within 30 days prior to participation in the present study or want to participate after enrolment INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: Two therapeutic interventions for non-severe category and three for severe category as described below NON-SEVERE TREATMENT ARMS (NS-GROUP): Treatment Arm Drug A Standard Treatment (STNS) B Hydroxychloroquine 400 mg twice on first day followed by 400 mg per oral daily for 10 days + Ribavirin (1.2 g orally as a loading dose followed by 600mg orally every 12 hours) for 10 days + Standard Treatment (STNS) Standard Treatment for non-severe cases (STNS): Strict Isolation, Standard Precautions (Hand hygiene, Cough Etiquette, Wear surgical mask), Hydration, Proper Nutrition, Supportive Pharmacotherapy (Antipyretic, Antiallergic, Cough Suppressant), Treatment of Comorbid Diseases, Oseltamivir (75 mg BD) for patients who are tested positive for H1N1. SEVERE GROUP TREATMENT ARMS (S-GROUP): Treatment Arm Drug A Standard Treatment (STs) B Hydroxychloroquine 400mg BD on day1 followed by 400 mg once daily + Ribavirin (1.2 g orally as a loading dose followed by 600mg orally every 12 hours) for 10 days + Standard Treatment (STs) C Lopinavir(200mg) + Ritonavir (50mg) two tablets twice daily+ Ribavirin (1.2g orally as a loading dose followed by 600mg orally every 12 hours) for 10 days + Standard Treatment (STs)6 Standard Treatment for severe patients (STs): Strict Isolation, Standard Precautions (Hand hygiene, Cough Etiquette, Wear surgical mask), Fluid Therapy, Supportive Pharmacotherapy (Antipyretic, Antiallergic, Cough Suppressant), Oxygen supplementation (As required), Invasive ventilation (As required), Antibiotic agents for other associated infections (according to 2019 ATS/IDSA guidelines for non-ICU and ICU patients), Vasopressor support, Renal-replacement therapy, Treatment of Comorbid Diseases, Oseltamivir (75 mg BD) for patients who are tested positive for H1N1. MAIN OUTCOMES: Primary endpoints: (1) Time to Clinical recovery (TTCR) defined as the time (in hours) from initiation of study treatment (active or placebo) until normalisation of fever, respiratory rate, oxygen saturation, and alleviation of cough, sustained for at least 72 hours. (2) Time to SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR negative in upper respiratory tract specimen, time to laboratory recovery of each organ involvement. Secondary Endpoints: All causes mortality, Frequency of respiratory progression (defined as SPO2≤ 94% on room air or PaO2/FiO2 <300mmHg and requirement for supplemental oxygen or more advanced ventilator support), time to defervescence (in those with fever at enrolment), frequency of requirement for supplemental oxygen or non-invasive ventilation, frequency of requirement for mechanical ventilation, frequency of serious adverse events as per DAIDS table grade of severity. Outcomes are monitored for 28 days from the time of enrolment into the study OR until the patient is discharged or death whichever is longer. RANDOMIZATION: The randomization will be done using a secured central computer-based randomization using a secure website using a central, computer-based randomisation program in a ratio of 1:1 in the non-severe category and 1:1:1 in the severe category. BLINDING (MASKING): This is an open labelled study i.e. Study assigned treatment will be known to the research team, the investigators and participants. NUMBERS TO BE RANDOMISED (SAMPLE SIZE): Since it is an exploratory trial as COVID-19 being a new disease, all patients who came under the purview of the inclusion criteria within the study period (5 months duration of the recruitment period of the total 6 months duration of the study i.e. from the month of June, 2020 to October 2020) and who have consented for the study will be included. TRIAL STATUS: Protocol version:1.0 Recruitment start: June 3rd, 2020 (Ongoing) Recruitment finish (expected): October 31st, 2020 TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical Trial Registry of India (CTRI): CTRI/2020/06/025575 . Registration on 03 June 2020 FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1). In the interest in expediting dissemination of this material, the familiar formatting has been eliminated; this letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Ribavirina/uso terapêutico , Administração Oral , Adulto , Antimaláricos/administração & dosagem , Antimaláricos/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Betacoronavirus/genética , Protocolos Clínicos , Terapia Combinada , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Inibidores do Citocromo P-450 CYP3A/administração & dosagem , Inibidores do Citocromo P-450 CYP3A/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/administração & dosagem , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico , Índia/epidemiologia , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido , Lopinavir/administração & dosagem , Lopinavir/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Ribavirina/administração & dosagem , Ritonavir/administração & dosagem , Ritonavir/uso terapêutico , Segurança , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
2.
Comput Math Methods Med ; 2020: 1391583, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33029193

RESUMO

Purpose: We aimed to analyze and evaluate the safety signals of ribavirin-interferon combination through data mining of the US Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS), so as to provide reference for the rationale use of these agents in the management of relevant toxicities emerging in patients with novel coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19). Methods: Reports to the FAERS from 1 January 2004 to 8 March 2020 were analyzed. The proportion of report ratio (PRR), reporting odds ratio (ROR), and Bayesian confidence interval progressive neural network (BCPNN) method were used to detect the safety signals. Results: A total of 55 safety signals were detected from the top 250 adverse event reactions in 2200 reports, but 19 signals were not included in the drug labels. All the detected adverse event reactions were associated with 13 System Organ Classes (SOC), such as gastrointestinal, blood and lymph, hepatobiliary, endocrine, and various nervous systems. The most frequent adverse events were analyzed, and the results showed that females were more likely to suffer from anemia, vomiting, neutropenia, diarrhea, and insomnia. Conclusion: The ADE (adverse drug event) signal detection based on FAERS is helpful to clarify the potential adverse events related to ribavirin-interferon combination for novel coronavirus therapy; clinicians should pay attention to the adverse reactions of gastrointestinal and blood systems, closely monitor the fluctuations of the platelet count, and carry out necessary mental health interventions to avoid serious adverse events.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Interferons/efeitos adversos , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Ribavirina/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Sistemas de Notificação de Reações Adversas a Medicamentos , Idoso , Algoritmos , Teorema de Bayes , Mineração de Dados , Esquema de Medicação , Quimioterapia Combinada/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Interferons/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Redes Neurais de Computação , Razão de Chances , Pandemias , Segurança do Paciente , Ribavirina/administração & dosagem , Adulto Jovem
3.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 75(11): 3373-3378, 2020 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32812025

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: New therapeutic options are urgently needed to tackle the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Repurposing existing pharmaceuticals provides an immediate treatment opportunity. We assessed the efficacy of sofosbuvir and daclatasvir with ribavirin for treating patients with COVID-19. METHODS: This was a single-centre, randomized controlled trial in adults with moderate COVID-19 admitted to the Ghaem Shahr Razi Hospital in Mazandaran Province, Iran. Patients were randomly assigned to 400 mg sofosbuvir, 60 mg daclatasvir and 1200 mg ribavirin (intervention group) or to standard care (control group). The primary endpoint of this study was length of hospital stay. This study is registered by IRCT.ir under the ID: IRCT20200328046886N1. RESULTS: Between 20 March 2020 and 8 April 2020, 48 patients were recruited; 24 patients were randomly assigned to the intervention group and 24 to the control group. The median duration of hospital stay was 6 days in both groups (P = 0.398). The number of ICU admissions in the sofosbuvir/daclatasvir/ribavirin group was not significantly lower than the control group (0 versus 4, P = 0.109). There was no difference in the number of deaths between the groups (0 versus 3, P = 0.234). The cumulative incidence of recovery was higher in the sofosbuvir/daclatasvir/ribavirin arm (Gray's P = 0.033). CONCLUSIONS: This randomized trial was too small to make definitive conclusions. There were trends in favour of the sofosbuvir/daclatasvir/ribavirin arm for recovery and lower death rates. However, there was an imbalance in the baseline characteristics between the arms. Larger randomized trials should be conducted to investigate this treatment further.


Assuntos
Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Imidazóis/administração & dosagem , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Ribavirina/administração & dosagem , Sofosbuvir/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Hospitalização/tendências , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 75(11): 3366-3372, 2020 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32812051

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Sofosbuvir and daclatasvir are direct-acting antivirals highly effective against hepatitis C virus. There is some in silico and in vitro evidence that suggests these agents may also be effective against SARS-CoV-2. This trial evaluated the effectiveness of sofosbuvir in combination with daclatasvir in treating patients with COVID-19. METHODS: Patients with a positive nasopharyngeal swab for SARS-CoV-2 on RT-PCR or bilateral multi-lobar ground-glass opacity on their chest CT and signs of severe COVID-19 were included. Subjects were divided into two arms with one arm receiving ribavirin and the other receiving sofosbuvir/daclatasvir. All participants also received the recommended national standard treatment which, at that time, was lopinavir/ritonavir and single-dose hydroxychloroquine. The primary endpoint was time from starting the medication until discharge from hospital with secondary endpoints of duration of ICU stay and mortality. RESULTS: Sixty-two subjects met the inclusion criteria, with 35 enrolled in the sofosbuvir/daclatasvir arm and 27 in the ribavirin arm. The median duration of stay was 5 days for the sofosbuvir/daclatasvir group and 9 days for the ribavirin group. The mortality in the sofosbuvir/daclatasvir group was 2/35 (6%) and 9/27 (33%) for the ribavirin group. The relative risk of death for patients treated with sofosbuvir/daclatasvir was 0.17 (95% CI 0.04-0.73, P = 0.02) and the number needed to treat for benefit was 3.6 (95% CI 2.1-12.1, P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Given these encouraging initial results, and the current lack of treatments proven to decrease mortality in COVID-19, further investigation in larger-scale trials seems warranted.


Assuntos
Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Imidazóis/administração & dosagem , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Ribavirina/administração & dosagem , Sofosbuvir/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237005, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32813740

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Interferon (IFN)-free regimens for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C have shown high rates of sustained virological response (SVR) and improved patient-reported outcomes (PROs). The aim of this study was to evaluate the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and fatigue of patients with chronic hepatitis C (HCV) treated with IFN-free direct-acting antiviral (DAA) agents that achieved SVR following treatment and identify the predictive factors related to HRQoL. METHODS: Prospective cohort study that included patients with HCV treated with DAA who obtained an SVR. The patients answered three self-reported questionnaires (PROs): Short Form 36 (SF-36), the Chronic Liver Diseases Questionnaire (CLDQ), and the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Fatigue (FACIT-F) questionnaire at baseline, weeks 6 and 12 of treatment, and at 12 weeks after therapy. Patients were treated with DAA with or without ribavirin (RBV). The PRO scores were compared using analysis of variance (ANOVA). A comparison of PROs and serum hemoglobin levels was performed between the group that used ribavirin and the one that did not use ribavirin using the t student test. Predictive factors were calculated using a multiple linear regression model. RESULTS: Among the 113 patients selected, 105 presented an SVR and were included in the study, in which, 54% men, 80% genotype 1, 44% cirrhosis and 46% with RBV. At 12 weeks after the end of treatment, there was a significant improvement in the scores of the patient self-reports (PROs) when compared with baseline for the CLDQ (+10.52%, p<0.001), SF-36-Physical Summary (+19%, p<0.001), and FACIT (+17.34%, p<0.001). Patients who used RBV had worse PROs and serum hemoglobin levels compared to the group that did not use RBV (p<0,05). As predictors of worsening of the PROs we had the presence of diabetes mellitus, liver cirrhosis and HIV co-infected. CONCLUSION: Patients treated with IFN free regimens presents significant improvement in PROs. The presence of diabetes mellitus, cirrhosis, and HIV co-infected has a negative effect on HRQoL before, during and after treatment of hepatitis C. The addition of ribavirin to the antiviral regimens used compromises the HRQoL indexes during antiviral therapy.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Hepatite C Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Antivirais/efeitos adversos , Brasil , Estudos de Coortes , Fadiga/etiologia , Fadiga/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Hepatite C Crônica/fisiopatologia , Hepatite C Crônica/virologia , Humanos , Interferons/administração & dosagem , Interferons/efeitos adversos , Interferons/uso terapêutico , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Estudos Prospectivos , Qualidade de Vida , Ribavirina/administração & dosagem , Ribavirina/efeitos adversos , Ribavirina/uso terapêutico , Resposta Viral Sustentada
6.
S Afr Med J ; 110(2): 106-111, 2020 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32657679

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) in South Africa (SA) is incompletely characterised and understood. Epidemiological and clinical data will better inform our understanding and assist national policy decision-making. Against the background of more than two decades of clinical challenges in HCV management, the advent of direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) now makes HCV elimination plausible. OBJECTIVES: To better understand the base from which we come, we elected to review and characterise our HCV experience at Groote Schuur Hospital (GSH), Cape Town, SA, in the pegylated interferon (Peg-IFN) and ribavirin (RBV) management era. METHODS: Patients with chronic HCV infection attending the GSH Liver Clinic from 2002 to 2014 were included in the analysis. Relevant data were extracted from a registry and existing clinical records were accessed. Two brands of Peg-IFN were available, and patients treated with the first-generation add-on protease inhibitor telaprevir were included. RESULTS: A total of 238 patients were included in the analysis (median (interquartile range) 47 (37 - 58) years, 60.5% males). Males were significantly younger than females (43.5 (35 - 52) years v. 55 (42 - 64) years, respectively) (p<0.0001). The majority were white (55.9%) or of mixed ancestry (21.8%), 16.4% were HIV co-infected, 3.7% were hepatitis B virus (HBV) co-infected, and 1 patient (0.4%) was triple-infected with HCV, HBV and HIV. The most likely mode of HCV acquisition was blood or blood product exposure prior to 1992 (32.8%) and injecting drug use (17.6%), while 30.3% of patients had no clear risk factor identifiable. Genotypes (GTs) 1 - 5 were observed, with GT-1 (34.9%) predominating. Of patients who were biopsied (n=90), 30.0% had ≥F3 fibrosis, with 15.6% cirrhotic. With IL28B polymorphisms, the heterozygous CT (23.9%) and CC (15.5%) genotypes were most frequent. Of the patients, 32.6% accessed Peg-IFN/RBV-based therapy, 6.5% (n=5) with add-on telaprevir. GT-1 (35.1%) was most prevalent in the treatment group, followed by GT-3 (26.0%) and GT-5 (18.2%); 10.0% were HIV co-infected. The overall sustained virological response (SVR) rate was 75.3%, with 37.0% of GT-1 patients not achieving SVR. Of the patients treated, 49.4% experienced adverse events, including cytopenias (32.5%) and depression (15.6%), and 23.4% required cell support in the form of erythropoietin and/or granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor. CONCLUSIONS: HCV patients in the Peg-IFN/RBV management era typified the epidemiology of HCV. GT distribution was pangenotypic, and treatment outcomes were encouraging despite treatment challenges. Patient selection, IL28B and sensible support of cytopenias probably accounted for these favourable outcomes. However, numbers treated were limited, and the DAA era of therapy allows for rapid expansion of therapy with now growing numbers of patients and a changing local epidemiology.


Assuntos
Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Hepacivirus/genética , Hepatite C Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Antivirais/efeitos adversos , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Genótipo , Hepacivirus/isolamento & purificação , Hepatite C Crônica/virologia , Humanos , Interferons/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oligopeptídeos/administração & dosagem , Seleção de Pacientes , Polietilenoglicóis/química , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ribavirina/administração & dosagem , África do Sul , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol ; 20(12): 7311-7323, 2020 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32711596

RESUMO

We started a study on the molecular docking of six potential pharmacologically active inhibitors compounds that can be used clinically against the COVID-19 virus, in this case, remdesivir, ribavirin, favipiravir, galidesivir, hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine interacting with the main COVID-19 protease in complex with a COVID-19 N3 protease inhibitor. The highest values of affinity energy found in order from highest to lowest were chloroquine (CHL), hydroxychloroquine (HYC), favipiravir (FAV), galidesivir (GAL), remdesivir (REM) and ribavirin (RIB). The possible formation of hydrogen bonds, associations through London forces and permanent electric dipole were analyzed. The values of affinity energy obtained for the hydroxychloroquine ligands was -9.9 kcal/mol and for the chloroquine of -10.8 kcal/mol which indicate that the coupling contributes to an effective improvement of the affinity energies with the protease. Indicating that, the position chosen to make the substitutions may be a pharmacophoric group, and cause changes in the protease.


Assuntos
Antivirais/química , Antivirais/farmacologia , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Betacoronavirus/enzimologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Cisteína Endopeptidases/química , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Inibidores de Proteases/química , Inibidores de Proteases/farmacologia , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/química , Adenina/administração & dosagem , Adenina/análogos & derivados , Adenina/química , Adenina/farmacologia , Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Monofosfato de Adenosina/administração & dosagem , Monofosfato de Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Monofosfato de Adenosina/química , Monofosfato de Adenosina/farmacologia , Alanina/administração & dosagem , Alanina/análogos & derivados , Alanina/química , Alanina/farmacologia , Amidas/administração & dosagem , Amidas/química , Amidas/farmacologia , Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Sítios de Ligação , Cloroquina/administração & dosagem , Cloroquina/química , Cloroquina/farmacologia , Interações Medicamentosas , Humanos , Ligação de Hidrogênio , Hidroxicloroquina/administração & dosagem , Hidroxicloroquina/química , Hidroxicloroquina/farmacologia , Ligantes , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Nanotecnologia , Pandemias , Inibidores de Proteases/administração & dosagem , Pirazinas/administração & dosagem , Pirazinas/química , Pirazinas/farmacologia , Pirrolidinas/administração & dosagem , Pirrolidinas/química , Pirrolidinas/farmacologia , Ribavirina/administração & dosagem , Ribavirina/química , Ribavirina/farmacologia , Eletricidade Estática
9.
Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 5(10): 918-926, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32531259

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a medical need for highly effective, safe, and well tolerated treatments for patients infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) with severe renal impairment. We investigated the safety and efficacy of sofosbuvir with ribavirin or ledipasvir combined with sofosbuvir in a prospective study of patients with genotype 1 or 3 HCV infection and stage 4-5 chronic kidney disease (creatinine clearance by Cockcroft-Gault ≤30 mL/min) who were not on dialysis. METHODS: This phase 2b, open-label, non-randomised, multicentre study in the USA and New Zealand investigated three sequentially enrolled cohorts of patients. Patients were recruited from ten hospitals and clinical research centres and were included if they had genotype 1 or 3 HCV infection, a creatinine clearance less than or equal to 30 mL/min, and were not on dialysis. In cohorts 1 and 2, patients received sofosbuvir (200 mg in cohort 1 and 400 mg in cohort 2) plus ribavirin 200 mg once per day for 24 weeks. In cohort 3, 18 patients received ledipasvir combined with sofosbuvir (90 mg ledipasvir and 400 mg sofosbuvir) once per day for 12 weeks. The primary efficacy endpoint was the proportion of patients achieving sustained virological response 12 weeks after the end of treatment (SVR12). Safety and pharmacokinetic data were also collected. The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01958281, and is completed. FINDINGS: This study was done between Oct 7, 2013, and Oct 29, 2017. In the sofosbuvir plus ribavirin cohorts, 32 patients were screened, of whom 20 were enrolled and assessed for efficacy and safety (ten patients in each cohort). In the ledipasvir plus sofosbuvir cohort, 33 patients were screened, of whom 18 were enrolled and assessed for treatment efficacy and safety. Four (40%, 95% CI 12-74) of ten patients in cohort 1 and six (60%, 26-88) of ten patients in cohort 2 achieved SVR12. All 18 (100%, 82-100) patients in cohort 3 achieved SVR12. Adverse events were mostly mild or moderate in severity. The most commonly reported adverse events overall were headache (eight [21%] of 38 patients), anaemia (seven [18%] of 38 patients), and fatigue (six [16%] of 38 patients). Eight patients had serious adverse events, none of which were treatment related. There were no treatment-related cardiac events or clinically significant changes in echocardiographic parameters or creatinine clearance by Cockcroft-Gault. INTERPRETATION: In this phase 2b study, ledipasvir combined with sofosbuvir for 12 weeks was safe and effective in patients with genotype 1 HCV infection and stage 4-5 chronic kidney disease who were not on dialysis. FUNDING: Gilead Sciences.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Benzimidazóis/uso terapêutico , Fluorenos/uso terapêutico , Hepatite C/tratamento farmacológico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados não Aleatórios como Assunto/métodos , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/complicações , Ribavirina/uso terapêutico , Sofosbuvir/uso terapêutico , Uridina Monofosfato/análogos & derivados , Adulto , Idoso , Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Antivirais/efeitos adversos , Antivirais/farmacocinética , Benzimidazóis/administração & dosagem , Benzimidazóis/efeitos adversos , Benzimidazóis/farmacocinética , Quimioterapia Combinada/métodos , Feminino , Fluorenos/administração & dosagem , Fluorenos/efeitos adversos , Fluorenos/farmacocinética , Genótipo , Hepacivirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepacivirus/genética , Hepatite C/complicações , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/classificação , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia , Ribavirina/administração & dosagem , Ribavirina/efeitos adversos , Ribavirina/farmacocinética , Segurança , Sofosbuvir/administração & dosagem , Sofosbuvir/efeitos adversos , Sofosbuvir/farmacocinética , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Uridina Monofosfato/administração & dosagem , Uridina Monofosfato/efeitos adversos , Uridina Monofosfato/farmacocinética , Uridina Monofosfato/uso terapêutico , Carga Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
10.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(22): 11987-11994, 2020 06 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32424082

RESUMO

Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a leading cause of cirrhosis worldwide and kills more Americans than 59 other infections, including HIV and tuberculosis, combined. While direct-acting antiviral (DAA) treatments are effective, limited uptake of therapy, particularly in high-risk groups, remains a substantial barrier to eliminating HCV. We developed a long-acting DAA system (LA-DAAS) capable of prolonged dosing and explored its cost-effectiveness. We designed a retrievable coil-shaped LA-DAAS compatible with nasogastric tube administration and the capacity to encapsulate and release gram levels of drugs while resident in the stomach. We formulated DAAs in drug-polymer pills and studied the release kinetics for 1 mo in vitro and in vivo in a swine model. The LA-DAAS was equipped with ethanol and temperature sensors linked via Bluetooth to a phone application to provide patient engagement. We then performed a cost-effectiveness analysis comparing LA-DAAS to DAA alone in various patient groups, including people who inject drugs. Tunable release kinetics of DAAs was enabled for 1 mo with drug-polymer pills in vitro, and the LA-DAAS safely and successfully provided at least month-long release of sofosbuvir in vivo. Temperature and alcohol sensors could interface with external sources for at least 1 mo. The LA-DAAS was cost-effective compared to DAA therapy alone in all groups considered (base case incremental cost-effectiveness ratio $39,800). We believe that the LA-DAA system can provide a cost-effective and patient-centric method for HCV treatment, including in high-risk populations who are currently undertreated.


Assuntos
Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Hepatite C Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Antivirais/farmacocinética , Benzimidazóis/administração & dosagem , Benzimidazóis/farmacocinética , Análise Custo-Benefício , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Portadores de Fármacos/farmacocinética , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/economia , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/instrumentação , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Fluorenos/administração & dosagem , Fluorenos/farmacocinética , Hepacivirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Imidazóis/administração & dosagem , Imidazóis/farmacocinética , Cirrose Hepática/tratamento farmacológico , Modelos Animais , Ribavirina/administração & dosagem , Ribavirina/farmacocinética , Sofosbuvir/administração & dosagem , Sofosbuvir/farmacocinética , Suínos
12.
Arch Virol ; 165(7): 1633-1639, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32356185

RESUMO

The aim of this work was assessment of the efficacy and tolerability of two different regimens for retreatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) patients who failed to respond to SOF/DCV-based therapy. This prospective study included 104 HCV patients who failed to respond to SOF/DCV-based therapy. Patients were randomly allocated to two groups. Efficacy and tolerability were assessed. The 12-week sustained virological response (SVR12) rates were 96% and 94.4% in groups B and A, respectively, with no significant difference (p = 1.000). Most adverse events reported were mild to moderate, with no deaths during the study. Multi-target direct-acting antiviral (DAA) combinations are efficient for retreatment of HCV patients after failure of SOF/DCV-based therapy in real-world management.ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02992457.


Assuntos
Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Hepatite C Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Anilidas/administração & dosagem , Carbamatos/administração & dosagem , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Imidazóis/administração & dosagem , Compostos Macrocíclicos/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Ribavirina/administração & dosagem , Ritonavir/administração & dosagem , Simeprevir/administração & dosagem , Sofosbuvir/administração & dosagem , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
J Clin Virol ; 128: 104425, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32446167

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: At present, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread in many countries. We conducted this study to help pediatricians understand the conditions of COVID-19 in children. METHODS: We retrospectively summarized the characteristics, treatment and outcomes of pediatric cases in Wuhan Children's Hospital which was the only designated hospital for children with COVID-19 in Hubei Province. A Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was used to evaluate factors associated with clinical outcomes. RESULTS: As of February 29, 75 children had been discharged, of which only one was has severe pneumonia and one was critical cases. Children younger than 2 years were more susceptible to COVID-19. All patients have received interferon-α nebulization, and eight cases including the severe and critical cases were co-administrated ribavirin. Five patients with mild pneumonia were given arbidol. Twenty-three patients were given traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). The average length of stay (LOS) and the time of SARS-CoV-2 clearance were 10.57 and 6.39 days, respectively. None of the factors was associated with LOS or time of SARS-CoV-2 clearance. CONCLUSIONS: The severity of COVID-19 in pediatric cases were milder than adults. The efficacy of the antiviral therapy in children with COVID-19 remains to be evaluated.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Feminino , Hospitais Pediátricos , Humanos , Lactente , Interferon-alfa/administração & dosagem , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Pandemias , Pediatras , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ribavirina/administração & dosagem , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
15.
J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 35(9): 1477-1487, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32246857

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Various all-oral direct-acting antiviral (DAA) regimens are being widely used in the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/hepatitis C virus (HCV) co-infected patients; however, the comparative efficacy and safety of different types and combinations of DAAs are not completely clear. There is still a lack of integration of evidence for optimized therapies for HIV/HCV co-infection. METHODS: We conducted a systematic literature search in several databases up to January 1, 2020. All the studies that reported the sustained virologic response (SVR) and adverse events of DAAs in HIV/HCV co-infected patients were included. The Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo method was used for the pooled estimates of network meta-analysis. RESULTS: We identified 33 eligible articles with 7 combinations of all-oral DAAs for the analyses of efficacy and safety. Grazoprevir-elbasvir ± ribavirin (GZR/EBR ± RBV: 95.6%; 95% CrI, 91.7-98.1%), ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir and dasabuvir ± ribavirin (3D ± RBV: 95.3%; 95% CrI, 93.4-96.9%), sofosbuvir-ledipasvir ± ribavirin (SOF/LDV ± RBV: 95.2%; 95% CrI, 93.7-96.6%), and sofosbuvir-daclatasvir ± ribavirin (SOF/DCV ± RBV: 94.8%; 95% CrI, 92.5-96.6%) were the most effective combinations for HIV/HCV co-infected patients, with SVR rates of approximately 94% and above while severe adverse events were rare. However, the SVR rates of sofosbuvir-ribavirin (SOF/RBV) and sofosbuvir-simeprevir ± ribavirin (SOF/SMV ± RBV) both failed to reach 90%, and the incidences of adverse events were higher than 5%. CONCLUSIONS: Efficacy and safety of all-oral DAAs were in prospect for HIV/HCV co-infection patients. GZR/EBR ± RBV was the optimal combination recommended for HIV/HCV co-infected patients based on the excellent treatment effects and insignificant adverse events.


Assuntos
Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Benzofuranos/administração & dosagem , Coinfecção/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico por imagem , Hepatite C Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Imidazóis/administração & dosagem , Quinoxalinas/administração & dosagem , Ribavirina/administração & dosagem , Administração Oral , Adulto , Idoso , Amidas , Antivirais/efeitos adversos , Benzofuranos/efeitos adversos , Carbamatos , Ciclopropanos , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Hepatite C Crônica/virologia , Humanos , Imidazóis/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Quinoxalinas/efeitos adversos , Ribavirina/efeitos adversos , Segurança , Sulfonamidas , Resposta Viral Sustentada , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Arq Gastroenterol ; 57(1): 45-49, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32294735

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Direct-acting antivirals have revolutionized hepatitis C treatment, also for patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), but some controversy exists regarding the use of sofosbuvir (SOF) in patients with glomerular filtration rate (GFR) <30 mL/min. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of these regimens for hepatitis C treatment of patients with CKD and after renal transplantation, as well as the impact of SOF on renal function in non-dialysis patients. METHODS: All patients with hepatitis C and CKD or renal transplant treated with direct-acting antivirals at a referral center in Brazil between January 2016 and August 2017 were included. Efficacy was evaluated based on viral load (HCV RNA) and a sustained virological response (SVR) consisting of undetectable RNA 12 and/or 24 weeks after the end of treatment (SVR12 and SVR24) was defined as cure. Safety was determined by adverse events and ribavirin, when combined, was administered in escalating doses to all patients with GFR <60 mL/min. The impact of SOF on renal function was determined by the measurement of baseline creatinine during and after the end of treatment and its increase was evaluated using the Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN) classification. RESULTS: A total of 241 patients (52.7% females) with a mean age of 60.72±10.47 years were included. The combination of SOF+daclatasvir was the predominant regimen in 75.6% of cases and anemia was present in 28% of patients who used ribavirin (P=0.04). The SVR12 and SVR24 rates were 99.3% and 97.1%, respectively. The treatment was well tolerated and there were no major clinically relevant adverse events, with the most prevalent being asthenia (57.7%), itching (41.1%), headache (40.7%), and irritability (40.2%). Among conservatively treated and renal transplant patients, oscillations of creatinine levels (AKIN I) were observed in 12.5% of cases during treatment and persisted in only 8.5% after the end of treatment. Of these, 2.0% had an initial GFR <30 mL/min and this percentage decreased to 1.1% after SOF use. Only 0.5% and 1.6% of the patients progressed to AKIN II and AKIN III elevation, respectively. CONCLUSION: The direct-acting antivirals were safe and efficacious in CKD patients treated with SOF-containing regimens, with the observation of high SVR rates, good tolerability and few severe adverse events. The combination with ribavirin increased the risk of anemia and the administration of escalating doses seems to be useful in patients with GFR <60 mL/min. In patients with GFR <30 mL/min, SOF had no significant renal impact, with serum creatinine returning to levels close to baseline after treatment.


Assuntos
Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Hepacivirus/genética , Hepatite C Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Transplante de Rim/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Genótipo , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Humanos , Imidazóis/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/cirurgia , Ribavirina/administração & dosagem , Simeprevir/administração & dosagem , Sofosbuvir/administração & dosagem , Resposta Viral Sustentada , Resultado do Tratamento , Carga Viral
17.
Pharmacotherapy ; 40(5): 416-437, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32259313

RESUMO

The outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has evolved into an emergent global pandemic. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can manifest on a spectrum of illness from mild disease to severe respiratory failure requiring intensive care unit admission. As the incidence continues to rise at a rapid pace, critical care teams are faced with challenging treatment decisions. There is currently no widely accepted standard of care in the pharmacologic management of patients with COVID-19. Urgent identification of potential treatment strategies is a priority. Therapies include novel agents available in clinical trials or through compassionate use, and other drugs, repurposed antiviral and immunomodulating therapies. Many have demonstrated in vitro or in vivo potential against other viruses that are similar to SARS-CoV-2. Critically ill patients with COVID-19 have additional considerations related to adjustments for organ impairment and renal replacement therapies, complex lists of concurrent medications, limitations with drug administration and compatibility, and unique toxicities that should be evaluated when utilizing these therapies. The purpose of this review is to summarize practical considerations for pharmacotherapy in patients with COVID-19, with the intent of serving as a resource for health care providers at the forefront of clinical care during this pandemic.


Assuntos
Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Antivirais/efeitos adversos , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Imunomodulação , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Monofosfato de Adenosina/administração & dosagem , Monofosfato de Adenosina/efeitos adversos , Monofosfato de Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Corticosteroides , Alanina/administração & dosagem , Alanina/efeitos adversos , Alanina/análogos & derivados , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Azetidinas/administração & dosagem , Azetidinas/efeitos adversos , Betacoronavirus , Cloroquina/administração & dosagem , Cloroquina/efeitos adversos , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Combinação de Medicamentos , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/administração & dosagem , Hidroxicloroquina/efeitos adversos , Imunização Passiva , Interferon-alfa/administração & dosagem , Interferon-alfa/efeitos adversos , Lopinavir/administração & dosagem , Lopinavir/efeitos adversos , Nelfinavir/administração & dosagem , Nelfinavir/efeitos adversos , Pandemias , Ribavirina/administração & dosagem , Ribavirina/efeitos adversos , Ritonavir/administração & dosagem , Ritonavir/efeitos adversos , Sulfonamidas/administração & dosagem , Sulfonamidas/efeitos adversos , Tiazóis/administração & dosagem , Tiazóis/efeitos adversos
20.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0229517, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32106270

RESUMO

AIMS: To analyze the efficacy and safety of sofosbuvir (SOF)-based regimens in Thai patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection who had pre-existing significant liver fibrosis. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study, conducted between 1 June 2018 and 31 May 2019 at Rajavithi Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand. All patients completed 12 weeks of SOF-based regimens and had follow-up for at least 12 weeks after therapy discontinuation. The primary outcome was sustained virological response (SVR) 12 weeks after the end of therapy. RESULT: A total of 185 patients were included, with 52, 63 and 70 taking SOF+Ledipasvir (SOF+LDV), SOF+LDV+ribavirin (RBV) and SOF+Pegylated interferon (Peg-IFN)+RBV (SOF+Peg-IFN+RBV) respectively. Genotype (GT) 1 was predominant at 40.0%, followed by GT3 at 37.8%, and GT6 at 22.2%. Overall 95.1% of patients in this study achieved SVR (n = 176/185), and the only factor associated with SVR was HCV genotype (p = 0.001). GT6 patients had lower SVR rates compared to GT1 and GT3 patients (82.9%, 98.6%, and 98.6% respectively) while there was no association between SVR and other factors (p >0.05) such as gender, age, BMI, underlying cirrhosis, baseline HCV viral load, or prior treatment history. No serious adverse events were reported in the present study. CONCLUSION: Sofosbuvir-based regimens in the treatment of patients with chronic HCV infection were highly efficacious with excellent safety and tolerability profiles in a real-world setting; however, further research is required to establish whether or not such a regimen is an adequate treatment for all genotype 6 patients.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Hepatite C Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Sofosbuvir/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Antivirais/efeitos adversos , Benzimidazóis/administração & dosagem , Benzimidazóis/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Coortes , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Fluorenos/administração & dosagem , Fluorenos/efeitos adversos , Genótipo , Hepacivirus/genética , Hepatite C Crônica/patologia , Hepatite C Crônica/virologia , Humanos , Interferon alfa-2/administração & dosagem , Interferon alfa-2/efeitos adversos , Interferon-alfa/administração & dosagem , Interferon-alfa/efeitos adversos , Cirrose Hepática/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polietilenoglicóis/administração & dosagem , Polietilenoglicóis/efeitos adversos , Proteínas Recombinantes/administração & dosagem , Proteínas Recombinantes/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ribavirina/administração & dosagem , Ribavirina/efeitos adversos , Sofosbuvir/administração & dosagem , Sofosbuvir/efeitos adversos , Resposta Viral Sustentada , Tailândia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Uridina Monofosfato/administração & dosagem , Uridina Monofosfato/efeitos adversos , Uridina Monofosfato/análogos & derivados
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