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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e256817, 2024. tab, mapas, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364511

RESUMO

The basic aim of this study was aimed to determine the ichthyofaunal diversity of River Panjkora in both upper and lower Dir districts in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan.Fish samples were collected by using fishnets from March to September 2020. A total of 724 specimens were collected and classified into 5 families, 14 genera, and 18 species. The overall results revealed that most fish fauna of river Panjkora contains 8 species of family Cyprinidae (56.49%) followed by 4 species of Nemacheilidae (24.44%), 2 species of Channidae (10.63%), and Sisoridae (7.04%), and 1 species of Mastacembelidae (1.38%), respectively. Among all kinds of fish species, Schizothorax plagiostomus (16.57%) was highly dominated and followed by Carassius auratus (11.87%) and Racoma labiata (9.66%) and were reported as highly abundant, especially during April, May, and June. The least abundant species were Glyptothorax punjabensis, Glyptothorax sufii, and Mastacembelus armatus, that constituting 2.48%, 2.20%, and 1.38% of the total fish samples. The Overall Simpson's diversity (1-D= 0.919) and Simpson's Reciprocal index values (1/D= 12.3876), and Shannon's index (H= 2.68) were indicating that river Panjkora contains a quite rich and diverse group of fish species. The highest microplastics observed in site 7 compared to other study area. Conservation steps should be taken as a top priority to protect and conserve the marine environment and natural heritage from further loss, extinction and stop or minimize losses incurred through irresponsible fishery practices


O objetivo básico deste estudo foi determinar a diversidade ictiofaunística do rio Panjkora nos distritos de Lower e Upper de Dir, na província de Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, no Paquistão. Amostras de peixes foram coletadas com redes de arrasto de março a setembro de 2020. Foram coletados 724 espécimes, classificados em 5 famílias, 14 gêneros e 18 espécies. Os resultados gerais revelaram que a maioria da ictiofauna do rio Panjkora contém 8 espécies da família Cyprinidae (56,49%), seguidas por 4 espécies de Nemacheilidae (24,44%), 2 espécies de Channidae (10,63%) e Sisoridae (7,04%) e 1 espécie de Mastacembelidae (1,38%). Entre todas as espécies de peixes, Schizothorax plagiostomus (16,57%) foi altamente predominante, seguida por Carassius auratus (11,87%) e Racoma labiata (9,66%), e elas foram relatadas como altamente abundantes, especialmente nos meses de abril, maio e junho. As espécies menos abundantes foram Glyptothorax punjabensis, Glyptothorax sufii e Mastacembelus armatus, que constituíram 2,48%, 2,20% e 1,38%, respectivamente, do total de peixes amostrados. O índice de diversidade de Simpson (1-D = 0,919), o índice recíproco de Simpson (1/D = 12,3876) e o índice de Shannon (H = 2,68) indicaram que o rio Panjkora contém um grupo bastante rico e diversificado de espécies de peixes. Os microplásticos mais altos foram observados no local 7 em comparação com outra área de estudo. Medidas de conservação devem ser tomadas como prioridade máxima para proteger e conservar o ambiente marinho e o patrimônio natural de novas perdas e extinção e para parar ou minimizar as perdas ocorridas por práticas de pesca irresponsáveis.


Assuntos
Animais , Biodiversidade , Rios , Poluição Ambiental , Peixes , Microplásticos , Paquistão
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e251197, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1350305

RESUMO

Abstract Birds are among the best bio-indicators, which can guide us to recognize some of the main conservation concerns in ecosystems. Anthropogenic impacts such as deforestation, habitat degradation, modification of landscapes, and decreased quality of habitats are major threats to bird diversity. The present study was designed to detect anthropogenic causative agents that act on waterbird diversity in Tarbella Dam, Indus River, Pakistan. Waterbird censuses were carried out from March 2019 to February 2020 in multiple areas around the dam. A total of 2990 waterbirds representing 63 species were recorded. We detected the highest waterbird richness and diversity at Pehure whereas the highest density was recorded at Kabbal. Human activity impacts seemed to be the main factor determining the waterbird communities as waterbirds were negatively correlated with the greatest anthropogenic impacts. Waterbirds seem to respond rapidly to human disturbance.


Resumo As aves estão entre os melhores bioindicadores, o que pode nos orientar a reconhecer algumas das principais preocupações de conservação dos ecossistemas. Impactos antrópicos como desmatamento, degradação de habitat, modificação de paisagens e diminuição da qualidade dos habitats são as principais ameaças à diversidade de aves. O presente estudo foi desenhado para detectar agentes causadores antropogênicos que atuam na diversidade de aves aquáticas na Represa de Tarbella, rio Indus, Paquistão. Censos de aves aquáticas foram realizados de março de 2019 a fevereiro de 2020 em várias áreas ao redor da barragem. Um total de 2.990 aves aquáticas representando 63 espécies foi registrado. Detectamos a maior riqueza e diversidade de aves aquáticas em Pehure, enquanto a maior densidade foi registrada em Kabbal. Os impactos da atividade humana parecem ser o principal fator determinante das comunidades de aves aquáticas, uma vez que as aves aquáticas foram negativamente correlacionadas com os maiores impactos antrópicos. As aves aquáticas parecem responder rapidamente às perturbações humanas.


Assuntos
Humanos , Ecossistema , Rios , Paquistão , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e254252, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355876

RESUMO

Abstract Indian major carps are the widely consumed fish species of Pakistan, being a cheap source of proteins and unsaturated fatty acids, they are good for cardiovascular health. Water pollution due to discharge of untreated industrial waste water into water bodies contaminates this precious source of nutrients. The present study therefore, was aimed to assess deterioration of fatty acid profile of three Indian major carp species due to different concentrations of industrial wastes. The water samples were collected from the river Chenab at the site where it receives industrial wastewater via Chakbandi drain. After exposure to 1.5%, 3.0%, and 4.5% dilutions of collected water in different aquaria it was observed that proportion of unsaturated fatty acids in selected fish species were decreased significantly as the intensity of the dose increased (P < 0.05). Conversely the level of saturated fatty acids increased with the increasing dose of treatment (P < 0.05). These findings suggest that untreated wastewater not only deteriorate the fatty acid profile of aquatic animals but also these toxic substances can reach human body through fish meat and pose further health hazards. Therefore, it is highly recommended that industrial effluents should be treated before they are dumped into water bodies.


Resumo As carpas indianas são as espécies de peixes mais consumidas no Paquistão, sendo uma fonte barata de proteínas e de ácidos graxos insaturados e boa para a saúde cardiovascular. A poluição da água por causa do descarte de resíduos industriais não tratados em corpos d'água contamina essa preciosa fonte de nutrientes. Portanto, o presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a deterioração do perfil de ácidos graxos de três principais espécies de carpas indianas em diferentes concentrações de resíduos industriais. As amostras de água foram coletadas do rio Chenab no local onde recebe esgoto industrial via dreno de Chakbandi. Após a exposição a diluições de 1,5%, 3% e 4,5% da água coletada em diferentes aquários, foi observado que a proporção de ácidos graxos insaturados em espécies de peixes selecionadas diminuiu significativamente com o aumento da intensidade da dose (P < 0,05). Por outro lado, o nível de ácidos graxos saturados aumentou com a elevação da dose de tratamento (P < 0,05). Essas descobertas sugerem que águas residuais não tratadas não apenas deterioram o perfil de ácidos graxos dos animais aquáticos, mas também essas substâncias tóxicas podem atingir o corpo humano por meio da carne de peixe e representar mais riscos à saúde. Portanto, é recomendável que os efluentes industriais sejam tratados antes de serem despejados em corpos d'água.


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Carpas , Indústria Têxtil , Rios , Ácidos Graxos
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e251566, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355890

RESUMO

Abstract The Seybouse is the second largest river basin in Algeria, hosting an important biodiversity and providing various ecosystem services. This watershed is highly influenced by agricultural and industrial activities, which threaten its biodiversity and ecosystem integrity. The use of benthic macroinvertebrates as biological indicators has a long tradition in developed countries and integrated into all assessments of the ecological quality of river systems. However, the macroinvertebrates of many North African regions are still not well studied, including those of the Seybouse river. The aim of this study is to assess the inventory and ecological role of benthic macroinvertebrates in inland waters of the Seybouse River and determine the impact of pollution on their spatial distributions. We sampled the benthic macrofauna of Wadi Seybouse and its affluents using regular surveys in three sites, of which one was in the upper Seybouse Bouhamdane in Medjez Amar and two in the middle Seybouse. Between December 2019 and May 2020, 10 physico-chemical parameters (pH, EC, OD, water speed, NO3, Salinity, NO2, MES, turbidity, depth) were measured in order to establish a health state diagnosis of these aquatic ecosystems. The complementary biological approach by the analysis of populations of macroinvertebrates identified 7482 individuals and 40 taxa divided into five classes: Crustaceans which were the most dominant, insects with the main orders (Ephemeroptera, Diptera, Trichoptera, Heteroptera and Odonata), Molluscs, Nematodes and Annelids. The physico-chemical analyzes and the application of the organic pollution indices indicated a strong to excessive pollution for all sites, especially in Seybouse upstream


Resumo O Seybouse é um rio no nordeste da Argélia, é o segundo maior rio, tem uma área de captação de cerca de 6.500 km2 que acolhe cerca de 1,5 milhões de habitantes. Importantes atividades agrícolas e industriais são desenvolvidas nesta bacia hidrográfica. O uso de macroinvertebrados bentônicos como indicadores biológicos tem uma longa tradição em países desenvolvidos e está integrado em todas as avaliações da qualidade ecológica dos sistemas fluviais. O objetivo deste estudo foi revisar o inventário e o papel ecológico dos macroinvertebrados bentônicos nas águas interiores do rio Seybouse e determinar o impacto da poluição em suas distribuições. Resultados semelhantes foram relatados para outros países e rios argelinos. Este estudo enfoca a macrofauna bentônica de Wadi Seybouse e seus afluentes. Foram prospectados 03 locais, um no alto Seybousse Bouhamdane em Medjez Amar e dois no meio Seybousse Salah Salah Salah e Oued Zimba. Entre dezembro de 2019 e maio de 2020, dez parâmetros físico-químicos (pH, CE, DO, velocidade da água, NO3, Salinidade, NO2, MES, turbidez, deth) foram medidos para estabelecer um diagnóstico do estado de saúde desses ecossistemas aquáticos. A abordagem biológica complementar pela análise de populações de macroinvertebrados identificou 7.482 indivíduos e 40 táxons divididos em cinco classes: Crustáceos que são os mais dominantes, Insetos com as ordens principais (Ephemeroptera, Diptera, Trichoptera, Heteroptera e Odonata), Moluscos, Nematóides e Anelídeos. As análises físico-químicas e a aplicação dos índices de poluição orgânica, indicaram uma poluição forte a excessiva para todos os locais especialmente Salah Salah Salah.


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Ecossistema , Invertebrados , Monitoramento Ambiental , Biodiversidade , Rios
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253497, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355892

RESUMO

Abstract This research aimed to estimate the length-weight ratio (LWR) of the stingray Potamotrygon wallacei, known locally as the cururu, which was caught in streams and lakes in the middle Negro River region, Amazonas, Brazil. The stingrays were captured during the night (from 11 pm to 1 am) near the shores of streams and lakes, through active search using wooden canoes, head lanterns and scoop nets. The samplings were carried out in November 2017 (5 days), February (8 days), March (3 days) and April (2 days) of 2018, totaling 18 days of sampling. The total fresh weight was measured to 0.1 g of accuracy and the disc width to 0.1 cm accuracy. The parameters a and b of the equation W=a.DWb were estimated. This study provides new maximum length data for the cururu stingray.


Resumo Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo estimar a relação peso-comprimento (LWR) da arraia Potamotrygon wallacei, conhecida localmente como cururu, que foi capturada em igarapés e lagos na região do médio Rio Negro, Amazonas, Brasil. As arraias foram capturadas durante a noite (das 23h-1h) nas margens dos igarapés e lagos, por meio de busca ativa utilizando canoas de madeira, lanternas de cabeça e puçás. As coletas foram realizadas nos meses de novembro de 2017 (5 dias), fevereiro (8 dias), março (3 dias) e abril (2 dias) de 2018, totalizando 18 dias de amostragem. Foram medidos o peso fresco total com precisão de 0,01 g e a largura do disco com precisão de 0,1 cm. Os parâmetros a e b da equação W= a.DWb foram estimados. Este estudo prover novos dados de comprimento máximo para a arraia cururu.


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Rajidae , Rosa , Afro-Americanos , Brasil , Rios
6.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253852, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355905

RESUMO

Abstract The aim objective of this study was to determine the trophic ecology of juvenile and adult Acestrorhynchus falcirostris during the rising and flood (high-water) period in six island lakes adjacent to the Solimões River. As such, we investigated: i) the trophic position, through the fractional trophic niche; ii) the niche breadth; iii) niche overlap and iv) the food strategy of the species. The specimens were collected during the years 2014 to 2017, using gillnets with mesh sizes ranging from 30 to 120mm between opposite knots. Through the analysis of stomach contents, the preference in the consumption of items of animal origin was observed. Juveniles consumed insects in greater proportions (IAi% = 50%), while adults consumed fish (IAi%=99,98%). Despite the large supply of food items available in the high-water period, juveniles were the only ones to consume items of allochthonous origin, such as insects. Juveniles presented a different dietary strategy and dietary composition to adults. Juveniles were omnivores with a generalist strategy, while adults were piscivores with a specialist strategy. Thus, the food composition, niche breadth, trophic position and feeding strategy of Acestrorhynchus falcirostris change due to the stage of development.


Resumo O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a ecologia trófica de juvenis e adultos de Acestrorhynchus falcirostris durante o período de enchente e cheia em seis lagos de ilha adjacentes ao rio Solimões. Assim, investigamos: i) a posição trófica, através do nicho trófico fracional; ii) a largura de nicho; iii) sobreposição de nicho; iv) a estratégia alimentar. Os espécimes foram coletados durante os anos de 2014 a 2017, utilizando redes de emalhar com malha variando de 30 a 120mm entre nós opostos. Por meio da análise do conteúdo estomacal, observamos a preferência no consumo de itens de origem animal. Os juvenis consumiram insetos em maiores proporções (IAi% = 50%), enquanto os adultos consumiram preferencialmente peixes (IAi% = 99,98%). Apesar da grande oferta de alimentos disponíveis no período da cheia, os juvenis eram os únicos a consumir itens de origem alóctone, como por exemplo, os insetos. Os juvenis apresentaram uma estratégia alimentar e composição alimentar diferente para os adultos. Os juvenis foram considerados onívoros com uma estratégia generalista, enquanto os adultos foram considerados piscívoros com uma estratégia alimentar mais especialista. Assim, a composição alimentar, amplitude do nicho, posição trófica e a estratégia alimentar de Acestrorhynchus falcirostris muda em função do estágio de desenvolvimento.


Assuntos
Animais , Rios , Caraciformes , Estações do Ano , Lagos , Ecossistema , Cadeia Alimentar , Peixes , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal
7.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e242922, 2023. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1350302

RESUMO

Abstract Seven hundred and twenty four fish specimens were captured from March to September 2016. The materials used in the current study were cast nets, hand nets. Eight cyprinid fish species were studied for their length-weight relationships. Parameter b in the LWR was 3.03, 3.06, 3.02, 2.29, 2.82, 3.43, 2.73 and 2.47 for Schizothorax plagiostomus, Schizothorax esocinus, Racoma labiata, Tor putitora, Barilius vagra, Garra gotyla, Puntius ticto and Arassius auratus respectively. Current study is the first attempt on the LWRs of cyprinid species, provide a baseline approach for conservation and /management of local fish fauna of economic importance.


Resumo Um total de 724 espécimes de peixes foi capturado de março a setembro de 2016. Os materiais usados ​​no presente estudo foram redes de lançamento, redes de mão. Oito espécies de peixes ciprinídeos foram estudadas quanto às suas relações peso/comprimento. O parâmetro b no LWR foi 3,03, 3,06, 3,02, 2,29, 2,82, 3,43, 2,73 e 2,47 para Schizothorax plagiostomus, Schizothorax esocinus, Racoma labiata, Tor putitora, Barilius vagra, Garra gotyla, Puntius ticto e Arassius auratus respectivamente. O estudo atual é a primeira tentativa sobre os LWRs de espécies de ciprinídeos, fornecendo uma abordagem de base para a conservação e o manejo da ictiofauna local de importância econômica.


Assuntos
Animais , Cyprinidae , Rios , Paquistão
8.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e250000, 2023. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339398
9.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e250003, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339392

RESUMO

Abstract This study estimated the length-weight relationships of 16 fish species occurring close to the shores of sandy beaches along the lower Negro River basin, Brazilian Amazon. The specimens were captured for one day each month, in October to November 2016, early in the morning and early evening, using trawl net (20 m taken for standard length (SL - 0.1 cm precision) and total weight (TW - 0.01 g precision). The parameters a and b of the equation WT = a.LTb were estimated. The a values ranged from 0.0018 to 0.0226 and b values ranged from 2.5271 to 3.3244. This study also provides new data on of maximum lengths for six species, Amazonsprattus scintilla, Brycon pesu, Moenkhausia megalops, Pachyurus paucirastrus, Reganella depressa and Trachydoras microstomus, and new reports of the LWRs parameters of 15 fish species.


Resumo Este estudo estimou as relações comprimento-peso de 16 espécies de peixes que ocorrem às margens de praias arenosas ao longo da bacia do baixo Rio Negro, Amazônia brasileira. As espécies foram capturadas durante um dia de cada mês, de outubro a novembro de 2016, no início da manhã e no início da noite, usando rede de cerco (20 m de comprimento e 3,5 m de altura, 5 malha mm entre nós opostos). As medidas foram feitas para comprimento padrão (SL - precisão de 0,1 cm) e peso total (TW - precisão de 0,01 g). Os parâmetros a e b da equação WT = a.LTb foram estimados. Os valores de a variaram de 0,0018 a 0,0226 e os valores de b variaram de 2,5271 a 3,3244. Este estudo também fornece novos dados sobre comprimentos máximos para seis espécies, Amazonsprattus scintilla, Brycon pesu, Moenkhausia megalops, Pachyurus paucirastrus, Reganella depressa e Trachydoras microstomus, e novos reportes dos parâmetros da LWRs de 15 espécies de peixes.


Assuntos
Animais , Perciformes , Caraciformes , Characidae , Brasil , Rios
10.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e247913, 2023. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278555

RESUMO

Abstract The aim of this paper was recording the occurrence of the species Lumbriculus variegatus (Müller, 1774) (Oligochaeta, Lumbriculidae) in lotic systems of the State of São Paulo. Specimens were collected in Sapucaí River, located in Campos do Jordão State Park. The mapping of geographical distribution of this species is of interest to public health since L. variegatus may be an intermediate host of Dioctophyme renale (Goeze, 1782) (Nematoda, Dioctophymatidae), a parasite of recognized zoonotic potential. Distribution data serves as a basis for environmental monitoring and evaluation, being essential to map possible cases of the disease (Dioctophimosis) and provide information to health professionals.


Resumo O objetivo deste trabalho foi registrar a ocorrência de Lumbriculus variegatus (Müller, 1774) (Oligochaeta, Lumbriculidae) em um sistema lótico do Estado de São Paulo. Os espécimes foram coletados no rio Sapucaí, localizado no Parque Estadual de Campos do Jordão. O mapeamento da distribuição geográfica desta espécie é de interesse para saúde pública uma vez que L. variegatus pode ser um hospedeiro intermediário de Dioctophyme renale (Goeze, 1782) (Nematoda, Dioctophymatidae), parasito de reconhecido potencial zoonótico. Dados de distribuição servem de base para monitoramento e avaliação ambiental, sendo essenciais para mapear possíveis casos da doença (Dioctofimose) e fornecer informações para profissionais de saúde.


Assuntos
Animais , Oligoquetos , Nematoides , Brasil , Monitoramento Ambiental , Rios
11.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e247384, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278539

RESUMO

Abstract The colonization pattern of fish assemblages in streams is often studied in the context of environmental filters. On the other hand, when fish assemblages are subjected to anthropogenic effects, variables associated with environmental quality assume more importance. Therefore, this work evaluated the richness and composition of fish from streams sampled at different urbanization levels, aiming to determine any direct effects on the structure of fish assemblages. To accomplish this, samples were collected from 2003 to 2011 at 31 sites distributed among 3 microbasins in the Rio Ivinhema Basin, Alto Rio Paraná. Based on environmental variables, physicochemical of the water and analysis of the use and occupation of the soil, the microbasins were classified into different urbanization levels (low, medium and high). A total of 4,320 individuals were sampled, out of which 57 fish species were recorded. Sampled sites with medium urbanization level presented higher richness compared to sampled sites with high urbanization level which presented lower richness. Species richness in these sites was explained mainly by water temperature and water velocity. Results confirmed that urbanization does directly affect environmental integrity, which, in turn, can lead to the homogenization of stream assemblages.


Resumo Estudos sobre assembleias de peixes em riachos enfatizam o papel dos filtros ambientais associados ao padrão de colonização das assembleias, por outro lado, quando a assembleia está sujeita aos efeitos antropogênicos, as variáveis ambientais associadas à qualidade ambiental assumem maior importância. Dessa forma, o objetivo deste estudo foi analisar a riqueza e a composição de peixes de riachos amostrados em diferentes níveis de urbanização, buscando evidenciar se o efeito reflete diretamente na estrutura das assembleias. As amostragens foram realizadas em 31 locais distribuídos em três microbacias na bacia Rio Ivinhema, Alto Rio Paraná, no período de 2003 a 2011. Com base nas variáveis ambientais, físico-químicos da água e análise do uso e ocupação do solo as microbacias foram classificadas em diferentes níveis de urbanização (baixo, médio e alto). Foram amostrados um total 4.320 indivíduos, dos quais foram registradas 57 espécies de peixes. Os locais amostrados com influência média da urbanização apresentaram maior riqueza de espécies, entretanto, os locais amostrados com alta influência da urbanização apresentaram menor riqueza de espécies. Dessa forma, constatamos que a urbanização influencia diretamente na integridade ambiental, que pode levar a homogeneização das assembleias de riachos.


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Urbanização , Rios , Solo , Brasil , Ecossistema , Peixes
12.
J Hazard Mater ; 441: 129879, 2023 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36084464

RESUMO

Rivers play a critical role in the global carbon cycle, but the processes can be affected by widespread microplastic (MP) pollution and the increasing frequency of heat waves (HWs) in a warming climate. However, little is known about the role of river microbes in regulating the carbon cycle under the combined action of MP pollution and HWs. Here, through seven-day MP exposure and three cycles of HW simulation experiments, we found that MPs inhibited the thermal adaptation of the microbial community, thus regulating carbon metabolism. The CO2 release level increased, while the carbon degradation ability and the preference for stable carbon were inhibited. Metabonomic, 16 S rRNA and ITS gene analyses further revealed that the regulation of carbon metabolism was closely related to the microbial r-/K- strategy, community assembly and transformation of keystone taxa. The random forest model revealed that dissolved oxygen and ammonia-nitrogen were important variables influencing microbial carbon metabolism. The above findings regarding microbe-mediated carbon metabolism provide insights into the effect of climate-related HWs on the ecological risks of MPs.


Assuntos
Microplásticos , Rios , Amônia , Carbono , Dióxido de Carbono , Temperatura Alta , Microplásticos/toxicidade , Nitrogênio , Oxigênio , Plásticos
13.
Rev. biol. trop ; 70(1)dic. 2022.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-1387722

RESUMO

Resumen Introducción: La diversidad de una comunidad biológica es el resultado de procesos ecológicos e históricos, los cuales, analizados en conjunto, producen una mejor comprensión de las causas que la generan. Objetivo: Actualizamos y analizamos la diversidad específica y taxonómica de la ictiofauna del río Amacuzac, México. Métodos: Durante cinco temporadas de muestreo (2019-2020), recolectamos peces de diez sitios en el río y aplicamos un análisis de conglomerados a las variables del hábitat. Resultados: Recolectamos 7 638 individuos, siete de especies nativas y nueve no nativas, incluyendo Copadichromis borleyi, un nuevo registro para el Amacuzac. La riqueza por sitio osciló entre ocho y 13 especies. Las variables del hábitat definieron cuatro grupos. Las especies más abundantes fueron: Poeciliopsis gracilis, Poecilia maylandi y Amatitlania nigrofasciata. Las especies menos abundantes fueron: Pterygoplichtys pardalis, Ilyodon whitei, Copadichromis borleyi e Ictalurus punctatus. Las especies más relevantes fueron: A. nigrofasciata, Amphilophus istlanus, Andinoacara rivulatus, Notropis boucardi, Oreochormis sp., P. maylandi, P. gracilis y Thorichthys maculipinis. Las especies más restringidas fueron: Atherinella balsana, C. borleyi e I. punctatus. Conclusiones: Las especies en peligro de extinción, A. istlanus y N. boucardi, aun prevalecen en el río. Además, se muestra un aumento en el número de especies no nativas. Analizar la diversidad desde dos perspectivas, aporta una visión más completa de los cambios que se dan en el Río Amacuzac como consecuencia del establecimiento de especies, información que es importante para futuras estrategias de conservación.


Abstract Introduction: The diversity of a biological community is the result of ecological and historical processes, which, when analyzed jointly, produce a better understanding of the causes that generate it. Objective: We update and analyze the specific and taxonomic diversity of the ichthyofauna of the Amacuzac River, Mexico. Methods: During five sampling seasons (2019-2020) we collected fishes from ten sites in the river and applied a cluster analysis to habitat variables. Results: We collected 7 638 individuals; seven were native species and nine were non-native, including Copadichromis borleyi, a new record for the Amacuzac. Richness per site ranged from eight to 13 species. Habitat variables defined four groups. The most abundant species were Poeciliopsis gracilis, Poecilia maylandi and Amatitlania nigrofasciata. The least abundant species were: Pterygoplichtys pardalis, Ilyodon whitei, Copadichromis borleyi and Ictalurus punctatus. The most prevalent species were: A. nigrofasciata, Amphilophus istlanus, Andinoacara rivulatus, Notropis boucardi, Oreochormis sp., P. maylandi, P., gracilis and Thorichthys maculipinis. The most restricted species were: Atherinella balsana, C. borleyi and I. punctatus. Conclusions: Endangered species such as A. istlanus and N. boucardi are still prevalent in the river, but non-native species continue to increase. Analyzing the diversity from two perspectives provides a more complete view of the changes taking place in the Amacuzac River as a consequence of species establishment, information that is important for future conservation strategies.


Assuntos
Animais , Fauna Aquática , Rios , Biodiversidade , México
14.
J Environ Public Health ; 2022: 4613088, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36193407

RESUMO

Financial innovations emerge in an endless stream, and it is difficult for the regulatory measures and efforts of banks in various countries and the credit risk management level of commercial banks themselves to adapt to the increasingly complex risk environment faced by banks. In the process of building GFR (green financial risk) mixed governance model, the division of powers and responsibilities of governance subjects should be effectively defined. Therefore, it is very necessary to comprehensively and systematically study and grasp the characteristics, performance, and causes of commercial banks' GFR and build an early-warning model of commercial banks' GFR to comprehensively monitor the risks of banks, so as to reduce risks and avoid crises. Therefore, this paper uses the forward three-layer BPNN (BP neural network) technology to establish a real-time warning model of commercial banks' GFR. IL (input layer) to HL (hidden layer) adopts Sigmoid function, while HL to OL (output layer) function adopts linear function Purelin function. The results show that the test result of this method is greatly improved compared with the traditional method, and the correct rate is increased from 81.27% to 94.38%. It shows that the model in this paper has achieved a good warning effect of GFR for commercial banks.


Assuntos
Redes Neurais de Computação , Rios , Humanos
15.
J Anim Ecol ; 91(10): 1944-1947, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36193670

RESUMO

Research Highlight: Réveillon, T., Rota, T., Chauvet, É., Lecerf, A., & Sentis, A. (2022). Energetic mismatch induced by warming decreases leaf litter decomposition by aquatic detritivores. Journal of Animal Ecology, https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2656.13710. Global change holds complex consequences for Earth's ecosystems, with global warming simultaneously affecting multiple aspects including individual physiology, population dynamics and ecosystem processes. In a recent study on stream decomposition under global warming, Réveillon, et al. (2022) combined individual-level laboratory assessments of metabolic rates and leaf-litter ingestion with experimentally parameterized consumer-resource models, designed to reveal how stream-detritivore populations respond to combined impacts of warming and declining body size. Their findings of reduced energetic efficiency, weakened detritivore populations and reduced decomposition in warmed streams expand our understanding of how global change mechanistically links changes from the individual to the ecosystem level.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Rios , Animais , Aquecimento Global , Temperatura Alta , Folhas de Planta
16.
PLoS One ; 17(10): e0275470, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36191020

RESUMO

Soil erosion has a severe impact on habitat and productivity. It is considered to be a major environmental threat prevalent in ecosystems. However, few researchers have studied the spatial distribution of soil erosion intensity among different geographic environmental factors. The Qin River Basin is a geographical unit consisting of mountains, hills, and plains with significant regional characteristics, and it has a basin area of 14,810.91 km2. This study uses the Geographical Information Systems, Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation model to analyze the spatiotemporal changes in the soil-erosion intensity in the Qin River Basin from 1990 to 2018. Different environmental factors of land use, slope and altitude on erosion intensities of 19 secondary land types were analyzed. It can better reflect the soil erosion under different environmental factors and different land use types. Results show that the soil erosion modulus of Qin River Basin were 10.25 t hm-2 a-1, and it belong to slight erosion from 1990 to 2018. Soil erosion intensity is greater in grassland and woodland than in cropland. The strongest soil erosion occurred in the sparse forestland, and the lowest was in beach land. Soil erosion was the highest for a slope of 15~25° and an altitude of 1200~1500 m. Rainfall and slope are important factors lead to soil erosion, indicating weak water and soil conservation implemented in these areas. Therefore, priority should be given to these geomorphic units to formulate and implement soil-erosion control and ecological restoration policies in the Qin River Basin. This study provides a good reference for preventing and controlling soil erosion in river basins.


Assuntos
Rios , Erosão do Solo , China , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Solo , Água
17.
J Environ Manage ; 321: 115709, 2022 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36104872

RESUMO

Rapid urbanization has altered landscape patterns and ecological functions, causing a decline in ecosystem service and generating many ecological and environmental issues. Studying the spatiotemporal interaction between urbanization and ecosystem service (ES) can provide effective supports for regional sustainability and policy formulation. This research utilizes the Yangtze River Economic Belt (YREB) as a case to analyze the spatiotemporal interaction between multi-urbanization indicators and multi-ESs over a large-scale region. The results show that the urbanization process in the YREB evolves from a rapidly growing state to a steady state with a slower rise. The urbanization level of the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration is relatively higher than the other regions. The distribution pattern of urbanization shows an overall characteristic of lower urbanization in the west and higher in the east. From 2009 to 2016, ecosystem service value (ESV) in the YREB decreased first and then increased, ESV in 2016 showed a reduction of 12.768 billion yuan compared with the 2009 level. ESV increases gradually from highly urbanized areas to those with lower levels of urbanization. Areas with high ESV levels are distributed at the middle reaches of YREB. There is a U-shaped curve relationship between urbanization and ESV, the ESV sharply increased when the urbanization index exceeded 0.6 in 2012. Land urbanization has the greatest impact on ESV among the four subtypes of urbanization indicators. Urbanization and ESV show the synergy relationship mostly in the eastern region, accounting for 18.18% of the total 110 cities. By contrast, they present the trade-off relationship in northern, southern and central regions, occupying 47.27% of the total observations. This study is helpful to provide scientific suggestions regarding the development of new urbanization, the protection of ESV, and the issue of how to achieve synergistic and sustainable development between them.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Urbanização , China , Cidades , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Rios
18.
Sci Prog ; 105(3): 368504221113186, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36062714

RESUMO

To explore the impact of land-use change on carbon storage, this study coupled the InVEST model and the FLUS model to analyse the spatial and temporal characteristics of carbon storage in the Qiantang River source region from 2000 to 2030. The carbon storage in the study area is evaluated which declined rapidly from 166.22 × 106 t in 2000 to 164.41 × 106 t in 2020, and the spatial distribution of carbon storage could be characterized by "the northwest and the southwest of region with higher, the east and the centre of the region with lower". The carbon storage was simulated based on the historical trend development scenario, the food security scenario, and the ecological protection scenario. The carbon storage with the food security scenario could achieve 162.74 × 106 t in 2030. The carbon storage with the ecological protection scenario had an increase of 62.60 t/km2 compared to the historical natural tendency development. Interestingly, the food security scenario had the smallest carbon loss value which is about $1.39 × 109, and its net carbon storage value was the largest which is about $3.71 × 109. The results of this study could provide a scientific reference for the conservation of carbon storage and land use management for climate change and sustainable development. This paper also can lay the foundation for subsequent further studies such as artificial intelligence.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Rios , Inteligência Artificial , Carbono , China , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais
19.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 15354, 2022 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36097004

RESUMO

Flushing is a common measure to manage and reduce the amount of sediment stored in reservoirs. However, the sudden release of large volumes of sediment abruptly increases the suspended solids concentration and alters the riverbed composition. Similar effects can be produced also by natural flood events. Do flushing operations have more detrimental impacts than natural floods? To answer this question, we investigated the impact of flushing on the survival of the Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Sandy River (OR, USA), assuming that sediment is flushed from hypothetical bottom gates of the, now decommissioned, Marmot Dam. The effects of several flushing scenarios are analyzed with a 2D morphodynamic model, together with habitat suitability curves and stress indicators. The results show that attention has to be paid to duration: the shorter the flushing operation, the lesser the stresses on fish survival and spawning habitats. Flushing causes high stress to salmon eggs and larvae, due to unbearable levels of suspended sediment concentrations. It also decreases the areas usable for spawning due to fine-sediment deposition, with up to 95% loss at peak flow. Without the dam, the corresponding natural flood event would produce similar effects, with up to 93% loss. The study shows that well-planned flushing operations could mimic a natural impact, but only partly. In the long-term, larger losses of spawning grounds can be expected, since the removal of fine sediment with the release of clear water from the reservoir is a lengthy process that may be undesirable due to water storage reduction.


Assuntos
Inundações , Salmão , Animais , Sedimentos Geológicos , Rios , Água
20.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 15306, 2022 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36097153

RESUMO

Tectonics imparts a first-order control on the overall morphology of alluvial fan systems in extensional settings by influencing sediment flux and accommodation space, while other factors such as climate, catchment lithology, and fault footwall characteristics are secondary. Previous alluvial fan modeling studies have focused on the link between the three-dimensional development of alluvial fans and rock uplift, however, despite the potential influence of tectonics on the overall three-dimensional morphology of alluvial fans, the controlling mechanisms, as well as their relative importance, remain largely unquantified in a natural setting with a targeted source-to-sink approach. Here, we examine 45 alluvial fans and their catchments along the southern mountain front of the Aydin Range, delimited by segmented normal faults in the western Anatolia Extensional Province, to quantify the role of rock uplift. We quantify river incision rates and catchment-wide erosion rates together with a series of topographic analyses across the southern flank of the Aydin Range as a proxy for rock uplift. Our results indicate that the spatial distribution of thicker and steeper alluvial fans fit well with higher rock uplift rates along the strike of the mountain front. In contrast, a lower uplift rate is responsible for prograding alluvial fans with decreasing thickness and gradients. Also, our data shows that alluvial fan thickness compared to other alluvial fan metrics strongly associated with the pattern of the rock uplift. This study demonstrates a field-based, quantitative linkage between three-dimensional alluvial fan morphology and rock uplift which has significant implications for improving alluvial fan models and understanding how alluvial fans respond to tectonics in extensional regions.


Assuntos
Rios
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