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1.
J Bras Nefrol ; 42(2 suppl 1): 22-31, 2020 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32877495

RESUMO

We produced this document to bring pertinent information to the practice of nephrology, as regards to the renal involvement with COVID-19, the management of acute kidney injury cases, and practical guidance on the provision of dialysis support.As information on COVID-19 evolves at a pace never before seen in medical science, these recommendations, although based on recent scientific evidence, refer to the present moment. The guidelines may be updated when published data and other relevant information become available.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/terapia , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Terapia de Substituição Renal/normas , Dispositivos de Acesso Vascular/normas , Lesão Renal Aguda/epidemiologia , Lesão Renal Aguda/etiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Cuidados Críticos , Humanos , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Nefrologia/normas , Doenças Profissionais/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Terapia de Substituição Renal/métodos , Respiração Artificial/efeitos adversos , Sociedades Médicas
2.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 203: 110974, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32888622

RESUMO

Ammonia (NH3), an environmental pollutant, poses a serious threat to human and avian health. Although previous studies have showed that NH3 caused kidney injury, the molecular mechanisms of nephrotoxicity induced by NH3 remain unclear. To explore the mechanisms of NH3 nephrotoxicity, a total of 36 broiler chicks at one day of age were exposed to NH3. After 42 days of exposure, blood samples were collected to determine creatinine and uric acid; and kidney samples were weighted and then collected to detect ultrastructural changes, oxidative stress parameters, ATPases, necroptosis- and mitochondrial dynamics-related genes. The results showed that chickens exposed to NH3 showed lower relative kidney weight and an increase concentration in serum creatinine and uric acid. NH3 exposure caused nephrocyte necrosis and increased the expression of necroptosis-related genes (TNF-α, RIPK1, RIPK3, MLKL, and JNK). Besides, the activities of antioxidant systems (SOD, CAT, GSH-Px, and T-AOC) were reduced, whereas the concentrations of H2O2 and MDA were elevated. Lower activities of ATPases were obtained in NH3 treatment groups. Furthermore, the mitochondrial fission-related genes drp1 and mff were activated, and mitochondrial fusion-related genes opa1, mfn1 and mfn2 were suppressed after NH3 exposure. Based on the above results, we conclude that NH3 caused-oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction mediated nephrocyte necroptosis in chickens. This study may provide new insight into NH3 nephrotoxicity.


Assuntos
Amônia/toxicidade , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Dinâmica Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Necroptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Galinhas , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Rim/ultraestrutura , Testes de Função Renal , Dinâmica Mitocondrial/genética , Tamanho do Órgão/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/genética , Proteína Serina-Treonina Quinases de Interação com Receptores/genética
3.
Life Sci ; 259: 118379, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32890604

RESUMO

With the increasing application of medical imaging contrast materials, contrast-induced nephropathy has become one of the leading causes of iatrogenic renal insufficiency. The underlying mechanism is associated with renal medullary hypoxia, direct toxicity of contrast agents, oxidative stress, apoptosis, immune/inflammation and epigenetic regulation in contrast-induced nephropathy. Up to date, there is no effective therapy for contrast-induced nephropathy, and thus risk predication and effective preventive strategies are keys to reduce the occurrence of contrast-induced nephropathy. It was found that the proper use of contrast medium, personalized hydration, and high-dose statins may reduce the occurrence of contrast-induced nephropathy, while antioxidants have not shown significant therapeutic benefits. Additionally, the role of remote ischemia preconditioning and vasodilators in the prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy needs further study. This review aims to discuss the incidence, pathogenesis, risk prediction, and preventive strategies for contrast-induced nephropathy.


Assuntos
Meios de Contraste/efeitos adversos , Nefropatias/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Nefropatias/prevenção & controle , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos
4.
Chem Biol Interact ; 330: 109245, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866465

RESUMO

The calcineurin inhibitor, cyclosporin A (CsA) is one of the most common immunosuppressive agents used in organ transplantation. However, its clinical use is often limited by several unwanted effects including nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity. By using immunohistochemical and ELISA techniques, it was found that CsA administration causes a rapid activation of a disintegrin and metalloproteases-17 (ADAM-17), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and subsequent ERK1/2 phosphorylation in the liver and kidney of albino mice. Furthermore, this study presents mechanistic relevance of this signaling cascade involving reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated ADAM-17/EGFR/ERK1/2 activation as indicated by a clear reduction in ADAM-17 and EGFR activities as well as ERK1/2 phosphorylation when the animals pretreated with Polyethylene glycol-superoxide dismutase (PEG-SOD) before CsA administration. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that CsA has the ability to activate ADAM-17-mediated EGFR/ERK1/2 phosphorylation in the liver and kidney of albino mice in ROS-dependent manner. Finally, these data may support the concept of using antioxidant therapy as a valuable approach for the prevention of CsA-induced nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity.


Assuntos
Ciclosporina/toxicidade , Rim/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Polietilenoglicóis/farmacologia , Superóxido Dismutase/farmacologia , Proteína ADAM17/metabolismo , Animais , Ciclosporina/farmacologia , Interações Medicamentosas , Receptores ErbB/metabolismo , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
5.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 6409-6420, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32922008

RESUMO

Aim: Tumor cell-derived microparticles (MP) can function as a targeted delivery carrier for anti-tumor drugs. Here, we aimed to generate paclitaxel-loaded microparticles (MP-PTX) from HeLa cells and examined its therapeutic potential on human cervical carcinoma. Methods: MP-PTX was generated from HeLa cells by ultraviolet radiation and subsequent centrifugation. The particle size, drug loading rate, and stability of MP-PTX were examined in vitro. Flow cytometry and the MTT assay were performed to test the inhibitory effect of MP-PTX using different cell lines. Immunodeficient mice bearing HeLa cervical carcinoma were treated with 0.9% normal saline, MP, paclitaxel (PTX) (2.5 mg/kg), or MP-PTX (PTX content identical to PTX group) every day for 6 consecutive days. Tumor volume and animal survival were observed. Micro 18F-FDG PET/CT was performed to monitor the therapeutic efficacy. The proliferation activity of cells and microvessel density in tumor tissues were determined by immunohistochemical staining using Ki-67 and CD31, respectively. Results: Dynamic laser scattering measurements showed that the particle size of MP-PTX was 285.58 ± 2.95 nm and the polydispersity index was 0.104 ± 0.106. And the particle size of MP-PTX was not change at 4°C for at least one week. More than 1% of PTX in the medium could be successfully encapsulated into HeLa cell-derived MP. When compared with PTX, MP-PTX treatment significantly increased apoptosis of tumor cells and reduced their proliferation. In addition, MP-PTX showed lower toxicity to normal human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) than PTX. In vivo studies further demonstrated that MP-PTX treatment significantly inhibited the growth of cervical carcinoma, prolonged the survival of tumor-bearing mice, and reduced the toxicity of PTX. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that MP-PTX treatment led to decreased Ki-67 positive tumor cells and decreased microvessel density in tumor tissues. Conclusion: Our results demonstrated that HeLa-derived MP-PTX significantly enhanced the anti-cancer effects of PTX with reduced toxicity, which may provide a novel strategy for the treatment of cervical carcinoma.


Assuntos
Micropartículas Derivadas de Células/metabolismo , Paclitaxel/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/patologia , Animais , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Micropartículas Derivadas de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Células Endoteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Células HeLa , Humanos , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/metabolismo , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Neovascularização Fisiológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Paclitaxel/farmacologia , Tamanho da Partícula
6.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 582, 2020 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32762646

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Limited data are available on the effect of antiretroviral treatment (ART) or Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) on renal function in Ethiopians. We aimed to assess factors associated with renal function changes during the first year of ART with special focus on TDF. METHODS: HIV positive persons who were ≥ 18 years of age and eligible for ART initiation were recruited. Creatinine measurement to estimate glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and spot urine analyses were performed at baseline and after 3, 6 and 12 months of ART. Univariate and multivariate linear regression and univariate logistic regression were used to determine factors associated with eGFR as continuous and categorical variable respectively. A linear mixed model was used to assess 12 month eGFR difference in TDF and non-TDF based regimen. RESULT: Of 340 ART-naïve HIV patients with baseline renal function tests, 82.3% (279/339) were initiated on a TDF based ART regimen. All patients were on non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI) based ART regimen. The median (IQR) change in eGFR with 12 months of ART was 0.8 (- 11.1; 10.0) ml/min/1.73m2. About 41 and 26.9% of HIV patients had a drop of greater than 3 and 10 mL/min/1.73 m2 in eGFR at 12 month, respectively. However, none of the HIV patients declined to < 60 ml/min/1.73m2 within 12 months. Moreover, none of the HIV patients had persistent proteinuria or glycosuria. Older HIV patients especially age > 45 years and those with unsuppressed viral load at 6 month of ART had a significantly lower eGFR at 12 months of ART initiation. However, there was no difference in 12 month eGFR between HIV patients initiated on TDF based regimen and non-TDF based regimen. CONCLUSION: Renal function remained stable with no difference between HIV patients treated with TDF or non-TDF NNRTI based ART regimen over 12 months. However, older HIV patients and those with unsuppressed viral load deserve special focus on renal monitoring. Data on long-term safety of TDF (> 1 year) is still warranted in this population.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/efeitos adversos , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Tenofovir/efeitos adversos , Tenofovir/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Creatinina/sangue , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por HIV/sangue , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteinúria , Fatores de Risco , Carga Viral , Adulto Jovem
7.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4328, 2020 08 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32859919

RESUMO

The general anesthetic ketamine has been repurposed by physicians as an anti-depressant and by the public as a recreational drug. However, ketamine use can cause extensive pathological changes, including ketamine cystitis. The mechanisms of ketamine's anti-depressant and adverse effects remain poorly understood. Here we present evidence that ketamine is an effective L-type Ca2+ channel (Cav1.2) antagonist that directly inhibits calcium influx and smooth muscle contractility, leading to voiding dysfunction. Ketamine prevents Cav1.2-mediated induction of immediate early genes and transcription factors, and inactivation of Cav1.2 in smooth muscle mimics the ketamine cystitis phenotype. Our results demonstrate that ketamine inhibition of Cav1.2 signaling is an important pathway mediating ketamine cystitis. In contrast, Cav1.2 agonist Bay k8644 abrogates ketamine-induced smooth muscle dysfunction. Indeed, Cav1.2 activation by Bay k8644 decreases voiding frequency while increasing void volume, indicating Cav1.2 agonists might be effective drugs for treatment of bladder dysfunction.


Assuntos
Ketamina/efeitos adversos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Cálcio/metabolismo , Canais de Cálcio Tipo L/efeitos dos fármacos , Canais de Cálcio Tipo L/genética , Proliferação de Células , Cistite/induzido quimicamente , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Músculo Liso/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Liso/metabolismo , Músculo Liso/patologia , Oócitos , Receptores de N-Metil-D-Aspartato/efeitos dos fármacos , Bexiga Urinária/patologia , Xenopus
8.
Aquat Toxicol ; 227: 105583, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32835849

RESUMO

The presence of diclofenac in the aquatic environment and the risks for aquatic wildlife, especially fish, have been raised in several studies. One way to manage risks without enforcing improved wastewater treatment would be to substitute diclofenac (when suitable from a clinical perspective) with another non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) associated with less environmental risk. While there are many ecotoxicity-studies of different NSAIDs, they vary extensively in set-up, species studied, endpoints and reporting format, making direct comparisons difficult. We previously published a comprehensive study on the effects of diclofenac in the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus). Our present aim was to generate relevant effect data for another NSAID (naproxen) using a very similar setup, which also allowed direct comparisons with diclofenac regarding hazards and risks. Sticklebacks were therefore exposed to naproxen in flow-through systems for 27 days. Triplicate aquaria with 20 fish per aquarium were used for each concentration (0, 18, 70, 299 or 1232 µg/L). We investigated bioconcentration, hepatic gene expression, jaw lesions, kidney and liver histology. On day 21, mortalities in the highest exposure concentration group unexpectedly reached ≥ 25 % in all three replicate aquaria, leading us to terminate and sample that group the same day. On the last day (day 27), the mortality was also significantly increased in the second highest exposure concentration group. Increased renal hematopoietic hyperplasia was observed in fish exposed to 299 and 1232 µg/L. This represents considerably higher concentrations than those expected in surface waters as a result of naproxen use. Such effects were observed already at 4.6 µg/L in the experiment with diclofenac (lowest tested concentration). Similar to the responses to diclofenac, a concentration-dependent increase in both relative hepatic gene expression of c7 (complement component 7) and jaw lesions were observed, again at concentrations considerably higher than expected in surface waters. Naproxen bioconcentrated less than diclofenac, in line with the observed effect data. An analysis of recent sales data and reported concentrations in treated sewage effluent in Sweden suggest that despite higher dosages used for naproxen, a complete substitution would only be expected to double naproxen emissions. In summary, naproxen and diclofenac produce highly similar effects in fish but the environmental hazards and risks are clearly lower for naproxen. Hence, if there are concerns for environmental risks to fish with diclofenac, a substitution would be advisable when naproxen presents an adequate alternative from a clinical point-of-view.


Assuntos
Bioacumulação , Diclofenaco/toxicidade , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Naproxeno/toxicidade , Smegmamorpha/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Diclofenaco/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Rim/metabolismo , Rim/patologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Modelos Teóricos , Naproxeno/metabolismo , Smegmamorpha/genética , Suécia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo
9.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237086, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764782

RESUMO

Paramylon is a novel ß-glucan that is stored by Euglena gracilis Z, which is a unicellular photosynthesizing green alga with characteristics of both animals and plants. Recent studies have indicated that paramylon functions as an immunomodulator or a dietary fiber. Currently, chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a global health problem, and there is no effective preventive treatment for CKD progression. However, paramylon may suppress the progression of CKD via the elimination of uremic toxins or modulation of gut microbiota, leading to the alleviation of inflammation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of paramylon in CKD rat model. Eight-week-old male Wistar rats with a 5/6 nephrectomy were given either a normal diet or a diet containing 5% paramylon for 8 weeks. Proteinuria was measured intermittently. Serum and kidney tissues were harvested after sacrifice. We performed a renal molecular and histopathological investigation, serum metabolome analysis, and gut microbiome analysis. The results showed that paramylon attenuated renal function, glomerulosclerosis, tubulointerstitial injury, and podocyte injury in the CKD rat model. Renal fibrosis, tubulointerstitial inflammatory cell infiltration, and proinflammatory cytokine gene expression levels tended to be suppressed with paramylon treatment. Further, paramylon inhibited the accumulation of uremic toxins, including tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle-related metabolites and modulated a part of CKD-related gut microbiota in the CKD rat model. In conclusion, we suggest that paramylon mainly inhibited the absorption of non-microbiota-derived uremic solutes, leading to protect renal injury via anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic effects. Paramylon may be a novel compound that can act against CKD progression.


Assuntos
Glucanos/farmacologia , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Proteinúria/tratamento farmacológico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Oral , Animais , Ciclo do Ácido Cítrico/efeitos dos fármacos , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Euglena gracilis/química , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Glucanos/isolamento & purificação , Glucanos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Absorção Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/microbiologia , Rim/imunologia , Rim/patologia , Masculino , Substâncias Protetoras/isolamento & purificação , Substâncias Protetoras/uso terapêutico , Proteinúria/sangue , Proteinúria/patologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/sangue , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/patologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/urina , Toxinas Biológicas/sangue , Toxinas Biológicas/metabolismo
10.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 203: 111032, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32745774

RESUMO

Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (Np-TiO2) have become the common component of sunscreen cosmetic products. Np-TiO2 can affect especially aquatic ecosystems health, including aquatic organisms such as fish. It is therefore necessary to acquire a better understanding of the effect of Np-TiO2 on aquatic organisms. This study evaluated the biological effects of Np-TiO2 on Danio rerio, such as survival rate and weight change and, in particular, the Ti content or retention in the intestine and liver, as well as the activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase enzymes. In addition, the structure of the intestine, kidney, and liver was investigated through histological analysis. Ninety zebrafish were used, randomly divided into three treatment-groups: a control group (fed with food without adding Np-TiO2) and two groups of fish fed with food containing Np-TiO2 exposed for 7 and 14 days. The amount of Ti in the liver and intestine was measured using atomic absorption spectrophotometry coupled to a graphite furnace (GFAAS). Morphological analysis and enzyme catalase and superoxide dismutase assays were likewise performed. Ti was detected in all fish even in control group; probably Ti must have been introduced during production by the fish food industry. Structural changes were detected in fish fed with Np-TiO2 as vacuolization and disruption of the apical cytoplasm of epithelial cells that covered the intestinal villi. Although kidney morphology appeared intact, the lumen of the proximal tubule was enlarged, and the cells of the distal tubule were vacuolated. No morphological changes in the liver were detected; however, superoxide dismutase activity decreased, suggesting that liver changes occurred at the molecular level. Thus, Np-TiO2 causes morphological changes in the intestine, kidney, and liver of zebrafish and biochemical changes in the liver exposed for 7 and 14 days. Although not highly lethal, Np-TiO2 in the food chain can interfere with the morphophysiology of aquatic organisms. Neither mortalities nor body weight losses were recorded among fish in all groups over the duration of the experiment.


Assuntos
Mucosa Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas/toxicidade , Titânio/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Peixe-Zebra , Animais , Bioacumulação , Catalase , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Ecossistema , Cadeia Alimentar , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/patologia , Rim/metabolismo , Rim/patologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Nanopartículas/metabolismo , Distribuição Aleatória , Protetores Solares/química , Titânio/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo
11.
Chem Biol Interact ; 330: 109114, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32735800

RESUMO

Tebuconazole (TEB) is a broad-spectrum conazole fungicide that has been used in agriculture in the control of foliar and soil-borne diseases of many crops. The present study has investigated the adverse effects of subchronic exposure to TEB on the kidney of male rats. Animals were divided into four equal groups and treated with TEB at increasing doses 0.9, 9 and 27 mg/kg body weight for 28 consecutive days. The results showed that TEB induced oxidative stress in the kidney demonstrated by an increase in malondialdehyde (MDA), protein carbonyl (PC), advanced oxidation protein product (AOPP) levels and DNA damage, as compared to the controls. Furthermore, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities were increased in the renal tissue of treated rats. Moreover, significant decrease in reduced glutathione (GSH) content in TEB-treated rats was observed, while oxidized glutathione (GSSG) levels were increased, thus a marked fall in GSH/GSSG ratio was registered in the kidney. Glutathione reductase (GR) activity showed a significant increase after TEB exposure. Moreover, TEB down-regulated the expression of Bcl2 and up-regulated the expression of Bax and caspase 3, which triggered apoptosis via the Bax/Bcl2 and caspase pathway. Also, TEB administration resulted in altered biochemical indicators of renal function and varying lesions in the overall histo-architecture of renal tissues. Taken together, our findings brought into light the renal toxicity induced by TEB, which was found to be significant at low doses.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/patologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Triazóis/toxicidade , Animais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Fungicidas Industriais/toxicidade , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Glutationa/metabolismo , Dissulfeto de Glutationa/metabolismo , Glutationa Redutase/metabolismo , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/metabolismo , Masculino , Oxirredução , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
12.
Life Sci ; 258: 118178, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32739468

RESUMO

AIMS: Gentamicin (GEN) is one of the most valuable aminoglycoside antibiotics utilized against life-threatening bacterial infections. Unfortunately, GEN-induced nephrotoxicity limited its clinical utility. The pathologic process of nephrotoxicity caused by GEN may involve epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). Resveratrol (RES) is a natural compound was revealed to inhibit EMT in kidney. The present work was conducted to explore the potential renoprotective role of RES on GEN-induced EMT. Moreover, the underlying signaling pathway of this inhibition was investigated. MAIN METHODS: Mice were treated with GEN by intraperitoneal (i.p.) route daily for 15 days to identify EMT onset with regard to GEN-induced nephrotoxicity. To assess the ameliorative role of RES against GEN-induced EMT, RES was i.p. administrated in high and low doses before and concurrently with GEN treatment. KEY FINDINGS: GEN administration significantly deteriorated kidney functions. In addition, reduced glutathione (GSH) content and catalase (CAT) activity were significantly decreased with a concomitant increase in the content of kidney malondialdehyde (MDA) after GEN treatment. Histological changes and deposition of collagen were extensive in renal corpuscles and tubules. Increased expression of alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), transforming growth factor-ß1 (TGF-ß1) and phosphorylated (p)-Smad2 were observed after GEN administration, while E-cadherin expression was decreased. On the contrary, pretreatment with both doses of RES reversed the modifications caused by GEN administration. SIGNIFICANCE: We concluded that EMT contributes to pathogenesis of GEN-induced nephrotoxicity. RES has a protective effect on GEN-induced EMT via suppressing oxidative stress and a possible involvement of TGF-ß/Smad signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/efeitos dos fármacos , Gentamicinas/efeitos adversos , Rim/metabolismo , Rim/patologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Resveratrol/farmacologia , Proteínas Smad/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Animais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Fibrose , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Resveratrol/administração & dosagem , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores de Tempo
13.
Life Sci ; 258: 118196, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32763295

RESUMO

AIM: The pharmacological properties of pentoxifylline have been re-evaluated, particularly in chronic kidney disease in diabetes, favored by its anti-inflammatory action. Definitive evidences of renal outcomes are lacking, which indicates the need for investigation of novel mechanisms of action of pentoxifylline. We postulated that components associated with the metabolism of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) may be modulated by pentoxifylline, which consequently decreases the detrimental effects of obesity on kidneys. MAIN METHODS: C57BL-6J mice were fed a high-fat diet for 14 weeks and treated with 50 mg/kg pentoxifylline during the last 7 weeks. Changes in the renal levels of AGE metabolism-associated components were investigated, with particular focus on the receptor for AGEs (RAGE), its downstream components, and components related to AGE detoxification, including glyoxalase 1 (GLO 1). KEY FINDINGS: Pentoxifylline reduced body weight gain, improved insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance, downregulated biomarkers of glycoxidative stress, and enhanced plasma paraoxonase 1 activity. In the kidneys, pentoxifylline inhibited glomerular expansion, lipid deposition, reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine levels, and induced the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase. Pentoxifylline inhibited the renal accumulation of AGEs and reduced the levels of RAGE and its downstream components, and consequently mitigated oxidative stress and apoptosis. Pentoxifylline also increased the renal levels of GLO 1 and the activities of antioxidant enzymes. Urinary albumin levels were observed to be lowered, which reconfirmed the antialbuminuric effects of pentoxifylline. SIGNIFICANCE: The novel mechanisms of action help explain the renoprotective effects of pentoxifylline and the attenuation of obesity-associated renal complications related to glycoxidative stress.


Assuntos
Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/metabolismo , Glicólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/patologia , Lactoilglutationa Liase/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Pentoxifilina/farmacologia , Receptor para Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/metabolismo , Animais , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos Obesos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
14.
Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue ; 32(7): 819-823, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32788016

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To observe the changes of renal function in critically ill patients after using vancomycin and analyze the renal protective effect of reduced glutathione (GSH) on vancomycin nephrotoxicity. METHODS: The clinical data of patients with severe infection who were administered with vancomycin or plus infusion of GSH admitted to intensive care unit (ICU) of Ruijin Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine from January 2012 to October 2019 were collected during the study period, and the patients were divided into only vancomycin group and vancomycin combined with GSH group. The gender, age, body weight, underlying diseases, clinical diagnosis, severity score, renal function before and after taking the medicine, average daily dose and treatment duration of vancomycin and GSH, length of ICU stay and clinical outcomes were recorded and analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 217 patients were enrolled, with 127 patients in the only vancomycin group, and 90 in the combination with GSH group. There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups in terms of gender, body weight, duration of vancomycin treatment, history of chronic kidney disease, and ICU mortality. The main causes of 217 patients admitted to the ICU were lung infection, sepsis/septic shock, and severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) and so on. The majority of patients in only vancomycin group had lung infections (63.0%), while the main etiology in combination with GSH group was SAP (46.7%). Compared with the only vancomycin group, the acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II (APACHE II) score in the combination with GSH group significantly decreased [15.0 (10.5, 21.0) vs. 27.0 (20.0, 31.0), P < 0.01], but the quick sequential organ failure assessment (qSOFA) score was significantly higher [1.0 (0, 1.0) vs. 0 (0, 0.2), P < 0.01], the basic renal function was poorer [serum creatinine (SCr, µmol/L): 102.0 (64.7, 178.0) vs. 56.0 (42.0, 71.0), blood urea nitrogen (BUN, mmol/L): 11.5 (6.7, 18.4) vs. 4.70 (3.5, 8.1), both P < 0.05], and the average daily dose of vancomycin was lower (mg×kg-1×d-1: 22.22±10.09 vs. 25.51±9.56, P < 0.05). The renal function of patients was getting worse significantly after vancomycin usage as compared with before [SCr (µmol/L): 68.0 (50.3, 103.4) vs. 56.0 (42.0, 71.0), BUN (mmol/L): 5.4 (3.6, 9.6) vs. 4.7 (3.5, 8.1), both P < 0.05]. However, the renal function indexes of the combination with GSH group were better than those before treatment [SCr (µmol/L): 81.0 (61.0, 129.0) vs. 102.0 (64.7, 178.0), P < 0.05; BUN (mmol/L): 8.4 (6.2, 17.8) vs. 11.5 (6.7, 18.4), P > 0.05], and the length of ICU stay was significantly shorter than that in the only vancomycin group [days: 29.0 (14.0, 54.2) vs. 37.0 (25.0, 55.0), P < 0.05]. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of drug-induced renal injury caused by vancomycin is high. The GSH can significantly reduce their renal toxicity and shorten the length of hospital stay.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Glutationa/metabolismo , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Pancreatite , Vancomicina/efeitos adversos , Doença Aguda , China , Estado Terminal , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos
15.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 204: 111061, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32750588

RESUMO

The use of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) in many industrial processes has resulted in serious environmental pollution problems. Cr(VI) causes organ toxicity in animals after ingestion or inhalation. However, the exact mechanism by which Cr(VI) produces kidney damage remains elusive. Herein, we investigated whether Cr(VI)-induced kidney damage is related to the disorder of mitochondrial dynamics. In this study, 28 male rats were divided into four groups and intraperitoneally injected with 0, 2, 4, and 6 mg/kg body weight potassium dichromate for 5 weeks. Experiment included analysis of renal histopathology and ultrastructure, determination of biochemical indicators, and measurement of related protein content. The results showed that Cr(VI) induced kidney injury through promotion of oxidative stress, apoptosis, and disorder of mitochondrial dynamics in a dose-dependent manner. The protein levels of the silent information regulator two ortholog 1 (Sirt1), peroxisome proliferation-activated receptor-g coactivator-1a (PGC-1a), and autophagy-related proteins were significantly decreased after Cr(VI) exposure. These findings suggest that Cr(VI) leads to the disorder of mitochondrial dynamics by inhibiting the Sirt1/PGC-1a pathway, which leads to renal apoptosis and autophagy in rats.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromo/toxicidade , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Dinâmica Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Rim/metabolismo , Rim/ultraestrutura , Nefropatias/induzido quimicamente , Nefropatias/metabolismo , Nefropatias/patologia , Masculino , Dicromato de Potássio/toxicidade , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
16.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235849, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32649695

RESUMO

Nephrotoxicity severely limits the chemotherapeutic efficacy of cisplatin (CDDP). Oxidative stress is associated with CDDP-induced acute kidney injury (AKI). Methylglyoxal (MG) forms advanced glycation end products that elevate oxidative stress. We aimed to explore the role of MG and its metabolite D-lactate and identify the proteins involved in CDDP-induced AKI. Six-week-old female BALB/c mice were intraperitoneally administered CDDP (5 mg/kg/day) for 3 or 5 days. Blood urea nitrogen (42.6 ± 7.4 vs. 18.3 ± 2.5; p < 0.05) and urinary N-acetyl-ß-D-glucosaminide (NAG; 4.89 ± 0.61 vs. 2.43 ± 0.31 U/L; p < 0.05) were significantly elevated in the CDDP 5-day group compared to control mice. Histological analysis confirmed AKI was successfully induced. Confocal microscopy revealed TNF-α was significantly increased in the CDDP 5-day group. Fluorogenic derivatized liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (FD-LC-MS/MS) showed the kidney MG (36.25 ± 1.68 vs. 18.95 ± 2.24 mg/g protein, p < 0.05) and D-lactate (1.78 ± 0.29 vs. 1.12 ± 0.06 mol/g protein, p < 0.05) contents were significantly higher in the CDDP 5-day group than control group. FD-LC-MS/MS proteomics identified 33 and nine altered peaks in the CDDP 3-day group and CDDP 5-day group (vs. control group); of the 35 proteins identified using the MOSCOT database, 11 were antioxidant-related. Western blotting confirmed that superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD-1) and parkinson disease protein 7 (DJ-1) are upregulated and may participate with MG in CDDP-induced AKI. This study demonstrates TNF-α, MG, SOD-1 and DJ-1 play crucial roles in CDDP-induced AKI.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/induzido quimicamente , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Cisplatino/efeitos adversos , Ácido Láctico/análise , Aldeído Pirúvico/análise , Lesão Renal Aguda/metabolismo , Lesão Renal Aguda/patologia , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida , Feminino , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/metabolismo , Rim/patologia , Ácido Láctico/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Aldeído Pirúvico/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
17.
Life Sci ; 257: 118004, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32621918

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) often develop acute kidney injury (AKI) caused by myocardial ischemia reperfusion (MI/R), and this renal injury can be resolved notably by dexmedetomidine. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress was reported to get involved in organ injury including AKI. OBJECTIVES: The current study aimed to address the correlation between MI/R induced AKI with ER stress and to assess the effects of dexmedetomidine pretreatment on AKI protection. METHOD: Patients selected for heart valve replacement surgery were randomly assigned to NS group (pre-anesthesia with 0.9% NaCl) and DEX group (pre-anesthesia with dexmedetomidine). Rat MI/R model was induced by occluding coronary artery for 30 min followed by 48-hour reperfusion. Rats were randomized into Sham (0.9% NaCl), I/R (MI/R + 0.9% NaCl) and I/R + DEX (MI/R + dexmedetomidine). Organ function and ER stress condition were evaluated by blood chemistry, pathology, and molecular test. RESULTS: Clinical data indicated dexmedetomidine pretreatment attenuated AKI and oxidative stress as well as postischemic myocardial injury in patients. Accordingly animal results suggested dexmedetomidine reduced cellular injury and improved postischemic myocardial and renal function. Dexmedetomidine also reduced myocardial and renal cells apoptosis and down-regulated ER stress. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggested that dexmedetomidine pretreatment attenuates MI/R injury-induced AKI by relieving the ER stress.


Assuntos
Dexmedetomidina/farmacologia , Isquemia Miocárdica/tratamento farmacológico , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica/tratamento farmacológico , Lesão Renal Aguda/metabolismo , Lesão Renal Aguda/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , China , Dexmedetomidina/metabolismo , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Isquemia/metabolismo , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Isquemia Miocárdica/metabolismo , Reperfusão Miocárdica/métodos , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica/patologia , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Estudos Prospectivos , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
18.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(27): e20749, 2020 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32629651

RESUMO

Dimethylformamide (DMF) is widely used as a solvent in the production of synthetic leather. Previous studies have focused on workers exposed to DMF in leather factories; however, little attention has been paid to the general population. This study was conducted to examine the effects of DMF exposure on elderly residents living near synthetic leather factories. A total of 962 subjects over 60 years of age in proximity to these factories (monitoring points) were enrolled as the exposure group, and 1924 permanent residents living distant from the factories were enrolled as the control group. The exposure group was divided into 3 groups according to their distance from the monitoring points. Physical examination, routine blood tests, and liver and renal function data were collected, and the DMF concentration in the air was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. The prevalence of abnormal heart rhythm, electrocardiogram and B-mode ultrasound results in the exposure group was significantly greater than in the control group. Aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels in the exposure group also were higher than those in the control group (P < .01). There was an effect of distance from leather factories on liver and kidney dysfunction in the 3 exposure groups. Compared with the exposure group at >3 km distance from the source, the prevalence of increased AST, ALT, and BUN in the exposure group at <1 km was significantly greater (P < .001). It was concluded that DMF exposure was related to an increased risk of a cardiac injury and liver and kidney dysfunction.


Assuntos
Dimetilformamida/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Aspartato Aminotransferases/sangue , Nitrogênio da Ureia Sanguínea , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Rim/fisiologia , Fígado/fisiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Curtume
19.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 4691-4703, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32636625

RESUMO

Purpose: Gd-encapsulated carbonaceous dots (Gd@C-dots) have excellent stability and magnetic properties without free Gd leakage, therefore they can be considered as a safe alternative T1 contrast agent to commonly used Gd complexes. To improve their potential for cancer diagnosis and treatment, affibody-modified Gd@C-dots targeting non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) EGFR-positive tumors with enhanced renal clearance were developed and synthesized. Materials and Methods: Gd@C-dots were developed and modified with Ac-Cys-ZEGFR:1907 through EDC/NHS. The size, morphology, and optical properties of the Gd@C-dots and Gd@C-dots-Cys-ZEGFR:1907 were characterized. Targeting ability was evaluated by in vitro and in vivo experiments, respectively. Residual gadolinium concentration in major organs was detected with confocal imaging and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) ex vivo. H&E staining was used to assess the morphology of these organs. Results: Gd@C-dots with nearly 20 nm in diameter were developed and modified with Ac-Cys-ZEGFR:1907. EGFR expression in HCC827 cells was higher than NCI-H520. In cell uptake assays, EGFR-expressing HCC827 cells exhibited significant MR T1WI signal enhancement when compared to NCI-H520 cells. Cellular uptake of Gd@C-dots-Cys-ZEGFR:1907 was reduced, when Ac-Cys-ZEGFR:1907 was added. In vivo targeting experiments showed that the probe signal was significantly higher in HCC827 than NCI-H520 xenografts at 1 h after injection. In contrast to Gd@C-dots, Gd@C-dots-Cys-ZEGFR:1907 nanoparticles can be efficiently excreted through renal clearance. No morphological changes were observed by H&E staining in the major organs after injection of Gd@C-dots-Cys-ZEGFR:1907. Conclusion: Gd@C-dots-Cys-ZEGFR:1907 is a high-affinity EGFR-targeting probe with efficient renal clearance and is therefore a promising contrast agent for clinical applications such as diagnosis and treatment of NSCLC EGFR-positive malignant tumors.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/diagnóstico por imagem , Meios de Contraste/farmacocinética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Pontos Quânticos/química , Animais , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Meios de Contraste/química , Receptores ErbB/metabolismo , Feminino , Gadolínio/química , Gadolínio/farmacocinética , Humanos , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Camundongos Nus , Nanopartículas/química , Distribuição Tecidual , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
20.
Biomed Res Int ; 2020: 1594726, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32626733

RESUMO

Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common complication of sepsis and has also been observed in some patients suffering from the new coronavirus pneumonia COVID-19, which is currently a major global concern. Thymoquinone (TQ) is one of the most active ingredients in Nigella sativa seeds. It has a variety of beneficial properties including anti-inflammatory and antioxidative activities. Here, we investigated the possible protective effects of TQ against kidney damage in septic BALB/c mice. Eight-week-old male BALB/c mice were divided into four groups: control, TQ, cecal ligation and puncture (CLP), and TQ+CLP. CLP was performed after 2 weeks of TQ gavage. After 48 h, we measured the histopathological alterations in the kidney tissue and the serum levels of creatinine (CRE) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN). We also evaluated pyroptosis (NLRP3, caspase-1), apoptosis (caspase-3, caspase-8), proinflammatory (TNF-α, IL-1ß, and IL-6)-related protein and gene expression levels. Our results demonstrated that TQ inhibited CLP-induced increased serum CRE and BUN levels. It also significantly inhibited the high levels of NLRP3, caspase-1, caspase-3, caspase-8, TNF-α, IL-1ß, and IL-6 induced by CLP. Furthermore, NF-κB protein level was significantly decreased in the TQ+CLP group than in the CLP group. Together, our results indicate that TQ may be a potential therapeutic agent for sepsis-induced AKI.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Lesão Renal Aguda/etiologia , Benzoquinonas/uso terapêutico , Sepse/complicações , Sepse/tratamento farmacológico , Lesão Renal Aguda/patologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Betacoronavirus , Nitrogênio da Ureia Sanguínea , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Creatinina/sangue , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/metabolismo , Rim/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico
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