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1.
Rinsho Ketsueki ; 60(9): 1100-1107, 2019.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31597833

RESUMO

In 2017, The British Society of Haematology published new guidelines for the diagnosis and management of autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA). Usually this is diagnosed using a combination of clinical and laboratory findings of hemolysis using the direct antiglobulin test (DAT). The revised guidelines propose several steps to evaluate and diagnose patients with unexplained hemolysis and a negative DAT, and they recommend screening for cold agglutinin disease (CAD) using a direct agglutination test (DAggT) before evaluating the cold agglutinin titer. Rituximab is becoming the preferred second-line choice for steroid-refractory warm AIHA and the first-line choice for primary CAD. Rituximab is an off-label drug for use in AIHA treatment in Japan, but in future will be used as standard therapy. Anti-C1s antibody is a new drug for CAD that has entered phase 3 trials.


Assuntos
Anemia Hemolítica Autoimune/diagnóstico , Anemia Hemolítica Autoimune/terapia , Testes de Aglutinação , Ensaios Clínicos Fase III como Assunto , Hemólise , Humanos , Uso Off-Label , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Rituximab/uso terapêutico
2.
Rinsho Ketsueki ; 60(9): 1199-1204, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31597844

RESUMO

The treatment of follicular lymphoma (FL) continues to evolve. Those patients who present with minimal symptoms often are observed without therapy until significant progression occurs. When treatment is needed, initial options include single agent rituximab (R, anti-CD20), or various forms of chemoimmunotherapy including either R or the newer anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody obinutuzumab (O), with or without maintenance administration. Recent data suggest that the immunomodulatory agent lenalidomide can also be effective in combination with rituximab in both the upfront and relapsed setting. Patients with recurrent disease are frequently treated with chemoimmunotherapy or phosphoinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitors. Current information suggests that the most important prognostic feature of FL is the presence or absence of early progression (within 2 years of initial treatment/diagnosis). Ongoing efforts are focused on biomarkers to optimally match treatment to patient populations and further improve clinical outcomes.


Assuntos
Linfoma Folicular/terapia , Anticorpos Monoclonais , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Antígenos CD20 , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Lenalidomida/uso terapêutico , Rituximab/uso terapêutico
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(38): e17110, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31567948

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a clinically complex and challenging disease, the most frequent complication of which is interstitial lung disease, which leads to a worse prognosis. In this situation, cyclophosphamide is considered the criterion standard for treatment, despite the controversies regarding its efficacy and toxicity. However, studies using rituximab (RTX) have shown that this drug may be a promising therapeutic option. The objective is to describe a protocol of a systematic review (SR) that analyzes the scientific evidence on the effects of RTX on SSc. METHODS: This protocol is guided by the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Protocols. The databases to be searched are PubMed, Scopus, SciELO, LILACS, ScienceDirect, Web of Science, COCHRANE, WHOLIS, PAHO, and EMBASE. The studies that would be included in SR are clinical trials that evaluate the use of RTX in patients with SSc who meet the classification criteria for the disease according to American College of Rheumatology and European League Against Rheumatism (2013) and/or LeRoy criteria will be included in the SR. The data to be extracted are related to the characteristics of the studies: authors, year of publication, study location, type of study, sample size and age, patient characteristics, duration of intervention, therapeutic scheme, follow-up time, main variables, and main results. RESULTS: In our study, we hope to find articles presenting new evidence supporting treatment of SSc with RTX. CONCLUSIONS: The SR will present results of scientific evidence for the effects of RTX in SSc. We hope that the results could strengthen clinical decisions for the best treatment of SSc and guide future researches. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42019132018.


Assuntos
Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Rituximab/uso terapêutico , Escleroderma Sistêmico/tratamento farmacológico , Antirreumáticos/administração & dosagem , Protocolos Clínicos , Humanos , Rituximab/administração & dosagem , Revisão Sistemática como Assunto
4.
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi ; 27(5): 1602-1606, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31607319

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigatc the curative efficacy of low dose rituximab for glucocorticoid ineffective on dependent ITP patients and its relation with sensitivity to glucocorticoid so as to provide reference basis for rational use of drugs in clinical treatmant. METHODS: Seventy-ninth ITP patients enrolled in this study included the glucocorticoid-ineffective patients (19 cases) and glucocorticoid-dependent patients (60 cases). All ITP patients were treated with regimen consisted of high dose dexamethasone plus low dose rituximab (dexal-methasone 40 mg/d for 4 days per os, ritaximab 100 mg by intravenous infusion at D7, 14, 21 and 28 respectively). The patients after treatment were followed-up for 12 month, and the relation of patients sensitivity to glucocorticoid with therapentic response of rituximab was analyzed. The changes of Treg cell ratio and BAFF, IL-2 and sCD40L levels before and after treatment were detected by flow cytometry and ELISA respectively. RESULTS: The overall response rate (ORR) of patients treated with above- mentioned regemen at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months after treatment was 79.7% (63/79), 69.6% (55/79), 63.3% (50/79) and 60.8% (48/79) respectivcly, out of which the ORR of glucocorticoid ineffective and glucocorticoid-dependent ITP patients treated with above-mentioned regimen at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months after treatment was 47.4% (9/19) vs 90.0% (54/60), 36.8% (7/19) vs 80.0% (48/60), 21.1% (4/19) vs 76.7% (46/60), 21.1% (4/19) vs 73.3% (44/60), and the difference between 2 groups was statistically significant. The detection of T reg cell showed that the T reg cell ratio in glucocorticoid- ineffective and dependent patients at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months after treatment was (1.70±0.43)% vs (3.47±0.72)%, (1.66±0.33)% vs (4.29±0.91)%, (1.71±0.37)% vs (4.44±0.97)%, (3.36±0.54)% vs (4.29±1.04)%, respectively. The detection of cytokines showed that the levels of BAFF, IL-2 and sCD40L in plasma of glucocorticoid-dependent patients at 1 month after treatment significanlly decreased (P<0.05), the levels of BAFF, IL-2 and sCD40L in plasma of glucocorticoid-ineffective patients although decreased at 1 mouth after treatment, but there was no statistical difference as compared with glucocosticoid-depenment patients. CONCLUSION: The treatment of glucocorticoid-dependent ITP patients with rituximab is more effective. The regulatory effect of rituximab on the T-reg cells, BAFF, IL-2 and sCD40L may be one of its mechanisms.


Assuntos
Púrpura Trombocitopênica Idiopática , Rituximab/uso terapêutico , Dexametasona , Glucocorticoides , Humanos , Inosina Trifosfato , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Idiopática/tratamento farmacológico
5.
Harefuah ; 158(9): 595-600, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Hebraico | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31507112

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Rituximab, a monoclonal antibody against CD20 positive B cell, depletes these cells peripherally, and is a successful treatment in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). It is the second efficacious biologic to be established in the treatment of RA after TNFα blockers. Eighteen years of global experience from diverse clinical trials and from "real world" data, have demonstrated clinical efficacy in various disease scenarios and patient populations - short and long disease duration, methotrexate naïve patients and those with incomplete response to methotrexate, biologic naïve patients and those with incomplete response to previous biologics. Moreover, it has demonstrated the inhibition of radiographic progression. It seems to be most efficacious in seropositive patients. Despite vast experience, the need for concomitant traditional disease-modifying anti rheumatic drugs (DMARD), the optimal retreatment dose, and the favored retreatment interval remain somewhat uncertain. The recommended dosage is 1000 mg, administered twice, with a 2 weeks interval, although in some cases, a reduced dosage of 500 mg, administered twice may be considered. The safety profile of rituximab includes mainly infusion-related reactions, which are usually mild. A small risk of major infections has remained stable over time and repeated courses. Opportunistic infections are infrequent. Nevertheless, reactivation of hepatitis B is still a concern. Tuberculosis, malignancies, cardiovascular events and deterioration of interstitial lung disease do not appear to be increased. Since rituximab severely impairs the humoral response to vaccinations, they should be administered prior to treatment whenever possible. Rituximab has been a powerful addition to the large armamentarium for the treatment of RA. Rituximab is indicated in Israel as a second line biologic treatment for active RA.


Assuntos
Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Rituximab/uso terapêutico , Quimioterapia Combinada , Humanos , Israel , Metotrexato , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
Internist (Berl) ; 60(10): 1036-1042, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31485714

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Monoclonal antibodies and fusion proteins were introduced into clinical rheumatology 20 years ago. Nowadays they are an established component of modern internal medical practice. OBJECTIVE: This article gives an overview of the breadth of biologics currently in clinical use. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Evaluation of published approval studies and guideline recommendations, discussion of the immunological principles and targets in the treatment with biologics. RESULTS: Monoclonal antibodies and fusion proteins for influencing cytokine signals, T­cell costimulation and B­cell function are the most important innovations in the treatment of rheumatological diseases. Nowadays they are indispensible for the treatment of moderate and severe disease courses of rheumatoid arthritis, spondylarthropathies and vasculitides. CONCLUSION: Although a cure or permanent freedom from symptoms in rheumatological autoimmune diseases is still not possible, much more favorable disease courses with less long-term limitations can be achieved by the early administration of biologics.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Produtos Biológicos/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Infliximab/uso terapêutico , Reumatologia , Rituximab/uso terapêutico
7.
Internist (Berl) ; 60(10): 1032-1035, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31486861

RESUMO

Antibodies play an important role in the therapy of patients with hematological tumors and have become an established part of this therapy. By using the example of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), different antibodies with different mechanisms of action are described. The focus of this review is on the description of a bispecific antibody molecule and an immunoconjugate in the relapse of ALL. Although the antibodies have improved the treatment of patients with ALL, it still holds true that the therapy of patients can only be successfully carried out with a strategy that integrates different, mutually complementary schemes. The improvement of therapy can only be achieved through clinical studies with clearly defined protocols.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Leucemia/terapia , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/terapia , Anticorpos Biespecíficos/uso terapêutico , Hematologia/tendências , Humanos , Rituximab/uso terapêutico
8.
Lancet ; 394(10201): 882-894, 2019 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31498102

RESUMO

Pemphigus consists of a group of rare and severe autoimmune blistering diseases mediated by pathogenic autoantibodies mainly directed against two desmosomal adhesion proteins, desmoglein (Dsg)1 and Dsg3 (also known as DG1 and DG3), which are present in the skin and surface-close mucosae. The binding of autoantibodies to Dsg proteins induces a separation of neighbouring keratinocytes, in a process known as acantholysis. The two main pemphigus variants are pemphigus vulgaris, which often originates with painful oral erosions, and pemphigus foliaceus, which is characterised by exclusive skin lesions. Pemphigus is diagnosed on the basis of either IgG or complement component 3 deposits (or both) at the keratinocyte cell membrane, detected by direct immunofluorescence microscopy of a perilesional biopsy, with serum anti-Dsg1 or anti-Dsg3 antibodies (or both) detected by ELISA. Corticosteroids are the therapeutic mainstay, which have recently been complemented by the anti-CD20 antibody rituximab in moderate and severe disease. Rituximab induces complete remission off therapy in 90% of patients, despite rapid tapering of corticosteroids, thus allowing for a major corticosteroid-sparing effect and a halved number of adverse events related to corticosteroids.


Assuntos
Azatioprina , Imunossupressores , Pênfigo , Rituximab , Corticosteroides/efeitos adversos , Azatioprina/uso terapêutico , Desmogleína 1 , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Pênfigo/classificação , Pênfigo/diagnóstico , Pênfigo/tratamento farmacológico , Pênfigo/patologia , Rituximab/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Cancer Immunol Immunother ; 68(10): 1561-1572, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31494742

RESUMO

Preclinical and clinical studies have suggested that cancer treatment with antitumor antibodies induces a specific adaptive T cell response. A central role in this process has been attributed to CD4+ T cells, but the relevant T cell epitopes, mostly derived from non-mutated self-antigens, are largely unknown. In this study, we have characterized human CD20-derived epitopes restricted by HLA-DR1, HLA-DR3, HLA-DR4, and HLA-DR7, and investigated whether T cell responses directed against CD20-derived peptides can be elicited in human HLA-DR-transgenic mice and human samples. Based on in vitro binding assays to recombinant human MHC II molecules and on in vivo immunization assays in H-2 KO/HLA-A2+-DR1+ transgenic mice, we have identified 21 MHC II-restricted long peptides derived from intracellular, membrane, or extracellular domains of the human non-mutated CD20 protein that trigger in vitro IFN-γ production by PBMCs and splenocytes from healthy individuals and by PBMCs from follicular lymphoma patients. These CD20-derived MHC II-restricted peptides could serve as a therapeutic tool for improving and/or monitoring anti-CD20 T cell activity in patients treated with rituximab or other anti-CD20 antibodies.


Assuntos
Antígenos CD20/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfoma/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Feminino , Cadeias HLA-DRB1/imunologia , Humanos , Interferon gama/biossíntese , Linfoma/imunologia , Camundongos , Rituximab/uso terapêutico
11.
Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther ; 57(10): 500-505, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31426902

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of low-dose rituximab in the treatment of hematologic abnormalities in patients with connective tissue disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 13 patients with connective tissue disease who did not respond to prednisolone and multiple immunosuppressive agents, or their disease recurred after treatment, were given 100 mg of rituximab only combined with prednisolone once a week for 4 weeks. Then, the therapeutic effects and adverse reactions were respectively observed in the 13 patients. RESULTS: Rituximab showed good and rapid efficacy in the treatment of refractory thrombocytopenia and autoimmune hemolytic anemia caused by systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjögren's syndrome, and mixed connective tissue disease. Only 1 patient had urinary tract infection. During 24-month follow-up, disease recurred in 7 patients who still responded to azathioprine/Tripterygium wilfordii. CONCLUSION: Low-dose rituximab has good efficacy and safety in the treatment of hematologic abnormalities in patients with connective tissue disease.


Assuntos
Doenças do Tecido Conjuntivo/tratamento farmacológico , Rituximab/uso terapêutico , Anemia Hemolítica Autoimune/tratamento farmacológico , Anemia Hemolítica Autoimune/etiologia , Anticorpos Monoclonais Murinos , Humanos , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/complicações , Síndrome de Sjogren/complicações , Trombocitopenia/tratamento farmacológico , Trombocitopenia/etiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Clin Exp Rheumatol ; 37 Suppl 118(3): 217-224, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31464681

RESUMO

Despite the well-established role of B cells in the pathogenesis of primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS), the beneficial role of B-cell depletion therapy with rituximab remains elusive in this condition, contrary to other autoimmune diseases. Although early, small-scale studies showed promising results, two recent large randomised controlled trials did not meet their primary end-points. It is evident from most trials that rituximab has a positive impact on B-cell numbers and activity, both in the peripheral blood and in salivary glands, but clinical outcomes vary among studies. We review here the evidence to date of B-cell depletion in pSS, analysing the underlying causes for the discrepancies in different studies and their limitations. We also discuss the potential use of peripheral and salivary gland biomarkers for patient stratification and targeted patient selection. Overall, rituximab remains a plausible treatment for pSS provided future studies address the shortfalls that emerged from our current knowledge of the use of B-cell depletion in this condition.


Assuntos
Linfócitos B , Rituximab/uso terapêutico , Síndrome de Sjogren , Linfócitos B/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Humanos , Depleção Linfocítica , Glândulas Salivares , Síndrome de Sjogren/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome de Sjogren/imunologia
13.
Rev Med Chil ; 147(3): 275-280, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31344163

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Waldenström macroglobulinemia (WM) is an uncommon indolent B-cell lymphoma, due to the proliferation of lymphoplasmacytic cells, and secretion of a monoclonal IgM protein. AIM: To evaluate the clinical characteristics, management and results of treatment of patients with WM at a public hospital in Chile. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Review of medical records of 31 patients aged 43 to 85 years (16 males) with WM diagnosed between 2002 and 2017. Clinical features and survival were recorded. RESULTS: All patients had bone marrow compromise, and 31%, extranodal involvement. According to the International Prognostic Score System for WM (IPSSWM) 16, 58 and 26% were at low, intermediate and high risk, respectively. Twenty-five patients (81%) were treated, 32% with plasmapheresis and 36% with rituximab. Four cases (16%) achieved complete remission. Median follow up was 35 months (range 6-159). Estimated overall survival (OS) at 5 and 10 years was 74% and 53%, respectively. According to IPSSWM, the estimated five-year OS was 80, 92 and 39%, for low, intermediate and high-risk patients, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: OS was similar to that reported abroad, except for low risk patients, probably due to the low number of cases and short follow up. An improved survival should be expected with the routine use of immunochemotherapy.


Assuntos
Macroglobulinemia de Waldenstrom/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Biópsia , Medula Óssea/patologia , Chile/epidemiologia , Ciclofosfamida/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prednisona/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Rituximab/uso terapêutico , Taxa de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento , Vincristina/uso terapêutico , Macroglobulinemia de Waldenstrom/tratamento farmacológico , Macroglobulinemia de Waldenstrom/mortalidade
14.
Postgrad Med ; 131(7): 486-489, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31353999

RESUMO

Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of rituximab (RTX) treatment given off-label to Cypriot patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Methods: Clinical data from 30 MS patients ever treated with off-label RTX until mid-2018 at the Cyprus Institute of Neurology and Genetics were retrospectively collected and reviewed. The heterogeneous patient cohort included patients with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS), primary progressive MS (PPMS) and secondary progressive MS (SPMS). Outcome data (relapse rate and EDSS progression) as well as adverse effects for patients with a follow-up period of >12 months (n = 13) were recorded. Results: Following RTX administration, all patients with RRMS remained relapse free and had a stable or slightly improved EDSS score (mean EDSS before treatment = 6, mean EDSS at 12 months = 4.75). Patients with SPMS had a significant reduction in their relapse rate and a stabilization or slight improvement of their EDSS scores (mean EDSS before treatment = 6.25, mean EDSS at 12 months = 5.5). Only one of the patients with PPMS had a follow-up period of >12 months and his EDSS score remained unchanged. Rituximab infusions were generally well tolerated; there were only seven grade 3 or 4 adverse events recorded. Conclusion: Our results are in agreement with larger retrospective studies in which it was demonstrated that RTX was well tolerated and effective in treating RRMS and SPMS patients by reducing relapse rate and stabilizing disease.


Assuntos
Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Esclerose Múltipla/tratamento farmacológico , Rituximab/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Chipre , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Esclerose Múltipla/fisiopatologia , Uso Off-Label , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Ann Hematol ; 98(9): 2025-2033, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31312929

RESUMO

Outcomes for patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) that proves refractory to treatment remain poor. Treatment of such patients is individualized and can include enrolment in a clinical trial of novel agents or use of one of a wide array of drug regimens. Initial treatment with anthracyclines such as doxorubicin limits options at later stages of treatment because of anthracycline-related cumulative cardiotoxicity. The aza-anthracenedione pixantrone was developed to reduce the likelihood of cardiotoxicity without compromising efficacy and is currently conditionally approved for use as monotherapy in patients with multiply-relapsed or refractory aggressive B cell NHL. The use of pixantrone in combination therapy, often to replace doxorubicin or mitoxantrone, has or is currently being investigated in numerous studies in patients with aggressive or indolent NHL and is the focus of this review. These include the R-CPOP regimen (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, pixantrone, vincristine, prednisone) for aggressive NHL in the first-line setting, including a study in elderly patients with limited cardiac function, and for patients with relapsed NHL with prior anthracycline exposure; the PSHAP regimen (pixantrone, cytarabine, prednisone, cisplatin), also in the latter setting; the PREBen/PEBen regimen (pixantrone, bendamustine and etoposide with or without rituximab) as salvage therapy; and pixantrone in combination with fludarabine, dexamethasone, and rituximab (FPD-R) for relapsed indolent NHL.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Isoquinolinas/uso terapêutico , Linfoma de Células B/tratamento farmacológico , Ciclofosfamida/uso terapêutico , Doxorrubicina/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Linfoma de Células B/metabolismo , Linfoma de Células B/patologia , Mitoxantrona/uso terapêutico , Prednisona/uso terapêutico , Rituximab/uso terapêutico , Terapia de Salvação/métodos , Vidarabina/análogos & derivados , Vidarabina/uso terapêutico , Vincristina/uso terapêutico
17.
N Engl J Med ; 381(1): 36-46, 2019 07 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31269364

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: B-cell anomalies play a role in the pathogenesis of membranous nephropathy. B-cell depletion with rituximab may therefore be noninferior to treatment with cyclosporine for inducing and maintaining a complete or partial remission of proteinuria in patients with this condition. METHODS: We randomly assigned patients who had membranous nephropathy, proteinuria of at least 5 g per 24 hours, and a quantified creatinine clearance of at least 40 ml per minute per 1.73 m2 of body-surface area and had been receiving angiotensin-system blockade for at least 3 months to receive intravenous rituximab (two infusions, 1000 mg each, administered 14 days apart; repeated at 6 months in case of partial response) or oral cyclosporine (starting at a dose of 3.5 mg per kilogram of body weight per day for 12 months). Patients were followed for 24 months. The primary outcome was a composite of complete or partial remission of proteinuria at 24 months. Laboratory variables and safety were also assessed. RESULTS: A total of 130 patients underwent randomization. At 12 months, 39 of 65 patients (60%) in the rituximab group and 34 of 65 (52%) in the cyclosporine group had a complete or partial remission (risk difference, 8 percentage points; 95% confidence interval [CI], -9 to 25; P = 0.004 for noninferiority). At 24 months, 39 patients (60%) in the rituximab group and 13 (20%) in the cyclosporine group had a complete or partial remission (risk difference, 40 percentage points; 95% CI, 25 to 55; P<0.001 for both noninferiority and superiority). Among patients in remission who tested positive for anti-phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R) antibodies, the decline in autoantibodies to anti-PLA2R was faster and of greater magnitude and duration in the rituximab group than in the cyclosporine group. Serious adverse events occurred in 11 patients (17%) in the rituximab group and in 20 (31%) in the cyclosporine group (P = 0.06). CONCLUSIONS: Rituximab was noninferior to cyclosporine in inducing complete or partial remission of proteinuria at 12 months and was superior in maintaining proteinuria remission up to 24 months. (Funded by Genentech and the Fulk Family Foundation; MENTOR ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01180036.).


Assuntos
Ciclosporina/uso terapêutico , Glomerulonefrite Membranosa/tratamento farmacológico , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Rituximab/uso terapêutico , Administração Oral , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Ciclosporina/efeitos adversos , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Imunossupressores/efeitos adversos , Infusões Intravenosas , Análise de Intenção de Tratamento , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteinúria/tratamento farmacológico , Indução de Remissão , Rituximab/efeitos adversos , Falha de Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
18.
Anticancer Res ; 39(7): 3971-3973, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31262930

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Biosimilar agents are biologic products that have no clinically meaningful differences in terms of quality, efficacy, safety and immunogenicity compared to an already approved reference biological product, with the potential to reduce the costs of biologics. Considering the increasing numbers of oncology biosimilars, it is important to calculate the economic impact of biosimilars in oncology and hemathology, considering trastuzumab and rituximab as examples, with their greatest budgetary impact in Oncology and Hematology Units, respectively. The present analysis was conducted to assess the pharmacological costs of trastuzumab and rituximab originator versus the corresponding approved biosimilars. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Pivotal phase III randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were considered for the approved indications in neoadiuvant breast cancer (BC) and in first-line treatment for advanced follicular lymphoma. Pharmacological costs necessary to get the benefit in the cancer outcomes: i) time to treatment failure (TTF) and ii) pathological complete response (pCR) in biosimilars and originators were calculated. The costs of drugs are at the Pharmacy of our Hospital and are expressed in euros (€). RESULTS: Our analysis evaluated 5 phase III RCTs, including 2,362 patients. The economic advantage of biosimilars versus (vs.) originator is 274 € (rituximab) and from 3,283 € to 6,310 € (trastuzumab) per month for TTF (about 40% less than the originator). CONCLUSION: Combining pharmacological costs of drugs with the measure of efficacy represented by TTF and pCR, biosimilars of rituximab and trastuzumab are cost-effective treatments for advanced follicular lymphoma and breast cancer.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/economia , Medicamentos Biossimilares/economia , Rituximab/economia , Trastuzumab/economia , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Medicamentos Biossimilares/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos Fase III como Assunto , Hematologia/economia , Humanos , Oncologia/economia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Rituximab/uso terapêutico , Trastuzumab/uso terapêutico
19.
Rinsho Ketsueki ; 60(5): 365-371, 2019.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31167996

RESUMO

Although Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP), a life-threatening infection, has been reported in patients with non-Hodgkin B-cell lymphoma (BNHL) who were treated with rituximab-containing chemotherapies (R-CTX), the PCP prophylaxis regimen awaits establishment to date. This study reports a retrospective analysis of the efficacy and safety of a low-dose trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) in patients with BNHL receiving R-CTX. We retrospectively analyzed 156 patients newly diagnosed with BNHL who received R-CTX at our institute from 2010 to 2015. We collected patients' clinical and laboratory data, including lymphocytes count, IgG level, PCP prophylaxis regimens, and adverse events (AEs). Patients were categorized into the following two groups based on the TMP/SMX regimen: group A (33 patients; 80 mg/400 mg×3/week) or group B (65 patients; 160 mg/800 mg×2/week). Both lymphocytes count and IgG level declined during R-CTX. No patient developed PCP. Patients in group B exhibited a significantly higher incidence of AEs (18.2% vs. 63.1%; p<0.05) and increased AST (6.1% vs. 26.6%; p<0.05), compared with those in group A. Thus, TMP/SMX (80 mg/400 mg×3/week) effectively prevents PCP and is preferable because of the lower rates of AEs.


Assuntos
Linfoma não Hodgkin/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia por Pneumocystis/prevenção & controle , Rituximab/uso terapêutico , Combinação Trimetoprima e Sulfametoxazol/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos
20.
Rinsho Ketsueki ; 60(5): 480-487, 2019.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31168017

RESUMO

Although immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) appear similar, their symptoms differ. The number of domestic patients diagnosed with ITP and TTP annually has been estimated to be around 24,000 and 400, respectively. Moreover, no major differences in the incidence rate, age of onset, and prognosis have been observed between Europe, the United States (US), and Japan. Both ITP and acquired TTP are autoimmune diseases that require immunosuppressive therapy, though lethal TTP requires the use of plasma exchange in combination with immunosuppression. In Europe and the US, the monoclonal antibody rituximab has been widely used for ITP and TTP since approximately 10 years ago. However, no public health insurance indication has been available for rituximab in Japan. For this reason, investigator-initiated clinical trials were conducted. As a result, rituximab had subsequently been indicated for ITP in 2017. Meanwhile, TTP was designated as an intractable disease in Japan in 2015, and the first clinical practice guidelines were published in 2017. A single-arm study involving rituximab was conducted on high-risk patients in whom treatment with five plasma exchanges was ineffective or ADAMTS13 inhibitor was >2 BU/ml. Approval for the new indication of rituximab for acquired TTP is expected in 2019.


Assuntos
Púrpura Trombocitopênica Idiopática/tratamento farmacológico , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Trombótica/tratamento farmacológico , Rituximab/uso terapêutico , Proteína ADAMTS13/antagonistas & inibidores , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Humanos , Japão , Troca Plasmática
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