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1.
Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract ; 23(1): 1-19, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31759441

RESUMO

The avian kidney contains both cortical or reptilian and medullary or mammalian nephrons. The kidney filters up to 11 times the total body water daily. Approximately 95% of this volume is reabsorbed by tubular reabsorption, which likely results from a change in the rate of filtration and/or the rate of reabsorption. These changes can result because of the antidiuretic hormone arginine vasotocin. The urinary concentrating ability generally varies inversely with body mass; however, birds can concentrate their urine, often at 2 to 3 times the osmolality of plasma. Further concentration of urine may occur by retroperistalsis.


Assuntos
Aves/fisiologia , Osmorregulação , Vasoconstritores/metabolismo , Vasotocina/metabolismo , Animais , Aves/anatomia & histologia , Rim/anatomia & histologia , Rim/fisiologia , Concentração Osmolar , Urina
2.
Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract ; 23(1): 231-247, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31759450

RESUMO

The number of fish as pets far exceeds the populations of any other companion animal. As our knowledge of aquatic animal species and aquatic animal medicine continues to expand, veterinary expertise is becoming more critical to the client, researcher, fisheries biologist, aquarist, farmer, and fish hobbyist. Similar to other vertebrates, fish are susceptible to infectious and noninfectious renal disease. This article compares vertebrate renal anatomy and physiology and highlights some renal disease examples.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Peixes/diagnóstico , Nefropatias/veterinária , Animais , Doenças dos Peixes/fisiopatologia , Doenças dos Peixes/terapia , Peixes , Rim/anatomia & histologia , Rim/fisiopatologia , Nefropatias/diagnóstico , Nefropatias/fisiopatologia , Nefropatias/terapia , Vertebrados
3.
Eur. j. anat ; 23(6): 459-463, nov. 2019. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-185089

RESUMO

Situs inversus viscerum (SIV) is a rare congenital anomaly, which is still an intriguing phenomenon to anatomists and physicians alike. A complete SIV is characterized by a left-right transposition and mirror image of all thoraco-abdominal organs and their vasculature. The present report is based on one case with complete SIV, which was observed during the routine educational dissections of cadavers in the authors' Anatomy Department. A transposition of all truncal organs and their vasculature, and several variations of arteries and veins were present. The right branch of the proper hepatic artery was replaced by an artery that emanated from the superior mesenteric artery. The latter also released the inferior mesenteric artery. Additionally, a left accessory renal artery ran anterior to the inferior caval vein and posterior to the ureter to enter the hilum of the left kidney. There was also a variation in the anterior-posterior arrangement of the hilar structures of the left kidney. Additionally, a globally enlarged heart with coronary artery by-passes, a replaced aortic valve and an aortic arch aneurysm was observed. This case report is unique, as it presents a previously unreported co-incidence of SIV and hepatic, intestinal and renal vascular anomalies. It is important for the surgeon to be aware of such variations while planning an abdominal surgery in patients with SIV


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Idoso , Situs Inversus , Ductos Biliares Intra-Hepáticos/anormalidades , Trato Gastrointestinal/anormalidades , Rim/anormalidades , Anomalias dos Vasos Coronários , Ductos Biliares Intra-Hepáticos/anatomia & histologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/anatomia & histologia , Rim/anatomia & histologia , Dissecação/métodos , Artérias Mesentéricas/anormalidades , Artérias Mesentéricas/anatomia & histologia , Cadáver , Vasos Coronários/anatomia & histologia
4.
Regul Toxicol Pharmacol ; 108: 104472, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31494191

RESUMO

The OECD guideline 407 outlines the conduct of 28-day studies in rodents to detect systemic toxicity with focus on endocrine and immunotoxic effects. It was validated with the rat as preferred model species. Justification is required for other rodent species, as an increased variability is expected compared to the rat. We investigated the variability of organ weights in the mouse and compared this to data published for the rat in the validation report of test guideline 407. Furthermore, the influence of the immunotoxic model substance cyclophosphamide on spleen and thymus weights in the mouse in immunotoxicity studies (duration 28 days) is reported and discussed, an immunotoxic model substance was not included in the validation report. Historical control data were compiled for mouse studies performed according to OECD 407 and for immunotoxicity studies between 2008 and 2013 at BASF SE. For absolute weights, the coefficient of variation was determined for each study group and compared with the rat. Adrenal glands, ovaries and to lesser degree testes and prostate showed higher coefficients of variation in the mouse (most pronounced in adrenal glands in male animals: rat 5%-17%, CD1 mouse 20%-51%). Effects of cyclophosphamide were best detected measuring the thymus weight.


Assuntos
Variação Biológica Individual , Peso Corporal , Grupos Controle , Tamanho do Órgão , Testes de Toxicidade Subaguda , Glândulas Suprarrenais/anatomia & histologia , Glândulas Suprarrenais/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/anatomia & histologia , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclofosfamida/toxicidade , Feminino , Genitália/anatomia & histologia , Genitália/efeitos dos fármacos , Coração/anatomia & histologia , Coração/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunossupressores/toxicidade , Rim/anatomia & histologia , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/anatomia & histologia , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Tamanho do Órgão/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Especificidade da Espécie , Baço/anatomia & histologia , Baço/efeitos dos fármacos , Timo/anatomia & histologia , Timo/efeitos dos fármacos
5.
Reprod Toxicol ; 88: 91-128, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31386883

RESUMO

There is a growing demand for wild type mice and mouse models of disease that may be more representative of human conditions but there is little information on neonatal and juvenile mouse anatomy. This project produces sound and comprehensive histology background data on the developing neonatal mouse at different time points from Day 0 until Day 28. The work describes optimal methods for tissue harvesting, fixation and processing from the neonatal and juvenile mice which can be used in routine toxicology studies. A review of the available literature revealed inconsistencies in the developmental milestones reported in the mouse. Although it is true that the sequence of events during the development is virtually the same in mice and rats, important developmental milestones in the mouse often happen earlier than in the rat, and these species should not be used interchangeably.


Assuntos
Animais Recém-Nascidos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fatores Etários , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos/anatomia & histologia , Encéfalo/anatomia & histologia , Encéfalo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Feminino , Vesícula Biliar/anatomia & histologia , Vesícula Biliar/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Trato Gastrointestinal/anatomia & histologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Intestino Grosso/anatomia & histologia , Intestino Grosso/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Intestino Delgado/anatomia & histologia , Intestino Delgado/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Rim/anatomia & histologia , Rim/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fígado/anatomia & histologia , Fígado/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pulmão/anatomia & histologia , Pulmão/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL/anatomia & histologia , Ovário/anatomia & histologia , Ovário/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ratos , Estômago/anatomia & histologia , Estômago/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Testículo/anatomia & histologia , Testículo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Toxicologia/normas , Útero/anatomia & histologia , Útero/crescimento & desenvolvimento
6.
BMC Med Imaging ; 19(1): 72, 2019 08 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31438870

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ultrasonography has become an indispensible tool in the management of obstetric patients. Accurate determination of fetal gestational age (FGA) has posed great challenge to patient management as the accuracy of traditional biometric parameters decreases with advance in gestation age. Accuracy of fetal kidney length (FKL) in the determination of FGA at third trimester has been documented in other population. This study is aimed to create baseline reference values of fetal kidney lengths in a Nigerian population as previous studies show population specific variations. METHODS: This prospective cross sectional study was carried out on 534 pregnant women between 20 and 40 weeks of gestation who met the inclusion criteria at Diamond Biomedical Services Ltd. A pilot study was conducted on 20 patients to determine the reproducibility and reliability of ultrasound measurement of FKL. Fetal kidney lengths were calculated as mean of three separate measurements. The 5th, 50th and 95th percentiles were calculated using least squared regression analysis. Third polynomial regression models were used to establish the relationship between right and left FKL and FGA. RESULTS: Both FKL measurements are highly reproducible with excellent correlation and agreement within and between sonographers. It correlates strongly with gestational age while the relationships between right and left kidney lengths with gestational age were established using the following regression equations: RKL = - 11.18 + 1.193 × FGA - 0.0350 × FGA2 + 0.00037 × FGA3 and LKL = - 12.57 + 1.332 × FGA - 0.0390 × FGA2 + 0.00040 × FGA3 for right and left kidneys respectively. CONCLUSION: Nigerian population specific baseline reference values of FKLs for the estimation of FGA should be adopted rather than relying on the Caucasians values as universal patterns.


Assuntos
Rim/anatomia & histologia , Rim/embriologia , Ultrassonografia/normas , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Rim/diagnóstico por imagem , Nigéria , Projetos Piloto , Gravidez , Segundo Trimestre da Gravidez , Terceiro Trimestre da Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Valores de Referência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
7.
Am J Vet Res ; 80(8): 764-770, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31339766

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether previously described cutoffs for ultrasonographically determined kidney length-to-aorta diameter ratio (KL:Ao) for evaluation of kidney size in adult dogs are applicable to healthy dogs 1 to 18 months of age and to assess interobserver and intraobserver variability for ultrasonographic kidney and aorta measurements in these dogs grouped according to age. ANIMALS: 82 dogs. PROCEDURES: 41 university-owned dogs and 41 client- or staff-owned dogs of 3 age groups (approx 1, 6, and 12 to 18 months of age) underwent ultrasonographic examination by 3 observers. Kidney length, kidney width, and diameter of the aorta were measured by each observer 3 times, and KL:Ao and kidney length-to-body weight ratio were calculated for each dog. Measurements and calculated ratios for the 3 age groups were compared by statistical methods; interobserver and intraobserver variability were calculated. RESULTS: Mean kidney length, kidney width, and aorta diameter were smaller, and calculated KL:Ao and kidney length-to-body weight ratio were larger, for dogs of the 1-month age group than for dogs of the 6-month and 12 to 18-month age groups. There were significant interobserver differences for ultrasonographic measurements in all age groups; these were most frequent in the youngest group of dogs and affected KL:Ao for that group only. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Results revealed that 1-month-old dogs have larger kidneys relative to body weight and aorta diameter than do older dogs. Interobserver variability for the youngest group of dogs indicated limited usefulness of these measurements and related ratios for neonatal dogs in clinical practice. The KL:Ao values for dogs ≥ 6 months of age in this study were similar to values previously described for dogs > 12 months of age.


Assuntos
Aorta/diagnóstico por imagem , Cães/anatomia & histologia , Rim/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia/veterinária , Animais , Aorta/anatomia & histologia , Rim/anatomia & histologia , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Tamanho do Órgão
8.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2018: 151-175, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31228156

RESUMO

The rat is a favored model organism to study physiological function in vivo. This is largely due to the fact that it has been used for decades and is often more comparable to corresponding human conditions (both normal and pathologic) than mice. Although the development of genetic manipulations in rats has been slower than in mice, recent advances of new genomic editing tools allow for the generation of targeted global and specific cell type mutations in different rat strains. The rat is an ideal model for advancing imaging techniques like intravital multi-photon microscopy or IVMPM. Multi-photon excitation microscopy can be applied to visualize real-time physiologic events in multiple organs including the kidney. This imaging modality can generate four-dimensional high resolution images that are inherently confocal due to the fact that the photon density needed to excite fluorescence only occurs at the objective focal plane, not above or below. Additionally, longer excitation wavelengths allow for deeper penetration into tissue, improved excitation, and are inherently less phototoxic than shorter excitation wavelengths. Applying imaging tools to study physiology in rats has become a valuable scientific technique due to the relatively simple surgical procedures, improved quality of reagents, and reproducibility of established assays. In this chapter, the authors provide an example of the application of fluorescent techniques to study cardio-renal functions in rat models. Use of experimental procedures described here, together with multiple available genetically modified animal models, provide new prospective for the further application of multi-photon microscopy in basic and translational research.


Assuntos
Coração/anatomia & histologia , Microscopia Intravital/veterinária , Rim/anatomia & histologia , Microscopia de Fluorescência por Excitação Multifotônica/veterinária , Animais , Humanos , Imagem Tridimensional , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Modelos Animais , Ratos
9.
Ann Saudi Med ; 39(3): 143-154, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31215228

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ultrasonography provides a quick assessment of visceral organ dimensions without any risk of radiation. Since many diseases can affect the kidney size, having a reliable reference for kidney length in children is valuable for clinical assessment. OBJECTIVE: Establish normal growth curves for renal length in relation to sex, age, body weight, height, body mass index and body surface area of healthy children in Saudi Arabia. DESIGN: Retrospective review of ultrasonography images. SETTING: Tertiary referral hospital. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We included all normal ultrasonography exams of renal length from full-term neonates to children ≤14 years old performed between 2003 and 2018. Data was collected retrospectively from the electronic archive and patient records. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Relationship between the longitudinal length of both kidneys and age, height, weight, body mass index and body surface area. SAMPLE SIZE: 950 patients. RESULTS: The left kidneys were longer than the right kidneys ( P<.001). Height had the most significant correlation with kidney length (R2=0.829, P<.001 for right kidney; R2=0.831, P<.001 for left kidney). There was a consistent difference in kidney length by sex. Both kidneys were longer in males than females ( P=.031, right kidney:, P=.015, left kidney). In terms of renal growth by age, our data showed a statistically significant difference before and after 24 months of age. There was no significant difference between populations from Saudi Arabia, Hong Kong ( P=.485) and Australia ( P=.99), but the difference between Saudi and American children was significant ( P<.001). However, we did not have the data from those studies for direct comparison. The correlation plots of renal length versus age for all four countries were similar. CONCLUSION: The tables and correlation plots generated from this study should be useful to radiology departments in assessing conditions in children ≤14 years of age that lead to changes in renal size. LIMITATIONS: Retrospective, and there were differences in ultrasonographic techniques for patient positioning and cursor placement that can affect the reproducibility of measurements of renal length. CONFLICT OF INTEREST: None.


Assuntos
Rim/anatomia & histologia , Ultrassonografia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Rim/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Valores de Referência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Arábia Saudita , Fatores Sexuais
10.
Obstet Gynecol ; 133(6): 1182-1194, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31135733

RESUMO

Chronic kidney disease represents a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by alterations in the structure and function of the kidney. Chronic kidney disease significantly increases the risk of adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes, and these risks increase with the severity of the underlying renal dysfunction, degree of proteinuria, as well as the frequent coexistence of hypertension. Further, renal anatomic changes result in dilatation of the collecting system, and physiologic adaptations include alterations in the balance of vasodilatory and vasoconstrictive hormones, resulting in decreased systemic and renal vascular resistance, increased glomerular filtration rate, and modifications in tubular function. These alterations have important clinical implications and can make the diagnosis of renal compromise challenging. The effect of pregnancy on kidney disease may manifest as a loss of renal function, particularly in the context of concomitant hypertension and proteinuria, and chronic kidney disease, even when mild, contributes to the high risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes, including increased risks of preeclampsia, preterm delivery, and small-for-gestational age neonates. Strategies for optimization of pregnancy outcomes include meticulous management of hypertension and proteinuria where possible and the initiation of preeclampsia prevention strategies, including aspirin. Avoidance of nephrotoxic and teratogenic medications is necessary, and renal dosing of commonly used medications must also be considered. Mode of delivery in women with chronic kidney disease should be based on usual obstetric indications, although more frequent prenatal assessments by an expert multidisciplinary team are desirable for the care of this particularly vulnerable patient population. Obstetricians represent a critical component of this team responsible for managing each stage of pregnancy to optimize both maternal and neonatal outcomes, but collaboration with nephrology colleagues in combined clinics wherein both specialists can make joint management decisions is typically very helpful.


Assuntos
Rim/fisiopatologia , Complicações na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Complicações na Gravidez/terapia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/terapia , Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Humanos , Hipertensão Induzida pela Gravidez/etiologia , Recém-Nascido , Rim/anatomia & histologia , Transplante de Rim , Pré-Eclâmpsia/prevenção & controle , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/etiologia , Proteinúria/etiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/complicações , Fatores de Risco
11.
Anat Histol Embryol ; 48(4): 358-365, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31106459

RESUMO

There are numerous publications about feline renal imaging information; however, none have established reference values for kidney size using computed tomography (CT). This study aimed to determine renal size and shape as well as the morphology of renal-related structures in clinically normal cats (Felis catus) that underwent CT. Twenty-seven healthy cats underwent pre- and post-iodinated contrast-enhanced CT. Most cat (59%) kidneys were located at the same level. The average pre-contrast dimensions of the left kidney included a width of 2.46 ± 0.28 cm, a length of 3.52 ± 0.44 cm and a height 2.19 ± 0.31 cm, whereas those of the right kidneys were 2.45 ± 0.27 cm, 3.54 ± 0.46 cm and 2.05 ± 0.23 cm, respectively. After contrast enhancement, kidneys were slightly enlarged though not significantly. Additionally, renal length (LK or RK) was compared with second lumbar vertebra (L2) length and abdominal aorta diameter (AO). AO was significantly larger in male cats whereas L2 length appeared longer in male cats, but was not statistically different from the female cats. The LK/L2 and RK/L2 ratios were 2.29 ± 0.23 and 2.36 ± 0.20, respectively, and the LK/AO and RK/AO were 11.72 ± 1.37 and 12.05 ± 1.47, respectively. Renal vessels were examined. The renal vein was obviously larger than the renal artery, and paired renal veins were observed periodically. This study provides CT information about the feline kidney, which may help to establish reference values and information regarding renal structure prior to surgery in practice.


Assuntos
Gatos/anatomia & histologia , Rim/diagnóstico por imagem , Animais , Aorta Abdominal/anatomia & histologia , Aorta Abdominal/diagnóstico por imagem , Análise de Dados , Feminino , Rim/anatomia & histologia , Rim/irrigação sanguínea , Vértebras Lombares/anatomia & histologia , Vértebras Lombares/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Orquiectomia/veterinária , Ovariectomia/veterinária , Radiografia Abdominal/veterinária , Radiografia Torácica/veterinária , Artéria Renal/anatomia & histologia , Artéria Renal/diagnóstico por imagem , Veias Renais/anatomia & histologia , Veias Renais/diagnóstico por imagem , Fatores Sexuais , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/veterinária , Ultrassonografia/veterinária
12.
Eur. j. anat ; 23(3): 151-158, mayo 2019. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-182976

RESUMO

The acute toxic effects of the acetyl cholinesterase-inhibiting pesticide, DDVP, following oral and dermal exposure are well recorded in literature. The ability of DDVP to easily vaporize makes the aero-nasal route a possible means of exposure, albeit chronically. This study aimed to describe the pathology, if any, of the heart, kidney and liver following chronic exposure to various concentrations of DDVP via inhalation.Sixty male Wistar rats were divided into 6 groups (A-F) of 10 rats each. Rats in Group A were exposed to distilled water only, while rats in groups B, C, D, E and F were exposed to 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100% v/v concentrated fumes of DDVP respectively. Duration of inhalational exposure was for 90 days. The heart, liver and kidney of the rats in the groups were extracted for routine histopathology. Organ pathologies were semi-quantitatively scored and analyzed across and between the 6 groups.Generally, lesions were of progressive severity with increasing concentrations of DDVP. Across the organs, pathology was related to altered vascular and degenerative changes. Specifically, the heart, kidney and liver showed shredding of cardiomyocytes, sloughing of renal tubular epithelial cells with dilated tubular lumina, and hepatocellular degeneration and necrosis respectively. Inflammatory changes were limited to the livers of rats exposed to 80 and 100% v/v DDVP.It was concluded that DDVP induced altered vascular and degenerative changes following chronic exposure via inhalation. Safer alternatives to aerosolized DDVP-containing insecticides are recommended for the control of arthropod vectors in enclosures


No disponible


Assuntos
Ratos , Diclorvós/efeitos adversos , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Coração/anatomia & histologia , Coração/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/anatomia & histologia , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Diclorvós/toxicidade , Miocárdio/patologia , Rim/patologia , Adenoma de Células Hepáticas/induzido quimicamente , Ratos Wistar , Miócitos Cardíacos/citologia , Miócitos Cardíacos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/anatomia & histologia , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos
13.
Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl ; 30(2): 401-420, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31031377

RESUMO

Living-donor kidney transplantation is a well-established treatment of end-stage renal disease in Tunisia. Over the years, concerns have increased about the harmlessness of kidney donation. This longitudinal single center study was carried out to evaluate the safety of nephrectomy as well as further medical and surgical outcomes among donors. We collected and analyzed clinical, biological, biochemical and kidney size data at the time of nephrectomy and at M1, M3, M6, Y1, Y2, and Y4 after donation measured by ultrasound. All donor nephrectomies performed in the nephrology and transplantation unit of Sahloul Hospital of Sousse since October 2006 were included. Criteria of exclusion were lost to follow-up or lack of complete data. Of the 106 donors (66 females and 40 males), 92 donors were included in the follow-up analysis after following exclusion criteria. The mean age at the time of nephrectomy was 42.8 ± 10 years with the sex ratio 0.6. and 27% of our donors were mothers. Twenty-two percent of the donors were obese and 4% were hypertensive. The median initial glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was 105 mL/min/1.73 m2. The surgical approach was costal lumbotomy in 96% of cases and laparoscopy for four cases. The kidneys were removed from the left side in 93% of cases. Postoperative mortality was zero and early postoperative morbidity was low. The median duration of hospital stay was nine days. During follow-up, 14% attended all recommended visits. The median follow-up duration was 26 months. After two years post donation, the prevalence of HTN was 28% and obesity was 26%. The prevalence of GFR decline (50-59 mL/min) was 14% using formula by modification of diet in renal disease. None of our donors reached stage 4 or 5 CKD. Twelve had proteinuria and one donor had diabetes, a comparable prevalence of morbidities to the general population.


Assuntos
Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Rim/anatomia & histologia , Rim/fisiologia , Doadores Vivos , Nefrectomia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Seguimentos , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Humanos , Transplante de Rim , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nefrectomia/efeitos adversos , Tamanho do Órgão , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Período Pós-Operatório , Período Pré-Operatório , Prevalência , Fatores de Tempo , Tunísia/epidemiologia , Ultrassonografia , Adulto Jovem
14.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 20(1): 140, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30935368

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this systematic literature review was to comprehensively describe the anatomical pathology of tissues affected by gout. METHODS: We searched PubMed, The Cochrane Library, Excerpta Medica Database (EMBASE), and Web of Science Core Collection for all English language articles published before March 2018. Articles were included if they described the microscopic or macroscopic appearances of gout in human tissue. RESULTS: Four hundred and seventeen articles met inclusion criteria and were included in the review. Articles describing the anatomical pathology of gout in musculoskeletal structures, including bone, tendon and ligaments, synovium and cartilage, were most common. Articles describing skin and kidney pathology in gout were also common, with pathology in other sites such as visceral organs less common. At all sites, monosodium urate crystal deposition was reported, and the tophus was also described within many different tissues. During a gout flare, diffuse acute neutrophilic synovial inflammation was evident. The tophus was described as an organised chronic giant cell granulomatous structure consisting of monosodium urate crystals, innate and adaptive immune cells, and fibrovascular tissue. CONCLUSIONS: Consistent with the clinical presentation of gout, most studies describing the anatomical pathology of gout report involvement of musculoskeletal structures, with monosodium urate crystal deposition and tophus the most common lesions described. This review details the anatomical pathology features of gout at affected sites.


Assuntos
Gota/patologia , Rim/patologia , Sistema Musculoesquelético/patologia , Pele/patologia , Ácido Úrico/metabolismo , Humanos , Rim/anatomia & histologia , Sistema Musculoesquelético/anatomia & histologia , Pele/anatomia & histologia
15.
J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad ; 31(1): 55-59, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30868784

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Preoperative surgical planning assumes a central role in avoiding catastrophic outcomes of a surgery in the field of renal transplantation, and other urological procedures. This study was aimed to study the different anatomic patterns of human renal venous system. METHODS: It is a descriptive cross-sectional study including 50 adult male cadavers with well-preserved kidneys, renal vasculature and the inferior vena cava. Cadavers with deformed or congenitally anomalous kidney, evidence of surgery, solitary kidney, tumours of kidneys or injured renal vessels / inferior vena cava were excluded from the study. The kidneys, renal veins and the inferior vena cava were exposed. After securing inferior vena cava fifty ml mixture of Indian ink and gelatine was injected into renal veins via inferior vena cava and was allowed to solidify. Following this, the renal venous anatomy was studied. RESULTS: Twenty-eight cadavers had their right renal vein formed by 2 tributaries (56%), 13 (26%) had 3 tributaries, 5 (10%) had 4 tributaries, 1 cadaver had a posterior tributary (2%), while 3 cadavers had other numbers of tributaries (6%). Out of total 50 cadavers 40 (80%) had normal distribution of right renal vein. Additional renal veins were found in 14 (7%) cadavers, double renal veins in 1 (2%) and proximally double renal veins in 2 cadavers (4%).. CONCLUSIONS: There is considerable variation in renal venous anatomy. Knowledge of common venous patterns is necessary for minimizing intraoperative damage to renal anatomy and to prevent intra- and post-operative complications..


Assuntos
Veias Renais/anatomia & histologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Rim/anatomia & histologia , Rim/irrigação sanguínea , Masculino , Veia Cava Inferior/anatomia & histologia
16.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(12): e14916, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30896647

RESUMO

This study was performed to develop a new formula to estimate the renal and isthmus depth in horseshoe kidney, and to compare the new formula with previously published formulas.Renal depth, isthmus depth, vertebral thickness, and total thickness (T, cm) of the body at the level of the kidneys were measured by CT in 124 adults. Their sex, age, height (H, cm), and weight (W, kg) were recorded. Multiple stepwise linear regression analysis was conducted. The 124 cases were divided into 2 random groups, of which the first group was used to derive a regressive formula and the second group was used to verify the formula and compare the formula with previously published formulas.Multiple stepwise linear regression analysis showed that the important variables in estimating the depth of each kidney were the body weight (W, kg) and the total thickness (T, cm) of the body at the level of the kidneys. The important variables in estimating the depth of isthmus soft tissue and vertebral thickness were W, T, and age, W. The new formula was the following: right renal depth (cm) = 0.273 × T + 0.043 × W + 1.086 (r = 0.82, P < .05; standardized regressive coefficient: T = 0.500, W = 0.367), left renal depth (cm) = 0.245 × T + 0.041 × W + 0.676 (r = 0.83, P < .05; standardized regressive coefficient: T = 0.520, W = 0.353); isthmus depth (cm) = soft tissue depth + vertebral thickness, soft tissue depth (cm) = 0.144 × T + 0.044 × W + 0.536 (r = 0.58, P < .05; standardized regressive coefficient: T = 0.272, W = 0.335), vertebral thickness (cm) = 0.012 × age + 0.018 × W + 3.683 (r = 0.53, P < .05; standardized regressive coefficient: age = 0.326, W = 0.438). It is much better than the literatures.The new renal depth estimation formula in horseshoe kidney that we derived by using multiple stepwise linear regression has greatly outperformed other 6 previously published formulas. Isthmus depth estimation formula can also get accurate results. Our new formula provides a more reliable and accurate renal and isthmus depth estimation and contributes to improving the methods used to estimate renal function from radionuclide renography in horseshoe kidney.


Assuntos
Testes de Função Renal/métodos , Rim/anatomia & histologia , Fatores Etários , Pesos e Medidas Corporais , Feminino , Humanos , Rim/diagnóstico por imagem , Rim/patologia , Masculino , Renografia por Radioisótopo , Fatores Sexuais
17.
Int J Toxicol ; 38(3): 215-227, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30845865

RESUMO

Anatomically, the kidneys are paired, bean-shaped (in most mammals), excretory organs that lie in the retroperitoneum. High blood flow to the kidneys, together with high oxygen consumption, makes them more vulnerable to exposure, via the circulation, and subsequent injury related to high concentrations of xenobiotics and chemicals. In preclinical drug development and safety assessment of new investigational drugs, changes in kidney structure and/or function following drug administration in experimental laboratory animals need to be put in context with interspecies differences in kidney functional anatomy, physiology, spontaneous pathologies, and toxicopathological responses to injury. In addition, translation to human relevance to avoid premature drug termination from development is vital. Thus, detection and characterization of kidney toxicity in preclinical species and human relevance will depend on the preclinical safety testing strategy and collective weight-of-evidence approach including new investigational drug mechanism of action (MOA), preclinical and clinical interspecies differences, and MOA relevance to humans. This review describes kidney macroscopic and microscopic functional anatomy, physiology, pathophysiology, toxicology, and drug-induced kidney toxicities in safety risk assessment and drug development.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/induzido quimicamente , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Lesão Renal Aguda/patologia , Lesão Renal Aguda/fisiopatologia , Animais , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos , Humanos , Rim/anatomia & histologia , Rim/fisiologia
18.
BMC Nephrol ; 20(1): 46, 2019 02 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30736760

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The magnitude of renal function recovery after kidney donation differs in donors with a heterogeneous background. Preoperative assessment of candidates with potentially unfavorable renal functional compensation is critical when baseline kidney function is marginal. We explored the significance of preserved kidney volume (PKV) and known preoperative risk factors for the prediction of unfavorable renal function compensation. METHODS: We enrolled 101 living donors for whom a 1-mm sliced enhanced computed tomography scan was performed preoperatively and clinical data could be collected up to 1 year after donation. The donors whose estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) at 1 year after donation was 70% or higher of baseline eGFR were assigned to the "favorable renal compensation" group and the others to the "unfavorable renal compensation" group. RESULTS: Age, sex, and preoperative serum uric acid level were not significant predictors for "unfavorable renal compensation." Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that body mass index (BMI) and body surface area (BSA)-adjusted PKV were independent preoperative risk factors for "unfavorable renal compensation" (adjusted odds ratio, 1.342 and 0.929, respectively). Hypertension and preoperative eGFR were not independent predictors when adjusted with BMI and BSA-adjusted PKV. Receiver operative characteristic analysis revealed that the predictive equation with the two independent predictors yielded a good accuracy to detect donor candidates with unfavorable renal functional compensation (area under the curve = 0.803), and the optimal cut-off values were identified as 23.4 kg/m2 for BMI and 107.3 cm3/m2 for BSA-adjusted PKV. CONCLUSIONS: BMI and BSA-adjusted PKV may be useful to select candidates with potentially unfavorable renal function compensation before kidney donation.


Assuntos
Seleção do Doador/normas , Transplante de Rim , Rim/anatomia & histologia , Rim/fisiopatologia , Doadores Vivos , Transplantes/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Idoso , Área Sob a Curva , Creatinina/sangue , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Humanos , Rim/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tomografia Computadorizada Multidetectores , Tamanho do Órgão , Período Pós-Operatório , Prognóstico , Curva ROC , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Ácido Úrico/sangue
19.
J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) ; 103(3): 822-835, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30734371

RESUMO

The nutritional quality of rapeseed press cakes (RPCs) in piglet feed is closely linked to its digestibility and the content of glucosinolates. This study investigates the significance of intact glucosinolate (glc) levels and degree of glc transformations on piglets performance. Four different RPCs were made from a low glc (11 µmol/g seed DM) containing B. napus L. seed variety Lioness (RPC-LW, RPC-LXW, RPC-LC, RPC-LCD). RPC made from the variety Excalibur containing the upper level of glc (24 µmol/g seed DM) of double rapeseed and produced at higher and prolonged temperature (RPC-UXW) served as negative control, while soya bean protein concentrate served as positive control. Piglets (8 kg) were fed ad libitum diets balanced for RPC protein content, with RPC inclusion of 84-98 g/kg (day 0-14) and 151-178 g/kg (day 15-50). Glc transformation was reduced from 42% to 24% (7.3-4.2 µmol/g RPC) when the temperature input was lowered in the warm pressing of oil, while the glc loss was less pronounced (17%) when cold pressing was applied. The following feed pelleting process further reduced Glc concentration from 11% to 40% in warm-pressed RPCs and 54 to 85% in cold-pressed RPCs. The RPC products replaced soya bean protein without any negative effects on performance, except for piglets served cold-pressed RPC, which had a reduction in average daily weight gain (ADG) (5%-7%, p < 0.05, Day 15-50). RPC in the feed led to increased liver weight in all piglets (p = 0.026). This may point at long-term effects from feeding with RPC. Intestinal absorption of intact glcs was proven by their detection in urine. In conclusion, warm-pressed RPC can be used as feed for piglet, while the presence of active myrosinase may have a negative effect on performance and cakes should either be included in lower amounts than used in the present study (18%) or include myrosinase inactivation before use.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Brassica rapa/química , Dieta/veterinária , Glucosinolatos/farmacologia , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas na Dieta/química , Proteínas na Dieta/metabolismo , Glucosinolatos/administração & dosagem , Glucosinolatos/química , Glucosinolatos/metabolismo , Rim/anatomia & histologia , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/anatomia & histologia , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Tamanho do Órgão/efeitos dos fármacos , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos , Glândula Tireoide/anatomia & histologia , Glândula Tireoide/efeitos dos fármacos
20.
Clin Exp Nephrol ; 23(5): 629-637, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30635748

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increasing evidence suggests that individuals with low nephron number have an increased lifetime risk of renal insufficiency, thereby emphasizing the importance of evaluating total nephron number in each individual. In recent years, new methods have been described for estimating human total nephron number using a combination of image analysis and renal biopsy, though the reproducibility and accuracy of these methods remain uncertain. This study estimated total nephron number in healthy Japanese subjects using such a method. METHODS: Implantation biopsies from 44 living kidney donors were analyzed. Using pre-donation contrast CT angiograms, transplantation donor kidneys were three-dimensionally reconstructed, and total renal cortical volume was estimated. Total nephron number was estimated based on glomerular density in biopsy specimens and total renal cortical volume. The obtained results were analyzed in relation to clinical variables and compared with those of a previously reported Japanese autopsy study. RESULTS: The estimated non-sclerotic and total numbers of glomeruli in this cohort were 650,000 ± 220,000 and 710,000 ± 220,000 (mean ± SD) per kidney. Non-sclerotic glomerular number ranged from 280,000 to 1,220,000 per kidney (4.4-fold) and correlated directly with eGFR (r = 0.328, p = 0.030) and inversely with age (r = - 0.355, p = 0.018). CONCLUSION: The estimated total nephron number obtained in the present study was 25% less than that reported in American living kidney donors obtained using the same procedure and similar to that obtained in a previous Japanese autopsy study using the disector/fractionator method. These results confirm the feasibility of a combined CT angiography and biopsy-based method to estimate total nephron number in humans.


Assuntos
Rim/anatomia & histologia , Adulto , Idoso , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Biópsia , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada , Feminino , Humanos , Rim/diagnóstico por imagem , Doadores Vivos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
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