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1.
BMJ ; 368: l6744, 2020 01 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31907166

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine, in critically ill patients, the relative impact of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), histamine-2 receptor antagonists (H2RAs), sucralfate, or no gastrointestinal bleeding prophylaxis (or stress ulcer prophylaxis) on outcomes important to patients. DESIGN: Systematic review and network meta-analysis. DATA SOURCES: Medline, PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, trial registers, and grey literature up to March 2019. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA FOR SELECTING STUDIES AND METHODS: We included randomised controlled trials that compared gastrointestinal bleeding prophylaxis with PPIs, H2RAs, or sucralfate versus one another or placebo or no prophylaxis in adult critically ill patients. Two reviewers independently screened studies for eligibility, extracted data, and assessed risk of bias. A parallel guideline committee (BMJ Rapid Recommendation) provided critical oversight of the systematic review, including identifying outcomes important to patients. We performed random-effects pairwise and network meta-analyses and used GRADE to assess certainty of evidence for each outcome. When results differed between low risk and high risk of bias studies, we used the former as best estimates. RESULTS: Seventy two trials including 12 660 patients proved eligible. For patients at highest risk (>8%) or high risk (4-8%) of bleeding, both PPIs and H2RAs probably reduce clinically important gastrointestinal bleeding compared with placebo or no prophylaxis (odds ratio for PPIs 0.61 (95% confidence interval 0.42 to 0.89), 3.3% fewer for highest risk and 2.3% fewer for high risk patients, moderate certainty; odds ratio for H2RAs 0.46 (0.27 to 0.79), 4.6% fewer for highest risk and 3.1% fewer for high risk patients, moderate certainty). Both may increase the risk of pneumonia compared with no prophylaxis (odds ratio for PPIs 1.39 (0.98 to 2.10), 5.0% more, low certainty; odds ratio for H2RAs 1.26 (0.89 to 1.85), 3.4% more, low certainty). It is likely that neither affect mortality (PPIs 1.06 (0.90 to 1.28), 1.3% more, moderate certainty; H2RAs 0.96 (0.79 to 1.19), 0.9% fewer, moderate certainty). Otherwise, results provided no support for any affect on mortality, Clostridium difficile infection, length of intensive care stay, length of hospital stay, or duration of mechanical ventilation (varying certainty of evidence). CONCLUSIONS: For higher risk critically ill patients, PPIs and H2RAs likely result in important reductions in gastrointestinal bleeding compared with no prophylaxis; for patients at low risk, the reduction in bleeding may be unimportant. Both PPIs and H2RAs may result in important increases in pneumonia. Variable quality evidence suggested no important effects of interventions on mortality or other in-hospital morbidity outcomes. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42019126656.


Assuntos
Estado Terminal/terapia , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal , Antagonistas dos Receptores Histamínicos H2/farmacologia , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/farmacologia , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/etiologia , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Seleção de Pacientes , Risco Ajustado/métodos
2.
BMJ ; 368: l6794, 2020 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31941657

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of modifications to contemporary cancer protocols, which minimize exposures to cardiotoxic treatments and preserve long term health, on serious cardiac outcomes among adult survivors of childhood cancer. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: 27 institutions participating in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study. PARTICIPANTS: 23 462 five year survivors (6193 (26.4%) treated in the 1970s, 9363 (39.9%) treated in the 1980s, and 7906 (33.6%) treated in the 1990s) of leukemia, brain cancer, Hodgkin lymphoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, renal tumors, neuroblastoma, soft tissue sarcomas, and bone sarcomas diagnosed prior to age 21 years between 1 January 1970 and 31 December 1999. Median age at diagnosis was 6.1 years (range 0-20.9) and 27.7 years (8.2-58.3) at last follow-up. A comparison group of 5057 siblings of cancer survivors were also included. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Cumulative incidence and 95% confidence intervals of reported heart failure, coronary artery disease, valvular heart disease, pericardial disease, and arrhythmias by treatment decade. Events were graded according to the National Cancer Institute's Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events. Multivariable subdistribution hazard models were used to estimate hazard ratios by decade, and mediation analysis examined risks with and without exposure to cardiotoxic treatments. RESULTS: The 20 year cumulative incidence of heart failure (0.69% for those treated in the 1970s, 0.74% for those treated in the 1980s, 0.54% for those treated in the 1990s) and coronary artery disease (0.38%, 0.24%, 0.19%, respectively), decreased in more recent eras (P<0.01), though not for valvular disease (0.06%, 0.06%, 0.05%), pericardial disease (0.04%, 0.02%, 0.03%), or arrhythmias (0.08%, 0.09%, 0.13%). Compared with survivors with a diagnosis in the 1970s, the risk of heart failure, coronary artery disease, and valvular heart disease decreased in the 1980s and 1990s but only significantly for coronary artery disease (hazard ratio 0.65, 95% confidence interval 0.45 to 0.92 and 0.53, 0.36 to 0.77, respectively). The overall risk of coronary artery disease was attenuated by adjustment for cardiac radiation (0.90, 0.78 to 1.05), particularly among survivors of Hodgkin lymphoma (unadjusted for radiation: 0.77, 0.66 to 0.89; adjusted for radiation: 0.87, 0.69 to 1.10). CONCLUSIONS: Historical reductions in exposure to cardiac radiation have been associated with a reduced risk of coronary artery disease among adult survivors of childhood cancer. Additional follow-up is needed to investigate risk reductions for other cardiac outcomes. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01120353.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica , Sobreviventes de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Cardiopatias , Neoplasias , Radioterapia , Risco Ajustado , Adulto , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Cardiotoxicidade , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Cardiopatias/induzido quimicamente , Cardiopatias/classificação , Cardiopatias/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Neoplasias/classificação , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/radioterapia , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Radioterapia/efeitos adversos , Radioterapia/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Risco Ajustado/métodos , Risco Ajustado/tendências , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
3.
BJOG ; 127(3): 397-403, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31749273

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether restrictive or routine episiotomy in term pregnant Southeast Asian women results in fewer complications. DESIGN: A multicentre randomised controlled trial. SETTING: Two tertiary and two general hospitals in Thailand. POPULATION: 3006 singleton pregnant women 18 years or older, ≥37 weeks of gestation, cephalic presentation and planned vaginal delivery. METHODS: This randomised controlled trial compared routine versus restrictive episiotomies in Thai women giving birth vaginally. Participants were singleton, term pregnant women with cephalic presentation. Block randomisation was stratified by study site and parity. Risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated to indicate between-group differences. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Primary outcome was severe perineal laceration. Secondary outcomes included vaginal laceration, cervical laceration, and pregnancy outcomes. RESULTS: 3006 women were randomly assigned to restrictive (1502) and routine (1504) episiotomy. There was no difference in severe perineal laceration between the groups (RR 0.72, 95% CI 0.46-1.12). Restrictive episiotomy resulted in more intact perineums in multiparous women (RR 3.09, 95% CI 2.10-4.56). Restrictive episiotomy increased the risk of vaginal laceration in primiparous (RR 1.96, 95% CI 1.62-2.37) and multiparous women (RR 2.21, 95% CI 1.77-2.75) but did not lead to more suturing. There were comparable risks of cervical laceration, postpartum haemorrhage, wound complication, birth asphyxia, and admission to neonatal intensive care unit. CONCLUSIONS: Restrictive episiotomy results in more intact perineum in multiparous women. Risks of maternal and neonatal outcomes were comparable between the two practices. These results strengthen the certainty of the existing Cochrane review findings in supporting restrictive episiotomy. TWEETABLE ABSTRACT: Restrictive episiotomy results in more intact perineums after vaginal birth in multiparous Southeast Asian women.


Assuntos
Parto Obstétrico , Episiotomia , Complicações Intraoperatórias , Lacerações , Períneo/lesões , Adulto , Parto Obstétrico/efeitos adversos , Parto Obstétrico/métodos , Episiotomia/efeitos adversos , Episiotomia/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Complicações Intraoperatórias/diagnóstico , Complicações Intraoperatórias/prevenção & controle , Apresentação no Trabalho de Parto , Lacerações/diagnóstico , Lacerações/etiologia , Lacerações/prevenção & controle , Paridade , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Risco Ajustado/métodos , Nascimento a Termo , Tailândia
4.
Br J Anaesth ; 124(1): 73-83, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31860444

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Socioeconomic circumstances can influence access to healthcare, the standard of care provided, and a variety of outcomes. This study aimed to determine the association between crude and risk-adjusted 30-day mortality and socioeconomic group after emergency laparotomy, measure differences in meeting relevant perioperative standards of care, and investigate whether variation in hospital structure or process could explain any difference in mortality between socioeconomic groups. METHODS: This was an observational study of 58 790 patients, with data prospectively collected for the National Emergency Laparotomy Audit in 178 National Health Service hospitals in England between December 1, 2013 and November 31, 2016, linked with national administrative databases. The socioeconomic group was determined according to the Index of Multiple Deprivation quintile of each patient's usual place of residence. RESULTS: Overall, the crude 30-day mortality was 10.3%, with differences between the most-deprived (11.2%) and least-deprived (9.8%) quintiles (P<0.001). The more-deprived patients were more likely to have multiple comorbidities, were more acutely unwell at the time of surgery, and required a more-urgent surgery. After risk adjustment, the patients in the most-deprived quintile were at significantly higher risk of death compared with all other quintiles (adjusted odds ratio [95% confidence interval]: Q1 [most deprived]: reference; Q2: 0.83 [0.76-0.92]; Q3: 0.84 [0.76-0.92]; Q4: 0.87 [0.79-0.96]; Q5 [least deprived]: 0.77 [0.70-0.86]). We found no evidence that differences in hospital-level structure or patient-level performance in standards of care explained this association. CONCLUSIONS: More-deprived patients have higher crude and risk-adjusted 30-day mortality after emergency laparotomy, but this is not explained by differences in the standards of care recorded within the National Emergency Laparotomy Audit.


Assuntos
Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Laparotomia/mortalidade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/economia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Comorbidade , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Feminino , Hospitais/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Assistência Perioperatória/economia , Assistência Perioperatória/normas , Pobreza , Risco Ajustado , Medicina Estatal , Adulto Jovem
5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(48): e18187, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31770274

RESUMO

Currently, little is known regarding the predictive utility of aortic arch calcification (AAC) for clinical outcomes in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) who undergo percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The present study was designed to investigate the predictive performance of AAC as detected by chest x-ray for clinical outcomes among ACS patients undergoing PCI.A total of 912 patients who were diagnosed as ACS and treated with PCI were included in this prospective, cohort study. All study participants received chest x-rays on admission, and a semiquantitative 4-point scale was used to assess the extent of AAC. The primary end point was defined as a composite of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) comprising death, nonfatal stroke, nonfatal myocardial infarction, and unplanned repeat revascularization. The key secondary end point was the composite of cardiovascular death, nonfatal stroke, and nonfatal myocardial infarction. The prognostic values of AAC were assessed in multivariate Cox-proportional hazards regression analyses adjusted for major confounders.The mean follow-up duration was 917 days and, during the follow-up period, MACE occurred in 168 (18.4%) patients. Kaplan-Meier analyses revealed significantly higher incidences of the primary and key secondary end points in patients with higher AAC grades (log-rank test; all P < .001). Multivariate Cox-proportional hazards regression analyses showed that, in comparison to AAC grade 0, the hazard ratios of AAC grades 1, 2, and 3 for predicting MACE were 1.63 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.99-2.67), 2.15 (95% CI 1.27-3.62), and 2.88 (95% CI 1.41-5.86), respectively. The C-index of the variables, including peripheral arterial disease and serum levels of triglyceride for predicting MACE, was 0.644 (95% CI 0.600-0.687) versus 0.677 (95% CI 0.635-0.719) when AAC grades were also included; the continuous net reclassification improvement was 16.5% (8.7%-23.4%; P < .001).The extent of AAC as detected by chest x-ray is an independent predictor of MACE among ACS patients undergoing PCI. Further research is warranted to evaluate whether specific treatment strategies that are established based on AAC extent are needed for optimal risk reduction in relevant patient populations.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda , Aorta Torácica , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Calcificação Vascular , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/diagnóstico , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/mortalidade , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/cirurgia , Idoso , Aorta Torácica/diagnóstico por imagem , Aorta Torácica/patologia , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/métodos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/estatística & dados numéricos , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Radiografia Torácica/métodos , Radiografia Torácica/estatística & dados numéricos , Risco Ajustado/métodos , Fatores de Risco , Calcificação Vascular/diagnóstico , Calcificação Vascular/epidemiologia
6.
Dis Colon Rectum ; 62(11): 1371-1380, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596763

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with Crohn's disease are at increased risk of postoperative venous thromboembolism. Historically, extended outpatient prophylaxis has not met conventional measures of societal cost-benefit advantage. However, extended prophylaxis for patients with Crohn's disease may be more cost-effective because of the patients' high thrombotic risk and long life expectancy. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the cost-effectiveness of extended prophylaxis in patients with Crohn's disease after abdominal surgery. DESIGN: A decision tree model was used to assess the incremental cost-effectiveness and cost per case averted with extended-duration venous thromboembolism prophylaxis following abdominal surgery. SETTING: The risk of a postdischarge thrombotic event, age at surgery, type of thrombotic event, prophylaxis risk reduction, bleeding complications, and mortality were estimated by using existing published sources. PATIENTS: Studied were patients with Crohn's disease versus routine care. INTERVENTION: We constructed a decision analysis to compare costs and outcomes in patients with Crohn's disease postoperatively with and without extended prophylaxis over a lifetime horizon. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Productivity costs ($) and benefits (quality-adjusted life-year) were used to reflect a societal perspective and were time discounted at 3%. Multivariable probabilistic sensitivity analysis accounted for uncertainty in probabilities, costs, and utility weights. RESULTS: With the use of reference parameters, the individual expected societal total cost of care was $399.83 without and $1387.95 with prophylaxis. Preventing a single mortality with prophylaxis would cost $43.00 million (number needed to treat: 39,839 individuals). The incremental cost was $1.90 million per quality-adjusted life-year. Adjusting across a range of scenarios upheld these conclusions 88% of the time. With further sensitivity testing, subpopulations with postdischarge thrombosis rates greater than 4.9% favors postoperative extended-duration venous thromboembolism prophylaxis. LIMITATIONS: Further investigation is needed to determine if specific high-risk individuals can be preemptively identified in the Crohn's surgical population for targeted prophylaxis. CONCLUSION: Extended prophylaxis in patients with Crohn's disease postoperatively is not cost-effective when the cumulative incidence of posthospital thrombosis remains less than 4.9%. These findings are driven by the low absolute risk of thrombosis in this population and the considerable cost of universal treatment. See Video Abstract at http://links.lww.com/DCR/A998. LIMITACIONES DE COSTO-BENEFICIO DE LA PROFILAXIS AMBULATORIA PROLONGADA DEL TROMBOEMBOLISMO VENOSO DESPUÉS DE CIRUGÍA EN CASOS DE ENFERMEDAD DE CROHN:: Los pacientes con enfermedad de Crohn tienen un mayor riesgo de tromboembolismo venoso postoperatorio. Históricamente, la profilaxis ambulatoria prolongada no ha cumplido con las medidas convencionales de ventajas en costo-beneficio para la sociedad. Sin embargo, la profilaxis prolongada en los pacientes con Crohn puede ser más rentable debido al alto riesgo trombótico y a una larga esperanza de vida en estos pacientes.Evaluar la rentabilidad de la profilaxis prolongada en pacientes postoperados de un Crohn.Se utilizó un modelo de árbol de decisión para evaluar el incremento de rentabilidad y el costo por cada caso evitado con la profilaxis prolongada de tromboembolismo venoso después de cirugía abdominal.Se calcularon utilizando fuentes publicadas el riesgo de evento trombótico posterior al alta, la edad del paciente al momento de la cirugía, el tipo de evento trombótico, la reducción del riesgo de profilaxis, las complicaciones hemorrágicas y la mortalidad.Se estudiaron los pacientes de atención rutinaria versus aquellos portadores de Crohn.Construimos un arbol de análisis decisional para comparar costos y resultados de pacientes portadores de Crohn, con y sin profilaxis prolongada en el postoperatorio en un horizonte de por vida.Los costos de productividad ($) y los beneficios (año de vida ajustado por calidad) se utilizaron para reflejar la perspectiva social y se descontaron en el tiempo de un 3%. El análisis de sensibilidad probabilística multivariable dió cuenta de la incertidumbre en las probabilidades, costos y peso de utilidades.Usando parámetros de referencia, el costo total social esperado de la atención individual fue de $ 399.83 sin y $ 1,387.95 con profilaxis. La prevención del deceso de un paciente con profilaxis costaría $ 43.00 millones (valor requerido para tratar: 39,839 individuos). El costo incrementado fue de $ 1.90 millones por año de vida ajustado por la calidad. El ajuste a través de una gama de escenarios confirmó estas conclusiones el 88% del tiempo. Con pruebas de sensibilidad adicionales, las subpoblaciones con tasas de trombosis posteriores al alta fueron superiores al 4,9% y favorecían la profilaxis prolongada del tromboembolismo venoso en el postoperatorio.Se necesita más investigación para determinar si se puede identificar de manera preventiva los individuos específicos de alto riesgo en la población quirúrgica de Crohn en casos de profilaxis dirigida.La profilaxis prolongada en pacientes postoperados de un Crohn no es rentable cuando la incidencia acumulada de trombosis posthospitalaria sigue siendo inferior al 4,9%. Estos hallazgos son impulsados por el bajo riesgo absoluto de trombosis en esta población y el costo considerable del tratamiento universal. Vea el resumen del video en http://links.lww.com/DCR/A998.


Assuntos
Quimioprevenção , Colectomia/efeitos adversos , Doença de Crohn/cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Tromboembolia Venosa , Quimioprevenção/economia , Quimioprevenção/métodos , Colectomia/métodos , Análise Custo-Benefício , Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pacientes Ambulatoriais/estatística & dados numéricos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Risco Ajustado , Prevenção Secundária/economia , Prevenção Secundária/métodos , Estados Unidos , Tromboembolia Venosa/etiologia , Tromboembolia Venosa/mortalidade , Tromboembolia Venosa/prevenção & controle
7.
Health Serv Res ; 54(6): 1233-1245, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31576563

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine between-state differences in the socioeconomic and health characteristics of Medicare beneficiaries dually enrolled in Medicaid, focusing on characteristics not observable to or used by policy makers for risk adjustment. DATA SOURCE: 2010-2013 Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective analyses of survey-reported health and socioeconomic status (SES) measures among low-income Medicare beneficiaries and low-income dual enrollees. We used hierarchical linear regression models with state random effects to estimate the between-state variation in respondent characteristics and linear models to compare the characteristics of dual enrollees by state Medicaid policies. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Between-state differences in health and socioeconomic risk among low-income Medicare beneficiaries, as measured by the coefficient of variation, ranged from 17.5 percent for an index of socioeconomic risk to 20.3 percent for an index of health risk. Between-state differences were comparable among the subset of low-income beneficiaries dually enrolled in Medicare and Medicaid. Dual enrollees with incomes below the Federal Poverty Level were in better health and had higher SES in states that offered Medicaid to individuals with relatively higher incomes. Duals' average incomes were higher in states with Medically Needy programs. CONCLUSIONS: Characteristics of dual enrollees differ substantially across states, reflecting differences in states' low-income Medicare populations and Medicaid policies. Risk-adjustment methods using dual enrollment to proxy for poor health and low SES should account for this state-level heterogeneity.


Assuntos
Elegibilidade Dupla ao MEDICAID e MEDICARE , Definição da Elegibilidade/normas , Medicaid/estatística & dados numéricos , Medicaid/normas , Medicare/estatística & dados numéricos , Medicare/normas , Risco Ajustado/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Governo Estadual , Estados Unidos
8.
Health Serv Res ; 54(6): 1223-1232, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31576566

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To develop and validate a claims-based comorbidity score for patients undergoing major surgery, and compare its performance with established comorbidity scores. DATA SOURCE: Five percent Medicare data from 2007 to 2014. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study of patients aged ≥65 years undergoing six major operations (N = 99 250). DATA COLLECTION: One-year mortality was the primary outcome. Secondary outcomes were hospital mortality, 30-day mortality, 30-day readmission, and length of stay. The comorbidity score was developed in the derivation cohort (70 percent sample) using logistic regression model. The comorbidity score was calibrated and validated in the validation cohort (30 percent sample), and compared against the Charlson, Elixhauser, and Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services Hierarchical Condition Categories (CMS-HCC) comorbidity scores using c-statistic, net reclassification improvement, and integrated discrimination improvement. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the validation cohort, the surgery-specific comorbidity score was well calibrated and performed better than the Charlson, Elixhauser, and CMS-HCC comorbidity scores for all outcomes; the performance was comparable to the CMS-HCC for 30-day readmission. For example, the surgery-specific comorbidity score (c-statistic = 0.792; 95% CI, 0.785-0.799) had greater discrimination than the Charlson (c-statistic = 0.747; 95% CI, 0.739-0.755), Elixhauser (c-statistic = 0.747; 95% CI, 0.735-0.755), or CMS-HCC (c-statistic = 0.755; 95% CI, 0.747-0.763) scores in predicting 1-year mortality. The net reclassification improvement and integrated discrimination improvement were greater for surgery-specific comorbidity score compared to the Charlson, Elixhauser, and CMS-HCC scores. CONCLUSIONS: Compared to commonly used comorbidity measures, a surgery-specific comorbidity score better predicted outcomes in the surgical population.


Assuntos
Comorbidade , Guias como Assunto , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Classificação Internacional de Doenças/normas , Risco Ajustado/normas , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/classificação , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos
9.
Rev Esp Salud Publica ; 932019 Sep 06.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488808

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Chronic patients suffer a greater number of health problems and have greater needs for assistance and care. The objective was to describe the use of health services in Primary Care in patients with chronic conditions according to risk level by adjusted morbidity groups (AMG) and analyze the associated factors. METHODS: Cross-sectional study. We included patients ≥18 years-old identified as chronic by the stratification tool according to AMG in a basic health area in the Community of Madrid with an assigned population of 18,107 inhabitants. Sociodemographic, clinical-care and use of services variables were collected and were classified according to the "behavioral" model in predisposing, need or facilitators factors. Univariate, bivariate and multiple linear regression adjusted with robust estimators was performed. RESULTS: 9,443 chronic patients (52.1% of the population in the selected zone) were identified, mean age of 57.8 (SD=18.7); 62.1% women. According to their risk level 4.7% were high risk, 18.7% medium risk and 76.6% low risk. The mean number of contacts per year was 14.1 (SD=15.2); 34.4 (SD=27.9) in high risk; 21.8 (SD=17.2) in medium risk and 10.1 (SD=10.2) in low risk. 7.5 (SD=7.1) contacts were with the doctor and 12.9 (SD=12.9) were face-to-face. The factors associated with higher use of services were high risk (Coefficient B[CB]=12.6; IC95%=11-14.2), immobilization (CB=8.8; IC95%=7.3-10.4), polypharmacy (CB=6; IC95%=5-8.6), female sex (CB=1; IC95%=0.4-1.5), number of chronic diseases (CB=1; IC95%=0.8-1.2) and age (CB=0.03; IC95%=0.01-0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The health services utilization in Primary Care in chronic patients is high and increased according with the risk level by AMG. The contact with the doctor is superior to nurse and the most frequent type is face-to-face. The greater utilization of services responds to predisposing factors (female sex and age) and above all to need factors (high risk, immobility, multimorbidity and polypharmacy).


Assuntos
Doença Crônica/terapia , Utilização de Instalações e Serviços/estatística & dados numéricos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doença Crônica/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Risco Ajustado , Espanha/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
Heart Fail Clin ; 15(4): 487-495, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31472884

RESUMO

As cancer therapies improve, the population of survivors of cancer has increased, and the long-term effects of cancer treatments have become more apparent. Cardiotoxicity is a well-established adverse effect of many antineoplastic agents. Hypertension is common in survivors of cancer, can be caused or worsened by certain agents, and has been shown to increase the risk of other cardiovascular diseases including heart failure. Pretreatment risk assessment and careful monitoring of blood pressure during therapy is essential. Aggressive management of preexisting or incident hypertension in survivors of cancer is paramount to decrease the risk of heart failure and other cardiovascular diseases in these patients.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Cardiotoxicidade , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Hipertensão , Neoplasias/terapia , Risco Ajustado/métodos , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Cardiotoxicidade/diagnóstico , Cardiotoxicidade/prevenção & controle , Monitoramento de Medicamentos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/etiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertensão/etiologia
11.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 108(3): 929-934, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31353035

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent studies in noncardiac surgery have described worse outcomes in the first month of training. However, the "July effect" in the context of cardiac surgery outcomes is not well understood. We examined whether patient outcomes after cardiac surgery were affected by procedure month or academic year quartile. METHODS: Using the National Inpatient Sample, we isolated all coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), surgical aortic valve replacement (AVR), mitral valve repair or replacement (MV), and isolated thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAA) replacement procedures between 2012 and 2014. For each procedure, overall trends in in-hospital mortality and hospital complications were compared by academic year quartiles (ie, between the first academic year quartile vs the fourth quartile) and by procedure month. Outcomes between teaching and nonteaching hospitals were also compared. RESULTS: Overall, 301,105 CABG, 111,260 AVR, 54,985 MV, and 2,655 TAA procedures met inclusion criteria. In-hospital mortality for each procedure did not vary by procedure month or academic year quartile, even after risk adjustment (all P > .05). Teaching status did not influence risk-adjusted mortality for CABG and isolated TAA replacement (both P > .05). However, teaching hospitals had significantly lower adjusted mortality than nonteaching hospitals for AVR and MV surgery (both P < .01). CONCLUSIONS: The July effect is not evident for cardiac surgery despite preexisting notions. Teaching hospitals performed at least equivalent, if not better, for major cardiac surgery procedures. These findings highlight the pivotal role of hospital support systems to ensure the safe transition of resident classes without compromising on patient outcomes.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/métodos , Competência Clínica , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Corpo Clínico Hospitalar/tendências , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Centros Médicos Acadêmicos/organização & administração , Adulto , Idoso , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos de Coortes , Bases de Dados Factuais , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina/organização & administração , Feminino , Hospitais de Ensino/organização & administração , Humanos , Pacientes Internados/estatística & dados numéricos , Internato e Residência/organização & administração , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/fisiopatologia , Risco Ajustado , Estações do Ano , Estados Unidos
12.
BMC Med Inform Decis Mak ; 19(1): 131, 2019 07 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31299965

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High utilizers receive great attention in health care research because they have a largely disproportionate spending. Existing analyses usually identify high utilizers with an empirical threshold on the number of health care visits or associated expenditures. However, such count-and-cost based criteria might not be best for identifying impactable high utilizers. METHODS: We propose an approach to identify impactable high utilizers using residuals from regression-based health care utilization risk adjustment models to analyze the variations in health care expenditures. We develop linear and tree-based models to best adjust per-member per-month health care cost by clinical and socioeconomic risk factors using a large administrative claims dataset from a state public insurance program. RESULTS: The risk adjustment models identify a group of patients with high residuals whose demographics and categorization of comorbidities are similar to other patients but who have a significant amount of unexplained health care utilization. Deeper analysis of the essential hypertension cohort and chronic kidney disease cohort shows these variations in expenditures could be within individual ICD-9-CM codes and from different mixtures of ICD-9-CM codes. Additionally, correlation analysis with 3M™ Potentially Preventable Events (PPE) software shows that a portion of this utilization may be preventable. In addition, the high utilizers persist from year to year. CONCLUSIONS: After risk adjustment, patients with higher than expected expenditures (high residuals) are associated with more potentially preventable events. These residuals are temporally consistent and hence may be useful in identifying and intervening impactable high utilizers.


Assuntos
Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Gastos em Saúde , Medicaid , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Risco Ajustado , Adulto , Feminino , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Gastos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Medicaid/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos Estatísticos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos
13.
Acta Orthop Traumatol Turc ; 53(5): 329-333, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31281078

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of dual-mobility (DM) cup systems for revision total hip arthroplasty (rTHA) in patients who had high risk for instability. METHODS: We prospectively followed up 34 hips of 30 patients (27 females, 3 males; mean age: 66.1 (range: 33 to 89) years) who underwent rTHA with DM cups for aseptic loosening in 23 hips, infection treatment as second or single stage in nine hips, and instability in two hips. Clinical functions of the patients were evaluated using the Harris Hip Score (HHS), and radiological migration or loosening of the DM cups were recorded. The survival of the components was calculated with the Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and failure was defined as any dislocation of the polyethylene (PE) insert, intraprosthetic dislocation (IPD), aseptic loosening of any component or total hip system revision due to any reason. RESULTS: The mean duration of follow-up was 3.52 (range: 2.05 to 6.26) years. There was one dislocation of PE insert (2.9%), which was treated with closed reduction. There were two (5.8%) re-revisions for cemented DM cup due to migration. There was one PE insert and head change due to subacute infection. The mean HHS increased from 42.8 ± 6.7 (range: 34 to 60) points preoperatively to 87.3 ± 5.8 (range: 75 to 98) points postoperatively. The cumulative survival rate of the DM cup system was 91.2% (95% CI: 81.6-100%) with any revision, 94.1% (95% CI: 86.2-100%) with aseptic loosening and %97.1 (%95 CI: 91.4-100%) with dislocation as the end point at 3.5 years. CONCLUSION: Dual-mobility cups may provide good stability and represent a good option for revision acetabular reconstruction in patients who have high risk for instability. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level IV, therapeutic study.


Assuntos
Acetábulo , Artroplastia de Quadril/efeitos adversos , Instabilidade Articular , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos , Reoperação , Acetábulo/diagnóstico por imagem , Acetábulo/cirurgia , Idoso , Feminino , Prótese de Quadril/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Instabilidade Articular/etiologia , Instabilidade Articular/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Desenho de Prótese , Falha de Prótese/efeitos adversos , Retenção da Prótese/instrumentação , Retenção da Prótese/métodos , Radiografia , Amplitude de Movimento Articular , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos/instrumentação , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos/métodos , Reoperação/instrumentação , Reoperação/métodos , Risco Ajustado
14.
Orv Hetil ; 160(27): 1057-1063, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31264470

RESUMO

The health care renumeration poses a great challenge for both politicians and policymakers. During the beginning of the 1990s, following the end of communism in Hungary, the reform of health care began with the introduction of the primary health care (PHC), specifically with general practitioner (GPP)/family medicine (FM) care. The basis of the renumeration was the age-adjusted capitation built upon the free choice of doctors, while social security renumeration was built on a mixed system. Several pros and cons have been highlighted, but the underlying principle has proved to be simple and effective. Comparison of the European and Hungarian characteristics, analysis of data in the present patient care report as well as in the years preceding the release of the aforementioned document, these confirm that the method of capitation-based remuneration is a fundamental, easy, and unmanipulable method. It places minimal weight on social security and comes with little costs. Orv Hetil. 2019; 160(27): 1057-1063.


Assuntos
Capitação , Medicina de Família e Comunidade/economia , Planos de Pagamento por Serviço Prestado/organização & administração , Honorários e Preços , Honorários Médicos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/economia , Clínicos Gerais , Humanos , Hungria , Risco Ajustado
16.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 55(6)2019 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31234470

RESUMO

Background and Objectives: Several studies inspected the impact of P2X7 polymorphisms on individual susceptibility to tuberculosis (TB), but the findings are still controversial and inconclusive. To achieve a more precise estimation, we conducted a meta-analysis of all eligible studies on the association between P2X7 polymorphisms and TB risk. Materials and Methods: Relevant studies were identified by searching the PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus and Google scholar databases up to November 2018. Twenty-four full-text articles were included in our meta-analysis. The strength of association between P2X7 polymorphisms and TB risk was evaluated by odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) under five genetic models. Results: The findings of this meta-analysis revealed that the rs3751143 variant significantly increased the risk of TB in heterozygous codominant (OR = 1.44, 95%CI = 1.17-1.78, p = 0.0006, AC vs. AA), homozygous codominant (OR = 1.87, 95% CI = 1.40-2.49, p = 0.0004, CC vs. AA), dominant (OR = 1.50, 95% CI = 1.22-1.85, p = 0.0002, AC + CC vs. AA), recessive (OR = 1.61, 95% CI = 1.25-2.07, p = 0.001, CC vs. AC + AA), and allele (OR = 1.41, 95% CI = 1.19-1.67, p < 0.0001, C vs. A) genetic models. Stratified analysis showed that rs3751143 increased the risk of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) in all genetic models. Furthermore, the rs3751143 increased risk of TB in the Asian population. The findings did not support an association between the rs2393799, rs1718119, rs208294, rs7958311, and rs2230911 polymorphisms of P2X7 and TB risk. Conclusions: The findings of this meta-analysis suggest that P2X7 rs3751143 polymorphism may play a role in susceptibility to TB in the Asian population. More well-designed studies are required to elucidate the exact role of P2X7 polymorphisms on TB development.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Receptores Purinérgicos P2X7/genética , Tuberculose/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Humanos , Razão de Chances , Polimorfismo Genético/genética , Risco Ajustado/métodos , Fatores de Risco
17.
Matern Child Health J ; 23(8): 1140-1145, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31209616

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to describe the knowledge and perceptions of pregnant women in Miami-Dade County concerning Zika virus (ZIKV) in their community, to characterize their testing behaviors, and to identify any barriers that would keep them from seeking testing. METHODS: The Florida Department of Health in Miami-Dade County partnered with the Healthy Start Coalition of Miami-Dade to administer an assessment survey in eight OBGYN clinics from June to August 2017. The survey captured past ZIKV testing practices, attitudes towards testing, barriers to testing, risk perception of ZIKV in the participants' community, and ZIKV-related knowledge. Descriptive analyses were performed on variables of interest. Chi squared tests examined associations between categorical variables. RESULTS: A total of 363 participants were included in the analysis. Of these, 203 (55.9%) thought they should be tested for ZIKV, and less than half of the participants reported having been previously tested (152, 41.9%). Participants with some high school education were significantly more likely than those with higher education levels to see ZIKV as a "big problem" in the community (p = 0.0026). There was a significant association (p ≤ 0.0001) between women who thought that they should be tested, and those who perceived ZIKV to be a medium or big problem in their community. CONCLUSIONS FOR PRACTICE: Health interventions that focus on increasing ZIKV knowledge should also place greater emphasis on risk communication when targeting the pregnant population. Having a higher risk perception may be more predictive of testing behaviors than having a lack of barriers or a high level of ZIKV-related knowledge.


Assuntos
Programas de Rastreamento/psicologia , Percepção , Gestantes/psicologia , Risco Ajustado/normas , Infecção por Zika virus/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Florida , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Gravidez , Risco Ajustado/métodos , Medição de Risco/métodos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Zika virus/patogenicidade , Infecção por Zika virus/psicologia
18.
Ann Surg Oncol ; 26(9): 2797-2804, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31209671

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Comorbidity indices (CIs) are widely used in retrospective studies. We investigated the value of commonly used CIs in risk adjustment for postoperative complications after colorectal surgery. METHODS: Patients undergoing colectomy without stoma for colonic neoplasia at a single institution from 2009 to 2014 were included. Four CIs were calculated or obtained for each patient, using administrative data: Charlson-Deyo (CCI-D), Charlson-Romano (CCI-R), Elixhauser Comorbidity Score, and American Society of Anesthesiologists classification. Outcomes of interest in the 90-day postoperative period were any surgical complication, surgical site infection (SSI), Clavien-Dindo (CD) grade 3 or higher complication, anastomotic leak or abscess, and nonroutine discharge. Base models were created for each outcome based on significant bivariate associations. Logistic regression models were constructed for each outcome using base models alone, and each index as an additional covariate. Models were also compared using the DeLong and Clarke-Pearson method for receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, with the CCI-D as the reference. RESULTS: Overall, 1813 patients were included. Postoperative complications were reported in 756 (42%) patients. Only 9% of patients had a CD grade 3 or higher complication, and 22.8% of patients developed an SSI. Multivariable modeling showed equivalent performance of the base model and the base model augmented by the CIs for all outcomes. The ROC curves for the four indices were also similar. CONCLUSIONS: The inclusion of CIs added little to the base models, and all CIs performed similarly well. Our study suggests that CIs do not adequately risk-adjust for complications after colorectal surgery.


Assuntos
Fístula Anastomótica/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/cirurgia , Cirurgia Colorretal/normas , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico , Risco Ajustado/métodos , Idoso , Fístula Anastomótica/epidemiologia , Fístula Anastomótica/etiologia , Fístula Anastomótica/prevenção & controle , Cirurgia Colorretal/efeitos adversos , Comorbidade , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , New York/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
19.
World Neurosurg ; 128: 477-500, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31048059

RESUMO

With the increasing interest in big data and health services research, use of administrative databases is becoming commonplace in health care studies, including in neurosurgery. Administrative data offer the unique advantage of accessing large amounts of information previously collected from a population-based sample with geographic diversity. When using administrative data sets, researchers can benefit from application of risk adjustment instruments, which help stratify patients and tailor the original sample for specific research questions. The Charlson Comorbidity Index and Elixhauser Comorbidity Index are 2 of the most common indices. The Pediatric Medical Complexity Algorithm and Clinical Classification Software are other promising tools. Understanding of these tools may assist neurosurgeons who wish to critically assess research findings relevant to their clinical practice. In this review, an overview is presented of risk adjustment tools commonly used in adult as well as pediatric populations and their history, uses, limitations, and applications in neurosurgical research are summarized.


Assuntos
Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Neurocirurgia , Risco Ajustado/métodos , Bases de Dados Factuais , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Humanos , Neurocirurgiões
20.
Eur J Orthop Surg Traumatol ; 29(6): 1169-1175, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31037406

RESUMO

Aim of this review article is to evaluate the percentage of ulnar nerve lesion during cross-pinning considering the patient's position (supine or prone) on the surgical bed. Comprehensive research was performed by searching in PUBMED, Cochrane Library, ISI Web of Science, SCOPUS and Clinicaltrials.gov from 2005. Children with extension type supracondylar humeral fractures without clinical signs of ulnar nerve lesion at presentation were included. A total of 28 papers were examined including 2147 patients; 1541 underwent a closed reduction and cross-pinning in supine position and 606 in prone position. Among 1541 patients in supine position, 69 (4.5%) suffered from a ulnar nerve injury while among the 606 patients treated in prone position none ulnar nerve lesions were reported. Despite the apparent safety of prone position, further larger studies, comparing the patient's position on the surgical bed, need to be carried out in order to confirm this likelihood.


Assuntos
Fixação Interna de Fraturas/efeitos adversos , Fraturas do Úmero/cirurgia , Complicações Intraoperatórias/prevenção & controle , Posicionamento do Paciente/métodos , Traumatismos dos Nervos Periféricos , Nervo Ulnar/lesões , Criança , Fixação Interna de Fraturas/métodos , Humanos , Traumatismos dos Nervos Periféricos/etiologia , Traumatismos dos Nervos Periféricos/prevenção & controle , Risco Ajustado
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