Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 9.284
Filtrar
1.
Sci Total Environ ; 690: 1110-1119, 2019 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31470474

RESUMO

This study investigated the occurrence and fate of 19 biocides in 8 wastewater treatment plants and receiving aquatic environments (both freshwater and estuarine systems) in Thailand. The predominant compound in wastewater and surface water was methylparaben with the maximum concentration of 15.2 µg/L detected in the receiving river, while in sludge and sediment was triclocarban with the maximum concentration of 8.47 µg/g in sludge. Triclosan was the main contaminants in the fish samples with the maximum concentration of 1.20 µg/g. Similar results of biocides were found in the estuarine system in Pattaya city, with the maximum concentration of 185 ng/L in sea water for methylparaben, and 242 ng/g in estuarine sediment for triclocarban. The aqueous removal rates for the biocides ranged from 15% to 95% in average. The back estimated-usage and total estimated emission of Æ©19 biocides in Thailand was 279 and 202 tons/year, respectively. Preliminary ecological risk assessment showed that clotrimazole and triclosan could pose high risks to aquatic organisms in the receiving aquatic environments.


Assuntos
Desinfetantes/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Carbanilidas/análise , Rios/química , Tailândia , Triclosan/análise , Águas Residuárias/química
2.
J Environ Radioact ; 208-209: 106008, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31419761

RESUMO

Channelization significantly affects soil erosion in river floodplains. The object of this study was to use 137Cs as a tracer to determine the 137Cs inventory and derived soil erosion rates under various land use types in a catchment on channelized river floodplain in the lower reaches of Yangtze River, China. Sampling was carried out to establish a137Cs reference inventory in a 70-year old paddy field located on the shoulder-slope of a local hill. The mean reference inventory of 137Cs was 1275 Bq m-2, whereas the 137Cs inventory within the catchment ranged from 284 to 1150 Bq m-2 and the soil erosion rates from -33.3 to -2.4 t ha-1 yr-1, respectively. The dominated land use of paddy in cultivated soils contributed relative low soil erosion. Bamboo and castanea mollissima were preferential for local land uses in uncultivated soils in comparison with woodland and Pinnus massoniana. The rates of soil erosion rates in old tea garden were higher than that in new tea garden. Overall, severe soil erosion and no deposition in the entire catchment occurred in the entire catchment due to the human-induced channelization in the 1970s. Our results suggest that restricting farmland being returned to tea plantations, thereby maintaining the current land use types would reduce soil erosion in river floodplain in the future.


Assuntos
Monitoramento de Radiação , Poluentes Radioativos do Solo/análise , Radioisótopos de Césio/análise , China , Fenômenos Geológicos , Rios/química
3.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(9): 542, 2019 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31385044

RESUMO

The river Ganges, the National Heritage, and the lifeline of millions of Indians, unfortunately, ranked the second most polluted rivers of the world in 2017. This review reveals the current trends of the water quality of the Ganges assessed around 36 stretches during 2012-2016, to indicate an improvement around 6 (16.7%), deterioration around 14 (38.9%), and non-significant changes around 16 (44.4%) stretches. An increase in dissolved oxygen and a decrease in biochemical oxygen demand were observed at six stretches (Devprayag [S5], Rishikesh upstream [S7], Varanasi upstream [S19], Mokama upstream [S25], Mokama downstream [S26], and Munger [S27]). The total and fecal coliform contamination decreased at seven stretches (Rudraprayag [S2 and S3], Devprayag [S5 and S6], Rishikesh [S7], Varanasi upstream [S19], and Munger [S27]) due to improved hygienic conditions, but it increased subsequently at eight stretches (Haridwar [S8], Kanpur [S15], Raibareili [S16], Prayagraj [S17 and S18], Patna [S24], Berhampore [S30], and Serampore [S31]) due to improper defecation and mass bathing during 2007-2016. Dissolved oxygen level declined significantly, and biochemical oxygen demand increased (> 3 ppm), alarmingly at places receiving heavy untreated sewage water. The water quality of the Ganges was good up to Rishikesh, because of an undisrupted flow of the uncontaminated water from the higher altitudes (≥ 372 m) with higher forest cover, lower temperatures (< 21 °C), and higher dissolved oxygen (≥ 8.5 ppm) and due to the dissolution of antipathogenic chemical constituents of the medicinal herbs, pollutant degrading alkaline phosphatase, and bacteriophages. The present review is a systematic collection of data on river pollution, its scientific analyses, and its relationship with 6Ps (namely population, poverty, pollution, precipitation, plantation, and periodicity). Not only that, but the river water restoration measures have also suggested through the novel interlinked water working groups for implementing integrated water management strategies.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental/métodos , Rios/química , Esgotos/análise , Poluição da Água/análise , Qualidade da Água , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/isolamento & purificação , Índia , Oxigênio/análise
4.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(9): 543, 2019 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31388832

RESUMO

This study evaluates the impact of leachates from a municipal dumpsite on the quality of domestic water sources in the area for potable use. Concentrations of leachate-associated organic contaminants (such as diethyl-phthalate, total organic halogen (TOH); 2,4-dichlorophenol; nonylphenol-ethoxylate; methyl-ethyl-phthalate; borneol; total organic carbon (TOC); total Kjeldahl-nitrogen (TKN); ammonium-nitrogen (NH3-N); nitrate (NO3); nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N); and total phosphorus (TP)) in rivers and groundwater in the Enugu Metropolis in southeastern Nigeria were assessed in this study. Results of laboratory analyses indicate that the average values of diethyl-phthalate, borneol, TOH, nonylphenol-ethoxylate and TOC are 0.08 mg/l, 0.04 mg/l, 1.05 mg/l, 0.2 mg/l and 1.64 mg/l, respectively for groundwater and 0.1 mg/l, 0.03 mg/l, 0.74 mg/l, 0.19 mg/l and 1.74 mg/l, respectively, for rivers. Three (diethyl-phthalate, borneol and TOH) out of these major five contaminants, in both rivers and groundwater, exceeded the maximum permissible limits, suggesting that the domestic water sources are marginally contaminated by the leachates. ANOVA test result suggests that the data sources were significantly variable, while principal component and correlation analyses identified TOH, 2,4-dichlorophenol, TKN, NO3, NO3-N, TP and borneol, which originated most probably from degradation of plastic materials and organic wastes in the dumpsite, as the priority contaminants. Consumption of domestic water sources within the dumpsite area, in untreated state, could lead to health risks as these priority organic contaminants are mostly carcinogenic, toxic and injurious to human systems.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Água Subterrânea/química , Rios/química , Instalações de Eliminação de Resíduos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Compostos de Amônio/análise , Água Potável/química , Humanos , Nigéria , Nitratos/análise , Nitrogênio/análise , Ácidos Ftálicos/análise , Água/química
5.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(9): 552, 2019 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31399843

RESUMO

The present work aims to observe the spatial distribution of metals associated with carbon forms (fraction < 2 mm) in surface sediments of two macrotidal estuaries, São Marcos Bay and Anil River Estuary, which are located within the transition region between the Amazonian and the semi-arid northeast regions. Grain size, metal content (Al, Fe, Mn, Cu, Pb, Cr, Zn, and Ni), organic matter, and calcium carbonate content were determined. Grain size analyses showed the predominance of the sand-sized fraction < 2 mm due to the local hydrodynamic conditions. Anil River Estuary sediments exhibited high organic matter content due to both the mangrove outwelling and domestic sewage discharge. They also presented high calcium carbonate content as a result of abundant remnants of gastropod shells. Organic matter acted as the primary geochemical carrier for most metals in both estuaries, while calcium carbonate acted as the secondary carrier. Enrichment factors indicated Mn sediment contamination in São Marcos Bay and Fe, Pb, and Zn contamination in the Anil River Estuary. These results also suggest that São Marcos Bay is influenced by harbor activities, mostly ore shipment, whereas Anil River Estuary sediments are enriched in these metals as a result of domestic and hospital effluents reaching the urbanized drainage basin.


Assuntos
Carbono/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Metais Pesados/análise , Rios/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Brasil , Carbonato de Cálcio/análise , Carbonatos/análise , Estuários
6.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(9): 562, 2019 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31410581

RESUMO

Human activities have long been altering the natural conditions of streams, including the quality of their water, throughout most of Brazil. This problem is even worse in regions with low rainfall levels, such as the Brazilian Northeast, where water quality needs to be monitored more carefully. In this context, the present study investigated the effects of environmental integrity on the physicochemical characteristics of the streams of the basin of the Itapecuru River in northeastern Brazil. We tested the hypothesis that streams with lower habitat integrity would have higher conductivity, pH, and temperature, due to the reduced input of allochthonous organic matter and the greater washout of sediments to the stream bed. A total of 15 streams, of a sedimentary basin, were evaluated in the municipality of Caxias, in the Brazilian state of Maranhão, between June 2015, and July 2016; each stream was sampled once a month during the drought period in the region, where physicochemical measurements were taken to determine the environmental integrity of the stream through the application of a habitat integrity index. Streams with greater habitat integrity had lower conductivity, pH, and temperature and had higher discharge rates. The index proved to be not an effective tool for the evaluation of water quality, but was found to be important for the management of hydrographic basins by indicating important changes in environmental variables. In this case, the index can be used primarily for the management of hydrographic basins, given that it can be applied straightforwardly, it can be interpreted easily by decision-makers, and it can quantify alterations to the structure of the system with precision.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Rios/química , Qualidade da Água , Brasil , Ecossistema , Humanos
7.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(9): 570, 2019 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31418096

RESUMO

Seasonal variations in mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), arsenic (As), copper (Cu), and chromium (Cr) metal concentrations in 36 water and 36 sediment samples from River Tano were studied using Perkin Elmer atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS) between November 2016 and October 2017. Significantly higher metal concentrations were recorded in rainy season than dry season for both water and sediment except for Pb and Cd where sediment concentrations were higher in the dry season. Cu was detected only in the sediment samples. Spatially the source of the river is unpolluted for all the metals in both seasons but the midstream and downstream ends of the river were heavily polluted by Hg, Pb, and Cd. All the heavy metals studied except Zn exceeded the WHO standards for drinking water. In the sediment, Cd, Hg, and Cr concentrations exceeded the USEPA guidelines. Igeo and Concentration Factor analysis revealed unpolluted sediments in terms of Cu, Pb, As, and Cr. They were near the background concentrations but Hg and Cd were in the range of moderate to heavy pollution. All the metals correlated significantly among themselves to signify common source to the water. It thus remains risky to use untreated water from the midstream and downstream of River Tano for domestic purposes. Enforcement of the buffer zone policy is recommended to avert further deterioration of the river water and sediment qualities.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Metais Pesados/análise , Rios/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Gana , Estações do Ano
8.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(9): 572, 2019 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31420782

RESUMO

The surface water hydrochemistry of the Syr Darya River in Kazakhstan was investigated at 39 locations to analyze regional hydrochemical characteristics and evaluate the irrigation suitability of the studied regions. The cations in the surface water are mainly Na+, Ca2+, and Mg2+, while the anions are mainly SO42-. The main hydrochemical type is Ca-Mg-SO4-Cl. From the perspective of natural factors, the hydrochemical characteristics in the study area are derived from the dual effects of rock weathering and evaporation-concentration; however, the influence of anthropogenic factors include industrial and agricultural production near the river and the inflow of urban domestic sewage on the hydrochemical characteristic is also present. The irrigation suitability evaluation of the surface water based on SAR, Na% and KI showed that the majority of the water is suitable for irrigation, and from the TDS content analysis, 71.43% of the samples are in a critical state, indicating that the influence of TDS concentration on irrigation suitability cannot be ignored. The results have practical significance for maintaining the sustainable use of water resources in the Syr Darya River.


Assuntos
Irrigação Agrícola , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Rios/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Qualidade da Água/normas , Cazaquistão , Esgotos/análise , Tempo (Meteorologia)
9.
Sci Total Environ ; 691: 1271-1281, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31466207

RESUMO

Although it is widely known that dams can have large impacts on the environmental and biological characteristics of downstream rivers, there is a substantial lack of studies focusing on which ecological processes cause longitudinal changes in biological communities downstream of reservoirs. We investigated longitudinal patterns in the total beta diversity and its replacement and richness difference components for actively (fish) and passively (phytoplankton) dispersing biological groups. Our results, obtained from a 230 km sampling stretch, demonstrated the key role played by tributaries in the downstream direction from main river impoundment, which influenced local environmental conditions and beta diversity patterns of each biological group. Both replacement and richness difference contributed to high values of total beta diversity for fish (average = 0.77) and phytoplankton (average = 0.79), but their relative importance was more associated with the replacement component for both biological groups (average = 0.45 and 0.52, respectively). Moreover, we observed clear differences between fish and phytoplankton in beta diversity patterns operating at small and broad scales, as well as in the mechanisms driving each beta diversity component. Directional dispersal-related processes and environmental filtering played a major role in shaping total beta diversity and its components for fish, while temporal factors explained considerable parts of phytoplankton beta diversity. Our findings contributed to understanding of tributary-induced heterogeneity and highlight the importance of dam-free stretches of rivers for preserving the integrity of dammed river basins.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Ecossistema , Rios/química , Animais , Biota , Ecologia , Monitoramento Ambiental , Peixes , Fitoplâncton , Densidade Demográfica , Dinâmica Populacional , Estações do Ano
10.
J Environ Radioact ; 208-209: 106005, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31279227

RESUMO

The accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant in 2011 released a large quantity of radiocesium into the surrounding environment. Radiocesium concentrations in some freshwater fish caught in rivers in Fukushima Prefecture in October 2018 were still higher than the Japanese limit of 100 Bq kg-1 for general foodstuffs. To assess the uptake of 137Cs by freshwater fish living in mountain streams in Fukushima Prefecture, we developed a compartment model for the migration of 137Cs on the catchment scale from forests to river water. We modelled a generic forest catchment with Fukushima-like parameters to ascertain the importance of three export pathways of 137Cs from forests to river water for the uptake of 137Cs by freshwater fish. The pathways were direct litter fall into rivers, lateral inflow from the forest litter layer, and lateral transfer from the underlying forest soil. Simulation cases modelling only a single export pathway did not reproduce the actual trend of 137Cs concentrations in river water and freshwater fish in Fukushima Prefecture. Simulations allowing a combined effect of the three pathways reproduced the trends well. In the latter simulations, the decreasing trend of 137Cs in river water and freshwater fish was due to a combination of the decreasing trend in the forest leaves/needles and litter compartments, and the increasing trend in soil. The modelled 137Cs concentrations within the forest compartments were predicted to reach an equilibrium state at around ten years after the fallout due to the equilibration of 137Cs cycling in forests. The model suggests that long term 137Cs concentrations in freshwater fish in mountain streams will be controlled by the transfer of 137Cs to river water from forest organic soils.


Assuntos
Radioisótopos de Césio/análise , Peixes/metabolismo , Monitoramento de Radiação , Poluentes Radioativos do Solo/análise , Poluentes Radioativos da Água/análise , Animais , Radioisótopos de Césio/metabolismo , Florestas , Acidente Nuclear de Fukushima , Japão , Centrais Nucleares , Rios/química , Poluentes Radioativos do Solo/metabolismo , Poluentes Radioativos da Água/metabolismo
11.
Sci Total Environ ; 691: 112-123, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31319249

RESUMO

Natural disturbances help maintain healthy forested and aquatic ecosystems. However, biotic and abiotic disturbance regimes are changing rapidly. For example, the Swiss needle cast (SNC) epidemic in the Coast Range of Oregon in the U.S. Pacific Northwest has increased in area from 53,050 to 238,705ha over the 1996-2015 period. We investigated whether the hydrologic regime (i.e., annual streamflow, runoff ratio, and magnitude and timing of peak flows and low flows) was affected by SNC in 12 catchments in western Oregon. The catchments ranged in size from 183 to 1834km2 and area affected by SNC from 0 to 90.5%. To maximize the number of catchments included in the study, we analyzed 20years of SNC aerial survey data and 15-26years of stream discharge (Q) and PRISM precipitation (P) and air temperature (Tair) data to test for trends in hydrologic variables for each catchment. As expected, we found that runoff ratios (Q/P) increased in five catchments, all with an area impacted by SNC >10%. This was likely due to the effects of SNC on the hydraulic architecture (i.e., needle retention, sapwood area, sapwood permeability) of affected trees, leading to decreased canopy interception and transpiration losses. Interestingly, two catchments with the greatest area affected by SNC showed no changes in hydrologic regime. The lack of hydrologic response could either be due to compensatory transpiration by vegetation unaffected by the disease or sub-canopy abiotic evaporation, which counteracted reductions in transpiration. This study is the first to illustrate that chronic canopy disturbance from a foliage pathogen can influence catchment scale hydrology.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Florestas , Doenças das Plantas , Rios/química , Movimentos da Água , Ecossistema , Hidrologia , Oregon , Árvores
12.
Nature ; 571(7763): 99-102, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31270485

RESUMO

The long-term cooling, decline in the partial pressure of carbon dioxide, and the establishment of permanent polar ice sheets during the Neogene period1,2 have frequently been attributed to increased uplift and erosion of mountains and consequent increases in silicate weathering, which removes atmospheric carbon dioxide3,4. However, geological records of erosion rates are potentially subject to averaging biases5,6, and the magnitude of the increase in weathering fluxes-and even its existence-remain debated7-9. Moreover, an increase in weathering scaled to the proposed erosional increase would have removed nearly all carbon from the atmosphere10, which has led to suggestions of compensatory carbon fluxes11-13 in order to preserve mass balance in the carbon cycle. Alternatively, an increase in land surface reactivity-resulting from greater fresh-mineral surface area or an increase in the supply of reactive minerals-rather than an increase in the weathering flux, has been proposed to reconcile these disparate views8,9. Here we use a parsimonious carbon cycle model that tracks two weathering-sensitive isotopic tracers (stable 7Li/6Li and cosmogenic 10Be/9Be) to show that an increase in land surface reactivity is necessary to simultaneously decrease atmospheric carbon dioxide, increase seawater 7Li/6Li and retain constant seawater 10Be/9Be over the past 16 million years. We find that the global silicate weathering flux remained constant, even as the global silicate weathering intensity-the fraction of the total denudation flux that is derived from silicate weathering-decreased, sustained by an increase in erosion. Long-term cooling during the Neogene thus reflects a change in the partitioning of denudation into weathering and erosion. Variable partitioning of denudation and consequent changes in silicate weathering intensity reconcile marine isotope and erosion records with the need to maintain mass balance in the carbon cycle and without requiring increases in the silicate weathering flux.


Assuntos
Atmosfera/química , Ciclo do Carbono , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Dióxido de Carbono/história , Temperatura Baixa , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Geologia/história , Retroalimentação , Sedimentos Geológicos/análise , História Antiga , Camada de Gelo/química , Modelos Teóricos , Rios/química , Água do Mar/química , Silicatos/análise
13.
Chemosphere ; 233: 966-974, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31340424

RESUMO

The lower stretch of the perennial transboundary river Ganga is known as the Hooghly River (HR) in India. Despite the strict ban, HR has been evidenced with residues of pesticidal persistent organic pollutants (POPs) from primary and secondary sources. Hence surface water sampling and passive air sampling (PAS) were conducted along the urban and suburban transects and discharge points to study the fate of pesticidal (POPs along the HR. Excluding the discharge points, the mean concentration of hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and endosulfan (ENDO) were 6 ng/L, 4 ng/L and 36 ng/L in surface water and 888 pg/m3, 1689 pg/m3 and 429 pg/m3 in atmosphere respectively. Percentage composition and diagnostic ratios strongly suggest ongoing use of technical HCH, DDT and endosulfan. Elevated endosulfan in surface water has been related to its usage during fishing. Except for p,p'-DDE, α-Endo and ß-Endo, fluxes at the air-water interface showed net deposition from air to water for all the OCPs in urban and suburban transects. The estimated eco-toxicological risk assessment showed risk on lower trophic organisms due to DDT and lindane mostly at the discharge points. Endosulfan can pose potential risk to the edible fishe species in the HR.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Praguicidas/análise , Rios/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Atmosfera/química , DDT/análise , Diclorodifenil Dicloroetileno/análise , Endossulfano/análise , Hexaclorocicloexano/análise , Índia , Água/química
14.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1078: 78-89, 2019 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31358231

RESUMO

Based on a one-step combustion fabrication approach, a novel magnetic porous carbon (MPC) was fabricated using filter paper as porous carbon source and iron salts as magnetic precursors. The textural properties of the MPC were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FT-IR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), vibration sample magnetometer (VSM) and nitrogen absorption-desorption isotherms. The as-prepared MPC possessed a high specific surface area, a microstructure comprised of mesopores and strong magnetic response. It was employed as a magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) adsorbent for the determination of three non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in environmental water and biological samples coupled with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The main parameters affecting extraction efficiency were investigated in detail and a satisfactory performance was obtained under the optimal conditions. The calibration curves were linear over the concentration ranging from 1 to 1200 µg L-1 for ketoprofen (KET) and 2-1200 µg L-1 for naproxen (NAP) and diclofenac (DCF) with determination coefficients (R2) between 0.9995 and 0.9997. The limits of detection (LODs) were in the range of 0.2-0.4 µg L-1. The intra- and inter-day relative standard deviations (RSDs) were less than 4.03% and 8.72%, respectively. The recoveries ranged from 84.67% to 113.73% with RSDs less than 7.76%. The satisfactory results confirmed the great potential of the novel MPC adsorbent for the extraction of NSAIDs from complex sample matrices.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/análise , Carbono/química , Diclofenaco/análise , Cetoprofeno/análise , Naproxeno/análise , Adsorção , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/sangue , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/urina , Diclofenaco/sangue , Diclofenaco/urina , Química Verde/métodos , Cetoprofeno/sangue , Cetoprofeno/urina , Limite de Detecção , Nanopartículas de Magnetita/química , Naproxeno/sangue , Naproxeno/urina , Porosidade , Rios/química , Extração em Fase Sólida/instrumentação , Extração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
15.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(7): 475, 2019 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31256284

RESUMO

Given the spatial and temporal variability in hydrological conditions and nitrogen (N) processes, it is of great uncertainty to identify the N sources and evaluate N transformation processes in the upper Han River. Investigations were conducted in November 2015 and January, April, and July 2016, using an isotopic method and water quality monitoring. The significant and positive correlation between NO3- concentrations and Cl- (p < 0.01) in most sampling months suggested that the great influence of human activities and sewage or manure was the dominant NO3- source. The δ15NO3- values and NO3-/Cl- variations indicated that riverine N mainly came from soil organic N and sewage in November. Fertilizer and sewage were the major N sources in January and April, respectively. In July, water was influenced by various N inputs. The nitrification process played an important role in the low δ15NO3- values in January, while both nitrification and plant uptake resulted in the increase in δ15NH4+ values in April. The simultaneous effect of N fixation and plant uptake maintained the stabilization of δ15NH4+ concentrations. Our study provides theoretical basis on N sources and transformations for controlling N pollution and improving water quality in the upper Han River in the near future.


Assuntos
Nitrogênio/análise , Rios/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , China , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Nitrificação , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Isótopos de Nitrogênio/análise , Isótopos de Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Plantas/metabolismo , Estações do Ano , Solo/química
16.
Environ Pollut ; 252(Pt B): 1532-1538, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31277022

RESUMO

The potential persistence and migration of 14 antibiotics comprising sulfonamides, fluoroquinolones, macrolides and tetracyclines were conducted using a 50-d recirculating flume study supported by batch attenuation experiments with spiked concentrations. The study demonstrated that photodegradation was the dominant attenuation process for these antibiotics in the water environment. The half-lives of 2-26 d were in order of sulfadiazine > sulfadimethoxine > sulfamerazine > sulfamethoxazole > sulfamethazine > sulfathiazole > ofloxacin > enrofloxacin > norfloxacin > ciprofloxacin > erythromycin > tetracycline > roxithromycin > oxytetracycline. These modest half-lives meant that the antibiotics were predicted to travel 30-400 km down a typical river before half the concentration would be lost. All antibiotics were detected on the surface sediment in the flume study. Under hyporheic exchange, some of them continually migrated into the deeper sediment and also the sediment pore water. All fluoroquinolones were detected in the sediments. The sulfonamides were detected in the pore water with relatively high concentrations and frequencies. Sulfadiazine, sulfamethazine and sulfathiazole in the upper layer pore water were found to be approaching equilibrium with the surface water. The high presence of sulfonamides in the pore water indicated that their high mobility and persistence potentially pose a risk to hyporheic zone.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Modelos Teóricos , Rios/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Fluoroquinolonas/análise , Hidrodinâmica , Macrolídeos/análise , Fotólise , Sulfonamidas/análise , Tetraciclinas/análise
17.
Environ Pollut ; 252(Pt B): 1659-1670, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31284208

RESUMO

The Yangtze River, which is the largest in Euro-Asian, receives tremendous anthropogenic nitrogen input and is typically characterized by severe eutrophication and hypoxia. Two major processes, denitrification and anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox), play vital roles for removing nitrogen global in nitrogen cycling. In the current study, sediment samples were collected from both latitudinal and longitudinal transects along the coastal Yangtze River and the East China Sea (ECS). We investigated community composition and distributions of nosZ gene-encoded denitrifiers by high throughput sequencing, and also quantified the relative abundances of both denitrifying and anammox bacteria by q-PCR analysis. Denitrifying communities showed distinct spatial distribution patterns that were impacted by physical (water current and river runoffs) and chemical (nutrient availability and organic content) processes. Both denitrifying and anammox bacteria contributed to the nitrogen removal in Yangtze Estuary and the adjacent ECS, and these two processes shifted from coastal to open ocean with reverse trends: the abundance of nosZ gene decreased from coastal to open ocean while anammox exhibited an increasing trend based on quantifications of hzsB and 16S rRNA genes. Further correspondence correlation analysis revealed that salinity and nutrients were the main factors in structuring composition and distribution of denitrifying and anammox bacteria. This study improved our understanding of dynamic processes in nitrogen removal from estuarine to open ocean. We hypothesize that denitrification is the major nitrogen removal pathway in estuaries, but in open oceans, low nutrient and organic matter concentrations restrict denitrification, thus increasing the importance of anammox as a nitrogen removal process.


Assuntos
Amônia/metabolismo , Estuários , Ciclo do Nitrogênio , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Rios/microbiologia , Água do Mar/microbiologia , China , Desnitrificação , Genes Bacterianos , Ciclo do Nitrogênio/genética , Oceanos e Mares , Oxirredução , Rios/química , Salinidade , Água do Mar/química
18.
Environ Pollut ; 252(Pt B): 1678-1686, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31284210

RESUMO

As a country with the highest CO2 emissions and at the turning point of socio-economic transition, China's effort to reduce CO2 emissions will be crucial for climate change mitigation. Yet, due to geospatial variations of CO2 emissions in different cities, it is important to develop city-specific policies and tools to help control and reduce CO2 emissions. The key question is how to identify and quantify these variations so as to provide reference for the formulation of the corresponding mitigation policies. This paper attempts to answer this question through a case study of 26 cities in the Yangtze River Delta. The CO2 emissions pattern of each city is measured by two statistics: Gini coefficient to describe its quantitative pattern and Global Moran's I index to capture its spatial pattern. It is found that Gini coefficients in all these cities are all greater than 0.94, implying a highly polarized pattern in terms of quantity; and the maximum value for Global Moran's I index is 0.071 with a standard deviation of 0.021, indicating a weak spatial clustering trend but strong difference among these cities. So, it would be more efficient for these cities at current stage to reduce CO2 emissions by focusing on the large emission sources at certain small localities, particularly the very built-up areas rather than covering all the emission sources on every plot of the urban prefectures. And by a combination of these two metrics, the 26 cities are regrouped into nine types with most of them are subject to type HL and ML. These reclassification results then can serve as reference for customizing mitigation policies accordingly and positioning these policies in a more accurate way in each city.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Mudança Climática , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Rios/química , China , Cidades
19.
Sci Total Environ ; 690: 121-131, 2019 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31284186

RESUMO

Microbial community function in freshwater sediments is influenced by the presence and persistence of anthropogenic pollutants, yet simultaneously imposes significant control on their transformation. Thus, microbes provide valuable ecosystem services in terms of biodegradation and bioindicators of compromised habitats. From a remediation perspective it is valuable to leverage the suite of microbial genes at the transcriptional level that are active in either natural versus stressed environments to provide insight into the cycling and fate of contaminants. Metatranscriptomic analysis of total bacterial and archaeal messenger RNA (mRNA) is a useful tool in this facet and was applied to sediments sampled from the Detroit River; a binational Area of Concern (AOC) in the Great Lakes. Previously established sediment surveys and modelling delineated the river into contaminant gradients based on concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and metals. Differential expression analysis through DESeq2 revealed that microbial transcripts associated with nitrate reduction, methanogenesis, and beta-oxidation were significant in legacy polluted sediments and linked with energetic pathways key in the generation of cellular currencies (acetyl-CoA, succinyl-CoA). Gluconeogenesis and polyester synthesis also showed high abundance in contaminated regions, along with increased expression of stress response genes and transposons, despite decreases in community α-diversity. Aromatic cleavage genes were detected, but in low abundance across the contaminant gradient. These results suggest that microbial communities within the Detroit River exploit unique anabolic and catabolic pathways to derive and store energy from legacy organic contaminants while simultaneously recruiting stress-response and gene transfer mechanisms to cope with xenobiotic pressures. By coupling well-resolved chemical datasets with metatranscriptomics, this study adds to the spatial understanding of in-situ microbial activities in pristine and perturbed freshwater sediments.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Biodegradação Ambiental , Ecossistema , Sedimentos Geológicos , Michigan , Bifenilos Policlorados , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Rios/química , Rios/microbiologia , Transcriptoma , Microbiologia da Água
20.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 182: 109452, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31351330

RESUMO

Antimicrobial resistance gene (ARG) abundance and microbial resistance (MR) are often used as important indicators of pollution risk; however, the relationship between ARGs abundance and MR in pig farm wastewater remains unknown. In this study, the raw pig farm wastewater, effluent water, upstream river water, domestic wastewater and downstream river water samples were collected. The concentration of 20 subtypes of ARGs and 2 integrons, minimal inhibit concentration (MIC), and bacterial communities were investigated. In this study, 20 subtypes of ARGs and integrons were detected in all sampling sites. The highest abundance of 17 of the 20 subtypes of ARGs was detected in raw pig farm wastewater, and ermA had the maximum average abundance of 108 copies/mL, with up to 2.41 ±â€¯0.12 × 108 copies/mL. There was no significant correlation between MR to three antibiotics (ciprofloxacin, streptomycin and tetracycline hydrochloride) and the abundance of their corresponding ARGs (P > 0.05), and a large difference was detected between the types of ARGs co-occur bacteria and resistance co-occur bacteria in the 5 sampling sites. And the pig farm wastewater treatment (WWT) could effectively reduce the ARGs and MR to the 3 antibiotics. The results presented here show that there may be no obvious correlation between ARGs and MCR in pig farm wastewater and surrounding rivers, which may be due to various environmental factors, highlighting the urgent need for a comprehensive evaluation of relationship between ARGs abundance and MR.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/análise , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Genes Bacterianos , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Rios/microbiologia , Águas Residuárias/microbiologia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Fazendas , Integrons/efeitos dos fármacos , Integrons/genética , Microbiota/genética , Rios/química , Suínos , Águas Residuárias/química
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA