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1.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(10)2021 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684048

RESUMO

Background and Objectives: Angiopoietin-like protein 3 (ANGPTL3) is a secretory protein regulating lipid metabolism. This study evaluated the relationship between serum ANGPTL3 level and peripheral arterial stiffness (PAS) in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Materials and Methods: Fasting blood samples were collected from 95 CAD patients. PAS was defined as left or right brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) > 18.0 m/s by an oscillometric method. Serum ANGPTL3 levels were assessed using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. Results: Seventeen CAD patients (17.9%) had PAS. Patients with PAS had a significantly higher percentage of diabetes (p = 0.002), older age (p = 0.030), higher systolic blood pressure (p = 0.016), higher fasting glucose (p = 0.008), serum C-reactive protein (p = 0.002), and ANGPTL3 level (p = 0.001) than those without PAS. After multivariable logistic regression analysis, serum ANGPTL3 level (Odds ratio (OR): 1.004, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.000-1.007, p = 0.041) is still independently associated with PAS in CAD patients. The receiver operating characteristic curve for PAS prediction revealed that the area under the curve for ANGPTL3 level was 0.757 (95% CI: 0.645-0.870, p < 0.001). Conclusions: Serum fasting ANGPTL3 level is positively associated with PAS in CAD patients. Further studies are required for clarification.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Rigidez Vascular , Idoso , Proteínas Semelhantes a Angiopoietina , Índice Tornozelo-Braço , Humanos , Análise de Onda de Pulso , Fatores de Risco
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639495

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Compare arterial stiffness among law enforcement officers (LEOs) versus general population normative values and identify predictors of arterial stiffness in LEOs. METHODS: Seventy male LEOs (age: 24-54 years) completed body composition, blood pressures, physical activity level, and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV) measurements. T-tests and regression analyses were utilized to compare LEO data to normative data and predict cfPWV, respectively. RESULTS: Compared to similar age strata within the general population, cfPWV was lower among LEO's under 30-years (mean difference = -0.6 m·s-1), but higher among LEOs 50-55-years (mean difference = 1.1 m·s-1). Utilizing regression, age, relative body fat, and diastolic blood pressure explained the greatest variance in LEO's cfPWV (adj. R2 = 0.56, p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: This investigation demonstrated that arterial stiffness may progress more rapidly in LEOs and LEOs' relative body fat and blood pressure may primarily affect arterial stiffness and risk of CVD.


Assuntos
Rigidez Vascular , Adulto , Pressão Sanguínea , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polícia , Análise de Onda de Pulso , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
3.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 20239, 2021 10 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34642385

RESUMO

Accurate risk stratification in COVID-19 patients consists a major clinical need to guide therapeutic strategies. We sought to evaluate the prognostic role of estimated pulse wave velocity (ePWV), a marker of arterial stiffness which reflects overall arterial integrity and aging, in risk stratification of hospitalized patients with COVID-19. This retrospective, longitudinal cohort study, analyzed a total population of 1671 subjects consisting of 737 hospitalized COVID-19 patients consecutively recruited from two tertiary centers (Newcastle cohort: n = 471 and Pisa cohort: n = 266) and a non-COVID control cohort (n = 934). Arterial stiffness was calculated using validated formulae for ePWV. ePWV progressively increased across the control group, COVID-19 survivors and deceased patients (adjusted mean increase per group 1.89 m/s, P < 0.001). Using a machine learning approach, ePWV provided incremental prognostic value and improved reclassification for mortality over the core model including age, sex and comorbidities [AUC (core model + ePWV vs. core model) = 0.864 vs. 0.755]. ePWV provided similar prognostic value when pulse pressure or hs-Troponin were added to the core model or over its components including age and mean blood pressure (p < 0.05 for all). The optimal prognostic ePWV value was 13.0 m/s. ePWV conferred additive discrimination (AUC: 0.817 versus 0.779, P < 0.001) and reclassification value (NRI = 0.381, P < 0.001) over the 4C Mortality score, a validated score for predicting mortality in COVID-19 and the Charlson comorbidity index. We suggest that calculation of ePWV, a readily applicable estimation of arterial stiffness, may serve as an additional clinical tool to refine risk stratification of hospitalized patients with COVID-19 beyond established risk factors and scores.


Assuntos
COVID-19/mortalidade , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Rigidez Vascular , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
4.
Clin Nephrol ; 96(1): 43-48, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34643490

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cystatin C (cysC) is freely filtered in the glomeruli, and its serum concentration is independent of muscle mass, diet, gender, or age. In patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), cysC is associated with advanced atherosclerosis and increased arterial stiffness. The purpose of this study was to define possible associations between arterial stiffness parameters and cysC in patients without CKD. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study included 111 non-CKD patients. Basic demographic and laboratory data were recorded. Arterial stiffness was measured by applanation tonometry (sphygmocor, Australia). RESULTS: Mean age of the patients was 64.3 ± 9.4 years, 65.8% were men. Most common co-morbidities were arterial hypertension (AH) (n = 86, 77.5%), hyperlipidemia (n = 64, 57.7%), and diabetes mellitus (DM) (n = 22; 19.8%). Mean creatinine was 77.7 ± 13.8 µmol/L (range 49 - 108), estimated GFR 81.3 ± 9.4 mL/min/1.73m2 (range 62 - 90), and cysC 0.94 ± 0.18 mg/L (range 0.67 - 1.63). Mean carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV) was 10.1 ± 2.4 m/s (range 6.2 - 16.8), subendocardial viability ratio (SEVR) 165.7 ± 36.1% (range 92 - 299), ejection duration (ED) 33.8 ± 4.4 ms (range 22 - 46), and pulse pressure (PP) 46.6 ± 14.8 mmHg (range 17 - 94). A statistically significant association was found between cysC and cfPWV (r = 0.472, p < 0.001), SEVR (r = -0.316, p < 0.001), ED (r = 0.217, p = 0.025), and pulse pressure (PP) (r = 0.241, p = 0.012). Multiple regression analysis between arterial stiffness parameters and cysC, age, male gender, AH, DM, hyperlipidemia, and eGFR confirmed a statistically significant and independent association between cysC and cfPWV (ß = 0.220, p = 0.038), between cysC and SEVR (ß = -0.278, p = 0.017), and between cysC and ED (ß = 0.241, p = 0.045). CONCLUSION: Elevated cysC is associated with increased cfPWV, increased ED, and decreased SEVR.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Rigidez Vascular , Idoso , Cistatina C , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Onda de Pulso , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/diagnóstico
5.
Clin Nephrol ; 96(1): 74-79, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34643495

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Arterial stiffness represents an independent risk factor for cardiovascular mortality in dialysis patients and is strongly connected to hypervolemia. The aim of the study was to evaluate different methods for fluid status assessment and their association with arterial stiffness parameters in peritoneal dialysis patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 16 peritoneal dialysis patients (53 ± 18 years, 9/16 men) fluid status was determined by clinical examination, lung ultrasound (number of B-lines, normal up to 4), overhydration degree by bioimpedance monitor device, estimation of central venous pressure by ultrasound measurement of vena cava inferior, measurement of serum N-terminal pro b-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), and albumin level. Pulse wave velocity and augmentation index were measured non-invasively with an oscillometric device to indirectly assess arterial stiffness, blood pressure (BP) was obtained by the same device. RESULTS: Clinical evaluation (BP 136 ± 15/93 ± 15 mmHg, edema in 2/16 patients) and lung ultrasound (on average 3 ± 6 B-lines) showed mostly normal fluid status of patients. Patients had slightly lower albumin values (37 ± 4 g/L), slightly elevated central venous pressure (10 ± 4 mmHg), and elevated NT-proBNP (11,596 ± 13,635 ng/L). Body composition evaluation showed mild overhydration (1.5 ± 2 L), which significantly correlated with central venous pressure (p = 0.046) and NT-proBNP (p = 0.004). Lung ultrasound significantly negatively correlated with albumin (r = -0.82, p < 0.001) and positively with NT-proBNP (r = 0.62, p = 0.011). Augmentation index (22 ± 11%) and augmentation pressure correlated with lung ultrasound (r = 0.54, p = 0.032 and r = 0.67, p = 0.004, respectively), although pulse wave velocity (8.4 ± 2.5 m/s) showed no significant correlation with fluid status parameters. The multivariate model showed that lung ultrasound B-lines were an independent determinant of augmentation pressure (ß = 0.58, p = 0.043). CONCLUSION: Fluid status evaluated with lung ultrasound showed good correlation with augmentation index and augmentation pressure, which are markers of arterial stiffness. The lung ultrasound B-lines were found to be an independent determinant of augmentation pressure. Overall arterial stiffness evaluated with pulse wave velocity and augmentation index was not markedly elevated in our patients, which could be due to a good euvolemic status. We conclude that different methods for fluid status evaluation are complementary, with lung ultrasound as a beneficial tool in routine clinical practice in peritoneal dialysis patients.


Assuntos
Diálise Peritoneal , Rigidez Vascular , Pressão Sanguínea , Humanos , Masculino , Diálise Peritoneal/efeitos adversos , Análise de Onda de Pulso , Diálise Renal
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34682413

RESUMO

Impairment of vascular function, in particular endothelial dysfunction and large elastic artery stiffening, represents a major link between ageing and cardiovascular risk. Clinical and experimental studies identified numerous mechanisms responsible for age-related decline of endothelial function and arterial compliance. Since most of these mechanisms are related to oxidative stress or low-grade inflammation, strategies that suppress oxidative stress and inflammation could be effective for preventing age-related changes in arterial function. Indeed, aerobic physical activity, which has been shown to improve intracellular redox balance and mitochondrial health and reduce levels of systemic inflammatory markers, also improves endothelial function and arterial distensibility and reduces risk of cardiovascular diseases. The present paper provides a brief overview of processes underlying age-related changes in arterial function, as well as the mechanisms through which aerobic exercise might prevent or interrupt these processes, and thus attenuate vascular ageing.


Assuntos
Rigidez Vascular , Artérias , Endotélio Vascular , Exercício Físico
7.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 69(11): 3250-3254, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34708782

RESUMO

Purpose: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is known to produce diabetic retinopathy (DR). Pulse wave analysis (PWA) provides arterial stiffness (AS) and central hemodynamic (CH) parameters. We studied the effect of DR on AS and CH parameters in type 2 diabetics (T2D). Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study on 47 T2Ds attending a private ophthalmology clinic screened for DR by optical coherence tomography angiography and divided into NDR (non-DR), NPDR (non-proliferative DR), and PDR (proliferative DR). Mobil-o-graph (IEM, Germany) based oscillometric PWA yielded AS and CH parameters. They were further compared between groups stratified by DR with P value set at 0.05. Results: Participants had a mean age 62, mean diabetes duration 9 years, high mean BMI, and high prevalence of physical inactivity, hypertension, and poor diseases control. Significant differences were lacking in NPDR, NDR, and PDR in rate pressure product (mean 112.71 vs 116.06 vs 119.57), central pulse pressure (mean 46.50 vs 43.09 vs 42.72), stroke work (mean 153.36 vs 132.36 vs 146.08), augmentation index (mean 29.43 vs 33.14 vs 31.64), and aortic pulse wave velocity (mean 10.06 vs 9.08 vs 9.06). There was no clear pattern of distribution of most parameters among the three subgroups. Conclusion: We found a lack of association between DR and cardiovascular ageing studied by AS and hemodynamic parameters. It suggests a possible difference in risk factors for both of these aftermaths of T2DM and calls for further prospective studies with a large sample size.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Retinopatia Diabética , Rigidez Vascular , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Retinopatia Diabética/diagnóstico , Retinopatia Diabética/epidemiologia , Hemodinâmica , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Análise de Onda de Pulso
8.
Am J Nurs ; 121(11): 69, 2021 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34673700

RESUMO

According to this study: In obese older adults, combining aerobic exercise with moderate caloric restriction leads to greater improvement in proximal aortic stiffness than exercise alone.


Assuntos
Aorta , Restrição Calórica , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Obesidade , Rigidez Vascular/fisiologia , Perda de Peso/fisiologia , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
9.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684499

RESUMO

The frequency of aerobic exercise training in reducing the increase in arterial stiffness during acute hyperglycemia, a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, is unknown. The aim of the study was to determine the aerobic exercise training frequency on arterial stiffness in a hyperglycemic state in middle-aged and elderly females. Twenty healthy elderly people were randomly assigned to a two-times-a-week (T2, n = 10) and four-times-a-week (T4, n = 10) exercise group. All participants exercised for 35 min per session, which consisted of jogging exercises with a heart rate intensity of 65%. Brachial-ankle (ba), and heart-brachial (hb) pulse wave velocity (PWV) were measured before, 4 and 8 weeks after intervention; before the oral ingestion of 75-g of glucose; and 30, 60, and 90 min after ingestion. The baPWV before and 4 weeks after the intervention increased in both groups (p < 0.05), but only increased 8 weeks after intervention in the T2 group. hbPWV was unchanged before, 4 and 8 weeks after intervention in both groups. These findings show that frequent aerobic exercise suppresses the increase in arterial stiffness following glucose intake. The results of this study can be used to support the implementation of exercise programs for middle-aged and elderly patients.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Hiperglicemia/terapia , Doença Arterial Periférica/prevenção & controle , Fatores de Tempo , Rigidez Vascular/fisiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Índice Tornozelo-Braço , Glicemia/análise , Feminino , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Hiperglicemia/complicações , Hiperglicemia/fisiopatologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença Arterial Periférica/etiologia , Análise de Onda de Pulso
10.
J Sports Med Phys Fitness ; 61(10): 1387-1392, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34652087

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aging is associated with deterioration of arterial function and mental health, which are known as cardiovascular risk factors. The present study investigated the effect of aerobic exercise training on mental health and arterial stiffness in middle-aged and older adults. METHODS: Twenty-nine healthy middle-aged and older adults were assigned to either the aerobic exercise training (N.=14) or the control groups (N.=15). The aerobic exercise training group completed 12 weeks of moderate aerobic exercise training for 3-4 session per week (30-60 minutes). The control group did not change their levels of physical activity. Before and after the 12-week period, the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) and carotid ß-stiffness index, peak oxygen uptake were measured. RESULTS: At the onset of the 12-week period, the GHQ score, Carotid Β-Stiffness Index, and other key variables did not differ significantly between the aerobic exercise and control groups. The 12-week of aerobic exercise training increased peak oxygen uptake. The GHQ score and Carotid Β-Stiffness Index were decreased after the 12-week period in the aerobic exercise training group; however, no significant improvements were observed in the control group. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that 12 weeks of aerobic exercise enhance mental health and decrease arterial stiffness in healthy middle-aged and older adults.


Assuntos
Rigidez Vascular , Idoso , Envelhecimento , Exercício Físico , Terapia por Exercício , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
12.
Clin Nutr ESPEN ; 45: 363-368, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34620341

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Epidemiological data suggest that moderate habitual coffee consumption associates with lower cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk; however scarce data exist regarding the association of coffee with subclinical vascular disease (SVD). We aimed at investigating the above association with habitual instant coffee consumption - a widely consumed coffee in Greece-in high CVD risk but free of established CVD adults. RESEARCH METHODS & PROCEDURES: In a cross-sectional design study we measured: (i) two 24 h dietary recalls to assess coffee consumption, (ii) arterial stiffness, by carotid to femoral pulse wave velocity - (PWV) and carotid compliance, arterial remodeling by carotid intima-media thickness (IMT), pressure wave reflection by augmentation index (AIx) and atheromatosis by carotid plaques. RESULTS: In 1041 participants (55.6% females, 53.6 ± 14.0 years), 30% habitually consumed instant coffee (0.53 ± 1.15 cups/day). Consumption of instant coffee was inversely associated with systolic blood pressure (ß = -1.19, p = 0.007), AIx (ß = -0.71, p = 0.043), PWV (ß = -0.22, p = 0.000) and IMT (ß = -0.01, p = 0.025), but these associations lost their significance after multiple adjustments for confounders. Instant coffee consumption was positively associated with carotid compliance independent from all possible confounders (ß = 0.005, p = 0.003). CONCLUSION: Habitual moderate instant coffee consumption is inversely associated with arterial stiffening and potential with arterial remodeling. These favorable vascular associations offer a potential pathophysiological link between habitual coffee consumption and lower incidence of CVD. Future studies are needed to examine the long-term effects of habitual instant coffee consumption on vascular structure and function.


Assuntos
Café , Rigidez Vascular , Adulto , Espessura Intima-Media Carotídea , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Análise de Onda de Pulso
13.
Complement Ther Clin Pract ; 45: 101492, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34638054

RESUMO

A substantial number of studies have shown the beneficial effects of mind-body practice on physical fitness among both the healthy middle-aged and elderly adults and patients with chronic diseases. However, its positive effects on college students remain poorly understood. This study aimed to systematically investigate the potential efficiency of the Baduanjin exercise on the maintenance of the homeostasis of body composition and the improvement of the cardiovascular function of the college students. The study revealed a promising efficacy of the Baduanjin exercise in the prevention of the loss of water, inorganic salts, protein, and muscle contents and the accumulation of body fat. Furthermore, the present study also demonstrated the positive efficacy of Baduanjin exercise in decreasing of peripheral and central arterial blood pressure and carotid and femoral artery pulse wave velocity (cfPWV) of the college students. Moreover, the heart rate variability (HRV) analysis was also performed using the assessment of time and frequency domain indices. The data showed that all of the time-domain indices and the high-frequency (HF) band of the HRV relatively increased, whereas the low-frequency (LF) band of the HRV relatively decreased after the long-term Baduanjin exercise. Collectively, the present study suggested that a 12-week Baduanjin exercise could maintain the body composition in a relatively healthy and stable range and improve blood pressure, central hemodynamics, and the arterial stiffness of the college students. The underlying mechanism might be due to the improvement of parasympathetic activity and the suppression of sympathetic activity of college students via Baduanjin exercise.


Assuntos
Rigidez Vascular , Adulto , Idoso , Sistema Nervoso Autônomo , Pressão Sanguínea , Frequência Cardíaca , Hemodinâmica , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Onda de Pulso , Estudantes
15.
Heart Lung Circ ; 30(11): 1694-1701, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34503918

RESUMO

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a major public health concern. Despite many potentially life-threatening conditions that can accompany kidney disease, cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains the leading cause of death in these patients. Adjusted-for-age mortality from CVD in patients with end-stage renal disease is 10-30 times higher than in the general population. A decrease in renal function accelerates the development of cardiac pathology. Simultaneous exposure of CVD and CKD plays an important role in the relationship between arterial stiffness (AS) and estimated glomerular filtration rate. But there is a controversy as to whether the AS causes deterioration in kidney function, if renal dysfunction leads to AS, or the relationship is reciprocal. Hence, several studies that recruited high-risk populations reached a conclusion that comorbidities might lead to both AS and decline in kidney function over time. A number of studies have shown that several markers of AS, such as pulse pressure, central and peripheral pressure are associated with the development of CKD. This review takes into account the theoretical background, current status, and future potential of the techniques that measure AS within context of CKD assessment and management.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Falência Renal Crônica , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Rigidez Vascular , Pressão Sanguínea , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Humanos , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/complicações , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia
16.
BMJ Open ; 11(9): e045912, 2021 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34475148

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Patients with end-stage renal disease are at higher risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, a risk mediated in part by increased aortic stiffness. Arterial stiffness is assessed at different anatomical locations (central elastic or peripheral muscular arteries) using a variety of mechanical biomarkers. However, little is known on the robustness of each of these mechanical biomarkers following a haemodynamic stress caused by a single haemodialysis (HD) session. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A systematic review has been designed and reported in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Protocols. A targeted search strategy applicable in key databases (PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, Web of Science and grey literature) is constructed to search articles and reviews from inception to 16 October 2020. Only articles of studies conducted with adults under chronic HD for kidney failure, with repeated measures of arterial stiffness metrics (pulse wave velocity, Augmentation Index, arterial distensibility or stiffness) following a before-and-after design surrounding a HD session will be selected. The screening process, data extraction and assessment of risk bias will be done by two independent pairs of reviewers. Meta-analysis will enable adjustments for potential confounders and subgroup analyses will be performed to discriminate changes in arterial stiffness metrics from elastic, muscular or global arterial territories. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This study does not require ethical approval. Findings will be submitted for publication to relevant peer-reviewed journals and will be presented at profession-specific conferences. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42020213946.


Assuntos
Falência Renal Crônica , Rigidez Vascular , Humanos , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Metanálise como Assunto , Análise de Onda de Pulso , Diálise Renal , Projetos de Pesquisa , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
17.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 17827, 2021 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34497312

RESUMO

Because of their long lifespan, matrix proteins of the vascular wall, such as elastin, are subjected to molecular aging characterized by non-enzymatic post-translational modifications, like carbamylation which results from the binding of cyanate (mainly derived from the dissociation of urea) to protein amino groups. While several studies have demonstrated a relationship between increased plasma concentrations of carbamylated proteins and the development of cardiovascular diseases, molecular mechanisms explaining the involvement of protein carbamylation in these pathological contexts remain to be fully elucidated. The aim of this work was to determine whether vascular elastic fibers could be carbamylated, and if so, what impact this phenomenon would have on the mechanical properties of the vascular wall. Our experiments showed that vascular elastin was carbamylated in vivo. Fiber morphology was unchanged after in vitro carbamylation, as well as its sensitivity to elastase degradation. In mice fed with cyanate-supplemented water in order to increase protein carbamylation within the aortic wall, an increased stiffness in elastic fibers was evidenced by atomic force microscopy, whereas no fragmentation of elastic fiber was observed. In addition, this increased stiffness was also associated with an increase in aortic pulse wave velocity in ApoE-/- mice. These results provide evidence for the carbamylation of elastic fibers which results in an increase in their stiffness at the molecular level. These alterations of vessel wall mechanical properties may contribute to aortic stiffness, suggesting a new role for carbamylation in cardiovascular diseases.


Assuntos
Aorta/fisiologia , Tecido Elástico/metabolismo , Elastina/metabolismo , Rigidez Vascular/fisiologia , Animais , Aorta/efeitos dos fármacos , Bovinos , Cianatos/farmacologia , Tecido Elástico/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Carbamilação de Proteínas/efeitos dos fármacos , Rigidez Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos
18.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34578869

RESUMO

Children with obesity are at higher risk for developing cardiometabolic diseases that once were considered health conditions of adults. Obesity is commonly associated with cardiometabolic risk factors such as dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia and hypertension that contribute to the development of endothelial dysfunction. Endothelial dysfunction, characterized by reduced nitric oxide (NO) production, precedes vascular abnormalities including atherosclerosis and arterial stiffness. Thus, early detection and treatment of cardiometabolic risk factors are necessary to prevent deleterious vascular consequences of obesity at an early age. Non-pharmacological interventions including L-Citrulline (L-Cit) supplementation and aerobic training stimulate endothelial NO mediated vasodilation, leading to improvements in organ perfusion, blood pressure, arterial stiffness, atherosclerosis and metabolic health (glucose control and lipid profile). Few studies suggest that the combination of L-Cit supplementation and exercise training can be an effective strategy to counteract the adverse effects of obesity on vascular function in older adults. Therefore, this review examined the efficacy of L-Cit supplementation and aerobic training interventions on vascular and metabolic parameters in obese individuals.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Citrulina/administração & dosagem , Exercício Físico , Longevidade , Doenças Metabólicas/prevenção & controle , Obesidade/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Arginina/metabolismo , Aterosclerose/prevenção & controle , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores de Risco Cardiometabólico , Criança , Suplementos Nutricionais , Endotélio Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Rigidez Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Vasodilatação/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto Jovem
19.
Physiol Meas ; 42(10)2021 10 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34479234

RESUMO

Objective.Aortic stiffness is associated with risk of cardiovascular events. Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV) is the current noninvasive gold standard for assessing aortic stiffness. However, the cfPWV measurement is challenging, requiring simultaneous signals at the carotid and femoral sites.Approach.In this study, the aortic PWV is estimated using a single radial pressure waveform and compared with cfPWV. 111 subjects' aortic PWVs are estimated from the decomposition of the derived central aortic pressure waveform based on three types of reconstructed flow waveform: the peak of triangular flow waveform based on 30% ejection time (Q30%tri), the peak of triangular flow waveform based on inflection point (Qtri), and averaged flow waveform (Qavg). The central aortic pressure waveform is derived from a radial pressure waveform via a validated transfer function.Main results.TheQavgis used for estimating aortic PWV without the determination of the peak point of the triangular flow waveforms. The estimated aortic PWV shows good agreement with cfPWV. The mean difference ± SD is 0.29 ± 1.50 m s-1(r2 = 0.29,p< 0.001) for theQ30%tri; 0.27 ± 1.40 m s-1(r2 = 0.38,p < 0.001) for theQtri; 0.23 ± 1.39 m s-1(r2 = 0.40,p < 0.001) for theQavg. The correlation between estimated aortic PWV based onQ30%triand measured cfPWV is weak. The results ofQtriandQavgshow no obvious difference.Significance.The proposed method can be used as a less complex way than conventional measurement of cfPWV to further assess arterial stiffness and predict cardiovascular risks or events.


Assuntos
Análise de Onda de Pulso , Rigidez Vascular , Aorta , Pressão Arterial , Pressão Sanguínea , Artérias Carótidas , Humanos
20.
Clin Cardiol ; 44(11): 1628-1635, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34586631

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Arterial stiffness, as reflected in the cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI), is a risk factor for major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs). HYPOTHESIS: Combining CAVI and metabolic syndrome (MetS) may enhance prediction of MACEs in a general adult population. METHODS: A total of 3807 employees of the Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand were enrolled in a longitudinal health study during 2007-2008. Baseline characteristics were collected and CAVI determined. Subjects with previous coronary artery disease or stroke were excluded from analysis. MetS was defined using the modified NCEP-ATP III for Asians. The primary study endpoint was occurrence of a MACE (myocardial infarction, stroke, or cardiovascular death). RESULTS: MetS was present in 39.2% at study baseline. The prevalence of CAVI > 9 was higher in subjects with MetS compared to those without (33.7% vs. 28.5%, P = 0.001). During the 12.4 ± 0.6 years follow-up, 227 participants developed MACEs and 350 died. MetS was more common in patients who developed a MACE (8.2% vs. 5.0%, p < 0.001) than was non-MetS, but it was not a significant risk after adjusting covariables. Participants with CAVI > 9 had greater risk for MACEs 1.34 (95% CI: 1.01, 1.79) relative to those with CAVI < 9. Participants with both MetS and CAVI > 9 had the worst outcomes, with the highest frequency of MACEs, among the four groups. CONCLUSION: Arterial stiffness assessed by CAVI may enhance prediction of future MACEs, adding to the null predictive power of MetS. This index can be used to motivate MetS patients to modify their life-styles for prevention.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Síndrome Metabólica , Rigidez Vascular , Adulto , Tornozelo , Índice Tornozelo-Braço , Humanos , Síndrome Metabólica/diagnóstico , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia
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