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1.
Chemosphere ; 247: 125965, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32069730

RESUMO

Phosphorous (P) fertilization is an important agronomic practice, but its role in enhancing phytoremediation efficacy and mediating detoxification has rarely been reported in environmental remediation studies. In this study, a pot experiment was undertaken to assess: firstly, the effect of P on phytoextraction of Cu by Ricinus communis L.; secondly, the potential mechanisms by differentiating the effects of the plant from that of P fertilizer (Ca(H2PO4)2); and thirdly, the role of P in physiological detoxification. Results showed that the application of P fertilizer significantly (p ≤ 0.05) increased the plant biomass as well as the Cu concentrations in plant tissues. This enhanced the phytoremediation efficiency represented by the total Cu extraction (up to 121.3 µg Cu plant-1). Phosphorous (P) fertilizer led to a negligible decline in soil pH (0.2 units) but significantly (p ≤ 0.05) reduced the concentrations of soil available in Cu and Fe, due to the formation of insoluble Cu/Fe-phosphate precipitates. Nevertheless, P fertilizer still improved the accumulation and extraction of Cu by R. communis, most likely attributable to the Fe-deficiency induced by applied P fertilizer. Moreover, the application of P fertilizer revealed a significant reduction in MDA, and a profound (p ≤ 0.05) elevation in the amount of photosynthetic pigments, GSH and AsA, along with the enhanced activities of antioxidative enzymes (SOD, POD, and CAT). In this way, Cu toxicity was alleviated. P fertilizers not only enhance the phytoremediation efficiency of Cu-contaminated soils by R. communis, but they also facilitate detoxification, which improves our understanding of the role of P in phytoremediation technologies.


Assuntos
Biodegradação Ambiental , Cobre/metabolismo , Fertilizantes , Fósforo/farmacologia , Ricinus/efeitos dos fármacos , Antioxidantes/análise , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Biomassa , Cobre/farmacocinética , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental/métodos , Inativação Metabólica , Fotossíntese , Ricinus/metabolismo , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes do Solo/farmacocinética
2.
Sci Total Environ ; 716: 137061, 2020 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32036143

RESUMO

There is limited information available on changes in the uptake of essential nutrients and secondary metabolites accumulation in castor bean under Cr toxicity. Besides, the role of organic chelates (EDTA and citric acid) mediated improvement in Cr uptake by castor bean is mostly unknown. Three independent experiments (sand, hydroponics, and soil) were executed to determine the Cr phytoextraction potential of Ricinus communis L. In the sand experiment, optimum doses of organic chelates (EDTA and citric acid) were selected. These optimum doses of chelates were used in the hydroponics and soil experiments. The results of hydroponics and soil experiments manifested a significant decrease in growth characteristics and leaf pigments in response to Cr stress applied as K2Cr2O7 (a source of Cr6+). The application of organic chelates (2.5 and 5 mM) showed a noticeable improvement in oxidative defense and secondary metabolites accumulation that might have decreased oxidative injury reflected as lower hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents. Moreover, chelates improved the uptake of essential nutrients (K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Fe2+ and P) alongside significant enhancement in total Cr contents of plants. Our results advocated that chelates application resulted in greater endogenous levels of Cr3+ in plants compared with Cr6+ which is more toxic. In nutshell, organic chelates improved growth by regulating Cr species, ion homeostasis and secondary metabolites accumulation in Ricinus communis L.


Assuntos
Semente de Rícino , Poluentes do Solo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Cromo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Ricinus
3.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(1): 136-144, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1088918

RESUMO

This study evaluated the effect of detoxified castor meal on the reproductive performance, metabolic stress, milk production, and kid development in peripartum goats. The diet of the animals were with (DCM, n= 20) or without (WDCM, n= 21) detoxified castor meal during the entire gestation and until weaning, 60 days post-birth. No differences were observed in the gestation period, litter size, rate of multiple births, and mortality between the two groups. The postpartum plasma concentrations of progesterone remained below 1ng/mL in all animals, thus, confirming the absence of active corpora lutea. The thickness of sternum adipose tissue and loin area, levels of urea and cholesterol, milk production, and daily weight gain in the kids were low in the DCM group when compared to those in the WDCM group (P< 0.05). To conclude, the use of detoxified castor meal in peripartum goats resulted in lower level of performance in the kids because of reductions in the amount of milk received from their mothers during lactation. In addition, the diet containing detoxified castor meals was not efficient in recovering from the loss of stored body reserves able to initiate the recovery of the cyclic activity of the goats.(AU)


Este estudo avaliou o efeito da torta de mamona desintoxicada na reprodução, no estresse metabólico, na produção de leite e no desenvolvimento de cabritos no periparto de cabras. Um grupo foi alimentado com torta de mamona (DCM, n=20), e o outro (WDCM, n=21) não recebeu tal suplemento , durante a gestação até o desmame, 60 dias pós-parto. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas no período de gestação, no número de cabritos, na taxa de partos múltiplos e na mortalidade entre os dois grupos. Em todos os animais, a concentração plasmática de progesterona ficou abaixo de 1ng/mL, confirmando a ausência de atividade lútea. A espessura da gordura subcutânea do esterno e da área de olho-de-lombo, a concentração de ureia e colesterol, a produção de leite e o ganho de peso dos cabritos foram menores no grupo DCM (P<0,05). Conclui-se que o uso de torta de mamona desintoxicada no periparto de cabra resultou em cabritos mais leves devido à redução na produção de leite das matrizes e as cabras não retornaram ao cio, pois não recuperaram a massa corporal.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Feminino , Ricinus , Estresse Fisiológico , Lactação , Cabras/fisiologia , Animais Recém-Nascidos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Nitrogênio/administração & dosagem , Progesterona , Suplementos Nutricionais
4.
J Mass Spectrom ; 55(1): e4482, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31782217

RESUMO

Ricin, a plant-derived toxin extracted from the seeds of Ricinus communis (castor bean plant), is one of the most toxic proteins known. Ricin's high toxicity, widespread availability, and ease of its extraction make it a potential agent for bioterrorist attacks. Most ricin detection methods are based on immunoassays. These methods may suffer from low efficiency in matrices containing interfering substances, or from false positive results due to antibody cross reactivity, with highly homologous proteins. In this study, we have developed a simple, rapid, sensitive, and selective mass spectrometry assay, for the identification of ricin in complex environmental samples. This assay involves three main stages: (a) Ricin affinity capture by commercial lactamyl-agarose (LA) beads. (b) Tryptic digestion. (c) LC-MS/MS (MRM) analysis of tryptic fragments. The assay was validated using 60 diverse environmental samples such as soil, asphalt, and vegetation, taken from various geographic regions. The assay's selectivity was established in the presence of high concentrations of competing lectin interferences. Based on our findings, we have defined strict criteria for unambiguous identification of ricin. Our novel method, which combines affinity capture beads followed by MRM-based analysis, enabled the identification of 1 ppb ricin spiked into complex environmental matrices. This methodology has the potential to be extended for the identification of ricin in body fluids from individuals exposed (deliberately or accidentally) to the toxin, contaminated food or for the detection of the entire family of RIP-II toxins, by applying multiplex format.


Assuntos
Lactamas/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Ricina/análise , Sefarose/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Geografia , Hidrocarbonetos/química , Microesferas , Ricinus/química , Sementes/química , Solo/química
5.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 88: 209-216, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31862062

RESUMO

Cell wall polysaccharides play a vital role in binding with toxic metals such as copper (Cu) ions. However, it is still unclear whether the major binding site of Cu in the cell wall varies with different degrees of Cu stresses. Moreover, the contribution of each cell wall polysaccharide fraction to Cu sequestration with different degrees of Cu stresses also remains to be verified. The distribution of Cu in cell wall polysaccharide fractions of castor (Ricinus communis L.) root was investigated with various Cu concentrations in the hydroponic experiment. The results showed that the hemicellulose1 (HC1) fraction fixed 44.9%-67.8% of the total cell wall Cu under Cu stress. In addition, the pectin fraction and hemicelluloses2 (HC2) fraction also contributed to the Cu binding in root cell wall, accounting for 11.0%-25.9% and 14.1%-26.6% of the total cell wall Cu under Cu treatments, respectively. When the Cu levels were ≤25 µmol/L, pectin and HC2 contributed equally to Cu storage in root cell wall. However, when the Cu level was higher than 25 µmol/L, the ability of the pectin to bind Cu was easy to reach saturation. Much more Cu ions were bound on HC1 and HC2 fractions, and the HC2 played a much more important role in Cu binding than pectin. Combining fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and two-dimensional correlation analysis (2D-COS) techniques, the hemicellulose components were showed not only to accumulate most of Cu in cell wall, but also respond fastest to Cu stress.


Assuntos
Cobre/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo , Ricinus/fisiologia , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Parede Celular , Cobre/toxicidade , Ricinus/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
6.
Ecotoxicology ; 29(2): 129-139, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31865512

RESUMO

Rapid growth in the oil industry has been accompanied concomitant increases in risks of spills or leaks triggered by natural or anthropogenic causes that cause soil changes and plant damage. Bio-scavenging and phytoremediation plants are important tools for identifying pollutants and mitigating environmental damage. The objective of this study was to evaluate the phytoremediation potential of Ricinus communis cultivated in soils contaminated with mineral oil, and to determine the possible visual, anatomical and physiological effects. R. communis seeds were pre-germinated in individual pots containing Red Latosol contaminated with Lubrax Essential SL (15W-40) mineral oil at concentrations of 0 (control), 5, 10, and 15 g kg-1. After exposure to treatments, emergency evaluations were performed, and after 45 days of cultivation, visual, morphoanatomical, physiological and oil removal effects were evaluated. There was no difference in emergence showed between treatments. Visual effects were characterized by necrosis and chlorosis formation in R. communis, evidenced on the 45th day of cultivation in all treatments tested, followed by parenchymal tissue alterations with collapsed cell formation and damage to photosynthesis with increasing doses. We found that R. communis removed up to 81% of hydrocarbons in soils, classifying it as potential phytoremediator of contaminated soils. The strong correlation between the variables suggests that R. communis can be used as an indicator of pollutant action.


Assuntos
Biodegradação Ambiental , Óleo Mineral/metabolismo , Ricinus/fisiologia , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo
7.
Postepy Biochem ; 65(2): 103-108, 2019 06 06.
Artigo em Polonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31642648

RESUMO

Ricin is a heterodimeric protein that consists of A and B subunits that can be produced in the seeds of the castor oil plant Ricinus communis. Its large quantities are accumulated in byproducts generated during the extraction of castor oil, widely used in the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industry. Ricin is one of the most potent toxins. Toxic effects of ricin are caused by its ability to inhibit protein synthesis and the level of toxicity depends on both dose and route of exposure. There are three route of administration of ricin: oral ingestion, parenteral (injectable) or inhalation. The clinical presentation of ricin toxicity depends on the route of administration. Toxin causes inflammation, gastrointestinal haemorrhages, renal tubular necrosis or hypoglycemia. Although ricin can be lethal, it has the potential for therapeutic use. Ricin A-chain is one of the first examples of a toxin coupled to monoclonal antibodies against cell surface proteins and is used experimentally for the treatment of various cancers. This article discusses the structure of ricin, the mechanism of its synthesis and describes the biological activity of this protein.


Assuntos
Ricina/química , Ricina/toxicidade , Ricinus/química , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Ricina/uso terapêutico
8.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 28(3): 528-532, 2019 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31483029

RESUMO

The nematicidal effect of different organic materials was evaluated in order to develop a non-chemical alternative soil treatment for control of the free-living stages of small ruminant gastrointestinal nematodes. The selected organic materials were residues from the juice industry of acerola, cashew, grape, guava, papaya and pineapple, as well as castor residue from the biodiesel industry. LC90 results showed that pineapple residue was the most efficient inhibitor of larval development, followed by castor, grape, cashew, acerola, guava and papaya. Castor residue was also a good source of nitrogen and was used in a greenhouse experiment to prevent larval development in contaminated goat faeces that was deposited in pots containing the grasses Brachiaria brizantha (var. Paiaguás) or Megathyrsus maximus x M. infestum (var. Massai). Castor residue caused a significant (P < 0.05) reduction (85.04%) in Paiaguás grass contamination (L3.dry mass-1) and a reduction of 17.35% in Massai grass contamination (P > 0.05), with an increase in the biomass production of Massai (251.43%, P < 0.05) and Paiaguás (109.19%, P > 0.05) grasses. This strategy, called Econemat®, with good results in vitro shows to be promising on pasture increasing phytomass production.


Assuntos
Produção Agrícola , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais , Nematoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Poaceae/parasitologia , Eliminação de Resíduos , Ricinus/química , Animais , Ruminantes
9.
Plant Sci ; 287: 110193, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31481195

RESUMO

Oat (Avena sativa) and castor (Ricinus communis) accumulate a large amount of lipids in their endosperms, however the molecular mechanism remains unknown. In this study, differences in oil regulators between oat and wheat (Triticum aestivum) as well as common features between oat and castor were tested by analyzing their transcriptomes with further q-PCR analysis. Results indicated that WRINKLED1 (WRI1) homologs and their target genes highly expressed in the endosperms of oat and castor, but not in the starchy endosperms of wheat. Expression pattern of WRI1s was in agreement with that of oil accumulation. Three AsWRI1s (AsWRI1a, AsWRI1b and AsWRI1c) and one RcWRI1 were identified in the endosperms of oat and castor, respectively. AsWRI1c lacks VYL motif, which is different from the other three WRI1s. Expressions of these four WRI1s all complemented the phenotypes of Arabidopsis wri1-1 mutant. Overexpression of these WRI1s in Arabidopsis and tobacco BY2 cells increased oil contents of seeds and total fatty acids of the cells, respectively. Moreover, this overexpression also resulted in up-regulations of WRI1 target genes, such as PKp-ß1. Taken together, our results suggest that high and functional expression of WRI1 play a key role in the oil-rich endosperms and the VYL motif is dispensable for WRI1 function.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Avena/genética , Óleos Vegetais/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Ricinus/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Motivos de Aminoácidos , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Avena/metabolismo , Endosperma/genética , Endosperma/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica , Mutação , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Ricinus/metabolismo , Sementes/genética , Sementes/metabolismo , Tabaco/genética , Tabaco/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Regulação para Cima
10.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3418, 2019 07 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31366935

RESUMO

Oil produced by castor (Ricinus communis) has broad industrial applications. However, knowledge on the genetic diversity, especially genetic alterations that occurred during domestication and subsequent traits selection, of this oil crop is limited. Here, our population genomics analyses show that the Chinese castors have developed a geographic pattern, classified into the southern-, the middle-, and the northern-China groups. We detect a number of candidate genomic loci that are associated with the selection signals during the geographical differentiation and domestication. Using genome-wide association analysis, we identify candidate genes associated with nine agronomically important traits. One of the candidate genes encoding a glycosyltransferase related to cellulose and lignin biosynthesis is associated with both capsule dehiscence and endocarp thickness. We hypothesize that the abundance of cellulose or lignin in endocarp is an important factor for capsule dehiscence. Our results provide foundation for castor breeding and genetic study.


Assuntos
Frutas/genética , Frutas/fisiologia , Genoma de Planta/genética , Óleos Vegetais/química , Ricinus/genética , Celulose/análise , China , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Geografia , Glicosiltransferases/genética , Lignina/análise , Ricinus/química , Seleção Genética/genética
11.
Sci Total Environ ; 695: 133652, 2019 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31425995

RESUMO

The extraction of oil from onshore wells and the production of biodiesel from castor bean crops have grown in recent years, resulting in the production of large volumes of drill cuttings from these wells and castor pie, which can be harmful to the environment. The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of a combination of different doses of drill cuttings and castor pie on the chemical attributes of a Planosol and on the dry mass production of the aerial part (DMAP) and dry mass of roots (DMR) of castor bean crops (Ricinus communis L.), cultivar BRS-149 Nordestina. The experimental design was a randomized block with a factorial 6 × 6, consisting of five castor pie doses (2, 4, 8, 16, and 32 Mg ha-1); five drill cuttings doses (5, 15, 30, 45, and 60 Mg ha-1) and an experimental control using only soil samples, with three repetitions. The soil used as the main substrate was collected at 0.0-0.2 m depth in a Planosol. The mixture of the topsoil layer with the experimental doses was performed using a mixer for 5 min, and the samples were distributed in 8 dm3 pots; each pot corresponded to an experimental unit. The mixture of cuttings from drill wells and castor pie with a 30: 16 Mg ha-1 ratio, provided favorable chemical conditions for castor bean crop development; however, drill cuttings doses >30 Mg ha-1 can cause soil salinization, and negatively affect the development of castor bean crops.


Assuntos
Biodegradação Ambiental , Semente de Rícino/fisiologia , Campos de Petróleo e Gás , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Ricinus , Solo
12.
Carbohydr Polym ; 223: 115062, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31426967

RESUMO

Nata de coco was chemically modified to afford the bacterial cellulose hydrogels carrying terminal alkynes. The resultant hydrogels were then converted into hydrogels carrying lactosides or those carrying α-2,3-sialyllactosides by the Cu+-catalyzed alkyne-azide cyclization. The stable homo association of the hydrogels carrying lactosides was observed in an aqueous solution containing Ca2+, thereby demonstrating the Ca2+-mediated lactoside-lactoside interactions. Ca2+ also stabilized the hetero associations among the hydrogels carrying lactosides and those carrying α-2,3-sialyllactosides, thereby also demonstrating the Ca2+-induced interactions between the lactosides and the α-2,3-sialyllactosides. The sizes of these hydrogels were of the order of ca. 5 mm, and their associations could thus be readily monitored with the naked eye.


Assuntos
Celulose/química , Hidrogéis/química , Oligossacarídeos/química , Polissacarídeos Bacterianos/química , Alquinos/química , Azidas/química , Cálcio/química , Cocos/química , Cocos/microbiologia , Hidrogéis/síntese química , Magnésio/química , Lectinas de Plantas/química , Ricinus/química , Sódio/química
13.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 183: 109574, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31442801

RESUMO

Soil contamination with lead (Pb) is a serious global concern, adversely affecting crop production. Pot experiments were conducted to assess the efficacy of Prosopis biochar and rice husk ash for plant growth and mitigating Pb translocation in Ricinus communis. Physico-chemical characterization of both the amendments was carried out on a dry weight basis. Seedlings of R.communis were grown in 0, 400 and 800 mg kg-1 Pb spiked soil amended with Prosopis juliflora biochar (PJB) and rice husk ash (RHA) at 0, 2.5% and 5% (w/w) of soil for 60 days. Addition of biochar and rice husk ash to soils increased the Pb tolerance in R.communis, improved soil pH, nutrient intake, and antioxidant enzymatic activities. The biochar amendment significantly (p < 0.05) increased plant growth parameters (height, leaf diameter, nodes, and leaf number), protein (72%) and chlorophyll contents (38-52%), as did RHA to a lesser extent (increase of 10-31% in chlorophyll and 77% protein content) compared to unamended plants. Soil usage of RHA resulted in a more consistent decrease in Pb accumulation in the root, shoot, and leaf relative to PJB. Treatment with PJB at 5% decreased the accumulation of Pb in roots by 59% whereas RHA decreased Pb concentration in roots by 87%. The two distinct amendments significantly reduced the availability of soil Pb and decreased oxidative damage, as evidenced by the lower production of proline, malondialdehyde (MDA), and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in plants. Changes in infrared spectra confirmed that oxygenated phosphate, amide, ester and ether functional groups played a key role in binding accumulated Pb in roots as well as alleviation of Pb-induced phytotoxicity. Our findings conclude the amendments can be used as a stress regulator in mitigating Pb toxicity, which is important for all economic crop plants, including R.communis.


Assuntos
Biodegradação Ambiental , Carvão Vegetal , Chumbo/metabolismo , Oryza/química , Ricinus/fisiologia , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Disponibilidade Biológica , Chumbo/toxicidade , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Ricinus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ricinus/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade
14.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(30): 31166-31177, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31456154

RESUMO

Effect of arsenate [As(V)] on biomass, photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, transpiration, oxidative stress, accumulation of As, Fe, Zn, Cu and Mn and expression of NRAMP genes was investigated in As(V) tolerant and sensitive genotypes of bioenergy crop Ricinus communis. As(V) treatments (100 and 200 µM) led to significant reduction in root and leaf biomass, photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance and transpiration in GCH 2 and GCH 4 genotypes but no significant change or increase was observed in WM and DCH 177 genotypes. No significant difference was observed in hydrogen peroxide content and lipid peroxidation in As(V)-treated tolerant genotypes compared to control, whereas these parameters enhanced significantly in As(V)-treated sensitive genotypes. GCH 2 accumulated around two times As in leaves and showed significant reduction in concentration of Zn and Mn in the leaves and roots due to 200 µM As(V) treatment compared to WM. NRAMP genes are critical for uptake and distribution of essential divalent metal cations, photosynthesis and controlled production of reactive oxygen species in plants. RcNRAMP2, RcNRAMP3 and RcNRAMP5 genes showed differential expression in response to 200 µM As(V) in GCH 2 and WM suggesting that NRAMP genes are associated with differential responses of WM and GCH 2 genotypes to As(V) stress.


Assuntos
Arsênico/toxicidade , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ricinus/efeitos dos fármacos , Ricinus/fisiologia , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Genótipo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Metais/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Estômatos de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos
15.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 158: 128-134, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31378348

RESUMO

Indoleacetic acid (IAA)-carbendazim was synthesized to assess whether this conjugate could retain the fungicidal activity of carbendazim and gain root-inducing properties upon the addition of an indoleacetic acid group. An indoor virulence test demonstrated that the conjugate retained the fungicidal activity of carbendazim towards Cylindrocladium parasiticum. The conjugate was detected in roots after soaking Ricinus communis L. leaves into a solution of the IAA-carbendazim, which confirmed its phloem mobility. The activities of the cellulase, polygalacturonase and xylanase produced by Cylindrocladium parasiticum treated with different concentrations of the conjugate were determined, and the peak activities appeared at 72 h or 96 h. More importantly, the conjugate showed the ability to promote root growth. These results revealed that indoleacetic acid-carbendazim may be useful in preventing Cylindrocladium parasiticum and other diseases.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos/efeitos dos fármacos , Benzimidazóis/farmacologia , Carbamatos/farmacologia , Fungicidas Industriais/farmacologia , Ácidos Indolacéticos/farmacologia , Celulase/metabolismo , Floema/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Poligalacturonase/metabolismo , Ricinus/efeitos dos fármacos
16.
PLoS One ; 14(7): e0219667, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31295303

RESUMO

Castor bean is an important seed oil crop. Castor oil is a highly demanded oil for several industrial uses. Currently, castor bean varieties suffer from low productivity and high risk of insect pests and diseases. It is in urgent need to mine elite genes from wild materials for castor breeding. 29 pairs of polymorphic SRAP primers out of 361 pairs were used to analyse the genetic diversity of 473 wild castor materials from South China. 203 bands were amplified by the 29 pairs of primers, of which 169 bands were polymorphic, with a polymorphic percentage of 83.25%. With an average number of alleles per locus (Ap) of 1.801, average number of effective alleles per locus (Ae) of 1.713 and average percentage of polymorphic loci (P) of 90.04%, these primers were proven to be useful and effective. Nei' genetic distance between the materials ranged from 1.04 to 25.02, with an average of 13.03. At the genetic distance of 25.02, the materials clustered into two major groups, consistent with the result of population structure analysis. However, more subgroups existed between 5.21 and 13.32. Although not all the materials from the same region were clustered in the same group, an obvious trend existed where the groups were related to regions to a great extent. Based on multiple indices, the genetic diversity of materials from Hainan was the lowest. However, there was not much difference between West Guangdong and Guangxi, although the former was slightly higher. Moderate genetic differentiation was observed in wild materials in South China. The genetic differentiation mainly occurred within population, with maximum differentiation in Guangxi, followed by West Guangdong and the minimum in Hainan. Nonetheless, there was an extensive geneflow between populations. The above results provided a direction for the conservation and breeding application of these materials.


Assuntos
Óleo de Rícino/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Ricinus/genética , Alelos , Cruzamento , China , Polimorfismo Genético
17.
Chemosphere ; 235: 832-841, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31284131

RESUMO

Various physiological and biochemical responses of two good biomonitor plant species i.e. Datura alba and Ricinus communis were studied along two roads in the Punjab, Pakistan. Chlorophyll a, b, total chlorophylls, carotenoids, total free amino acids, total soluble proteins, total antioxidant activity, stomatal conductance, photosynthetic rate, internal CO2 concentration, transpiration rate, and water use efficiency of D. alba and R. communis were examined at different sites along both roads. Photosynthetic rate of both plant species was found to be affected. Reduced transpiration rate and stomatal conductance were also noted. However, elevated internal CO2 concentration and water use efficiency were recorded. Total soluble proteins got reduced, but, we found a tremendous increase in total antioxidant activity and total free amino acids in both plant species. D. alba was found to be more affected by the adverse effects of roadside air borne pollutants. Although R. communis was also affected but it showed minimal variation in all parameters compared to the control. Hence, our results suggest that R. communis is more resistant to urban roadside air pollution compared to D. alba and would be a good choice as phytoremediator of traffic borne pollutants, whereas, D. alba could be a better biomonitoring plant.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Datura/fisiologia , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Ricinus/fisiologia , Poluição do Ar , Clorofila/metabolismo , Clorofila A , Paquistão , Fotossíntese , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Plantas/metabolismo , Ricinus/metabolismo , Água/análise
18.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl ; 103: 109844, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31349445

RESUMO

In this present work, Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods (NRs) were synthesized by bio-mediated approach. The Ricinus communis L. leaf extract act as reducing as well as capping agent for the synthesize of ZnO NRs. The crystalline nature and phase purity of the as prepared ZnO NRs were identified by the Powder X-ray Diffraction (PXRD) studies. The formation of ZnO NRs was determined by the optical analysis. The morphological studies of the synthesized materials were identified by the Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) analysis. In this investigation, the antibacterial activity of ZnO NRs were tested against both Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis) and Gram negative (Salmonella paratyphi, Escherichia coli) bacteria by agar disc diffusion method. In addition, the green synthesized ZnO NRs exhibits excellent antimicrobial activity than the chemically synthesized method.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Química Verde , Nanotubos/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Ricinus/química , Óxido de Zinco , Antibacterianos/síntese química , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Óxido de Zinco/química , Óxido de Zinco/farmacologia
19.
Braz Dent J ; 30(3): 252-258, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31166393

RESUMO

The disadvantage of liners materials is the difficulty of biofilm control. It was compared an experimental dentifrice contained Ricinus communis, with commercials dentifrices as antibiofilm activity against microorganisms on denture liner. Six hundred specimens were distributed in 5 groups (n=18/ microorganism): water; experimental dentifrice; specific dentifrice for denture and two conventional dentifrices against C. albicans; C. glabrata; S. mutans; S. aureus; E. coli. Each group had a negative (n=5; without contamination) and positive control (n=15/ microorganism; without cleaning). The antibiofilm activity was evaluated by the method of biofilm formation in triplicate. The specimens were contaminated in a standard way and incubated. After that, manual brushing was performed (60 s), washed with PBS, immersed in liquid culture medium for resuspension and sowing in solid medium. The results (mean of triplicates) were expressed in CFU/mL. The data was submitted to Shapiro-Wilk, ANOVA and Tukey test (p<0.05). The specific dentifrice (1.27±1.20) was the most effective against S. mutans, followed by conventional (Trihydral, 3.13±0.88; Colgate, 2.16±2.02) and experimental (3.81±1.37) dentifrices, which were similar to each other (p=0.008). All of them were different from water (4.79±1.42). The specific (0.21±0.21) and experimental (0.36±0.25) dentifrices were similar against S. aureus, with a higher mean of CFU when compared to conventional (Colgate, 0.06±0.13), which was more efficient (p=0.000). For C. albicans, C. glabrata and E. coli, all dentifrices were similar to water (p=0.186). It was concluded, that the experimental dentifrice was effective against S. aureus and had not efficacy against Candida spp.; S. mutans; E. coli, as occurred with the commercials dentifrices.


Assuntos
Dentifrícios , Reembasadores de Dentadura , Escherichia coli , Ricinus , Staphylococcus aureus , Escovação Dentária
20.
Sci Total Environ ; 686: 641-647, 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31189124

RESUMO

Castor plant (Ricinus communis) is a fast-growing shrub from Euphorbiaceae family. India ranks first in the world for the production of castor seeds. The generation of residue from its leaves and stems is more than 50% of the whole plant. This research work involves the estimation of the optimum condition for the production/value addition by hydrothermal liquefaction of castor residue using factorial design. Temperature (T) and residence time (RT) are the key parameters that affect the bio-oil yield. A 32 full factorial design was employed to understand the affects the bio-oil yield and conversion with key parameters. The key parameter and its interaction effects were analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA); F-test and p-values were used to rank the process variable affecting the total bio-oil yield. It was observed that the temperature imparts significant effect on total bio-oil yield. The optimum conditions to obtain maximum total bio-oil yield are T = 300 °C and RT = 60 min. The statistical model was best fitted with high coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.9994 and 0.9473 for total bio-oil yield and conversion respectively.


Assuntos
Biocombustíveis , Óleos Vegetais , Polifenóis , Ricinus , Biomassa , Índia , Temperatura
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