Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 128.002
Filtrar
1.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0252384, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34214101

RESUMO

Early prediction of patient mortality risks during a pandemic can decrease mortality by assuring efficient resource allocation and treatment planning. This study aimed to develop and compare prognosis prediction machine learning models based on invasive laboratory and noninvasive clinical and demographic data from patients' day of admission. Three Support Vector Machine (SVM) models were developed and compared using invasive, non-invasive, and both groups. The results suggested that non-invasive features could provide mortality predictions that are similar to the invasive and roughly on par with the joint model. Feature inspection results from SVM-RFE and sparsity analysis displayed that, compared with the invasive model, the non-invasive model can provide better performances with a fewer number of features, pointing to the presence of high predictive information contents in several non-invasive features, including SPO2, age, and cardiovascular disorders. Furthermore, while the invasive model was able to provide better mortality predictions for the imminent future, non-invasive features displayed better performance for more distant expiration intervals. Early mortality prediction using non-invasive models can give us insights as to where and with whom to intervene. Combined with novel technologies, such as wireless wearable devices, these models can create powerful frameworks for various medical assignments and patient triage.


Assuntos
COVID-19/mortalidade , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Máquina de Vetores de Suporte , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Comorbidade , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Feminino , Previsões , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Teóricos , Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Avaliação de Sintomas , Triagem , Adulto Jovem
2.
J Med Life ; 14(2): 148-164, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34104237

RESUMO

Temporomandibular joint disorders (TMDs) encompass a wide array of ailments affecting the temporomandibular joint (TMJ), muscles of mastication, and the allied structural framework. Myofascial pain, internal derangement of the joint, and degenerative joint diseases constitute the majority of TMDs. TMDs usually have a multifactorial etiology, and treatment modalities range from conservative therapies to surgical interventions. Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has evolved as an efficient non-invasive therapeutic modality in TMDs. Previously conducted systematic reviews and meta-analyses have shown variable results regarding the efficiency of LLLT in TMJ disorder patients. Hence, this systematic review was carried out as an attempt to evaluate the efficacy of LLLT in the treatment of temporomandibular joint disorder patients.


Assuntos
Terapia com Luz de Baixa Intensidade , Transtornos da Articulação Temporomandibular/radioterapia , Humanos , Viés de Publicação , Risco , Software
3.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 12948, 2021 06 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34155232

RESUMO

COVID 19 disease has become a global catastrophe over the past year that has claimed the lives of over two million people around the world. Despite the introduction of vaccines against the disease, there is still a long way to completely eradicate it. There are concerns about the complications following infection with SARS-CoV-2. This research aimed to evaluate the possible correlation between infection with SARS-CoV viruses and cancer in an in-silico study model. To do this, the relevent dataset was selected from GEO database. Identification of differentially expressed genes among defined groups including SARS-CoV, SARS-dORF6, SARS-BatSRBD, and H1N1 were screened where the |Log FC| ≥ 1and p < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Later, the pathway enrichment analysis and gene ontology (GO) were used by Enrichr and Shiny GO databases. Evaluation with STRING online was applied to predict the functional interactions of proteins, followed by Cytoscape analysis to identify the master genes. Finally, analysis with GEPIA2 server was carried out to reveal the possible correlation between candidate genes and cancer development. The results showed that the main molecular function of up- and down-regulated genes was "double-stranded RNA binding" and actin-binding, respectively. STRING and Cytoscape analysis presented four genes, PTEN, CREB1, CASP3, and SMAD3 as the key genes involved in cancer development. According to TCGA database results, these four genes were up-regulated notably in pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Our findings suggest that pancreatic adenocarcinoma is the most probably malignancy happening after infection with SARS-CoV family.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/etiologia , COVID-19/complicações , Carcinogênese/genética , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1 , Influenza Humana/complicações , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/etiologia , Vírus da SARS , SARS-CoV-2 , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/complicações , COVID-19/genética , COVID-19/metabolismo , COVID-19/virologia , Caspase 3/genética , Proteína de Ligação ao Elemento de Resposta ao AMP Cíclico/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Ontologia Genética , Humanos , Influenza Humana/genética , Influenza Humana/metabolismo , Influenza Humana/virologia , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/genética , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas , Risco , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/genética , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/metabolismo , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/virologia , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Proteína Smad3/genética , Regulação para Cima/genética
4.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 13468, 2021 06 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34188198

RESUMO

The behavioral immune system posits that disgust functions to protect animals from pathogen exposure. Therefore, cues of pathogen risk should be a primary driver influencing variation in disgust. Yet, to our knowledge, neither the relationship between current pathogen risk and disgust, nor the correlation between objective and perceived pathogen risk have been addressed using ecologically valid measures in a global sample. The current article reports two studies addressing these gaps. In Study 1, we include a global sample (n = 361) and tested the influence of both perceived pathogen exposure and an objective measure of pathogen risk-local communicable infectious disease mortality rates-on individual differences in pathogen and sexual disgust sensitivities. In Study 2, we first replicate Study 1's analyses in another large sample (n = 821), targeting four countries (US, Italy, Brazil, and India); we then replaced objective and perceived pathogen risk with variables specific to the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. In Study 1, both local infection mortality rates and perceived infection exposure predicted unique variance in pathogen and sexual disgust. In Study 2, we found that perceived infection exposure positively predicted sexual disgust, as predicted. When substituting perceived and objective SARS-CoV-2 risk in our models, perceived risk of contracting SARS-CoV-2 positively predicted pathogen and sexual disgust, and state case rates negatively predicted pathogen disgust. Further, in both studies, objective measures of risk (i.e., local infection mortality and SARS-CoV-2 rates) positively correlated with subjective measures of risk (i.e., perceived infection exposure and perceived SARS-CoV-2 risk). Ultimately, these results provide two pieces of foundational evidence for the behavioral immune system: 1) perceptions of pathogen risk accurately assay local, objective mortality risk across countries, and 2) both perceived and objective pathogen risk explain variance in disgust levels.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem da Esquiva , Asco , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Brasil/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/mortalidade , COVID-19/patologia , COVID-19/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Itália/epidemiologia , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Risco , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Caracteres Sexuais , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
6.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 12948, 2021 06 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1279894

RESUMO

COVID 19 disease has become a global catastrophe over the past year that has claimed the lives of over two million people around the world. Despite the introduction of vaccines against the disease, there is still a long way to completely eradicate it. There are concerns about the complications following infection with SARS-CoV-2. This research aimed to evaluate the possible correlation between infection with SARS-CoV viruses and cancer in an in-silico study model. To do this, the relevent dataset was selected from GEO database. Identification of differentially expressed genes among defined groups including SARS-CoV, SARS-dORF6, SARS-BatSRBD, and H1N1 were screened where the |Log FC| ≥ 1and p < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Later, the pathway enrichment analysis and gene ontology (GO) were used by Enrichr and Shiny GO databases. Evaluation with STRING online was applied to predict the functional interactions of proteins, followed by Cytoscape analysis to identify the master genes. Finally, analysis with GEPIA2 server was carried out to reveal the possible correlation between candidate genes and cancer development. The results showed that the main molecular function of up- and down-regulated genes was "double-stranded RNA binding" and actin-binding, respectively. STRING and Cytoscape analysis presented four genes, PTEN, CREB1, CASP3, and SMAD3 as the key genes involved in cancer development. According to TCGA database results, these four genes were up-regulated notably in pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Our findings suggest that pancreatic adenocarcinoma is the most probably malignancy happening after infection with SARS-CoV family.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/etiologia , COVID-19/complicações , Carcinogênese/genética , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1 , Influenza Humana/complicações , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/etiologia , Vírus da SARS , SARS-CoV-2 , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/complicações , COVID-19/genética , COVID-19/metabolismo , COVID-19/virologia , Caspase 3/genética , Proteína de Ligação ao Elemento de Resposta ao AMP Cíclico/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Ontologia Genética , Humanos , Influenza Humana/genética , Influenza Humana/metabolismo , Influenza Humana/virologia , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/genética , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas , Risco , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/genética , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/metabolismo , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/virologia , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Proteína Smad3/genética , Regulação para Cima/genética
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1224019

RESUMO

This study aimed to determine whether risk awareness of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) affects visits to national parks. We analyzed the tourist decision-making process during the current pandemic using the theory of planned behavior as a framework, adding variables relevant to the pandemic, such as risk perception and risk reduction behavior, to the model. Based on a literature review, we developed a research model describing the impact relationship between risk perception, the theory of planned behavior, and risk reduction behavior and tested nine hypotheses. Results of a survey of 555 visitors to two national parks supported eight of the nine hypotheses. Although the results are limited, they reaffirm the usefulness of the theory of planned behavior in explaining tourism behavior. This work is significant in that we would be able to extend the scope of subsequent research beyond a discussion of the direct effects on optimistic perceptions (bias) and risk reduction behavior as well as visit intention, by explaining the probability even in unprecedented crises such as COVID-19. Humans may be negotiating the constraints (COVID-19) or embodied tourism need through the personal bias. Furthermore, we discuss the theoretical implications of the results for tourism behavior research.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Parques Recreativos , Humanos , Intenção , Pandemias , Risco , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Gut Microbes ; 13(1): 1-10, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1270726

RESUMO

COVID-19 precautions decrease social connectedness. It has been proposed that these measures alter the gut microbiota, with potential clinical consequences. We tested this hypothesis in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) receiving inpatient chemotherapy, a population with extensive exposure to the nosocomial setting and at high risk for infections. Hospitalized patients with AML contributed stool samples to a biorepository protocol that was initiated before COVID-19 and continued without change through the pandemic. Patient-, disease-, and treatment-related characteristics remained the same in the two eras and the only change in clinical care was the implementation of COVID-19 precautions in March 2020. The incidence of all-cause nosocomial infections during the pandemic was lower than in the pre-COVID-19 era. Multivariable analysis revealed an imprint of COVID-19 precautions in the gut microbiota as a viable mechanistic explanation. In conclusion, COVID-19 precautions alter the gut microbiota, thereby mediating pathogen susceptibility and nosocomial infections.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Suscetibilidade a Doenças/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Fezes/microbiologia , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Máscaras , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Distanciamento Físico , Análise de Componente Principal , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Risco , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(10): 3772-3790, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1264762

RESUMO

Multiple epidemiological studies have suggested that industrialization and progressive urbanization should be considered one of the main factors responsible for the rising of atherosclerosis in the developing world. In this scenario, the role of trace metals in the insurgence and progression of atherosclerosis has not been clarified yet. In this paper, the specific role of selected trace elements (magnesium, zinc, selenium, iron, copper, phosphorus, and calcium) is described by focusing on the atherosclerotic prevention and pathogenesis plaque. For each element, the following data are reported: daily intake, serum levels, intra/extracellular distribution, major roles in physiology, main effects of high and low levels, specific roles in atherosclerosis, possible interactions with other trace elements, and possible influences on plaque development. For each trace element, the correlations between its levels and clinical severity and outcome of COVID-19 are discussed. Moreover, the role of matrix metalloproteinases, a family of zinc-dependent endopeptidases, as a new medical therapeutical approach to atherosclerosis is discussed. Data suggest that trace element status may influence both atherosclerosis insurgence and plaque evolution toward a stable or an unstable status. However, significant variability in the action of these traces is evident: some - including magnesium, zinc, and selenium - may have a protective role, whereas others, including iron and copper, probably have a multi-faceted and more complex role in the pathogenesis of the atherosclerotic plaque. Finally, calcium and phosphorus are implicated in the calcification of atherosclerotic plaques and in the progression of the plaque toward rupture and severe clinical complications. In particular, the role of calcium is debated. Focusing on the COVID-19 pandemia, optimized magnesium and zinc levels are indicated as important protective tools against a severe clinical course of the disease, often related to the ability of SARS-CoV-2 to cause a systemic inflammatory response, able to transform a stable plaque into an unstable one, with severe clinical complications.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/patologia , Oligoelementos/metabolismo , Aterosclerose/metabolismo , COVID-19/patologia , COVID-19/virologia , Cálcio/sangue , Cálcio/metabolismo , Cobre/sangue , Cobre/metabolismo , Humanos , Ferro/sangue , Ferro/metabolismo , Magnésio/sangue , Magnésio/metabolismo , Metaloproteinases da Matriz/metabolismo , Fósforo/sangue , Fósforo/metabolismo , Risco , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Selênio/sangue , Selênio/metabolismo , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Oligoelementos/sangue , Zinco/sangue , Zinco/metabolismo
11.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 12426, 2021 06 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1268008

RESUMO

In this paper, we proposed a multi-method modeling approach to community-level spreading of COVID-19 disease. Our methodology was composed of interconnected age-stratified system dynamics models in an agent-based modeling framework that allowed for a granular examination of the scale and severity of disease spread, including metrics such as infection cases, deaths, hospitalizations, and ICU usage. Model parameters were calibrated using an optimization technique with an objective function to minimize error associated with the cumulative cases of COVID-19 during a training period between March 15 and October 31, 2020. We outlined several case studies to demonstrate the model's state- and local-level projection capabilities. We further demonstrated how model outcomes could be used to evaluate perceived levels of COVID-19 risk across different localities using a multi-criteria decision analysis framework. The model's two, three, and four week out-of-sample projection errors varied on a state-by-state basis, and generally increased as the out-of-sample projection period was extended. Additionally, the prediction error in the state-level projections was generally due to an underestimation of cases and an overestimation of deaths. The proposed modeling approach can be used as a virtual laboratory to investigate a wide range of what-if scenarios and easily adapted to future high-consequence public health threats.


Assuntos
COVID-19/patologia , Modelos Estatísticos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/transmissão , COVID-19/virologia , Humanos , Pandemias , Risco , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
13.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(6)2021 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34162617

RESUMO

A 33-year-old woman in her first pregnancy with no significant medical history had a tonic-clonic seizure one hour after delivery due to acute hyponatraemia caused by excess intake of fluids. She was admitted to a birthing centre as a low-risk labourer where she spent 19 hours including 4 hours in the second stage of labour. Throughout the labour, she was encouraged to drink as per her own initiative and thirst. However, there was no monitoring of fluid intake. In spite of initial confusion about the cause of the seizure, a multidisciplinary approach helped with diagnosis of an underlying pathology and allowed timely treatment to avoid adverse outcomes in this patient. We would like to increase awareness of a possibility, however rare, of water intoxication due to fluid overconsumption by patients in labour and encourage production of information guidance for monitoring of fluid intake of women in labour.


Assuntos
Hiponatremia , Trabalho de Parto , Intoxicação por Água , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Hiponatremia/induzido quimicamente , Gravidez , Risco , Convulsões/induzido quimicamente , Intoxicação por Água/complicações
14.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0253381, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34181686

RESUMO

During the COVID-19 pandemic, governments globally had to impose severe contact restriction measures and social mobility limitations in order to limit the exposure of the population to COVID-19. These public health policy decisions were informed by statistical models for infection rates in national populations. In this work, we are interested in modelling the temporal evolution of national-level infection counts for the United Kingdom (UK-Wales, England, Scotland), Germany (GM), Italy (IT), Spain (SP), Japan (JP), Australia (AU) and the United States (US). We model the national-level infection counts for the period January 2020 to January 2021, thus covering both the pre- and post-vaccine roll-out periods, in order to better understand the most reliable model structure for the COVID-19 epidemic growth curve. We achieve this by exploring a variety of stochastic population growth models and comparing their calibration, with respect to in-sample fitting and out-of-sample forecasting, both with and without exposure adjustment, to the most widely used and reported growth model, the Gompertz population model, often referred to in the public health policy discourse during the COVID-19 pandemic. Model risk as we explore it in this work manifests in the inability to adequately capture the behaviour of the disease progression growth rate curve. Therefore, our concept of model risk is formed relative to the standard reference Gompertz model used by decision-makers, and then we can characterise model risk mathematically as having two components: the dispersion of the observation distribution, and the structure of the intensity function over time for cumulative counts of new infections daily (i.e. the force of infection) attributed directly to the COVID-19 pandemic. We also explore how to incorporate in these population models the effect that governmental interventions have had on the number of infected cases. This is achieved through the development of an exposure adjustment to the force of infection comprised of a purpose-built sentiment index, which we construct from various authoritative public health news reporting. The news reporting media we employed were the New York Times, the Guardian, the Telegraph, Reuters global blog, as well as national and international health authorities: the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe, the United States Centres for Disease Control and Prevention, and the World Health Organisation. We find that exposure adjustments that incorporate sentiment are better able to calibrate to early stages of infection spread in all countries under study.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Meios de Comunicação de Massa , Modelos Estatísticos , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Pública , Humanos , Análise de Regressão , Risco , Processos Estocásticos
15.
Front Immunol ; 12: 646894, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1285286

RESUMO

The origin and the global spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in early 2020 was accompanied by high rates of mortality in regions belonging to the ancient silk road, such as the south of China, Iran, Turkey and the northern parts of Italy. However, children seem to be spared in the epidemic as very small percentage worldwide being ill. The protection of children and neonates suggests the involvement of a specific component of adaptive immunity present at early development. Native immunoglobulin belonging to the class of IgM is abundantly present in neonates and children and is known for its recognition of self- and altered self-antigens. Native IgM may be able to neutralize virus by the recognition of endogenous "danger signal" encoded in the viral envelope and originally imprinted in the membranes of infected and stressed cells. Noteworthy, thrombosis and vasculitis, two symptoms in severely affected adult and pediatric patients are shared between COVID-19 and patients with Behcet's disease, an autoimmune disorder exhibiting a region-specific prevalence in countries of the former silk road. Molecular mechanisms and clinical indicators suggest reactive oxygen species as trigger factor for severe progression of COVID-19 and establish a link to the innate immune defense against bacteria. The selective pressure exerted by bacterial pathogens may have shaped the genetics of inhabitants at this ancient trade route in favor of bacterial defense, to the detriment of severe COVID-19 progression in the 21th century.


Assuntos
Linfócitos B/imunologia , COVID-19/imunologia , Modelos Imunológicos , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Adulto , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/metabolismo , Autoantígenos/imunologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Criança , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Humanos , Imunoglobulina M/metabolismo , Padrões Moleculares Associados a Patógenos/imunologia , Prevalência , Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos
16.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0253381, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1285201

RESUMO

During the COVID-19 pandemic, governments globally had to impose severe contact restriction measures and social mobility limitations in order to limit the exposure of the population to COVID-19. These public health policy decisions were informed by statistical models for infection rates in national populations. In this work, we are interested in modelling the temporal evolution of national-level infection counts for the United Kingdom (UK-Wales, England, Scotland), Germany (GM), Italy (IT), Spain (SP), Japan (JP), Australia (AU) and the United States (US). We model the national-level infection counts for the period January 2020 to January 2021, thus covering both the pre- and post-vaccine roll-out periods, in order to better understand the most reliable model structure for the COVID-19 epidemic growth curve. We achieve this by exploring a variety of stochastic population growth models and comparing their calibration, with respect to in-sample fitting and out-of-sample forecasting, both with and without exposure adjustment, to the most widely used and reported growth model, the Gompertz population model, often referred to in the public health policy discourse during the COVID-19 pandemic. Model risk as we explore it in this work manifests in the inability to adequately capture the behaviour of the disease progression growth rate curve. Therefore, our concept of model risk is formed relative to the standard reference Gompertz model used by decision-makers, and then we can characterise model risk mathematically as having two components: the dispersion of the observation distribution, and the structure of the intensity function over time for cumulative counts of new infections daily (i.e. the force of infection) attributed directly to the COVID-19 pandemic. We also explore how to incorporate in these population models the effect that governmental interventions have had on the number of infected cases. This is achieved through the development of an exposure adjustment to the force of infection comprised of a purpose-built sentiment index, which we construct from various authoritative public health news reporting. The news reporting media we employed were the New York Times, the Guardian, the Telegraph, Reuters global blog, as well as national and international health authorities: the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe, the United States Centres for Disease Control and Prevention, and the World Health Organisation. We find that exposure adjustments that incorporate sentiment are better able to calibrate to early stages of infection spread in all countries under study.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Meios de Comunicação de Massa , Modelos Estatísticos , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Pública , Humanos , Análise de Regressão , Risco , Processos Estocásticos
17.
Virol J ; 18(1): 109, 2021 06 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1255942

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The ongoing SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has spread rapidly worldwide and disease prevention is more important than ever. In the absence of a vaccine, knowledge of the transmission routes and risk areas of infection remain the most important existing tools to prevent further spread. METHODS: Here we investigated the presence of the SARS-CoV-2 virus in the hospital environment at the Uppsala University Hospital Infectious Disease ward by RT-qPCR and determined the infectivity of the detected virus in vitro on Vero E6 cells. RESULTS: SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected in several areas, although attempts to infect Vero E6 cells with positive samples were unsuccessful. However, RNase A treatment of positive samples prior to RNA extraction did not degrade viral RNA, indicating the presence of SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsids or complete virus particles protecting the RNA as opposed to free viral RNA. CONCLUSION: Our results show that even in places where a moderate concentration (Ct values between 30 and 38) of SARS-CoV-2 RNA was found; no infectious virus could be detected. This suggests that the SARS-CoV-2 virus in the hospital environment subsides in two states; as infectious and as non-infectious. Future work should investigate the reasons for the non-infectivity of SARS-CoV-2 virions.


Assuntos
COVID-19/transmissão , Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/estatística & dados numéricos , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Chlorocebus aethiops , Espaços Confinados , Infecção Hospitalar/virologia , Hospitais , Humanos , Risco , SARS-CoV-2/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ventilação/métodos , Células Vero
18.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 13468, 2021 06 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1287816

RESUMO

The behavioral immune system posits that disgust functions to protect animals from pathogen exposure. Therefore, cues of pathogen risk should be a primary driver influencing variation in disgust. Yet, to our knowledge, neither the relationship between current pathogen risk and disgust, nor the correlation between objective and perceived pathogen risk have been addressed using ecologically valid measures in a global sample. The current article reports two studies addressing these gaps. In Study 1, we include a global sample (n = 361) and tested the influence of both perceived pathogen exposure and an objective measure of pathogen risk-local communicable infectious disease mortality rates-on individual differences in pathogen and sexual disgust sensitivities. In Study 2, we first replicate Study 1's analyses in another large sample (n = 821), targeting four countries (US, Italy, Brazil, and India); we then replaced objective and perceived pathogen risk with variables specific to the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. In Study 1, both local infection mortality rates and perceived infection exposure predicted unique variance in pathogen and sexual disgust. In Study 2, we found that perceived infection exposure positively predicted sexual disgust, as predicted. When substituting perceived and objective SARS-CoV-2 risk in our models, perceived risk of contracting SARS-CoV-2 positively predicted pathogen and sexual disgust, and state case rates negatively predicted pathogen disgust. Further, in both studies, objective measures of risk (i.e., local infection mortality and SARS-CoV-2 rates) positively correlated with subjective measures of risk (i.e., perceived infection exposure and perceived SARS-CoV-2 risk). Ultimately, these results provide two pieces of foundational evidence for the behavioral immune system: 1) perceptions of pathogen risk accurately assay local, objective mortality risk across countries, and 2) both perceived and objective pathogen risk explain variance in disgust levels.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem da Esquiva , Asco , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Brasil/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/mortalidade , COVID-19/patologia , COVID-19/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Itália/epidemiologia , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Risco , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Caracteres Sexuais , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
Hemoglobin ; 45(2): 124-128, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34162301

RESUMO

This study aimed to examine the relationship between Hb A1c levels and the clinical course of coronavirus-19 (COVID-19) patients. Sixty-six COVID-19(+) patients with high Hb A1c and 46 with average Hb A1c and 30 COVID-19(-) patients with average Hb A1c were included. Hb A1c levels and parameters examined in COVID-19(+) patients were compared between groups, and correlation analysis was performed between these parameters and Hb A1c levels. The effect of Hb A1c levels on intensive care unit (ICU) admission and mortality rate in COVID-19 patients was analyzed with the χ2 test. It was observed that hemoglobin (Hb) and arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) levels of the COVID-19 (+) groups was lower than the COVID-19 (-) group, while ferritin, D-dimer, procalcitonin (PCT), and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were higher. The COVID-19 (+) group with high Hb A1c had higher lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), PCT and D-dimer levels than the other two groups, while Hb, partial arterial oxygen pressure (PaO2) levels were lower. The Hb A1c levels of the COVID-19 (+) groups were positively correlated with absolute neutrophil count (ANC), LDH, PCT and (K+) levels, while negatively correlated with Hb and PaO2 levels. Hb A1c was found to be associated with the inflammation process, coagulation disorders and low PaO2 in COVID-19 patients. The COVID-19 patients with high Hb A1c levels had a higher mortality rate than other COVID-19 patients. Using Hb A1c measurements with other prognostic markers would contribute to the patient's risk of death assessment.


Assuntos
COVID-19/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus/sangue , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Hiperglicemia/sangue , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto , Idoso , Sedimentação Sanguínea , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/mortalidade , Cuidados Críticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Complicações do Diabetes/sangue , Feminino , Ferritinas/sangue , Produtos de Degradação da Fibrina e do Fibrinogênio/análise , Humanos , Hiperglicemia/etiologia , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/sangue , Contagem de Leucócitos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neutrófilos , Oxigênio/sangue , Pressão Parcial , Pró-Calcitonina/sangue , Prognóstico , Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Trombofilia/sangue , Trombofilia/etiologia
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...