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1.
Exp Parasitol ; 209: 107824, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31870927

RESUMO

Giardiasis and cryptosporidiosis are recognized by the WHO as important emerging diseases of the 21st century. Symptoms are similar and include diarrhoea and vomiting, which may be severe, even life-threatening, for the immunocompromised and children under five years of age. Between 2013 and 2017, the Institute for Public Health in Serbia recorded 10 waterborne epidemics that manifested as gastrointestinal disease. Routine testing for enteropathogenic bacteria and viruses did not identify the aetiological agents of these outbreaks. As water is not examined for the presence of protozoa in Serbia, we performed a pilot study to analyse samples from four major rivers and their tributaries using a newly implemented methodology for detection of Giardia and Cryptosporidium, based on the ISO 15553:2006 standard. Using immunofluorescence microscopy, Giardia was detected in 10 out of the 31 samples, Cryptosporidium in five, while two samples were positive for both. Presence of G. duodenalis gDNA was confirmed by amplification of the ß-giardin gene in eight samples, of which one and two, respectively, were identified by RFLP as potentially zoonotic assemblages A and B. The results suggest that surface water in Serbia may be a potential source of infection and call for more in-depth studies using sophisticated molecular tools.


Assuntos
Cryptosporidium/isolamento & purificação , Giardia/isolamento & purificação , Rios/parasitologia , Animais , Cryptosporidium/genética , Proteínas do Citoesqueleto/genética , DNA de Protozoário/química , DNA de Protozoário/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Giardia/classificação , Giardia/genética , Humanos , Complexo Mediador/genética , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Projetos Piloto , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição , Proteínas de Protozoários/genética , RNA Ribossômico/genética , Sérvia
2.
Parasitol Res ; 118(12): 3279-3305, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31673834

RESUMO

Mullets are ecologic and commercially important fish species. Their ubiquitous nature allows them to play critical roles in freshwater and marine ecosystems but makes them more vulnerable to diseases and parasitic infection. In this study, a myxozoan survey was performed on three species of mullet captured from a northern Portuguese river. The results disclose a high biodiversity, specifically due to the hyperdiversification of Myxobolus. Thirteen new species of this genus are described based on microscopic and molecular procedures: 7 from the thinlip grey mullet Chelon ramada, 2 from the thicklip grey mullet Chelon labrosus, and 4 from the flathead grey mullet Mugil cephalus. Myxobolus exiguus and Ellipsomyxa mugilis are further registered from their type host C. ramada, as well as six more myxospore morphotypes that possibly represent distinct Myxobolus species. Overall, the results obtained clearly show that the number of host-, site- and tissue-specific Myxobolus spp. is much higher than what would be expected in accordance to available literature. This higher biodiversity is therefore discussed as either being the result of the usage of poor discriminative criteria in previous studies, or as being a direct consequence of the biological and ecological traits of the parasite and of its vertebrate and invertebrate host communities. Bayesian inference, maximum likelihood and maximum parsimony analyses position the new species within a clade comprising all other Myxobolus spp. that infect mugiliform hosts, thus suggesting that this parasitic group has a monophyletic origin. Clustering of species in relation to the host genus is also revealed and strengthens the contention that the evolutionary history of mugiliform-infecting Myxobolus reflects that of its vertebrate hosts. In this view, the hyperdiversification of Myxobolus in mullet hosts is hypothesized to correlate with the processes of speciation that led to the ecological plasticity of mullets.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Myxozoa/classificação , Smegmamorpha/parasitologia , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Myxobolus/classificação , Myxobolus/genética , Myxozoa/genética , Filogenia , Portugal , Rios/parasitologia , Smegmamorpha/classificação
3.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 31(4): 374-381, 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31612671

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the spatial distribution of Oncomelania hupensis snail habitats at the administrative village scale in schistosomiasis-endemic areas of Hubei Province, so as to provide scientific bases for precise control of O. hupensis snails in the province. METHODS: Data regarding snail distribution at the village level in Hubei Province in 2017 were collected to create a spatial analysis database of snail distribution in Hubei Province. The spatial aggregations of O. hupensis distribution were analyzed using Moran's I index and Local Moran's I index. In addition, the distances from schistosomiasis-endemic villages to the Yangtze River were captured using the software ArcGIS 13.0, and their correlations with area of snail habitats were examined with the Spearman correlation method. RESULTS: O. hupensis snails were mainly distributed in 5 450 endemic villages from 63 counties of 13 cities in Hubei Province in 2017. The global spatial autocorrelation analysis showed spatial aggregations in the areas of historically accumulated snail habitats, current areas of snail habitats, areas of snail habitats outside the embankment and snail habitats inside the embankment (all Z Scores > 0, all P values < 0.05), and no spatial aggregation was seen in the areas of snail habitats in hilly areas (Z Score > 0, P > 0.05). There were four types of spatial distribution of historically accumulated areas of snail habitats, areas of current snail habitats, areas of snail habitats outside the embankment and snail habitats inside the embankment, including the high-high type (H-H type), high-low type (H-L type), low-high type (L-H type) and random distribution type, and a high percentage of the H-H type was found. There were 340, 125 and 110 endemic villages with the H-H type of areas of historically accumulated snail habitats, current areas of snail habitats and areas of snail habitats outside the embankment, and these villages were mainly concentrated in Wuhan and Jingzhou cities, with almost consistent spatial aggregation locations. There were 319 endemic villages with the H-H type of distribution of snail habitats inside the embankment, which were mainly distributed in Jingzhou, Xiaogan and Huangshi cities. In addition, the areas of historically accumulated snail habitats, current areas of snail habitats and areas of snail habitats outside the embankment negatively correlated with the distance from the endemic villages to the Yangtze River (r = -0.094, P < 0.01; r = -0.225, P < 0.01; r = -0.177, P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The clustering areas of snail habitats along the Yangtze River Basin, notably the villages near the Yangtze River are key regions for snail monitoring and control in Hubei Province.


Assuntos
Distribuição Animal , Rios , Esquistossomose , Caramujos , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Ecossistema , Humanos , Rios/parasitologia , Schistosoma/fisiologia , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose/prevenção & controle , Esquistossomose/transmissão , Caramujos/parasitologia , Caramujos/fisiologia , Análise Espacial
4.
Parasitol Res ; 118(12): 3337-3347, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31664517

RESUMO

The Amazon represents one of the most complex biomes in the world; however, the temporal variations in parasite community structure of fishes inhabiting this region remain poorly understood. Therefore, processes generating such variations are still unknown. The present study evaluated the long-term temporal variation of community structure of metazoan parasites of Pimelodus blochii collected in Iaco River, State of Acre (Southwestern Brazilian Amazon). A total of 196 parasites were collected over a 6-year period (2012-2017). Twenty-four different taxa of parasites were found, of which 5 Monogenea, 11 Nematoda, 3 Digenea, 1 Acanthocephala, 1 Cestoda, and 3 Crustacea. The overall species richness ranged from 4 in 2012 to 17 in 2016, in which nematodes (larvae and adults) showed higher numerical dominance, diversity, and species richness. However, the annual species richness was similar between the study years, except in 2016, where it showed a distinctly higher value. The overall parasite diversity was also different in 2012 and 2016, whereas the overall abundance differed in 2013 and 2017. The prevalence and abundance of some infracommunities of parasites varied over time. The temporal changes in the parasite community structure of P. blochii are probably related to variations in host-related features, i.e., body size and shift in diet composition as well as to the occurrence of parasites with distinct life history and biology (mainly monogeneans, digeneans, and nematodes). This is the first evaluation of a long-term temporal variation in the structure of the parasite community in fish from the Amazon.


Assuntos
Acantocéfalos/isolamento & purificação , Peixes-Gato/parasitologia , Cestoides/isolamento & purificação , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Nematoides/isolamento & purificação , Trematódeos/isolamento & purificação , Acantocéfalos/classificação , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Cestoides/classificação , Crustáceos/classificação , Ecossistema , Larva , Nematoides/classificação , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/epidemiologia , Rios/parasitologia , Trematódeos/classificação
5.
Eur J Protistol ; 71: 125629, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31520848

RESUMO

The morphology and ontogenesis of a novel stylonychid ciliate, Tetmemena pustulata indica nov. subspec., were investigated using live observation and protargol preparation. The new subspecies was isolated from a water sample collected from the Thane Creek, Mumbai, India. At first glance, T. pustulata indica looked very similar in morphology and ontogenesis to the well-known Tetmemena pustulata, however, on detailed investigation some non-overlapping features in the ciliature were identified, i.e., the numbers of cirri in marginal rows, adoral membranelles, and bristles in dorsal kineties. These morphometric differences justified the separation at subspecies level. Furthermore, the resting cysts are different, i.e., with smooth external layer in T. pustulata indica whereas spinous in the nominotypical subspecies T. pustulata pustulata. The Venezuelan population of T. pustulata described by Foissner corresponds very well with the Indian population in the ciliature; however, the information on the resting cyst is lacking for the former. Our study presents an example of a cyst subspecies among hypotrich ciliates, and thus extends the concept which has been mainly reported for spathidiids.


Assuntos
Cilióforos/classificação , Cilióforos/citologia , Rios/parasitologia , Índia , Especificidade da Espécie
6.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 26(3): 504-507, 2019 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31559811

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Radix auricularia (Linnaeus, 1758) is a freshwater gastropod belongs to the Lymnaeidae (pond snails) family which act as intermediate hosts or vectors of various parasitic flukes. No study has yet been undertaken on the prevalence of Petasiger spp. infection in R. auricularia. Species of Petasiger (Dietz, 1909) are a cosmopolitan parasite that utilize snails as the first intermediate host, with vertebrates like amphibians larvae and fish as the second intermediate host, followed by fish-eating birds. The current paper is considered to be the first report of Petasiger exaeretus parasitized R. auricularia in Iraq, which is supported with molecular and phylogenetic analysis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Freshwater snails R. auricularia were collected during October 2016 - September 2017 from different locations of Sufaia village on the Greater Zab river, Erbil province, Iraq. RESULTS: A total of 307 freshwater snails R. auricularia were collected, only five of them were infected with a prevalence of Petasiger exaeretus (1.62%). CONCLUSIONS: The current study agrees with the opinion of Selbach, Soldánová (26), which suggested the possibility of a much higher morphological diversity within Petasiger species, based on the number of described cercariae, compared with adult forms.It is clear that P. phalacrocoracis specimens have often been erroneously designated as P. exaeretus by many authors (Nasincová et al., 1994). Certain morphological similarities and dissimilarities between P. exaeretus and P. phalacrocoracis can be detected: the pear-shaped body resembles P. exaeretus, whereas, P. phalacrocoracis have an elongated body.


Assuntos
Echinostomatidae/genética , Echinostomatidae/isolamento & purificação , Filogenia , Caramujos/parasitologia , Animais , Aves , Echinostomatidae/classificação , Echinostomatidae/fisiologia , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Iraque , Rios/parasitologia
7.
Turkiye Parazitol Derg ; 43(3): 111-117, 2019 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31502772

RESUMO

Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of Blastocystis subspecies in water samples collected from Ordu province. Methods: Seventy-five surface water samples and 25 drinking water samples were collected from Ordu and its boroughs. The samples were flocculated by aluminum sulphate and concentrated by sucrose gradient method. Small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Sequence analysis was performed on the positive PCR products and the base sequences were aligned using Bioedit. Phylogeny trees were drawn and Blastocystis subspecies were identified. Results: Four out of the 100 water samples were positive for Blastocystis spp. No positivity was found in the drinking water. Blastocystis ST-1 subspecies was detected in Bülbül River, Kacali River and Bolaman Stream. Blastocystis ST-3 subspecies were found in Karabalçik River. The lowest genetic distance was found between ST-1 subspecies and the samples from Bülbül River, Kacali River and Bolaman Stream. The nucleotide similarities between them were 98.8%, 76.6 and 98.8%, respectively. The lowest genetic distance was found between Karabalçik River and ST-3 subspecies and the nucleotide similarity between them was 99.1%. Conclusion: This is the first study on the presence of Blastocystis spp. in the surface water and drinking water samples in Ordu province of the Black Sea area in Turkey.


Assuntos
Infecções por Blastocystis/epidemiologia , Blastocystis/isolamento & purificação , Água Potável/parasitologia , Rios/parasitologia , Sequência de Bases , Mar Negro , Blastocystis/classificação , Blastocystis/genética , Humanos , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Prevalência , RNA Ribossômico/genética , Alinhamento de Sequência , Turquia/epidemiologia
8.
Bull Soc Pathol Exot ; 112(2): 61-70, 2019.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31478617

RESUMO

In order to evaluate the abundance of oocysts in the Mezam watershed in Bamenda, Northwest Region of Cameroon, a study was carried out from January to June 2017. Samples were collected monthly from 13 stations within the watershed. The direct concentration method and the Ziehl-Neelsen technique were employed in the identification of these parasites. The physicochemical analysis showed that the water samples had a neutral pH (7.46±0.46), lowly mineralized (165.61±110.02µS/cm), moderately oxygenated (60.64 ± 17, 25%), present moderate organic pollution (2.85±2.49mg/l KMnO4). KMnO4) and low levels of orthophosphate (1.8±1.88 mg/l PO43-) and nitrates (2.47±5.06 mg/l NO3-). Biological analysis revealed the presence of Cryptosporidium spp. (143.98±203.35 oocysts/l), Isospora belli (88.47 ± 123.19 oocysts/l), Cyclospora cayetanensis (141.31±143.19 oocysts/l) and Sarcocystis hominis (76 ± 111.04 oocysts/l). The highest densities of these parasites were recorded at the Mufueh stream, situated in the periurban area. Meanwhile, the lowest densities were found in the urban area (Formuki, Mankon, Ayaba and Mezam streams). The dry season showed higher densities of oocysts (471.42±216.32 oocysts /l). Statistical analysis revealed a significant correlation (P ≤ 0.05) between the density of the organisms and the physico-chemical parameters such as pH, oxidability, dissolved oxygen and nitrates. Respecting basic hygienic rules as well as treating water before use would reduce the risk of contamination of the population.


Assuntos
Oocistos/isolamento & purificação , Rios/parasitologia , Poluição da Água/análise , Animais , Camarões , Contagem de Células , Cryptosporidium/citologia , Cryptosporidium/isolamento & purificação , Cyclospora/citologia , Cyclospora/isolamento & purificação , Fezes/parasitologia , Humanos , Isospora/citologia , Isospora/isolamento & purificação , Oocistos/citologia , Doenças Parasitárias/parasitologia , Rios/química , Sarcocystis/citologia , Sarcocystis/isolamento & purificação , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Abastecimento de Água
9.
Parasite ; 26: 48, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31414983

RESUMO

The Iberian Peninsula provides a unique freshwater ecosystem for native and endemic cypriniforms to thrive. Despite cypriniforms being hosts to multiple myxobolids worldwide, little research has been performed in this geographic location. In this study, the examination of three Iberian endemic cypriniforms showed that myxosporean richness in the Iberian Peninsula is underestimated, with three new and one known myxobolid species being reported based on morphological and molecular data (SSU). Myxobolus arcasii n. sp. is described from the kidney and gonads of the "bermejuela" Achondrostoma arcasii, M. duriensis n. sp. from the gills of the Northern straight-mouth nase Pseudochondrostoma duriense, and Thelohanellus paludicus n. sp. from the intestine of the Southern Iberian spined-loach Cobitis paludica. Myxobolus pseudodispar Gorbunova, 1936 is further reported from several organs of P. duriense, and from the spleen of A. arcasii. The occurrence of M. pseudodispar in endemic Iberian species reveals that host-shift followed its co-introduction with central European leuciscids into this geographic location. Several other myxobolids originally described from barbels in central Europe have also been reported from the Iberian endemic cypriniform Luciobarbus bocagei. Nonetheless, except for M. musculi, the identification of these myxobolids in L. bocagei is here shown to be dubious and require molecular confirmation. Phylogenetic analyses reveal M. arcasii n. sp. and M. duriensis n. sp. clustering within different lineages of leuciscid-infecting species, showing that myxobolids entered Leuciscidae as hosts multiple times during their evolution. Constituting the first myxobolid reported from the subfamily Cobitinae, Thelohanellus paludicus n. sp. stands alone in the tree topology.


Assuntos
Cipriniformes/parasitologia , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Myxobolus/anatomia & histologia , Myxobolus/classificação , Animais , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Ecossistema , Europa (Continente) , Brânquias/parasitologia , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais , Filogenia , Rios/parasitologia , Análise de Sequência de DNA
10.
Can J Microbiol ; 65(11): 851-857, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31404505

RESUMO

Environmentally stable and disinfectant-resistant oocysts of Cryptosporidium spp. shed in the feces of infected humans and animals frequently contaminate water resources and are subsequently spread via potable and recreational waters. The current monoclonal-antibody-based methods for detecting them in water are slow, labor-intensive, and demand skills to interpret the results. We have developed DNA-aptamer-based aptasensors, coupled with magnetic beads, to detect and identify the oocysts of C. parvum for monitoring recreational and drinking water sources. A sensitive and specific electrochemical aptasensor (3'-biotinylated R4-6 aptamer) was used as a secondary ligand to bind the streptavidin-coated magnetic beads. This was incorporated into a probe using gold nanoparticle modified screen-printed carbon electrodes. Square wave voltammetry allowed for specific recognition of C. parvum oocysts. The aptamer-coated probes had an oocyst detection limit of 50. It did not bind to the cysts of Giardia duodenalis, another common waterborne pathogen, thus indicating its high specificity for the target pathogen. The system could successfully detect C. parvum oocysts in spiked samples of the raw lake and river waters. Therefore, the combined use of the aptasensor and magnetic beads has the potential to monitor water quality for C. parvum oocysts in field samples without relying on monoclonal antibodies and skill-demanding microscopy.


Assuntos
Aptâmeros de Nucleotídeos/genética , Cryptosporidium parvum/isolamento & purificação , Água Potável/parasitologia , Magnetismo/métodos , Rios/parasitologia , Animais , Cryptosporidium parvum/classificação , Cryptosporidium parvum/genética , Ouro/química , Humanos , Magnetismo/instrumentação , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Oocistos/classificação , Oocistos/genética , Oocistos/isolamento & purificação , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Recursos Hídricos
11.
Parasitol Res ; 118(10): 2819-2829, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31463595

RESUMO

Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) huacraensis infecting the catfish Trichomycterus spegazzinii from Escoipe River, Salta province (Argentina), is redescribed and genetically characterised for the first time, based on three genetic markers (nuclear 18S and 28S rRNA; cytochrome c oxidase subunit I [cox1] mtDNA). The phylogeny of Camallanidae was also discussed. Morphological evaluation of P. (S.) huacraensis using light and scanning electron microscopy revealed the previously undescribed features: location of deirids, accurate morphology of larvae (L1) and ovijector in females, as well as phasmids in males. Differences were found comparing the newly collected material and the type specimens, probably because the original description lacked detailing. Unfortunately, type specimens of P. (S.) huacraensis were no available for loan. The results of morphological and genetic analyses supported the validity of P. (S.) huacraensis. Inconsistencies regarding the taxonomic identification of species of Camallanidae in GenBank database were noted. Based on the current genetic database of Camallanidae, phylogenetic reconstructions using the 18S rRNA sequences were most consistent, due to the inclusion of higher number of taxa. Procamallanus (S.) huacraensis appeared as sister group of P. (S.) rarus, also isolated from a catfish in a neighbouring region. The order and habitat of hosts were also similar within some well-supported parasite lineages, but without common geographic origin. However, it is still premature to make definitive affirmations regarding the role of such features in the phylogenetic patterns of Camallanidae, given the scarcity of genetic data. The phylogenetic reconstructions also confirmed the artificiality of the morphology-based systematics of the family.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Infecções por Spirurida/veterinária , Espirurídios/classificação , Espirurídios/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Argentina , Peixes-Gato/parasitologia , DNA de Helmintos/genética , Feminino , Masculino , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 28S/genética , Rios/parasitologia , Espirurídios/genética , Espirurídios/fisiologia , Infecções por Spirurida/parasitologia
12.
Parasitol Res ; 118(9): 2543-2555, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31324974

RESUMO

Invasive species are a major threat to ecosystems worldwide. Their effects are versatile and mostly well studied. However, not much is known about the impact of invasion on native parasite communities, although parasites are usually important response variables for ecosystem health. To improve the knowledge on how native fish parasite communities and their dynamics are affected by invasive species and how these processes change local host-parasite interactions over time, we studied different host-parasite systems in four German rivers. Three of these rivers (Rhine, Ems, and Elbe) are heavily invaded by different Ponto-Caspian species such as the amphipod Dikerogammarus villosus and various gobiids such as Neogobius melanostomus and Ponticola kessleri that serve as potential hosts for different local parasite species, while the fourth river (Schwentine) was free of any Ponto-Caspian invaders. Due to the lack of additional uninvaded river systems, literature data on parasite communities before invasion were compared with the post invasion status for the rivers Rhine and Elbe. The results showed differences among the parasite communities of different host species from the three invaded rivers when compared to the Schwentine River. Among the local internal parasite communities, especially the acanthocephalan Pomphorhynchus laevis and the nematode Raphidascaris acus have to be considered as key species associated with invasions from the Ponto-Caspian region. As the examined invasive Ponto-Caspian fish species serves as suitable host for both parasite species, the increases in their infection rates in native fish species are examples of parasite spill back (R. acus) and spill over (P. laevis, at least in the river Rhine). These results were further supported by the analysis of literature data on parasite communities of the past 20 years. Consequences for local parasite communities range from decreased prevalence of native parasites towards an extinction of entire parasite species.


Assuntos
Acantocéfalos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Anfípodes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita/fisiologia , Nematoides/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Perciformes/parasitologia , Animais , Ecossistema , Peixes , Espécies Introduzidas , Parasitos , Rios/parasitologia
13.
Parasitol Res ; 118(7): 2169-2182, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31183598

RESUMO

The Diplostomidae include a large group of flatworms with complex life cycles and are frequently found parasitizing the eyes and central nervous system of freshwater fishes. The morphological identification of the metacercariae at species level is not always possible. Thus, molecular tools have become essential to assist in the parasite species determination. This study was aimed at describing two diplostomid metacercariae found in freshwater fish in São Paulo, Brazil, based on morphological characters and in the genetic characterization of COI sequences. Our results showed that the two recognized taxa (Tylodelphys sp. and Diplostomidae gen. sp.) appear to be different from the species already described in South America. Tylodelphys sp. differs morphologically from Tylodelphys xenopi, T. mashonense, T. jenynsiae, and T. scheuringi. The metacercariae of T. clavata and T. conifera are smaller than Tylodelphys sp., while T. podicipina is larger than the metacercariae described here. The phylogenetic analysis of COI sequences yielded Tylodelphys sp. as the sister species of Tylodelphys sp. 4, a species reported from the brain of the eleotrid Gobiomorus maculatus in Oaxaca, Mexico. The metacercariae identified as Diplostomidae gen. sp. are morphologically different from the known diplostomid metacercariae and did not match with other diplostomid sequences available. Diplostomidae gen. sp. is recovered as the sister species of Diplostomum ardeae. Although the morphological evidence and the COI sequences differentiate the metacercariae found, the absence of adult specimens of both species precludes the specific designation. This is one of the first papers that use an integrative taxonomy approach to describe the species diversity of diplostomid trematodes in Brazil.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Metacercárias/classificação , Trematódeos/classificação , Infecções por Trematódeos/veterinária , Animais , Brasil , Peixes/parasitologia , Água Doce , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida , Metacercárias/genética , México , Filogenia , Rios/parasitologia , Trematódeos/genética , Trematódeos/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Trematódeos/parasitologia
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31185673

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of Cryptosporidium oocysts in a drinking water treatment plant (DWTP) located in a rural area of northern Italy. Influent and effluent samples were collected at the DWTP over three years (2013-2016). In parallel, tap water samples from a public drinking fountain were collected as well. All samples were analyzed for the presence of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts by a common method based on an immunomagnetic separation (IMS)/immunofluorescence assay (IFA), complemented by 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining. A reverse transcriptase-PCR (RT-PCR) protocol was added to evaluate oocyst viability. The results highlighted a high variability of oocyst concentrations across all samples (mean 4.3 ± 5.8/100 L) and a high variability in the percentage of DAPI-positive specimens (mean 48.2% ± 40.3%). Conversely, RT-PCR did not reveal the presence of viable C. parvum and C. hominis oocysts. A nested PCR targeting Cryptosporidium 18S ribosomal DNA, carried out in two water samples, confirmed the presence of a Cryptosporidium genotype associated with wild animals in the river and in tap water. The results obtained underline the vulnerability of the investigated surface water to Cryptosporidium spp. contamination. Although the recovered Cryptosporidium genotype is not a human pathogen, its presence demonstrates the existence of a potential pathogen Cryptosporidium spp. contamination risk. Moreover, these results underline the importance of also considering unconventional (not bacterial) biological contaminations (protozoa) in water resources in rural areas, including those of developed countries.


Assuntos
Cryptosporidium/isolamento & purificação , Água Potável/parasitologia , Oocistos/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Cryptosporidium/genética , DNA de Protozoário/análise , DNA Ribossômico , Humanos , Separação Imunomagnética , Itália , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Rios/parasitologia , Purificação da Água
15.
Parasite ; 26: 37, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31246168

RESUMO

Three new species of Synodontella Dossou & Euzet, 1993 are described from two species of Synodontis (Mochokidae) collected from the middle course of the Boumba River (East Cameroon): Synodontella angustupenis n. sp. from Synodontis nummifer, Synodontella longipenis n. sp. and Synodontella simplex n. sp. from Synodontis decorus. These new species are different from the other Synodontella species already described due to their horseshoe-shaped dorsal transverse bars. Synodontella angustupenis differs from S. longipenis and S. simplex by the morphology of its penis, a thin tube, and its accessory piece, bifid at its extremity. Synodontella longipenis differs from the other two species by the morphology and the size of its male copulatory organ, which is very long. Synodontella simplex differs from S. angustupenis and S. longipenis by the shape of its penis, which is simple, and of its accessory piece, with a developed heel. The difference between the dorsal transverse bars of Synodontella species from the Sanaga River in Cameroon (and other localities in Africa), slightly curved, and those from the Boumba River, horseshoe-shaped, makes it possible to separate Synodontella species into two different subgroups. This difference can be explained by a long isolation period of the hosts, living in different river basins, followed by the divergence of the parasite populations (vicariant speciation).


Assuntos
Peixes/parasitologia , Brânquias/parasitologia , Rios/parasitologia , Trematódeos/anatomia & histologia , Trematódeos/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Camarões , Doenças dos Peixes/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Genitália Masculina/anatomia & histologia , Masculino , Trematódeos/classificação
16.
Parasitol Res ; 118(7): 2041-2051, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31098727

RESUMO

The occurrence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia species in slaughter, sewage and river waters of the Qinghai Tibetan Plateau Area (QTPA), China, was investigated. A total of 456 samples were collected from different locations in the QTPA to study the contamination rates of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia via PCR and subsequent sequence analysis. Ten samples were Cryptosporidium positive, and 97 were Giardia positive, as confirmed by PCR amplification of the SSU rRNA gene. The percentages of positive Cryptosporidium and Giardia detection were 2.2% (10/456) and 21.3% (97/456), respectively. Cryptosporidium was detected in only sewage and river waters. Six species of Cryptosporidium were identified: Cryptosporidium hominis (n = 5), C. andersoni (n = 1), C. environmental (n = 1), C. struthionis (n = 1), C. canis (n = 1), and C. parvum (n = 1). G. duodenalis assemblage A was identified in almost all positive samples (n = 96), and one sample harboured G. duodenalis assemblage E. The results suggest that Cryptosporidium and Giardia species circulate through the aqueous environment and different hosts. Therefore, we strongly recommend that the local government and health authorities in China undertake control measures to reduce the contamination of water sources by these protozoa to protect the health of humans and animals.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , Cryptosporidium/isolamento & purificação , Giardia/isolamento & purificação , Giardíase/parasitologia , Água/parasitologia , Matadouros , Animais , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Cryptosporidium/classificação , Cryptosporidium/genética , Fezes/parasitologia , Giardia/classificação , Giardia/genética , Giardíase/epidemiologia , Humanos , Rios/parasitologia , Esgotos/parasitologia , Tibet/epidemiologia
17.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 183, 2019 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31029160

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antillean manatees (Trichechus manatus manatus) are large herbivorous aquatic mammals living in limited areas of South, Central and North America. As with other aquatic mammals, Antillean manatees can be infected by a variety of protozoan and metazoan parasites, some of them with zoonotic potential, which affect not only their welfare but also population health status. Therefore, we conducted the first epidemiological survey in Colombian free-ranging Antillean manatees to estimate their actual gastrointestinal parasite status. RESULTS: In total, 69 faecal samples were collected from free-ranging individual manatees during ecology field studies in the rivers Carare and San Juan and in two associated wetlands in the Andean region of Colombia. Parasite diversity encompassed six different endoparasite species. The highest prevalence was found for protozoan infections with Eimeria nodulosa (47.8%) and Eimeria manatus-like species (type A, B; 43.4%), followed by Entamoeba sp. (14.49%) and Giardia sp. (1.4%) infections. In addition, infections with the trematode Chiorchis fabaceus were detected at a high prevalence (33.3%). Molecular characterization of sirenian Eimeria species led to the distinction of three species, E. nodulosa and two E. manatus-like species (type A, B). Phylogenetic analyses indicated a host-specific adaptation of sirenian Eimeria species as previously reported for Eimeria species from other mammalian hosts. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides the first record of Antillean manatee infection with Giardia and Entamoeba species in Colombia, representing two important anthropozoonotic parasite genera. This survey should serve as a baseline investigation for future monitoring on parasitic zoonoses in this mammal and encourage for investigations on their impact on both public health and wild manatee welfare.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/parasitologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/epidemiologia , Trichechus manatus/parasitologia , Animais , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Eimeria/isolamento & purificação , Entamoeba/isolamento & purificação , Giardia/isolamento & purificação , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Rios/parasitologia , Trematódeos/classificação , Trematódeos/isolamento & purificação , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/parasitologia
18.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 392, 2019 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30971223

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In 2014, a study in Munyenge revealed a high prevalence of urogenital schistosomiasis (UGS) among pregnant women. This study investigated he prevalence and risk factors of UGS in pregnancy following scale-up of piped water sources from 2014 to 2017. Secondly, we compared stream usage, stream contact behaviour, infection rate and intensity with the findings of 2014. METHODS: Consenting pregnant women reporting for antenatal care (ANC) in the different health facilities were enrolled consecutively between November 2016 and January 2018. Information on age, gravidity status, residence, marital status, educational level, occupation, household water source, frequency of contact with water and stream activities were obtained using a semi-structured questionnaire. Urine samples were examined for the presence of microhaematuria and S. haematobium ova using test strip and filtration/microscopy methods respectively. Data were analysed using univariate and multivariate regression analyses and relative risk reductions calculated. RESULTS: Of the 368 women enrolled, 22.3% (82) were diagnosed with UGS. Marital status (single) (aOR = 2.24, 95% CI: 1.04-4.79), primary - level of education (aOR = 2.0; 95% CI: 1.04-3.85) and domestic activity and bathing in the stream (aOR = 3.3; 95% CI: 1.83-6.01) increased risk of S. haematobium infection. Meanwhile, fewer visits (< 3 visits/week) to stream (aOR = 0.35, 95% CI = 0.17-0.74) reduced exposure to infection. Piped water usage was associated with reduced stream usage and eliminated the risk of infection among women who used safe water only. Compared with the findings of 2014, stream usage (RRR = 23 95% CI: 19-28), frequency (≥ 3 visits) (RRR = 69 95% CI: 59-77) and intensity of contact with water (RRR = 37 95% CI = 22-49) has reduced. Similarly, we observed a decrease in infection rate (RRR = 52, 95% CI = 40-62) and prevalence of heavy egg intensity (RRR = 71, 95% CI = 53-81). CONCLUSION: Following increased piped water sources in Munyenge, S. haematobium infection has declined due to reduced stream contact. This has important implication in the control of UGS in pregnancy.


Assuntos
Complicações Parasitárias na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Schistosoma haematobium , Esquistossomose Urinária/epidemiologia , Abastecimento de Água/métodos , Água/parasitologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Camarões/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Filtração , Hematúria/epidemiologia , Hematúria/parasitologia , Humanos , Microscopia , Gravidez , Complicações Parasitárias na Gravidez/etiologia , Complicações Parasitárias na Gravidez/parasitologia , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Rios/parasitologia , Esquistossomose Urinária/etiologia , Esquistossomose Urinária/parasitologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
19.
Acta Parasitol ; 64(2): 347-351, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30968347

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The Chinese (Amur) sleeper (Perccottus glenii Dybowski, 1877) (Actinopterygii: Odontobutidae) is a freshwater fish species with high invasive potential. Diplomonads have been detected in the intestines of Chinese sleepers using light microscopy. AIM: The aim of this study was to identify the diplomonads in Chinese sleepers using molecular-genetic methods. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The fish used in this analysis were caught in the following bodies of water in Russia between 2014 and 2016: Lake Dolgoe, the floodplain of the Ingoda River (Amur River basin), the Tsna River (the Oka River basin), and the littoral of the Kotlin Island (Gulf of Finland). Partial sequences of small subunit rRNA genes were obtained for the intestinal diplomonads of Chinese sleeper. RESULTS: The analysis of all sequenced samples revealed the presence of Spironucleus salmonis Moore, 1922; other Spironucleus species were not found in the sampled fish. With 82% probability, the sampled sequences of diplomonads from Chinese sleeper formed a separate cluster in the clade of S. salmonis on the phylogenetic tree. CONCLUSION: This is the first record of S. salmonis in fish in the family Odontobutidae.


Assuntos
Diplomonadida/classificação , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Intestinos/parasitologia , Perciformes/parasitologia , Filogenia , Animais , DNA de Protozoário/genética , Diplomonadida/isolamento & purificação , Água Doce/parasitologia , Genes de RNAr , Rios/parasitologia
20.
Parasitol Int ; 71: 27-36, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30878707

RESUMO

Twelve Myxobolus species have been previously described to parasitize Bryconidae fish in South America. Here, we describe two novel myxosporean species that parasitize economically important Bryconidae from the São Francisco River basin in Brazil. Myxospores morphometry, morphology, small-subunit ribosomal DNA - ssrDNA sequences, and other biological traits were used in the taxonomic analysis. Phylogenetic analysis was performed to assess the position of the new Myxobolus species among the closest Myxobolus/Henneguya. Myxobolus iecoris n. sp. was found infecting the liver of Salminus franciscanus (dourado). Myxospores were oval with the anterior region aculiform in frontal view and biconvex in lateral view and measured 11.4-14.2 (12.8 ±â€¯0.8) µm long, 7.7-9.9 (8.7 ±â€¯0.6) µm wide, 6.5-7.5 (6.9 ±â€¯0.4) µm thick. Two pyriform and equal-sized polar capsules measuring 4.9-7.4 (5.9 ±â€¯0.5) µm long and 2.3-3.5 (3.0 ±â€¯0.2) µm wide contained polar tubules with 8-9 turns. Myxobolus lienis n. sp. was found infecting the spleen of Brycon orthotaenia (matrinxã). Myxospores were round to oval in frontal view and biconvex in lateral view and measured 10.3-13.8 (12 ±â€¯0.6) µm long, 6.8-9.3 (8.3 ±â€¯0.5) µm wide, and 6.9-7.0 (7.0 ±â€¯0.6) µm thick. Two oval and equal-sized polar capsules measured 3.9-5.8 (4.6 ±â€¯0.5) µm long and 2.0-3.5 (2.8 ±â€¯0.3) µm wide contained polar tubules with 5-6 turns. Ultrastructural analysis revealed asynchronous sporogenesis with germinative cells and young sporogonic stages in the periphery of the plasmodia. A connective tissue capsule was observed surrounding Myxobolus lienis n. sp., but it was absent for Myxobolus iecoris n. sp. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inferences showed the two novel species clustering in a well-supported subclade composed by Myxobolus spp. of bryconids. Myxobolus iecoris n. sp. appeared as a sister species of M. aureus and Myxobolus lienis n. sp. as sister to M. umidus.


Assuntos
Caraciformes/parasitologia , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Myxobolus/classificação , Filogenia , Animais , Brasil , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Brânquias/parasitologia , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Fígado/parasitologia , Microscopia , Microscopia Eletrônica , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/parasitologia , Rios/parasitologia
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