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1.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31793544

RESUMO

AIM: To assess spatial working memory disorders in patients with mild depressive disorders and determine their neurophysiological correlates. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirty patients (right-handed) with ICD-10 diagnosis Mood Disorders (F31.3, F32.0, F33.0, F34.1), aged 37±8 years, were examined before treatment. A control group included 30 mentally and somatically healthy individuals (32±7 years old). The study of spatial working memory was carried out using the Corsi Block-Tapping test. EEG was recorded and the values of the spectral power of theta, alpha and beta rhythms were analyzed. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: A decrease in the level of working memory that was correlated with higher values of theta rhythm power in the frontal and occipital regions and alpha rhythm in the frontal cortex was observed in affective disorders with mild depressive symptoms.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo , Transtornos da Memória , Memória de Curto Prazo , Adulto , Depressão , Transtorno Depressivo/complicações , Transtorno Depressivo/fisiopatologia , Eletroencefalografia , Humanos , Transtornos da Memória/complicações , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos do Humor , Ritmo Teta
3.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 15(11): e1007268, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31725712

RESUMO

Origin and functions of intermittent transitions among sleep stages, including short awakenings and arousals, constitute a challenge to the current homeostatic framework for sleep regulation, focusing on factors modulating sleep over large time scales. Here we propose that the complex micro-architecture characterizing the sleep-wake cycle results from an underlying non-equilibrium critical dynamics, bridging collective behaviors across spatio-temporal scales. We investigate θ and δ wave dynamics in control rats and in rats with lesions of sleep-promoting neurons in the parafacial zone. We demonstrate that intermittent bursts in θ and δ rhythms exhibit a complex temporal organization, with long-range power-law correlations and a robust duality of power law (θ-bursts, active phase) and exponential-like (δ-bursts, quiescent phase) duration distributions, typical features of non-equilibrium systems self-organizing at criticality. Crucially, such temporal organization relates to anti-correlated coupling between θ- and δ-bursts, and is independent of the dominant physiologic state and lesions, a solid indication of a basic principle in sleep dynamics.


Assuntos
Fases do Sono/fisiologia , Vigília/fisiologia , Animais , Nível de Alerta/fisiologia , Ritmo Delta/fisiologia , Eletroencefalografia , Homeostase , Masculino , Neurônios , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Sono/fisiologia , Ritmo Teta/fisiologia
4.
Nat Hum Behav ; 3(12): 1263-1270, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31477910

RESUMO

Attending to our inner world is a fundamental cognitive phenomenon1-3, yet its neural underpinnings remain largely unknown. Neuroimaging evidence implicates the default network (DN) and frontoparietal control network (FPCN)4; however, the electrophysiological basis for the interaction between these networks is unclear. Here we recorded intracranial electroencephalogram from DN and FPCN electrodes implanted in individuals undergoing presurgical monitoring for refractory epilepsy. Subjects performed an attention task during which they attended to tones (that is, externally directed attention) or ignored the tones and thought about whatever came to mind (that is, internally directed attention). Given the emerging role of theta band connectivity in attentional processes5,6, we examined the theta power correlation between DN and two subsystems of the FPCN as a function of attention states. We found increased connectivity between DN and FPCNA during internally directed attention compared to externally directed attention, which positively correlated with attention ratings. There was no statistically significant difference between attention states in the connectivity between DN and FPCNB. Our results indicate that enhanced theta band connectivity between the DN and FPCNA is a core electrophysiological mechanism that underlies internally directed attention.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Lobo Frontal/fisiologia , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Lobo Parietal/fisiologia , Ritmo Teta , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neuroimagem , Ritmo Teta/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
J Clin Neurophysiol ; 36(5): 389-391, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31490453

RESUMO

Smartphones and other personal electronic devices present novel cortical processing tasks with potential for identification of novel EEG waveforms. A 17-year-old patient with epilepsy manifested as recurrent myoclonic seizures, absence seizures, and a single generalized tonic-clonic seizure was hospitalized to undergo video-EEG monitoring for seizure quantification and classification of the epilepsy syndrome. During the monitoring session, a frontocentral predominant 5 to 6 Hz theta rhythm was identified only when the patient was actively texting or playing a video game on his smartphone. Previously, patients with focal epilepsy have been found to have a frontocentral theta rhythm on EEG while texting on mobile devices. We report similar EEG findings in a patient with genetic generalized epilepsy during smartphone gaming to expand the population and triggers for this theta waveform. Given the young age and type of epilepsy, we suggest that the waveform represents the EEG manifestation of the attention-visuomotor pathway that is stimulus independent.


Assuntos
Epilepsias Mioclônicas/fisiopatologia , Smartphone/tendências , Ritmo Teta/fisiologia , Jogos de Vídeo/tendências , Adolescente , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Eletroencefalografia/tendências , Epilepsias Mioclônicas/diagnóstico , Humanos , Masculino , Mensagem de Texto/tendências , Jogos de Vídeo/efeitos adversos
6.
Brain Stimul ; 12(6): 1565-1571, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31383594

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a complex disorder with 40 to 60 % of patients resistant to treatment. Theta burst transcranial magnetic stimulation (TBS) is a promising new technique that has been shown to induce potent and long lasting effects on cortical excitability. The present study evaluated for the first time therapeutic efficacy and tolerability of continuous TBS (cTBS) over the supplementary motor area (SMA) in treatment resistant OCD patients using a double blind, sham-controlled design. METHODS: Thirty treatment resistant OCD outpatients were randomized to receive either active cTBS or sham cTBS for 6 weeks (5 sessions per week). Each treatment session consisted of 600 stimuli at an intensity of 70% of resting motor threshold. Patients were evaluated at baseline, at the end of treatment (week 6), and follow-up (week 12). Response to treatment was defined as at least 25% decrease on the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale. RESULTS: There was no significant difference between active and sham cTBS groups in treatment efficacy. Responder rates were not different between the two groups at week 6 (cTBS 28% versus sham 36%; p = 0.686) and week 12 (cTBS 28% versus sham 36%; p = 0.686). Depressive and anxious symptoms improvements were similar in the two groups. CONCLUSION: This study is the first controlled trial using cTBS in treatment resistant OCD patients. The use of cTBS over the SMA is safe but not sufficient to improve OCD symptoms. Further studies are needed to identify the optimal parameters to be used in OCD patients.


Assuntos
Córtex Motor/fisiologia , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/psicologia , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/terapia , Ritmo Teta/fisiologia , Estimulação Magnética Transcraniana/métodos , Adulto , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/fisiopatologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
7.
Brain Struct Funct ; 224(8): 2907-2924, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31456067

RESUMO

Empirical evidence suggests that, in the auditory cortex (AC), the phase relationship between spikes and local-field potentials (LFPs) plays an important role in the processing of auditory stimuli. Nevertheless, unlike the case of other sensory systems, it remains largely unexplored in the auditory modality whether the properties of the cortical columnar microcircuit shape the dynamics of spike-LFP coherence in a layer-specific manner. In this study, we directly tackle this issue by addressing whether spike-LFP and LFP-stimulus phase synchronization are spatially distributed in the AC during sensory processing, by performing laminar recordings in the cortex of awake short-tailed bats (Carollia perspicillata) while animals listened to conspecific distress vocalizations. We show that, in the AC, spike-LFP and LFP-stimulus synchrony depend significantly on cortical depth, and that sensory stimulation alters the spatial and spectral patterns of spike-LFP phase-locking. We argue that such laminar distribution of coherence could have functional implications for the representation of naturalistic auditory stimuli at a cortical level.


Assuntos
Córtex Auditivo/fisiologia , Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Ondas Encefálicas , Quirópteros/fisiologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Estimulação Acústica , Potenciais de Ação , Animais , Sincronização Cortical , Ritmo Delta , Masculino , Ritmo Teta , Vocalização Animal
8.
Exp Brain Res ; 237(9): 2279-2295, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31267218

RESUMO

While several studies have examined attentional reserve (via event-related potentials) and mental effort (via EEG spectral content) from various cortical regions during dual-task walking, none have assessed changes in the magnitude of interregional (cortico-cortical) communication as a measure of mental workload. Therefore, by deploying a traditional montage of electrode sites centered over the motor planning region as well as a more comprehensive graph theory-based approach encompassing the entire scalp, this study aimed to systematically examine changes in the magnitude of functional connectivity underlying cortico-cortical communication to assess changes in mental workload under various levels of challenge. Specifically, the Weighted Phase Lag Index (WPLI) was computed to assess the changes in magnitude of functional connectivity as participants performed a cognitive task under two demands (low and high) and two conditions (seated and walking). The results revealed enhanced fronto-centro-temporo-parietal theta connectivity during dual-task walking relative to being seated as well as a reduced inhibition of fronto-centro-temporo-parieto-occipital alpha networking as the demand on the secondary cognitive task increased. Collectively, these findings may reflect greater recruitment of task relevant processes to respond to increased cognitive-motor demands and thus an elevation of mental workload in an effort to maintain performance under varying levels of challenge. This work has the potential to inform future mental workload assessment applications in patient populations, including those who employ prostheses during cognitive-motor performance under various task demands.


Assuntos
Córtex Cerebral/fisiologia , Conectoma , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Ritmo Teta/fisiologia , Caminhada/fisiologia , Adulto , Ritmo alfa , Percepção de Cores/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
Biol Psychol ; 146: 107726, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31276755

RESUMO

Mental workload has been shown to correlate with alpha and theta band power but only few EEG studies focused on the relation between these bands and Event Related Potentials (ERPs), more specifically the P300 component. We report on an EEG study on mental workload where not only young but also older adults performed an N-Back task. Participants watched a sequence of visual pictures and indicated whether the current picture was the same as the one shown N pictures before. We considered N = 4 difficulty levels and analyzed the relation between these and P300 amplitude and theta and alpha band power, and also examined the effect of age, level of education, work activities, and task accuracy. Our results revealed a decrease in P300 amplitude and alpha band activity for higher difficulty levels for young adults in the parietal region. However, for older adults, fatigue played a more important role than we could anticipate as the alpha band power increased for the highest task difficulty level, and since performance accuracy also decreased, it could even be a sign of task disengagement. Beside alpha band, theta band activity showed a positive correlation with task difficulty level for both young and older adults. Additionally, we found higher P300 amplitudes for young adults compared to older adults, in line with their higher performance accuracies and lower reaction times. In conclusion, we showed that P300 amplitude and alpha and theta bands power provide complementary information for judging mental workload during N-Back performance for young and older subjects and for detecting mental fatigue and task disengagement.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/psicologia , Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia , Carga de Trabalho , Adulto , Ritmo alfa/fisiologia , Escolaridade , Eletroencefalografia , Potencial Evocado P300/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Lobo Parietal/fisiologia , Estimulação Luminosa , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Ritmo Teta/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
J Integr Neurosci ; 18(2): 107-115, 2019 06 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31321951

RESUMO

To evaluate transcranial direct current stimulation-induced changes in resting state quantitative EEG and cognitive-verbal performance of second language learners, 16 healthy individuals were randomly recruited to sham and real transcranial direct current stimulation groups receiving eight sessions of second language instruction accompanied by a 2 mA transcranial direct current stimulation over Broca's area with the cathode placed over the left arm. Quantitative EEG was recorded during the resting state after the stimulation session and second language instruction. Reduced theta activity at Fp1, F7, F3, and T5 caused by the stimulus current was reported. Multisession stimulation resulted in a significant increase in current density for beta power (25 Hz) in the language network. Cognitive-verbal pre-post stimulation performances suggest that anodal vs. sham transcranial direct current stimulation significantly improved the subjects test score on digit span, a cognitive-verbal ability. It is concluded that transcranial direct current stimulation of Broca's area increase cognitive-verbal performance by modulating brain electrical activity in language-related regions.


Assuntos
Área de Broca/fisiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Multilinguismo , Adulto , Ritmo beta , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Vias Neurais/fisiologia , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Ritmo Teta , Estimulação Transcraniana por Corrente Contínua , Adulto Jovem
11.
Clin EEG Neurosci ; 50(5): 339-347, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31321994

RESUMO

Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common neuropsychiatric disorders of childhood. Diagnosis of ADHD is based on core symptoms and checklists. However, these are both subjective, which can lead to the problems of overdiagnosis and underdiagnosis. Elevated theta/beta ratio (TBR) of EEG band has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration as a tool to assist in the diagnosis of ADHD. However, several recent studies have demonstrated that there are no significant differences in TBR between people with and without ADHD. In this study, we attempted to develop a new method for differentiating between male with and without ADHD by analyzing EEG features. Thirty boys with ADHD combined type (aged 8 years 5 months ± 1 year 11 months) and 30 age-matched controls (aged 8 years 5 months ± 1 year 8 months) were enrolled in this study. A classification analysis-based approach comprising training and classification phases was developed for classifying each subject's EEG features as ADHD or non-ADHD. Eight crucial feature descriptors were selected and ranked based on the t test. Compared with TBR in our study, the developed method had a higher area under the curve (87.78%), sensitivity (80.0%), and specificity (80.0%). Our method is more precise than using TBR in the diagnosis of ADHD. This newly developed method is a useful tool in identifying patients with ADHD and might reduce the possibility of overdiagnosis and underdiagnosis.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/diagnóstico , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/fisiopatologia , Ritmo beta/fisiologia , Eletroencefalografia , Adolescente , Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Criança , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Projetos de Pesquisa , Ritmo Teta/fisiologia
13.
Early Hum Dev ; 136: 45-48, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31302388

RESUMO

Delta and theta power across fronto-central regions is lower during phasic (saccadic eye movements) than tonic rapid eye movement (active) sleep in full-term infants (n = 15). This indicates that the behavioural-electrophysiological pillars of rapid eye movement sleep micro-architecture are in place at birth.


Assuntos
Ritmo Delta , Recém-Nascido/fisiologia , Sono REM , Ritmo Teta , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
14.
Elife ; 82019 07 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31355744

RESUMO

Oscillatory brain activity reflects different internal brain states including neurons' excitatory state and synchrony among neurons. However, characterizing these states is complicated by the fact that different oscillations are often coupled, such as gamma oscillations nested in theta in the hippocampus, and changes in coupling are thought to reflect distinct states. Here, we describe a new method to separate single oscillatory cycles into distinct states based on frequency and phase coupling. Using this method, we identified four theta-gamma coupling states in rat hippocampal CA1. These states differed in abundance across behaviors, phase synchrony with other hippocampal subregions, and neural coding properties suggesting that these states are functionally distinct. We captured cycle-to-cycle changes in oscillatory coupling states and found frequent switching between theta-gamma states showing that the hippocampus rapidly shifts between different functional states. This method provides a new approach to investigate oscillatory brain dynamics broadly.


Assuntos
Região CA1 Hipocampal/fisiologia , Ritmo Gama , Ritmo Teta , Animais , Eletroencefalografia , Ratos
15.
Biol Psychol ; 146: 107732, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31344371

RESUMO

Alcohol consumption is often characterized by heavy episodic, or binge drinking, which has been on the rise. The aim of this study was to examine the neural dynamics of inhibitory control in demographically matched groups of young, healthy adults (N = 61) who reported engaging in binge (BD) or light drinking patterns (LD). Electroencephalography signal was recorded during a fast-paced visual Go/NoGo paradigm probing the ability to inhibit prepotent responses. No group differences were found in task performance. BDs showed attenuated event-related theta (4-7 Hz) on inhibition trials compared to LDs, which correlated with binge episodes and alcohol consumption but not with measures of mood or disposition including impulsivity. A greater overall decrease of early beta power (15-25 Hz) in BDs may indicate deficient preparatory "inhibitory brake" before deliberate responding. The results are consistent with deficits in the inhibitory control circuitry and are suggestive of allostatic neuroadaptive changes associated with binge drinking.


Assuntos
Bebedeira/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Afeto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/fisiopatologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Ritmo beta , Bebedeira/psicologia , Cognição , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Humanos , Comportamento Impulsivo , Masculino , Personalidade , Desempenho Psicomotor , Ritmo Teta , Adulto Jovem
16.
Clin EEG Neurosci ; 50(5): 332-338, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31304784

RESUMO

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common neurodevelopmental disorder and is characterized by symptoms of inattention and/or hyperactivity and impulsivity. In the current study, we obtained quantitative EEG (QEEG) recordings of 51 children aged between 6 and 12 years before the initiation of methylphenidate treatment. The relationship between changes in the scores of ADHD symptoms and initial QEEG features (power/power ratios values) were assessed. In addition, the children were classified as responder and nonresponder according to the ratio of their response to the medication (>25% improvement after medication). Logistic regression analyses were performed to analyze the accuracy of QEEG features for predicting responders. The findings indicate that patients with increased delta power at F8, theta power at Fz, F4, C3, Cz, T5, and gamma power at T6 and decreased beta powers at F8 and P3 showed more improvement in ADHD hyperactivity symptoms. In addition, increased delta/beta power ratio at F8 and theta/beta power ratio at F8, F3, Fz, F4, C3, Cz, P3, and T5 showed negative correlations with Conners' score difference of hyperactivity as well. This means, those with greater theta/beta and delta/beta powers showed more improvement in hyperactivity following medication. Theta power at Cz and T5 and theta/beta power ratios at C3, Cz, and T5 have significantly classified responders and nonresponders according to the logistic binary regression analysis. The results show that slow and fast oscillations may have predictive value for treatment response in ADHD. Future studies should seek for more sensitive biomarkers.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/tratamento farmacológico , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Eletroencefalografia/efeitos dos fármacos , Metilfenidato/uso terapêutico , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/diagnóstico , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/fisiopatologia , Ritmo beta/efeitos dos fármacos , Ritmo beta/fisiologia , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Criança , Cognição/efeitos dos fármacos , Cognição/fisiologia , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Ritmo Teta/efeitos dos fármacos , Ritmo Teta/fisiologia
17.
Neuron ; 103(3): 489-505.e7, 2019 08 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31204082

RESUMO

Despite a wealth of clinical and preclinical data implicating the serotonin (5-HT) system in fear-related affective disorders, a precise definition of this neuromodulator's role in fear remains elusive. Using convergent anatomical and functional approaches, we interrogate the contribution to fear of basal amygdala (BA) 5-HT inputs from the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN). We show the DRN→BA 5-HT pathway is engaged during fear memory formation and retrieval, and activity of these projections facilitates fear and impairs extinction. The DRN→BA 5-HT pathway amplifies fear-associated BA neuronal firing and theta power and phase-locking. Although fear recruits 5-HT and VGluT3 co-expressing DRN neurons, the fear-potentiating influence of the DRN→BA 5-HT pathway requires signaling at BA 5-HT1A/2A receptors. Input-output mapping illustrates how the DRN→BA 5-HT pathway is anatomically distinct and connected with other brain regions that mediate fear. These findings reveal how a discrete 5-HT circuit orchestrates a broader neural network to calibrate aversive memory.


Assuntos
Tonsila do Cerebelo/fisiologia , Aprendizagem da Esquiva/fisiologia , Núcleo Dorsal da Rafe/fisiologia , Vias Neurais/fisiologia , Serotonina/fisiologia , Animais , Condicionamento Clássico/fisiologia , Extinção Psicológica , Medo/fisiologia , Feminino , Genes Reporter , Resposta de Imobilidade Tônica/fisiologia , Masculino , Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Optogenética , Sinaptofisina/administração & dosagem , Sinaptofisina/análise , Ritmo Teta/fisiologia
18.
Exp Brain Res ; 237(8): 2061-2073, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31172241

RESUMO

Frequency-dependent brightness enhancement, a perceptual illusion in which a flickering light can appear twice as bright as a constant light, has historically been reported to produce maximum effects at a flicker rate within the alpha (8-12 Hz) band (Bartley in J Exp Psychol 23(3):313-319, 1938). Our recent examinations of this phenomenon using brightness discrimination between two flickering stimuli, however, have instead revealed the brightest percepts from theta-band (4-7 Hz) flicker (Bertrand et al. in Sci Rep 8(1):6152, 2018). Two primary questions arise from these seemingly contradictory findings: first, could task differences between these studies have caused recruitment of discrete oscillatory processes? Second, could the reported theta-band flicker enhancement be the result of an aliased alpha rhythm, sequentially sampling two stimulus locations, resulting in an ~ 5 Hz half-alpha rhythm? Here, we investigated these questions with two experiments: one replicating Bartley's (1938) adjustment paradigm, and one containing both Bartley's adjustment task and Bertrand's (2018) discrimination task, but presenting stimuli only sequentially (rather than concurrently). Examination of a range of frequencies (2-12 Hz) revealed the greatest brightness enhancement arising from flicker in the delta- and theta-band across all conditions, regardless of the spatial or temporal configuration of the stimuli. We speculate that these slower rhythms play an integral role in complex visual operations (e.g., a discrimination decision) where the entrainment of the endogenous neural rhythm to matched exogenous rhythmic stimulation promotes more efficient processing of visual information and thus produces perceptual biases as seen in frequency-dependent brightness enhancement.


Assuntos
Ritmo alfa/fisiologia , Ritmo Delta/fisiologia , Aprendizagem por Discriminação/fisiologia , Ilusões/fisiologia , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Ritmo Teta/fisiologia , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Ilusões/psicologia , Luminescência , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória , Percepção Visual , Adulto Jovem
19.
Science ; 364(6442)2019 05 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31123108

RESUMO

Hippocampal pyramidal cells encode memory engrams, which guide adaptive behavior. Selection of engram-forming cells is regulated by somatostatin-positive dendrite-targeting interneurons, which inhibit pyramidal cells that are not required for memory formation. Here, we found that γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-releasing neurons of the mouse nucleus incertus (NI) selectively inhibit somatostatin-positive interneurons in the hippocampus, both monosynaptically and indirectly through the inhibition of their subcortical excitatory inputs. We demonstrated that NI GABAergic neurons receive monosynaptic inputs from brain areas processing important environmental information, and their hippocampal projections are strongly activated by salient environmental inputs in vivo. Optogenetic manipulations of NI GABAergic neurons can shift hippocampal network state and bidirectionally modify the strength of contextual fear memory formation. Our results indicate that brainstem NI GABAergic cells are essential for controlling contextual memories.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem por Associação/fisiologia , Neurônios GABAérgicos/fisiologia , Núcleos da Rafe/fisiologia , Animais , Feminino , Interneurônios/química , Interneurônios/fisiologia , Masculino , Testes de Memória e Aprendizagem , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Inibição Neural/fisiologia , Células Piramidais/química , Células Piramidais/fisiologia , Somatostatina/análise , Somatostatina/fisiologia , Ritmo Teta
20.
Biomed Res Int ; 2019: 7851047, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31058192

RESUMO

Objective: The objective of this prospective cross-sectional study was to analyze the differences between patients with fibromyalgia and non-pain controls in terms of EEG power in the eyes-closed resting state. This study also aims to evaluate potential correlations between EEG power and subjective pain. Methods: The fibromyalgia patients were recruited by the Extremadura Association of Fibromyalgia (AFIBROEX) in Cáceres, Spain. Age- and sex-matched healthy controls (1:1 ratio) were recruited from university facilities and people close to the AFIBROEX by public calls. All underwent EEG during a 1-minute resting period with their eyes closed. The theta, alpha-1, alpha-2, beta-1, beta-2, and beta-3 frequency bands were analyzed by using EEGLAB. Self-reported visual analog scale pain scores were determined just prior to EEG. Results: A total of 62 women participated in the study, 31 of them diagnosed with fibromyalgia and 31 healthy controls. Fibromyalgia group exhibited a significantly lower alpha-2 in C4, T3, P4, Pz, and O2 compared to the healthy controls. Interestingly, pain correlated negatively with alpha-2 in Cz, P4, and Pz only in the fibromyalgia group. Conclusion: The fibromyalgia group exhibited decrease alpha-2 power in central, temporoparietal, and occipital brain areas. Furthermore, higher values of pain correlated with lower level of alpha-2 power in Cz, P4, and Pz. These findings may point the importance of alpha-2 power in pain in women with fibromyalgia.


Assuntos
Ritmo alfa/fisiologia , Eletroencefalografia , Fibromialgia/fisiopatologia , Dor/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Ritmo beta , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Mapeamento Encefálico , Feminino , Fibromialgia/complicações , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dor/diagnóstico , Medição da Dor/métodos , Descanso/fisiologia , Ritmo Teta
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