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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(38): e17110, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31567948

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a clinically complex and challenging disease, the most frequent complication of which is interstitial lung disease, which leads to a worse prognosis. In this situation, cyclophosphamide is considered the criterion standard for treatment, despite the controversies regarding its efficacy and toxicity. However, studies using rituximab (RTX) have shown that this drug may be a promising therapeutic option. The objective is to describe a protocol of a systematic review (SR) that analyzes the scientific evidence on the effects of RTX on SSc. METHODS: This protocol is guided by the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Protocols. The databases to be searched are PubMed, Scopus, SciELO, LILACS, ScienceDirect, Web of Science, COCHRANE, WHOLIS, PAHO, and EMBASE. The studies that would be included in SR are clinical trials that evaluate the use of RTX in patients with SSc who meet the classification criteria for the disease according to American College of Rheumatology and European League Against Rheumatism (2013) and/or LeRoy criteria will be included in the SR. The data to be extracted are related to the characteristics of the studies: authors, year of publication, study location, type of study, sample size and age, patient characteristics, duration of intervention, therapeutic scheme, follow-up time, main variables, and main results. RESULTS: In our study, we hope to find articles presenting new evidence supporting treatment of SSc with RTX. CONCLUSIONS: The SR will present results of scientific evidence for the effects of RTX in SSc. We hope that the results could strengthen clinical decisions for the best treatment of SSc and guide future researches. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42019132018.


Assuntos
Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Rituximab/uso terapêutico , Escleroderma Sistêmico/tratamento farmacológico , Antirreumáticos/administração & dosagem , Protocolos Clínicos , Humanos , Rituximab/administração & dosagem , Revisão Sistemática como Assunto
2.
Medicina (B Aires) ; 79(4): 299-302, 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31487253

RESUMO

Cicatrizing conjunctivitis is the final consequence of several diseases. The most severe among them are cicatricial pemphigoid and chronic Stevens-Johnson syndrome. Systemic immunosuppressive drugs and steroids are usually an effective approach to these diseases. However, a few patients follow a recalcitrant course unremitting to usual therapy. We describe the treatment with rituximab of seven patients with cicatricial pemphigoid and two with chronic Stevens-Johnson syndrome. Eight of them also received gammaglobulin and all achieved clinical remission. Three relapsed and required two or three new courses of rituximab with good control of disease activity. Rituximab proved to be an efficacious drug for chronic recalcitrant cicatrizing conjunctivitis.


Assuntos
Cicatriz/tratamento farmacológico , Conjuntivite/tratamento farmacológico , Fatores Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Penfigoide Mucomembranoso Benigno/complicações , Rituximab/administração & dosagem , Síndrome de Stevens-Johnson/complicações , Adulto , Idoso , Doença Crônica , Cicatriz/etiologia , Conjuntivite/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol ; 12(10): 973-980, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31550941

RESUMO

Introduction: Pemphigus, an autoimmune disease group characterized by blisters and erosions of the skin and/or mucosal membranes has been treated with systemic corticosteroids (CS) and immunosuppressive therapies for the past few decades. Areas Covered: However, common adverse effects and complications of long-term CS and immunosuppressive drugs are limiting their long-term use. The disease results in death if not treated. Thus, currently, researchers are trying to develop new and safer therapeutic approaches. Specifically, targeted therapies to pathogenic immune pathways are under investigation. The B cell inhibitors which block CD20 and CD19 are the main new drugs investigated in clinical trials as alternatives to systemic steroids. Expert Opinion: Randomized controlled trial (RCT) Level evidence shows that rituximab and short course CSs are more effective and safer than standard CS treatment. Specific BTK inhibitors have shown promise in data from a phase II international open-label study. Further studies are ongoing.


Assuntos
Corticosteroides/administração & dosagem , Imunossupressores/administração & dosagem , Pênfigo/tratamento farmacológico , Corticosteroides/efeitos adversos , Corticosteroides/farmacologia , Tirosina Quinase da Agamaglobulinemia/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos/métodos , Humanos , Imunossupressores/efeitos adversos , Imunossupressores/farmacologia , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Pênfigo/imunologia , Pênfigo/patologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Rituximab/administração & dosagem , Rituximab/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Tempo
4.
N Engl J Med ; 381(5): 432-443, 2019 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31365801

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data regarding the efficacy of treatment with ibrutinib-rituximab, as compared with standard chemoimmunotherapy with fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, and rituximab, in patients with previously untreated chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) have been limited. METHODS: In a phase 3 trial, we randomly assigned (in a 2:1 ratio) patients 70 years of age or younger with previously untreated CLL to receive either ibrutinib and rituximab for six cycles (after a single cycle of ibrutinib alone), followed by ibrutinib until disease progression, or six cycles of chemoimmunotherapy with fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, and rituximab. The primary end point was progression-free survival, and overall survival was a secondary end point. We report the results of a planned interim analysis. RESULTS: A total of 529 patients underwent randomization (354 patients to the ibrutinib-rituximab group, and 175 to the chemoimmunotherapy group). At a median follow-up of 33.6 months, the results of the analysis of progression-free survival favored ibrutinib-rituximab over chemoimmunotherapy (89.4% vs. 72.9% at 3 years; hazard ratio for progression or death, 0.35; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.22 to 0.56; P<0.001), and the results met the protocol-defined efficacy threshold for the interim analysis. The results of the analysis of overall survival also favored ibrutinib-rituximab over chemoimmunotherapy (98.8% vs. 91.5% at 3 years; hazard ratio for death, 0.17; 95% CI, 0.05 to 0.54; P<0.001). In a subgroup analysis involving patients without immunoglobulin heavy-chain variable region (IGHV) mutation, ibrutinib-rituximab resulted in better progression-free survival than chemoimmunotherapy (90.7% vs. 62.5% at 3 years; hazard ratio for progression or death, 0.26; 95% CI, 0.14 to 0.50). The 3-year progression-free survival among patients with IGHV mutation was 87.7% in the ibrutinib-rituximab group and 88.0% in the chemoimmunotherapy group (hazard ratio for progression or death, 0.44; 95% CI, 0.14 to 1.36). The incidence of adverse events of grade 3 or higher (regardless of attribution) was similar in the two groups (in 282 of 352 patients [80.1%] who received ibrutinib-rituximab and in 126 of 158 [79.7%] who received chemoimmunotherapy), whereas infectious complications of grade 3 or higher were less common with ibrutinib-rituximab than with chemoimmunotherapy (in 37 patients [10.5%] vs. 32 [20.3%], P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The ibrutinib-rituximab regimen resulted in progression-free survival and overall survival that were superior to those with a standard chemoimmunotherapy regimen among patients 70 years of age or younger with previously untreated CLL. (Funded by the National Cancer Institute and Pharmacyclics; E1912 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02048813.).


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Imunoterapia , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/tratamento farmacológico , Pirazóis/administração & dosagem , Pirimidinas/administração & dosagem , Rituximab/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Ciclofosfamida/administração & dosagem , Ciclofosfamida/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Análise de Intenção de Tratamento , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Pirazóis/efeitos adversos , Pirimidinas/efeitos adversos , Rituximab/efeitos adversos , Vidarabina/administração & dosagem , Vidarabina/efeitos adversos , Vidarabina/análogos & derivados
5.
Hematol Oncol ; 37(4): 352-359, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31385336

RESUMO

Patients with relapsed or refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) who are unfit for or relapsed postautologous stem-cell transplantation have poor outcomes. Historically, mTORC1 inhibitors have produced responses in approximately 30% of patients in this setting. mTORC1 inhibitor efficacy may be limited by resistance mechanisms including AKT activation by mTORC2. To date, dual mTORC1/2 inhibitors targeting both the TORC1 and TORC2 complexes have not been investigated in DLBCL. This phase II trial investigated the oral dual mTORC1/2 inhibitor vistusertib in an intermittent dosing schedule of 125 mg b.d. for 2 days per week. Thirty patients received vistusertib and six received vistusertib-rituximab for up to six cycles (28-day cycles). Two partial responses were achieved on monotherapy. Durations of response were 57 and 62 days, respectively, for these patients. 19% had stable disease within six cycles. In the monotherapy arm, the median progression-free survival was1.69 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.61-2.14) months and median overall survival was 6.58 (95% CI 3.81-not reached) months, respectively. The median duration of response or stable disease across the trial duration was 153 days (95% CI 112-not reached). Tumour responses according to positron emission tomography/computed tomography versus computed tomography were concordant. There were no differences noted in tumour volume response according to cell of origin by either gene expression profiling or immunohistochemistry. Vistusertib ± rituximab was well tolerated; across 36 patients 86% of adverse events were grade (G) 1-2. Common vistusertib-related adverse events were similar to those described with mTORC1 inhibitors: nausea (47% G1-2), diarrhoea (27% G1-2, 6% G3), fatigue (30% G1-2, 3% G3), mucositis (25% G1-2, 6% G3), vomiting (17% G1-2), and dyspepsia (14% G1-2). Dual mTORC1/2 inhibitors do not clearly confer an advantage over mTORC1 inhibitors in relapsed or refractory DLBCL. Potential resistance mechanisms are discussed within.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/tratamento farmacológico , Alvo Mecanístico do Complexo 1 de Rapamicina/antagonistas & inibidores , Alvo Mecanístico do Complexo 2 de Rapamicina/antagonistas & inibidores , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Proteínas de Neoplasias/antagonistas & inibidores , Terapia de Salvação , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Subpopulações de Linfócitos B/patologia , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Feminino , Gastroenteropatias/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/patologia , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Rituximab/administração & dosagem , Rituximab/efeitos adversos
6.
Ann Hematol ; 98(10): 2399-2405, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31375860

RESUMO

Rituximab was recently described also as first-line therapy of chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGvHD). We retrospectively analyzed the efficacy and safety of all patients receiving rituximab for treatment of cGvHD between 2005 and 2016 at the Regensburg University transplant center with a median follow-up after rituximab therapy of 2.8 years. Responses of 29 allogeneic stem cell-transplanted patients (median age 49) with previous failure of response to steroids including one patient after donor lymphocyte infusion were assessed. Three months after rituximab application, the overall response rate was 31% (7% complete (n = 2) and 24% partial remission (n = 7)). At 12 months, overall survival was 72% (n = 21) and failure-free survival was 24% (n = 7). We further analyzed associations of rituximab response with clinical characteristics showing a higher response rate in steroid-dependent cGvHD patients (89% of 9 responding compared to steroid refractory patients (11% responding)). However, this difference was not statistically significant. Seven patients (24%) (including four lethal infectious complications) developed serious infections requiring hospitalization within 1-9 months after rituximab therapy exclusively in patients failing to respond to rituximab. In conclusion, rituximab appears to be an effective treatment of cGvHD especially in steroid dependent patients, but identification of biomarker predicting response will be crucial to avoid long-term infectious morbidity and mortality in non-responders.


Assuntos
Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/mortalidade , Rituximab/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Aloenxertos , Doença Crônica , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Seguimentos , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/sangue , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transplante de Células-Tronco , Taxa de Sobrevida
7.
Hematol Oncol ; 37(4): 483-486, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31408541

RESUMO

In absence of red blood cells disease or immune defect, parvovirus B19 (PVB-19) is usually considered as a benign condition. Here, we report the case of a 10-year-old boy, previously healthy, presenting with a PVB-19 infection revealed by a bicytopenia and a voluminous axillary adenopathy. Pathophysiology examination showed reactional lymphoid population. Nine months later and in the absence of remission, a new biopsy of the same adenopathy revealed a Hodgkin lymphoma with area of T-cell rich aggressive large B-cell lymphoma. This case suggests PVB-19 as potential trigger of this malignant childhood hemopathy. Although no definitive conclusion can be drawn, our clinical case questions the role of PVB-19 in lymphomagenesis.


Assuntos
Eritema Infeccioso/complicações , Doença de Hodgkin/etiologia , Linfoma de Células B/etiologia , Neoplasias Primárias Múltiplas/etiologia , Viremia/complicações , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Linfócitos B/patologia , Medula Óssea/patologia , Medula Óssea/virologia , Criança , Eritema Infeccioso/sangue , Eritema Infeccioso/patologia , Eritema Infeccioso/virologia , Doença de Hodgkin/patologia , Humanos , Linfoma de Células B/patologia , Masculino , Neoplasias Primárias Múltiplas/patologia , Pancitopenia/etiologia , Pseudolinfoma/etiologia , Indução de Remissão , Rituximab/administração & dosagem , Linfócitos T/patologia , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
8.
Ann Hematol ; 98(9): 2131-2138, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31286196

RESUMO

The optimal dose, schedule, and other aspects of bendamustine plus rituximab treatment remain unclear for patients with relapsed or refractory follicular lymphoma (FL). Herein, we analyzed the efficacy of bendamustine combined with rituximab (RB-120) treatment for Japanese patients with relapsed or refractory FL. This phase II clinical trial included patients with relapsed or refractory FL who received 375 mg/m2 rituximab on day 1 and 120 mg/m2 bendamustine on days 2 and 3 every 28 days for up to 6 cycles. The primary endpoint was the overall response rate (ORR), and the secondary endpoints included the complete response (CR) rate, progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and safety. Thirty-seven patients were enrolled in the trial (median age 62 years, range 42-75 years). All patients were previously treated with rituximab-containing chemotherapy, and 83.8% were previously treated with the R-CHOP regimen. A median of 5 cycles (range 1-6) and 48.6% of patients completed 6 cycles. The ORR was 91.9% (95% confidence interval [CI] 78.1-98.3%), with a CR rate of 86.5% (95% CI 71.2-95.5%). The 3-year PFS and OS were 70.9% (95% CI 52.3-83.3%) and 88.9% (95% CI 73.1-95.7%), respectively, with the median 39.5 months follow-up duration. The most-frequently observed grade 3/4 adverse events were hematologic: lymphopenia (95%) and neutropenia (70%). No treatment-related deaths were observed. RB-120 showed a good efficacy with equivalent toxicities, compared with the bendamustine 120 mg/m2 monotherapy. However, the problem of high drop-out incidences cannot be ignored.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Linfoma Folicular , Adulto , Idoso , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Cloridrato de Bendamustina/administração & dosagem , Cloridrato de Bendamustina/efeitos adversos , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Linfoma Folicular/tratamento farmacológico , Linfoma Folicular/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neutropenia/induzido quimicamente , Neutropenia/mortalidade , Rituximab/administração & dosagem , Rituximab/efeitos adversos , Taxa de Sobrevida
9.
Hematol Oncol ; 37(4): 360-367, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31359442

RESUMO

De novo CD5-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (CD5+ DLBCL) is increasingly recognized as a distinct pathologic phenomenon with a specific clinical picture. However, CD5+ DLBCL has not been studied on a large scale in China. In this study, we show that CD5+ DLBCL occurs at a low frequency (9.2%). Comparison of clinical characteristics of CD5+ vs CD5- DLBCL showed that CD5+ DLBCL was more frequently elderly (>60 years) and had B symptoms, high-performance status, stage III-IV, an IPI score >2 and bone marrow involvement. Patients with CD5+ DLBCL had tumours with a higher prevalence of BCL-2 and p53 overexpression than CD5- DLBCL. Patients with CD5+ DLBCL had inferior progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) than did patients with CD5- DLBCL. For CD5+ DLBCL, the patients who were treated with rituximab showed significantly better PFS and OS than those treated without rituximab. However, patients treated with RCHOP showed similar PFS and OS when compared with the group treated with intensive therapy. In addition, patients with p53 and CD5 co-expression had the worst PFS and OS. In conclusion, CD5+ DLBCL was associated with unfavorable clinicopathologic variables and with inferior survival. CD5+ DLBCL has a high frequency of p53 overexpression, and CD5 augments the negative effect of p53 overexpression in DLBCL.


Assuntos
Antígenos CD5/análise , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/metabolismo , Proteínas de Neoplasias/fisiologia , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/fisiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Ciclofosfamida/administração & dosagem , Doxorrubicina/administração & dosagem , Etoposídeo/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/tratamento farmacológico , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/genética , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas de Neoplasias/análise , Prednisona/administração & dosagem , Prognóstico , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Risco , Rituximab/administração & dosagem , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/biossíntese , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Regulação para Cima , Vincristina/administração & dosagem , Adulto Jovem
10.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol ; 145(8): 2149-2156, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31273513

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: First-line rituximab therapy together with chemotherapy is the standard care for patients with advanced follicular B-cell lymphoma, as rituximab together with chemotherapy prolongs progression-free and overall survival (Herold et al. 2007; Marcus et al. 2005). However, as not all patient subgroups benefit from combined immuno-chemotherapy, we asked whether the microenvironment may predict benefit from rituximab-based therapy. DESIGN: To address this question, we performed a retrospective immunohistochemical analysis on pathological specimens of 18 patients recruited into a randomized clinical trial, where patients with advanced follicular lymphoma were randomized into either chemotherapy or immuno-chemotherapy with rituximab (Herold et al. 2007). RESULTS: We show here that rituximab exerts beneficial effects, especially in the subgroup of follicular lymphoma patients with low intrafollicular CD3, CD5, CD8, and ZAP70 and high CD56 and CD68 expression. CONCLUSION: Rituximab may overcome immune-dormancy in follicular lymphoma in cases with lower intrafollicular T-cell numbers and higher CD56 and CD68 cell counts. As this was a retrospective analysis on a small subgroup of patients, these data need to be corroborated in larger clinical trials.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/patologia , Linfoma Folicular/diagnóstico , Linfoma Folicular/tratamento farmacológico , Linfoma Folicular/imunologia , Rituximab/administração & dosagem , Linfócitos T/patologia , Clorambucila/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Células Matadoras Naturais/patologia , Contagem de Linfócitos , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfoma Folicular/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mitoxantrona/administração & dosagem , Prednisona/administração & dosagem , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Resultado do Tratamento , Microambiente Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia
11.
Transplant Proc ; 51(6): 1732-1738, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31301858

RESUMO

Plasma cell-rich acute rejection (PCAR) and antibody-mediated rejection (ABMR), for which a standard treatment has not yet been established, are associated with poor graft survival after kidney transplantation. Here, we report a case series of 3 Japanese patients diagnosed with PCAR accompanied by ABMR. Steroid pulse therapy and rabbit antithymocyte globulin, plasma exchange, intravenous immunoglobulin, and rituximab therapies were sequentially performed in the first case. A graft biopsy after each treatment showed that plasma cell infiltration persisted. Five months after the initiation of rejection therapy, the patient was subjected to bortezomib therapy, which led to the partial elimination of plasma cells from the graft. However, the graft function gradually deteriorated, and hemodialysis treatment was warranted. In the other 2 cases, the patients received the same combination of therapy including bortezomib within a short period. Graft biopsies performed subsequently showed a marked decrease in the number of infiltrated plasma cells, and stabilization of renal graft function was achieved in both cases. Bortezomib, which targets plasma cells, is a potent drug that eliminates infiltrated plasma cells from the graft in PCAR. Thus, in addition to conventional therapy comprising plasma exchange, intravenous immunoglobulin, and rituximab against ABMR, bortezomib may be necessary to administer without any delay to control PCAR.


Assuntos
Bortezomib/uso terapêutico , Terapia Combinada/métodos , Rejeição de Enxerto/tratamento farmacológico , Plasmócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores de Proteassoma/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Corticosteroides/administração & dosagem , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Rejeição de Enxerto/imunologia , Rejeição de Enxerto/patologia , Sobrevivência de Enxerto , Humanos , Imunoglobulinas Intravenosas/administração & dosagem , Transplante de Rim/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Plasmócitos/patologia , Plasmaferese , Estudos Retrospectivos , Rituximab/administração & dosagem , Adulto Jovem
12.
Lancet Haematol ; 6(8): e419-e428, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31208944

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, and rituximab (FCR) can improve disease-free survival for younger (age ≤65 years) fit patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia with mutated IGHV. However, patients with unmutated IGHV rarely have durable responses. Ibrutinib is active for patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia irrespective of IGHV mutation status but requires continuous treatment. We postulated that time-limited ibrutinib plus FCR would induce durable responses in younger fit patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. METHODS: We did a multicentre, open-label, non-randomised, single-arm phase 2 trial at seven sites in the USA. We enrolled patients aged 65 years or younger with previously untreated chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. Our initial cohort (original cohort) was not restricted by prognostic marker status and included patients who had del(17p) or TP53 aberrations. After a protocol amendment (on March 21, 2017), we enrolled an additional cohort (expansion cohort) that included patients without del(17p). Ibrutinib was given orally (420 mg/day) for 7 days, then up to six 28-day cycles were administered intravenously of fludarabine (25 mg/m2, days 1-3), cyclophosphamide (250 mg/m2, days 1-3), and rituximab (375 mg/m2 day 1 of cycle 1; 500 mg/m2 day 1 of cycles 2-6) with continuous oral ibrutinib (420 mg/day). Responders continued on ibrutinib maintenance for up to 2 years, and patients with undetectable minimal residual disease in bone marrow after 2 years were able to discontinue treatment. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients who achieved a complete response with undetectable minimal residual disease in bone marrow 2 months after the last cycle of ibrutinib plus FCR. Analyses were done per-protocol in all patients who received at least one dose of study treatment. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02251548) and is ongoing. FINDINGS: Between Oct 23, 2014, and April 23, 2018, 85 patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia were enrolled. del(17p) was detected in four (5%) of 83 patients and TP53 mutations were noted in three (4%) of 81 patients; two patients had both del(17p) and TP53 mutations. Median patients' age was 55 years (IQR 50-58). At data cutoff, median follow-up was 16·5 months (IQR 10·6-34·1). A complete response and undetectable minimal residual disease in bone marrow 2 months after the last cycle of ibrutinib plus FCR was achieved by 28 (33%, 95% CI 0·23-0·44) of 85 patients (p=0·0035 compared with a 20% historical value with FCR alone). A best response of undetectable minimal residual disease in bone marrow was achieved by 71 (84%) of 85 patients during the study. One patient had disease progression and one patient died (sudden cardiac death after 17 months of ibrutinib maintenance, assessed as possibly related to ibrutinib). The most common all-grade toxic effects were haematological, including thrombocytopenia in 63 (74%) patients, neutropenia in 53 (62%), and anaemia in 41 (49%). Grade 3 or 4 non-haematological serious adverse events included grade 3 atrial fibrillation in three (4%) patients and grade 3 Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia in two (2%). INTERPRETATION: The proportion of patients who achieved undetectable minimal residual disease in bone marrow with ibrutinib plus FCR is, to our knowledge, the highest ever published in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia unrestricted by prognostic marker status. Ibrutinib plus FCR is promising as a time-limited combination regimen for frontline chronic lymphocytic leukaemia treatment in younger fit patients. FUNDING: Pharmacyclics and the Leukemia & Lymphoma Society.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Ciclofosfamida/administração & dosagem , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/administração & dosagem , Pirazóis/administração & dosagem , Pirimidinas/administração & dosagem , Rituximab/administração & dosagem , Vidarabina/análogos & derivados , Administração Oral , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Ciclofosfamida/efeitos adversos , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Doenças Hematológicas/etiologia , Doenças Hematológicas/patologia , Humanos , Cadeias Pesadas de Imunoglobulinas/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/efeitos adversos , Pirazóis/efeitos adversos , Pirimidinas/efeitos adversos , Indução de Remissão , Rituximab/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Vidarabina/administração & dosagem , Vidarabina/efeitos adversos
13.
Med. clín (Ed. impr.) ; 152(12): 502-507, jun. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-183322

RESUMO

Pneumocystis jirovecii (P. jirovecii) causes a potentially fatal pneumonia in immunocompromised individuals (Pneumocystis pneumonia or PcP), particularly in HIV-infected patients and those treated with immunosuppressive drugs, such as transplant patients and those with systemic autoimmune diseases. P. jirovecii colonization can be found in almost a third of patients with systemic autoimmune diseases. Although the incidence of PcP in such patients is usually low, mortality is quite high, ranging between 30% and 50% in the majority of autoimmune diseases. PcP development is almost always observed in patients not receiving prophylaxis for the infection. Despite the above, there are no clinical guidelines established for PcP prophylaxis in patients with autoimmune diseases treated with glucocorticoids, cytotoxic drugs, or more recently, biological agents. The objective of this review is to analyze the available data on the incidence of PcP and the effect of PcP prophylaxis in patients with autoimmune diseases that may be useful in clinical practice


El hongo Pneumocystis jirovecii (P. jirovecii) es la causa de una neumonía (Pneumocystis pneumonia o PcP) potencialmente mortal en individuos inmunodeprimidos, sobre todo en pacientes infectados por el VIH, y en aquellos tratados con fármacos inmunodepresores, como los sometidos a trasplantes y los afectos de enfermedades autoinmunes sistémicas. En estos últimos, alrededor de un tercio de los casos puede estar colonizado por P. jirovecii y, aunque la incidencia de la PcP suele ser baja, la mortalidad de la misma es considerablemente alta, y oscila entre el 30 y el 50% en la mayoría de las enfermedades autoinmunes. El desarrollo de la PcP se observa casi siempre en pacientes que no reciben profilaxis para la infección. Aun así, no existen guías clínicas establecidas para la profilaxis de la PcP en pacientes afectos de enfermedades autoinmunes que son tratados con glucocorticoides, fármacos citotóxicos o más recientemente, con agentes biológicos. El objetivo de esta revisión es analizar los datos disponibles sobre la incidencia de la PcP y el efecto de la profilaxis para infección por P. jirovecii en los pacientes afectos de enfermedades autoinmunes que puedan ser útiles en la práctica clínica


Assuntos
Humanos , Pneumonia por Pneumocystis/diagnóstico , Pneumocystis carinii/isolamento & purificação , Doenças Autoimunes/epidemiologia , Pneumocystis carinii/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças Autoimunes/tratamento farmacológico , Glucocorticoides/administração & dosagem , Ciclofosfamida/administração & dosagem , Rituximab/administração & dosagem
14.
Lancet Haematol ; 6(6): e328-e337, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31126528

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anthracycline dose optimisation in the treatment of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma has rarely been tested. We aimed to find out whether R-CEOP70 was non-inferior to R-CHOP50 with less cardiotoxicity, and whether R-CEOP90 had a superior efficacy to R-CHOP50 or R-CEOP70 with acceptable toxic effects. METHODS: In this multicentre, phase 3, randomised, controlled study (NHL-001), patients with newly diagnosed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma or follicular lymphoma grade 3B were enrolled from 20 centres of the Multicenter Hematology-Oncology Programs Evaluation System in China. Young patients (16-60 years) were randomly assigned 1:1:1 (block size of six) to six courses of R-CHOP50, R-CEOP70, or R-CEOP90, and older patients (61-80 years) were assigned 1:1 (block size of four) to R-CHOP50 or R-CEOP70. Patients were randomly assigned using computer-assisted permuted-block randomisation. Investigators and patients were not masked to treatment assignment. In the R-CHOP50 group, patients were given rituximab 375 mg/m2 intravenously on day 0, cyclophosphamide 750 mg/m2, doxorubicin 50 mg/m2, and vincristine 1·4 mg/m2 (maximum dose 2 mg) intravenously on day 1, and prednisone 60 mg/m2 (maximum dose 100 mg) orally from day 1-5; in the R-CEOP70 group, epirubicin 70 mg/m2 replaced doxorubicin; and in the R-CEOP90 group, high dose epirubicin 90 mg/m2 replaced doxorubicin. All patients received two additional courses of rituximab 375 mg/m2 intravenously every 21 days. Consolidation radiotherapy was given to patients with bulky disease at diagnosis or residual disease at the end of treatment. The primary endpoint was 2-year progression-free survival. The non-inferiority margin for R-CEOP70 versus R-CHOP50 was defined by hazard ratio [HR] as the upper limit of its 95% CI being no greater than 1·50. Analysis of efficacy and safety were of the intention-to-treat population. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01852435. FINDINGS: From May 15, 2013, to March 16, 2016, a total of 648 patients were enrolled, including 404 (62%) young patients (R-CHOP50 [n=135], R-CEOP70 [n=134], or R-CEOP90 [n=135]), and 244 (38%) older patients (R-CHOP50 [n=122] or R-CEOP70 [n=122]). Four patients were excluded from the study for consent withdrawal and one patient for misdiagnosis before treatment. The 2-year progression-free survival in the R-CHOP50 group was 72·5% (95% CI 66·6-77·6) and in the R-CEOP70 group was 72·4% ([66·5-77·5]; HR 1·00 [0·73-1·38]; p=0·99). The non-inferiority was met and adverse events were similar between the two groups. Fewer patients in the R-CEOP70 group (14 [13%] of 110) presented with over 10% decrease in left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) than those in the R-CHOP50 group (31 [29%] of 108) at 3 years after remission. For young patients, the 2-year progression-free survival in the R-CEOP90 group was 88·8% (82·1-93·1) and was significantly improved compared with the R-CHOP50 group (75·9% [67·7-82·3]; 0·44 [0·25-0·76]; p=0·0047) and the R-CEOP70 group (77·4% [69·4-83·7%]; 0·49 [0·27-0·86]; p=0·017). Grade 3-4 neutropenia occurred more frequently in the R-CEOP90 group (97 [72%] of 134) than in the R-CHOP50 group (87 [65%] of 133) and R-CEOP70 group (84 [63%] of 133) in young patients but without further increase of clinically significant infections. Fewer patients in the R-CEOP70 group (7 [11%] of 66) and in the R-CEOP90 group (10 [13%] of 79) presented with more than 10% decrease in LVEF than those in the R-CHOP50 group (17 [26%] of 66) at 3 years after remission. INTERPRETATION: R-CEOP70 could serve as an alternative regimen to R-CHOP50 with mild long-term cardiotoxicity. Young patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma might benefit from high-dose epirubicin. Epirubicin is an alternative drug to doxorubicin in regular R-CHOP with mild long-term cardiotoxicity. FUNDING: National Natural Science Foundation of China, National Key Research and Development Program, Shanghai Commission of Science and Technology, Shanghai Municipal Education Commission Gaofeng Clinical Medicine Grant Support, Multicenter Clinical Research Project by Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Clinical Research Plan of Shanghai Hospital Development Center, and Chang Jiang Scholars Program.


Assuntos
Antraciclinas/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antraciclinas/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Ciclofosfamida/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/mortalidade , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Neutropenia/etiologia , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Rituximab/administração & dosagem , Taxa de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento , Vincristina/administração & dosagem , Adulto Jovem
15.
J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad ; 31(2): 265-268, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31094128

RESUMO

This is the time of paradigm shift in the treatment of primary membranous nephropathy which carries a major position in causing nephrotic syndrome in adult population and has been labelled as a cause of idiopathic primary glomerulonephropathy in about 90% of patients. It is two folds more common in male population as compared to female population. It is held responsible for about 0.7% cases of end stage kidney disease. However, unfortunately, the optimal treatment for idiopathic membranous nephropathy is still unresolved. Rituximab has been made especially to attach to CD20 receptors and therefore cause depletion of B cells. It has been found to be a potential treatment option for idiopathic membranous nephropathy. We present four cases of primary idiopathic membranous nephropathy that were successfully treated with rituximab. They were all previously treated with conservative management followed by immunosuppression therapies but none of them was fortunate enough to achieve partial or complete remission. Therefore, all of them were given two doses of rituximab (375 mg/m2), two weeks apart. Except for only one of the patients who required a second round of rituximab therapy, they all achieved complete remission of the disease without any significant side effects of the drug. This represents that those patients of idiopathic membranous nephropathy who are refractory cases with use of steroids, calcineurin inhibitors, (cyclosporine or tacrolimus) or alkylating agents (cyclophosphamide or chlorambucil) still have a hope in the form of Rituximab which has no doubt shown promising results in Pakistani population. Indeed, Rituximab may also be used early in the course of the disease to improve the outcome of the disease.


Assuntos
Glomerulonefrite Membranosa/tratamento farmacológico , Fatores Imunológicos , Rituximab , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Paquistão , Rituximab/administração & dosagem , Rituximab/uso terapêutico
16.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(18): e15303, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31045764

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Crescent formation is rare in primary membranous nephropathy (MN). Anti-phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R) antibodies are detectable in these patients. The mechanism and treatments are unknown. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 72-year-old female patient who presented with nephrotic syndrome, hematuria, and rapidly progressive kidney dysfunction. DIAGNOSES: Kidney biopsy was performed and the diagnosis was MN in combination with crescentic glomerulonephritis. Circulating anti-PLA2R IgG3 and IgG4 were detected of high level. INTERVENTIONS: The patient received plasma exchange and rituximab besides corticosteroids. OUTCOMES: The patient achieved complete remission of proteinuria and recovery of kidney function after the clearance of anti-PLA2R antibodies. LESSON: This case suggests a pathogenic role of anti-PLA2R antibodies in the mechanism of crescent formation in MN, which may need intensive therapy to eliminate the antibodies quickly.


Assuntos
Glomerulonefrite Membranoproliferativa/patologia , Glomerulonefrite Membranosa/patologia , Rim/patologia , Troca Plasmática/métodos , Receptores da Fosfolipase A2/antagonistas & inibidores , Idoso , Feminino , Glomerulonefrite Membranoproliferativa/sangue , Glomerulonefrite Membranoproliferativa/tratamento farmacológico , Glomerulonefrite Membranoproliferativa/imunologia , Glomerulonefrite Membranosa/sangue , Glomerulonefrite Membranosa/tratamento farmacológico , Glomerulonefrite Membranosa/imunologia , Hematúria/diagnóstico , Hematúria/etiologia , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Rim/fisiopatologia , Síndrome Nefrótica/patologia , Proteinúria/patologia , Receptores da Fosfolipase A2/imunologia , Indução de Remissão , Rituximab/administração & dosagem , Rituximab/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Transpl Infect Dis ; 21(3): e13086, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30929295

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immunoglobulin (Ig) G2 subclass deficiency is known to be associated with recurrent bacterial respiratory infections caused by capsulated bacteria and is found mostly in pediatric patients. However, its impact after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) has not been fully assessed. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated the relationship between IgG2 subclass levels and bacterial pneumonia in 74 adult patients who survived longer than 2 years after allogeneic HSCT. RESULTS: During the evaluation period, nine patients developed bacterial pneumonia. The median IgG2 level was significantly lower in patients with an infectious episode than in those without (143 mg/dL vs 287 mg/dL; P < 0.01). In multivariate analysis, a history of rituximab therapy and cord blood as a stem cell source were significantly associated with decreased levels of both IgG2 and IgG2/IgG ratios (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Suboptimal serum IgG2 levels could increase susceptibility to late-onset bacterial pneumonia after allogeneic HSCT. IgG2 levels should be considered carefully, especially in patients receiving cord blood transplantation and/or rituximab treatment.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Pneumonia Bacteriana/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro , Humanos , Deficiência de IgG/complicações , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Rituximab/administração & dosagem , Transplante Homólogo/efeitos adversos , Adulto Jovem
19.
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen ; 139(7)2019 Apr 09.
Artigo em Norueguês, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30969044

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA), formerly known as Wegener's granulomatosis, has a predilection for the upper airways, lungs and kidneys. However, any other organ can be affected. Although cutaneous lesions are common, they have only rarely been reported as a primary manifestation of the disease. CASE PRESENTATION: We present a case of a teenage boy with pyoderma gangrenosum-like ulcerations of the neck and face. Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody with antigen specificity for proteinase 3 (PR3-ANCA) was detected. In the absence of other symptoms and organ manifestations, the ulcerations were still considered to be pyoderma gangrenosum. The ulcers started to heal during treatment with corticosteroids and infliximab. One month later the patient developed sinusitis, and eventually lost vision in his left eye. The diagnosis was changed to GPA and he started treatment with methylprednisolone, rituximab and cyclophosphamide with good response on vision, sinusitis and ulcerations. INTERPRETATION: Recognition of this rare skin presentation of GPA is essential, to prevent delays in diagnosis and treatment that can lead to organ damage.


Assuntos
Face/patologia , Granulomatose com Poliangiite , Pescoço/patologia , Úlcera Cutânea/etiologia , Adolescente , Fármacos Dermatológicos/administração & dosagem , Fármacos Dermatológicos/uso terapêutico , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Glucocorticoides/administração & dosagem , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Granulomatose com Poliangiite/complicações , Granulomatose com Poliangiite/diagnóstico , Granulomatose com Poliangiite/tratamento farmacológico , Granulomatose com Poliangiite/patologia , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Infliximab/administração & dosagem , Infliximab/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Prednisolona/administração & dosagem , Prednisolona/uso terapêutico , Pioderma Gangrenoso/diagnóstico , Rituximab/administração & dosagem , Rituximab/uso terapêutico , Úlcera Cutânea/tratamento farmacológico , Úlcera Cutânea/patologia
20.
Lancet Haematol ; 6(5): e254-e265, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30935953

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) polatuzumab vedotin (pola) and pinatuzumab vedotin (pina) showed clinical activity and tolerability in phase 1 trials. The aim of this multicentre, open-label, phase 2 study was to compare rituximab plus pola (R-pola) or pina (R-pina) in patients with relapsed or refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and follicular lymphoma. METHODS: In this phase 2 randomised study at 39 investigational sites in six countries, patients were randomly assigned (1:1), by use of a dynamic hierarchical randomisation scheme, to receive R-pola or R-pina (375 mg/m2 rituximab plus 2·4 mg/kg ADCs) every 21 days until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity up to 1 year. Treatment allocations were not masked to the investigator, patients or sponsor after the patients were enrolled and randomly assigned. The primary objectives were safety and tolerability, and antitumour response. The study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01691898, and is closed to accrual. FINDINGS: 81 patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and 42 with follicular lymphoma were recruited between Sept 27, 2012, and Oct 10, 2013, and were assigned to treatment. 81 patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and 41 patients with follicular lymphoma were eligible for analysis. Of the 42 patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma who received R-pina, 25 (60%, 95% CI 43-74) achieved an objective response and 11 (26%, 95% CI 14-42) achieved a complete response. Of the 39 patients in this cohort who received R-pola, 21 (54%, 95% CI 37-70) achieved an objective response, and eight (21%, 95% CI 9-36) achieved a complete response. Of the 21 patients in the follicular lymphoma cohort who received R-pina, 13 (62%, 95% CI 38-82) achieved an objective response, and one (5%, 95% CI 0·1-24) achieved a complete response. Of the 20 patients in this cohort who received R-pola, 14 (70%, 95% CI 46-88) achieved an objective response, and nine (45%, 95% CI 23-68) achieved a complete response. In the diffuse large B-cell lymphoma cohort, grade 3-5 adverse events occurred in 33 (79%) of 42 patients receiving R-pina (most common were neutropenia [29%] and hyperglycaemia [10%]; nine [21%] grade 5 adverse events, five of which were infection-related), and in 30 (77%) of 39 patients receiving R-pola (most common were neutropenia [23%], anaemia [8%] and diarrhoea [8%]; no grade 5 adverse events). In the follicular lymphoma cohort, grade 3-5 adverse events occurred in 13 (62%) of 21 patients receiving R-pina (most common were neutropenia [29%] and hyperglycaemia [14%]; no grade 5 adverse events) and in ten (50%) of 20 patients receiving R-pola (most common were neutropenia [15%] and diarrhoea [10%]; one grade 5 adverse event). INTERPRETATION: R-pina and R-pola are potential treatment options in patients with relapsed or refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and follicular lymphoma. Pola was selected by the study funder for further development in non-Hodgkin lymphoma, partly because of longer durations of response than pina, and an overall benefit-risk favouring R-pola. FUNDING: F Hoffmann-La Roche.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Linfoma não Hodgkin/tratamento farmacológico , Linfoma não Hodgkin/patologia , Idoso , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoconjugados/administração & dosagem , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Linfoma não Hodgkin/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Recidiva , Rituximab/administração & dosagem , Resultado do Tratamento
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